Science.gov

Sample records for medium size sodium

  1. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  2. Aneurysms of medium-sized arteries in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mazen; Williams, David M; Deeb, G Michael; Shea, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Marfan syndrome is a relatively common connective tissue disorder that causes skin, ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular abnormalities. High morbidity and mortality occur with aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other large-artery aneurysms, including carotid, subclavian, and iliac artery aneurysms, have also been associated with Marfan syndrome. It is not clear whether small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms are associated with Marfan syndrome. This report describes 4 patients with Marfan syndrome who have associated small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms with several complications. Additional investigations are needed to determine whether Marfan syndrome can cause small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms and how patients with these aneurysms should be treated.

  3. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  4. Analysis of supercoiled DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis using low-conducting sodium threonine medium.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Hirano, Ken

    2010-05-01

    We describe a new low-ionic-strength sodium threonine (STh) medium with the advantage of avoiding relative DNA band migration changes following electrophoresis of supercoiled DNA in agarose gel when substituted for the standard conductive medium of TBE (Tris-boric acid-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]) or TAE (Tris-acetic acid-EDTA) or the low-ionic-strength sodium boric acid medium. Low-ionic-strength STh medium provided better resolution, less heat generation, and prevention of relative migration order changes among linear, covalently closed circular-, and open circular-formed DNA in the range of 2-10 kilobase pairs in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis.

  5. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  6. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  7. Library Webmasters in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneip, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Library webmasters in medium-sized academic libraries were surveyed about their educational backgrounds, job responsibilities, and training and experience levels in Web development. The article summarizes the findings of the survey with recommendations for libraries and library and information science programs. (Contains 7 tables, 5 figures,and 5…

  8. Historical Research and Medium-Sized Public Libraries: The Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special collections and archival materials often found in medium-sized public libraries which should be fully used by historical researchers. It is suggested that public libraries need to advertise their collections which are of historical interest and to be more aware of the needs of the historical researcher. (Author/JL)

  9. Historical Research and Medium-Sized Public Libraries: The Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special collections and archival materials often found in medium-sized public libraries which should be fully used by historical researchers. It is suggested that public libraries need to advertise their collections which are of historical interest and to be more aware of the needs of the historical researcher. (Author/JL)

  10. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  11. Planning-Evaluation in a Medium-Size School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Roger M.

    The rationale, operational framework, and implementation case study of a planning-evaluation model for a medium size school district are discussed. The system defines a management information function in the three components of planning, operations, and evaluation. The relationship among these components is presented in both diagram and narrative…

  12. Cryopreservation of unfertilized mouse oocytes: the effect of replacing sodium with choline in the freezing medium.

    PubMed

    Stachecki, J J; Cohen, J; Willadsen, S M

    1998-12-01

    Although embryo cryopreservation has become commonplace in many species, effective methods are not available for routine freezing of unfertilized eggs. Cryopreservation-induced damage may be caused by the high concentration of sodium ions in conventional freezing media. This study investigates the effect of a newly developed low-sodium choline-based medium (CJ2) on the ability of unfertilized, metaphase II mouse eggs to survive cryopreservation and develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Specifically, the effects of cooling to subzero temperatures, thawing rate, LN2 plunge temperature, and equilibration with a low-sodium medium prior to freezing are examined. In contrast to cooling to 23, 0, or -7.0 degreesC in a sodium-based freezing medium (ETFM), cooling in CJ2 had no significant negative effect on oocyte survival or development. Oocytes frozen in CJ2 survived plunging into LN2 from -10, -20, or -33 degreesC at significantly higher rates than oocytes frozen in ETFM. With the protocol used (1.5 M PrOH, 0.1 M sucrose, -0.3 C/min, plunging at -33 degreesC) rapid thawing by direct submersion in 30 degreesC water was more detrimental to oocyte survival than holding in air for 30 or 120 s prior to transfer to water. Equilibration of unfertilized oocytes with a low-sodium medium prior to cryopreservation in CJ2 significantly increased survival and blastocyst development. These results demonstrate that the high concentration of sodium in conventional freezing media is detrimental to oocyte cryopreservation and show that choline is a promising replacement. Reducing the sodium content of the freezing medium to a very low level or eliminating sodium altogether may allow oocytes and other cells to be frozen more effectively.

  13. Building medium size telescope structures for the Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, A.; Garczarczyk, M.; Oakes, L.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schwanke, U.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor ˜10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  14. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  15. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  16. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  17. Monitoring of sodium:poton exchange in isolated hepatocytes by electronic cell sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    To investigate volume-regulating processes in the hepatocyte, a rapid and precise method of measuring cell volume in isolated hepatocytes was devised which uses a Coulter Counter equipped with a Channelyzer. Isolated hepatocytes exhibit a volume-decreasing mechanism (potassium channel) which is triggered by cell volume increases as small as 10%. Cell volume increases in the hepatocyte may be mediated by activity of the Na:H exchanger. To examine Na:H exchange-mediated cell volume increases, without apparent interference by the volume-decreasing mechanism, acetate was substituted for chloride in the incubation medium. Hepatocytes placed in a medium containing sodium acetate at an acidic pH exhibit a continuous amiloride-sensitive swelling. A simple procedure was devised for estimating Na:H exchanger set-point by electronic cell sizing. In a sodium acetate medium, the internal pH equilibrates with the external pH. By placing cells in sodium acetate medium of various pH values and measuring the rate of amiloride-sensitive swelling, an estimate of Na:H exchanger set-point can be obtained. By this method, the exchanger was estimated to cease activity above an intracellular pH of 7.2. This method could be useful for identification of stimuli that might promote cell enlargement by raising the exchanger set-point. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate tetraacetic acid raises the set-point of the exchanger in the isolated hepatocytes, resulting in exchanger activity at normal cellular pH, and at the same time promotes hepatocyte swelling. Exchanger activation via a kinase C-mediated mechanism is one possible way that hepatocyte enlargement may occur.

  18. Dipole polarizabilities of medium-sized gold clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlan; Yang, Mingli; Jellinek, Julius; Wang, Guanghou

    2006-08-01

    The dipole polarizabilities of two families of low-lying structures, cage, and space filling, of the medium-sized AuN (N=32,38,44,50,56) clusters are studied using gradient-corrected density functional theory and finite field method. Both dipole moments and polarizabilities exhibit clear shape-dependent features and the cage structures have systematically smaller dipole moments and larger polarizabilities than the space-filling isomers. The mean polarizability per atom increases with cluster size for the cage structures, but it decreases slowly and tends to approach a constant for the space-filling structures. A linearly correlation between polarizability and cluster volume is noted, complying with the jellium model prediction for spherical metal clusters. The electronic effects including HOMO-LUMO gap and ionization energy on polarizabilities are also explored. The geometric effects play a dominant role on the determination of the polarizability of the cluster over the electronic effects.

  19. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  20. Optical properties of medium size noble and transition metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2009-03-01

    Using first-principles methods within time dependent density functional theory and the local density approximation (TDLDA) the absorption spectra of medium size (˜20-80 atoms) silver, gold and copper nanoparticles have been calculated. The nanoparticles are fcc fragments with different aspect ratios. We find that in the case of Ag nanoparticles is well reproduced by classical electrodynamics theory based in Mie's formalism, using the dielectric function of bulk Ag and taking into account the nanoparticle shape. For the case of Cu and Au, there is a similarity in the overall features of the quantum mechanical and classical spectra, but no detailed agreement. We will discuss the role that the d-electrons among all the different elements and the surface states play in controlling the optical properties of the nanoparticles. This work was supported by GOALI NSF grant (DMR-0513048), DOE, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, and Alcoa Inc.

  1. Selective strontium removal from a sodium nitrate aqueous medium by nanofiltration-complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, E.; Barnier, H.; Maurel, A.

    1997-01-01

    In aqueous medium, selective complexation increases the ionic separation by nanofiltration. The combination of nanofiltration and complexation can be applied to the nuclear effluents treatment. To separate radioelements from a sodium salt medium, poly(acrylic acid) is associated to the FILMTEC NF 70 membrane. Effects of transmembrane pressure, pH, ligand concentration and ionic strength on salts retention are described, and the complexation constants are estimated. Finally, to reach the objectives, a strontium two-stages concentration by nanofiltration-complexation with a control of retentate salinity is investigated in a nonactive solution case.

  2. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complexes of cloxacillin sodium in aqueous ethanol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dalim Kumar; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.

    2005-07-01

    Cloxacillin sodium has been shown to form charge transfer (CT) complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry with a number of electron acceptors in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol medium. From the trends in the CT absorption bands, the vertical ionization potential of the drug molecule (cloxacillin sodium) has been estimated to be 7.89 eV. The enthalpies and entropies of formation of two such complexes have been determined by estimating the formation constants spectrophotometrically at five different temperatures. The oscillator strengths and transition dipole moments of these complexes have been determined. It has further been noted that the reduction of o-chloranil by aqueous ethanol is completely inhibited by cloxacillin sodium, a phenomenon that makes the present study of formation equilibrium possible.

  3. Climatic Effects of Medium-Sized Asteroid Impacts on Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, C.; Garcia, R. R.; Toon, O. B.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Wolf, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), a three-dimensional coupled climate model with interactive chemistry, we have simulated the climate response to a medium-sized (1 km) asteroid impact on the land. An impact of this size would cause local fires and may also generate submicron dust particles. Dust aerosols are injected into the upper atmosphere where they persist for ~3 years. Soot aerosols from fires are injected into the troposphere and absorb solar radiation heating the air which helps loft the soot into the stratosphere where it persists for ~10 years. Initially, these aerosols cause a heating of over 240 K in the stratosphere and up to a 70% reduction in downwelling solar radiation at the surface. Global average surface temperature cools by as much as -8.5 K, ocean temperature cools by -4.5 K, precipitation is reduced by 50%, and the ozone column is reduced by 55%. The surface UV Index exceeds 20 in the tropics for several years. These changes represent a significant hazard to life on a global scale. These results extend the work of Pierazzo et al. (2010), also using CESM, which found a significant impact on stratospheric ozone, but little change in surface temperature or precipitation, from a 1 km asteroid impact in the ocean.

  4. The medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov telescope array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pühlhofer, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ˜20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  5. Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size

  6. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 °C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  7. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Piero; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Hakola, Antti; Meyer, Hendrik; EUROfusion MST1 Team; AUG Team; MAST-U Team; TCV Team

    2016-10-01

    The EUROfusion MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2015/16 campaign in AUG and TCV and the future plans. We will discuss, among others, successful disruption and runaway electron control experiments with MGI and 3D fields, the achievement of full ELM suppression with RMP accompanied by the understanding of plasma response and the heat load pattern study, the exploration of regimes with impurity seeding at high P/R with 85% radiation fraction and good confinement, the study of tungsten fuzz, where W samples with pre-formed nanostructures were exposed to H-mode Helium plasmas and the investigation on advanced divertor concepts. A survey of MHD limits and of MHD control in standard and high-beta regimes will be presented. The results from the AUG campaign dedicated to He plasmas in support of ITER initial operation will also be presented, as well as analysis of old MAST data that reveal interesting features in the filamentary transport. See http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1.

  8. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  9. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity. © 2010 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Clinical Spectrum of Medium-Sized Vessel Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Koster, Matthew J; Crowson, Cynthia S; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-06-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of medium-sized visceral vessels. However, cutaneous arteritis (CA) and gastrointestinal (GI) vasculitis are forms of single-organ vasculitis having indistinguishable histopathologic findings from PAN. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with systemic PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis. Retrospective cohorts were assembled, consisting of patients with PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis between 1980 and 2014. The demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients were abstracted from medical records. We included 48 patients with PAN, 41 patients with CA, and 19 patients with GI vasculitis. The disease of 1 patient evolved from CA to systemic PAN during the disease course. At diagnosis, 94% of patients with PAN, 93% of patients with CA, and 67% of patients with GI vasculitis were treated with glucocorticoids. Additional immunosuppressive agents were used in 67% of PAN, 37% of GI vasculitis, and 32% of CA cases. The 5-year cumulative relapse rate was 45.2% in CA, and only 9.6% in PAN during a followup of approximately 6 years. No deaths were observed in the CA group. The survival rate at 10 years was 66% in the PAN group and 61% in the GI vasculitis group. Systemic PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis take different clinical courses and therefore may be different diseases, rather than existing on a spectrum of the same disease. Progression of CA to systemic PAN is very rare. Relapse risk is low during followup in PAN. Patients with CA have a higher relapse rate than those with systemic PAN, possibly due to less use of immunosuppressive therapy in CA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Muscarinic enhancement of persistent sodium current synchronizes striatal medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hernández, Adán; Vergara, Ramiro; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2009-08-01

    Network dynamics denoted by synchronous firing of neuronal pools rely on synaptic interactions and intrinsic properties. In striatal medium spiny neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation endows neurons with nonlinear capabilities by inducing a negative-slope conductance region (NSCR) in the current-voltage relationship. Nonlinearities underlie associative learning, procedural memory, and the sequential organization of behavior in basal ganglia nuclei. The cholinergic system modulates the function of medium spiny projection neurons through the activation of muscarinic receptors, increasing the NMDA-induced NSCR. This enhancement is reflected as a change in the NMDA-induced network dynamics, making it more synchronous. Nevertheless, little is known about the contribution of intrinsic properties that promote this activity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cholinergic modulation of bistable behavior in the striatum, we used whole cell and calcium-imaging techniques. A persistent sodium current modulated by muscarinic receptor activation participated in the enhancement of the NSCR and the increased network synchrony. These experiments provide evidence that persistent sodium current generates bistable behavior in striatal neurons and contributes to the regulation of synchronous network activity. The neuromodulation of bistable properties could represent a cellular and network mechanism for cholinergic actions in the striatum.

  12. Real Time Detection of Sodium in Size-Segregated Marine Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    Real Time Measurement of Sea- Salt Aerosol during the SEAS Campaign: Comparison of Emission based Sodium Detection with an Aerosol Volatility Technique. Submitted to the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. ...Real Time Detection of Sodium in Size-Segregated Marine Aerosols Anthony J. Hynes Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science 4600...this capability for sodium and a prototype has been deployed as part of an ONR-sponsored field campaign (SEAS). The ultimate goal of the project is to

  13. Sample Program Structure for Medium-Size Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. of Public Administration.

    Program structure is the means employed to organize information concerning the work performed in government, the resources consumed to carry out that work, the effect upon individuals and the environment, and the relationship of this information to goals and objectives. The structure described in this document is intended as an aid for medium size…

  14. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  15. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  16. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  17. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution...

  18. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution...

  19. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution...

  20. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution...

  1. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution...

  2. Data acquisition system for small to medium size experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaat, C. Th. A. M.; Kuijer, P. G.

    1994-02-01

    A flexible distributed data acquisition system, for use in various small to medium scale experiments has been developed. The system can use a variety of standard host computers, among them common workstation UNIX-flavor and VAX-VMS systems, and commercial real time kernels VAXELN, VxWorks, and DECElx. The software system includes modules for analysis, run control and list directed read-out function. Communication between the various process are done via TCP/IP sockets and/or DECNET. In this contribution the structure of the host and front-end software is explained.

  3. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  4. Evaluation research of small and medium-sized enterprise informatization on big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Na

    2017-09-01

    Under the background of big data, key construction of small and medium-sized enterprise informationization level was needed, but information construction cost was large, while information cost of inputs can bring benefit to small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper established small and medium-sized enterprise informatization evaluation system from hardware and software security level, information organization level, information technology application and the profit level, and information ability level. The rough set theory was used to brief indexes, and then carry out evaluation by support vector machine (SVM) model. At last, examples were used to verify the theory in order to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Sodium alanate nanoparticles--linking size to hydrogen storage properties.

    PubMed

    Baldé, Cornelis P; Hereijgers, Bart P C; Bitter, Johannes H; de Jong, Krijn P

    2008-05-28

    Important limitations in the application of light metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are slow kinetics and poor reversibility. To alleviate these problems doping and ball-milling are commonly applied, for NaAlH 4 leading to particle sizes down to 150 nm. By wet-chemical synthesis we have prepared carbon nanofiber-supported NaAlH 4 with discrete particle size ranges of 1-10 microm, 19-30 nm, and 2-10 nm. The hydrogen desorption temperatures and activation energies decreased from 186 degrees C and 116 kJ.mol (-1) for the largest particles to 70 degrees C and 58 kJ.mol (-1) for the smallest particles. In addition, decreasing particle sizes lowered the pressures needed for reloading. This reported size-performance correlation for NaAlH 4 may guide hydrogen storage research for a wide range of nanostructured light (metal) hydrides.

  6. Independent associations of sodium intake with measures of body size and predictive body fatness.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Firestone, Melanie J; Beasley, Jeannette M

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies highlight a possible relationship between sodium intake and obesity. This investigation explores the cross-sectional relationships between sodium intake and measures of body size and fatness (body mass index [BMI], weight, waist circumference, predictive body fatness). Analyses were performed using data from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-10 with two 24-h dietary recalls and measures of body size and fatness (n = 4,613). Regression analyses assessed the relationships of sodium (1,000 mg/day) with outcomes, adjusting for caloric intake. Analyses are presented overall and by sex; data were weighted to be representative of the non-institutionalized US adult population. Positive associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and predictive body fatness were observed, and the magnitude of association was larger in women than in men. For each 1,000 mg/day higher sodium intake, BMI was 1.03 kg/m(2) higher; weight was 2.75 kg higher; waist circumference was 2.15 cm higher; and predictive body fatness was 1.18% higher after adjustment for energy intake. Longitudinal analyses examining associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and body fatness are needed. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. JB-300: An advanced medium size transport for 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrouwer, Giles; Graham, Katherine; Ison, Jim; Juarez, Vince; Moskalik, Steve; Pankonin, Jon; Weinstein, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1992, the TAC Team was presented with a Request for Proposal (PFP) for a mid-size (250-350 passenger) commercial transport. The aircraft was to be extremely competitive in the areas of passenger comfort, performance, and economic aspects. Through the use of supercritical airfoils, a technologically advanced Very High By-pass Ratio (VHBR) turbofan engine, a low overall drag configuration, a comparable interior layout, and mild use of composites, the JB-300 offers an economically viable choice to the airlines. The cents per passenger mile of the JB-300 is 1.76, which is considerably lower than current aircraft in the same range. Overall, the JB-300 is a technologically advanced aircraft, which will meet the demands of the 21st century.

  8. [Migration toward medium-sized cities. Profound regional transformations].

    PubMed

    Corona, R; Tuiran, R

    1994-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred over the past two decades in the volume, intensity, direction, and modalities of internal migration in Mexico. Interstate migration, for example, has increased greatly. The number of persons living in a state different from that of their birth grew from 7.5 million in 1970 to 15.4 million in 1990, equivalent to 14.5% and 18.1% of the population, respectively. The growing volume and intensity of interstate migration have been accompanied by a declining rate of migration to Mexico City and to a lesser extent Guadalajara and Monterrey. Cities of intermediate size, defined as 100,000 to one million inhabitants, have multiplied since 1970 and a few have achieved great economic and demographic dynamism. In 1970, 16.6% of the population or 33.6% of the urban population lived in 37 intermediate cities, while by 1990 nearly 23.7% of the population and 39.0% of the urban population lived in 56 intermediate sized cities. Census and survey data confirm the power of attraction of a group of intermediate cities, but also reveal a complex array of situations. 24 of the 56 intermediate cities had populations of 100,000-250,000, and 21 had populations of 250,000-500,000. Most intermediate cities are located in the Northwest, Center-North, or Gulf regions. Some states have a number of intermediate cities and some have only one that concentrates most of the urban population. 26 of the 56 had growth rates over the two decades of over 4% annually and 20 had rates varying from 3% to 4%. 1990 census data show that 35% or more of the population were in-migrants in five cities: Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in the Northwest, Cuernavaca in the Center-North, and Cancun in the Yucatan peninsula. Between 20% and 34% of the population were in-migrants in 14 intermediate cities. Cancun and Tijuana had the highest proportions of recent migrants. The volume of net migration of most states generally reflected that of their intermediate cities. The economic crisis

  9. The superbubble size distribution in the interstellar medium of galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, M. S.; Clarke, C. J.

    1997-08-01

    We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the differential size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. Assuming that shell growth stalls upon pressure equilibrium with the ambient ISM, and that all shells have the same lifetime t_e, we derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For constant creation and an MLF phi(L) ~ L^{-beta}, we find that N(R) ~ R^{1-2 beta} for R < R_e, and N(R) ~ R^{4-5 beta} for R > R_e, where the characteristic radius R_e ~ 1300 pc is the stall radius associated with t_e. For R < R_e, N(R) is dominated by stalled objects, while for R > R_e it is dominated by growing objects. The relation N(R) ~ R^{1-2\\beta} appears to be quite robust, and also results from the momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs, and suggest that the contribution of Type Ia SNRs should be apparent in the observed form of N(R). We present expressions for the porosity parameters, Q2D and Q3D, derived from our analysis. Q2D is dominated by the largest superbubbles for beta < 2 and individual SNRs for beta > 2, whereas Q3D is normally dominated by the few largest shells. We examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), in order to estimate beta. If the nebular luminosity {\\Lha} fades too quickly, the observed slope a of the HII LF will be steepened, since bright objects are quickly diminished. We find that for a nebular fading {\\Lha} ~ t^{-eta}, there is a minimum observed slope amin for the HII LFs, describing the relative importance of this effect. Empirical measurements all show a > amin, therefore implying that usually we may take \\beta = a. We also find that if nebular luminosity is instantaneously extinguished at some given age, rather than continuously fading, no amin will be observed. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising

  10. Steady State Convection within Medium-size Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.; Czechowski, L.

    2000-10-01

    We consider the satellites of the size range from Mimas or Protheus (radii 200 km) to Titania (790 km). The lower limit is that of the smallest sphere-like bodies. The upper limit is determined by requirement that no phase transitions occurs inside the body or these transitions are only of marginal significance. Therefore, the considered bodies could be 6 satellites of Saturn, 5 of Uranus, Protheus, and Charon. Since Miranda is probably a re-accretion product and density of Protheus is unknown therefore our class of satellites contains 11 globes in total. Their densities are known and therefore the mass ratio rock/total and radioactive heat production can be estimated quite well. Two extreme models of the satellites are considered: non-differentiated (homogeneous) and fully differentiated with rocky core and icy mantle. For the first model there is a uniform distributions of radioactive sources and the convection can develop within the whole globe. For the second case, the radioactivity determines the heat flux through the boundary between rocky core and icy mantle; in this case the possibilities of convection are discussed within the icy mantle. Axially symmetric convection is considered. The model is based on the equations: Navier-Stokes, thermal conductivity, mass continuity, and on the equation of state. They involved a large set of parameters of which the viscosity is the least known and it is strongly dependent on temperature. Written in dimensionless form for constant viscosity the equations have only one parameter, the Rayleigh number Ra. Set of solutions, for different Ra, and for constant viscosity or for temperature dependent viscosity are presented. The solutions, when converted into dimensional form, are applied for interpretation of particular tectonic features on the icy satellites (e.g. Samarkand Sulci on Enceladus and Ithaca Chasma on Tethys). Correlation between tectonic features and far-near sides orientation is expected.

  11. Dense medium radiative transfer theory for two scattering layers with a Rayleigh distribution of particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.; Tsang, Leung; Winebrenner, D.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Dense medium radiative transfer theory is applied to a three-layer model consisting of two scattering layers overlying a homogeneous half space with a size distribution of particles in each layer. A model with a distribution of sizes gives quite different results than those obtained from a model with a single size. The size distribution is especially important in the low frequency limit when scattering is strongly dependent on particle size. The size distribution and absorption characteristics also affect the extinction behavior as a function of fractional volume. Theoretical results are also compared with experimental data. The sizes, permittivities, and densities used in the numerical illustrations are typical values for snow.

  12. Improving the culturability of freshwater bacteria using FW70, a low-nutrient solid medium amended with sodium pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Imazaki, Iori; Kobori, Youichi

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial culture based on the use of plate media is an effective method for investigating bacterial populations in the environment. To improve the culturability of bacteria from freshwater lakes, we developed a new medium, FW70, which contains sodium pyruvate, casamino acids, and lake water and is solidified using gellan gum. To test the importance of these components, we prepared a series of media in which one or more of the components was absent. Water was sampled 31 times from 3 Japanese lakes and was passed through a membrane filter (pore size = 0.45 microm) to remove fast-growing microbes before the water was spread onto the plates. In most cases, significantly larger numbers of bacterial colonies were detected on FW70 than on other media. Furthermore, to test the practicality of FW70, we compared it with standard nutrient agar and R2A agar. In all cases, the culturability was significantly greater on FW70 than on standard nutrient agar or R2A agar. Some isolates recovered by means of FW70 belonged to bacteria that had not previously been classified. These results suggest that FW70 improves the culturability of freshwater bacteria and can be used for the isolation of novel bacteria as a result of the filtration step.

  13. Differential foraging preferences on seed size by rodents result in higher dispersal success of medium-sized seeds.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhenyu; Yan, Chuan; Chen, Jin; Guo, Cong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-11-01

    Rodent preference for scatter-hoarding large seeds has been widely considered to favor the evolution of large seeds. Previous studies supporting this conclusion were primarily based on observations at earlier stages of seed dispersal, or on a limited sample of successfully established seedlings. Because seed dispersal comprises multiple dispersal stages, we hypothesized that differential foraging preference on seed size by animal dispersers at different dispersal stages would ultimately result in medium-sized seeds having the highest dispersal success rates. In this study, by tracking a large number of seeds for 5 yr, we investigated the effects of seed size on seed fates from seed removal to seedling establishment of a dominant plant Pittosporopsis kerrii (Icacinaceae) dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents in tropical forest in southwest China. We found that small seeds had a lower survival rate at the early dispersal stage where more small seeds were predated at seed stations and after removal; large seeds had a lower survival rate at the late dispersal stage, more large seeds were recovered, predated after being cached, or larder-hoarded. Medium-sized seeds experienced the highest dispersal success. Our study suggests that differential foraging preferences by scatter-hoarding rodents at different stages of seed dispersal could result in conflicting selective pressures on seed size and higher dispersal success of medium-sized seeds. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  15. Influence of vitamin E, sodium selenite, and astrocyte-conditioned medium on neuronal survival after chronic exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Frédéric; Signorini-Allibe, Nathalie; Gonthier, Brigitte; Barret, Luc

    2004-06-01

    Free radicals species generation during ethanol metabolism is implicated in ethanol-induced toxicity. Findings from clinical studies have clearly established the association between alcohol intake and nutritional deficiency. Astrocytes are able to promote neuronal survival against different lethal injuries involved in ethanol-induced toxicity. We therefore studied the ability of hydrosoluble vitamin E (trolox), sodium selenite, and astrocyte-conditioned medium to protect cultured rat neurones against ethanol-induced oxidative stress after chronic exposure to ethanol. When a 6-day exposure to ethanol (20 mM) led to a loss of cell viability, the presence of trolox (10 microM) offered a significant neuroprotection. In the presence of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, a catalase inhibitor that created conditions that were favorable to reactive oxygen species accumulation, trolox was able to counteract the deleterious effect of the inhibitor. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis indicated that trolox can maintain the intracellular glutathione content in neurones chronically exposed to ethanol. In these conditions of exposure, the absence of sodium selenite in the culture medium significantly aggravated the exposure-induced effects, whereas sodium selenite (100 nM) offered a significant neuroprotection. Finally, the presence of 25% astrocyte-conditioned medium in the neuronal culture medium induced a neuroprotective effect in the presence of ethanol. Nevertheless, when astrocytes were previously chronically (3 days) exposed to ethanol, their culture medium did not offer a significant protection. These results evidenced that vitamin E and astrocytes can protect neurones from ethanol-induced oxidative stress, notably by contributing to maintaining the intracellular glutathione levels. Selenium, by means of its exogenous addition in the form of sodium selenite, also had an interesting neuroprotective effect.

  16. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  17. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  18. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  19. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and...

  20. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  1. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Larsen, Claus; Lenke, Jim

    2014-11-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved. Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Management practices in medium-sized private hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brito, Luiz Artur Ledur; Malik, Ana Maria; Brito, Eliane; Bulgacov, Sergio; Andreassi, Tales

    2017-04-03

    Traditional management practices are sometimes considered merely a necessary condition for superior performance. Other resources and competencies with higher barriers to imitation are assumed to be potential sources of competitive advantage. This study describes and analyzes the effect of traditional management practices on the performance of medium-sized hospitals. Medium-sized companies frequently display the greatest differences in management practices, and only recently did the hospital sector seek ways to develop its competitiveness in the administrative arena. The results generally indicate that basic management practices can make differences in performance, offering support for the new practice-based view (PBV). Hospitals with the highest rate of adoption of practices had the highest occupancy rate, hospital-bed admissions, and accreditation. Lack of adoption of management practices by medium-sized hospitals limits their competitive capacity and can be viewed as a component of the so-called Brazil cost, but in this case an internal component.

  3. Arthroscopic repair of small and medium-sized bony Bankart lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Son, Won-Su; Moon, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    There has been no study about treatment guidelines for arthroscopic repair according to the size of bony Bankart lesions of less than 25% of the glenoid width. To evaluate the results of arthroscopic repair for bony Bankart lesions managed with different repair techniques based on their size. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between March 2005 and February 2009, 44 of 52 consecutive patients with bony Bankart lesions with a size of less than 25% of the entire glenoid were managed with an arthroscopic approach. Of those patients, 34 (77%) were available for outcome analysis at a minimum 24 months' follow-up (mean, 34 months; range, 24-60 months). The size of the fragment was measured by computed tomography (CT) and classified as small (<12.5% of the inferior glenoid width) and medium (12.5%-25%). Sixteen lesions were classified as small (small group), and 18 were classified as medium (medium group). For small lesions, capsulolabral repair using suture anchors without excision of the bony fragment was performed. For medium lesions, anatomic reduction and fixation using suture anchors was performed, and the adequacy of reduction was assessed by CT postoperatively. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score and modified Rowe score for bony Bankart repair were compared and the postoperative recurrence rate investigated. One patient from the small group (6.3%) and 1 patient without anatomic reduction of the bony fragment in the medium group (5.6%) experienced traumatic redislocations. The mean VAS score improved from 1.7 preoperatively to 0.5 at final follow-up, and the mean Rowe score improved from 59 to 91 (both P < .001). The mean postoperative Rowe scores increased from 58 to 92 in the small group and from 60 to 91 in the medium group (both P < .001). Residual joint incongruity measuring ≤2 mm on both axial and coronal scans, which was considered an anatomic reduction, was present in 14 cases (77.8%) in the medium group. In the medium group, the mean

  4. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  5. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  6. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  7. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  8. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  9. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  10. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  11. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  12. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  13. A Bare Bones Reference Collection for Small and Medium-Sized Public Libraries in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maine Library District, Portland.

    This reference list was compiled to offer Maine librarians who serve communities with the resources of small- or medium-sized libraries a starting point to assess their reference collections for breadth and depth. Initially based on a list distributed by the Vermont Department of Libraries in 1987, this guide evaluates reference materials on the…

  14. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  15. Marketing Continuing Vocational Education to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Key Issues for Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Discusses issues which higher education institutions need to consider when marketing continuing vocational education to small and medium-sized enterprises. Experiences at the University of North London and results from a survey of other institutions and focus group discussions with managers and employees are reviewed. (Author/LRW)

  16. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  17. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  18. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  19. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  20. Planning an Authority Control Project at a Medium-Sized University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sha Li

    2001-01-01

    Authority control is a vital part of providing students and faculty with adequate access to collections in university libraries. Small and medium-sized libraries find it challenging to meet rising user expectations and provide adequate access in an online environment through appropriate authority work. A planning process is offered on an authority…

  1. Formulation and optimization of nano-sized ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, R.; Anoop, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium using a novel lipid vesicular carrier, ethosomes. Materials And Methods: Ethosomes of cromolyn sodium was prepared, optimized, and characterized for vesicle shape, vesicle size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeation, in vitro skin deposition and vesicle stability. Histological examination of porcine ear skin treated with optimized ethosomal formulation was performed to study the change of skin morphologies. Results: The optimized cromolyn sodium ethosomes showed reasonable entrapment efficiency (49.88±1.84%), optimum nanometric size range (133.8 ± 7.5 nm), and high zeta potential (-69.82 ± 1.2 mV). In vitro drug release studies of optimized ethosomal formulation through cellophane membrane showed an enhanced and sustained delivery of drug compared to conventional liposomes, hydroethanolic, (45% v/v) and phosphate buffer saline PBS pH 7.4 drug solutions. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed significantly-enhanced transdermal flux (18.49 ± 0.08 mg/cm2/h) across porcine ear skin as compared to liposome (1.80 ± 0.12 mg/cm2/h), hydroethanolic drug solution (4.45 ± 0.71 mg/cm2/h), and PBS pH 7.4 drug solution (1.18 ± 0.35 mg/cm2/h). Moreover, ethosomal formulation showed better skin drug deposition (10.28 ± 0.67%) and shortest lag time (0.11 ± 0.09 h) for cromolyn sodium. Conclusion: Our significant results suggest that ethosomes can be a promising tool for transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium. PMID:23248569

  2. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  3. Size matters for in vitro gene delivery: investigating the relationships among complexation protocol, transfection medium, size and sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Giupponi, Elisa; Mantovani, Diego; Candiani, Gabriele

    2017-03-08

    Although branched and linear polyethylenimines (bPEIs and lPEIs) are gold standard transfectants, a systematic analysis of the effects of the preparation protocol of polyplexes and the composition of the transfection medium on their physicochemical behaviour and effectiveness in vitro have been much neglected, undermining in some way the identification of precise structure-function relationships. This work aimed to address these issues. bPEI/DNA and lPEI/DNA, prepared using two different modes of addition of reagents, gave rise to polyplexes with exactly the same chemical composition but differing in dimensions. Upon dilution in serum-free medium, the size of any kind of polyplex promptly rose over time while remained invariably stable in complete DMEM. Of note, the bigger the dimension of polyplexes (in the nano- to micrometer range), the greater their efficiency in vitro. Besides, centrifugal sedimentation of polyplexes displaying different dimensions to speed up and enhance their settling onto cells boosted transfection efficiencies. Conversely, transgene expression was significantly blunted in cells held upside-down and transfected, definitively pointing out the impact of gravitational sedimentation of polyplexes on their transfection efficiency. Overall, much more attention must be paid to the actual polyplex size that relies on the complexation conditions and the transfection medium.

  4. Size matters for in vitro gene delivery: investigating the relationships among complexation protocol, transfection medium, size and sedimentation

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Daniele; Giupponi, Elisa; Mantovani, Diego; Candiani, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Although branched and linear polyethylenimines (bPEIs and lPEIs) are gold standard transfectants, a systematic analysis of the effects of the preparation protocol of polyplexes and the composition of the transfection medium on their physicochemical behaviour and effectiveness in vitro have been much neglected, undermining in some way the identification of precise structure-function relationships. This work aimed to address these issues. bPEI/DNA and lPEI/DNA, prepared using two different modes of addition of reagents, gave rise to polyplexes with exactly the same chemical composition but differing in dimensions. Upon dilution in serum-free medium, the size of any kind of polyplex promptly rose over time while remained invariably stable in complete DMEM. Of note, the bigger the dimension of polyplexes (in the nano- to micrometer range), the greater their efficiency in vitro. Besides, centrifugal sedimentation of polyplexes displaying different dimensions to speed up and enhance their settling onto cells boosted transfection efficiencies. Conversely, transgene expression was significantly blunted in cells held upside-down and transfected, definitively pointing out the impact of gravitational sedimentation of polyplexes on their transfection efficiency. Overall, much more attention must be paid to the actual polyplex size that relies on the complexation conditions and the transfection medium. PMID:28272487

  5. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  6. Reductimetric determination of peroxydisulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, nitrate and nitrite in concentrated phosphoric acid medium with iron(II).

    PubMed

    Murty, N K; Satyanarayana, V; Rao, Y F

    1977-12-01

    A direct reductimetric method for the determination of peroxydisulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, nitrate and nitrite in fairly concentrated phosphoric acid medium with iron(II) has been developed, with both potentiometric and visual end-point detection. Cacotheline, Methylene Blue, thionine, Azure A, Azure B, Azure C, Toluidine Blue, new Methylene Blue, ferroin, N-phenylanthranilic acid, p-ethoxychrysoidine and barium diphenylaminesulphonate are used as indicators. The method is useful in the analysis of binary mixtures of peroxydisulphate and peroxide or perborate and in the estimation of the nitrate content of fertilizers.

  7. Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

  8. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  9. Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, M.G.; Roop, J.M.; Seely, H.E.; Muller, M.R.; Jones, T.W.; Dowd, J.

    1996-05-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based on the experiences of companies participating in the DOE Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. The IAC program is a network of university-based centers that provides energy and waste assessments to small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The purposes of this report are to do the following: (1) Examine what the data collected reveal about patterns of implementation of recommended energy- efficiency measures, (2) Evaluate how various factors, such as the type of industry, the characteristics of the manufacturing plants, or the cost of the measures, appear to effect implementation rates, (3) Examine reasons why recommended energy-saving measures are accepted or rejected.

  10. Asymmetric Synthesis of Medium-Sized Rings by Intramolecular Au(I)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Iain D. G.; Ritter, Stefanie; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-01-01

    An efficient method for the asymmetric gold(I)-catalyzed preparation of medium sized rings has been developed. The method provides 7- to 9-membered rings in excellent yield. High enantioselectivities can be achieved for 7- and 8-membered ring products employing chiral gold(I) complexes. The results provide insight into the mechanism, showing the fluxional nature of gold(I)-stabilized vinyl carbenoid intermediates. PMID:19161306

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of safeguards at a medium-sized spent-fuel reprocessing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Higinbotham, W.; Fishbone, L.G.; Suda, S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate carefully and systematically the effectiveness of safeguards at nuclear-fuel-cycle facilities, the International Atomic Energy Agency has adopted a safeguards effectiveness assessment methodology. The methodology has been applied to a well-characterized, medium-sized, spent-fuel reprocessing plant to understand how explicit safeguards inspection procedures would serve to expose conceivable nuclear materials diversion schemes, should such diversion occur.

  12. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  13. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P < .001). Forty-five healing failures occurred (13.3%), and fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle, tear size (anteroposterior dimension), and age were significant factors affecting rotator cuff healing (P < .001, = .018, and = .011, respectively) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Grade II and higher infraspinatus fatty degeneration correlated with a higher failure rate. The failure rate was also significantly higher in patients with a tear >2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P < .001). A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the predictive cut-off value for the oldest age and the largest tear size for successful healing, which were calculated as 69 years and 2 cm, respectively, with a specificity of 90%. In small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful

  14. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

  15. [Health management in small and medium-sized enterprises: results of a representative survey].

    PubMed

    Zelfel, R C; Alles, T; Weber, A

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of workplace health promotion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in Germany as well as age management were investigated. Representative data were collected by computer assisted telephone interviews in 1 441 SME (1-250 employees) in 7 regions of Germany. One-third of the SME have a system of health promotion. Disability management is known only in one third of the enterprises, another third of them knew the legal obligations. About half of the enterprises have a system to collect data about health-related absenteeism in business. Effects caused by the demographic change in Germany are feared by nearly 50% of the enterprises, but only 20% have taken action against it. The implementation of work health promotion is higher in enterprises with more employees. The study shows that workplace health promotion (WHP) in German small and medium-sized enterprises is not yet installed to a wide extent. The smaller the enterprises the less WHP is found. The results are verified by similar studies. Small and medium-sized enterprises have a need for consultation in cases of illness or health prevention. But there is not yet an organised structure available for getting advice. The study is the basis for a national project "Gesunde Arbeit", which will establish these consulting structures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  17. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities... investigations, investigation No. 332-509, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities,...

  18. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  19. Functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-dependent sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Angelides, K J; Nutter, T J; Elmer, L W; Kempner, E S

    1985-03-25

    Radiation inactivation was used in situ to determine the functional unit sizes of the neurotoxin receptors of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from rat brain. Frozen or lyophilized synaptosomes were irradiated with high energy electrons generated by a linear accelerator and assayed for [3H]saxitoxin, 125I-Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (alpha-scorpion toxin), 125I-Centruroides suffusus suffusus (beta-scorpion toxin), and batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-[3H]benzoate binding activity. The functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors determined in situ by target analysis are 220,000 for saxitoxin, 263,000 for alpha-scorpion toxin, and 45,000 for beta-scorpion toxin. Analysis of the inactivation curve for batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to the channel yields two target sizes of Mr approximately 287,000 (50%) and approximately 51,000 (50%). The results are independent of the purity of the membrane preparation. Comparison of the radiation inactivation data with the protein composition of the rat brain sodium channel indicates that there are at least two functional components.

  20. Clinical outcome of medium-sized hepatocellular carcinoma treated with microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ai-Xue; Cheng, Zhi-Li; Wu, Pan-Pan; Sheng, Yue-Hong; Qu, Xiu-Juan; Lu, Wen; Zhao, Cheng-Gong; Qian, Guo-Jun

    2015-03-14

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients with medium-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA). We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a single medium-sized HCC who underwent percutaneous MWA from January 2010 to January 2013. Technical success, technical effectiveness and complications were subsequently observed. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to each variable. The relative prognostic significance of the variables for predicting overall survival rate, recurrence-free survival rate and local tumor recurrence(s) was assessed using univariate analysis. All variables with a P value < 0.20 were subjected to multivariate analysis. The study included 182 patients (mean age, 58 years; age range: 22-86 years) with a single HCC (mean size, 3.72 ± 0.54 cm; range: 3.02-5.00 cm). The estimated technical effectiveness rate was 93% in 182 patients. The major complication rate was 2.7% (5/182), including liver abscess in 4 cases, and abdominal bleeding at the puncture site in 1 case. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0.5% (1/182). One patient died due to liver abscess-related septicemia. Cumulative recurrence-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 51%, 36%, 27% and 89%, 74%, 60% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Age (P = 0.017) and tumor diameter (P = 0.029) were independent factors associated with local tumor recurrence. None of the factors had a statistically significant impact on recurrence-free survival. Serum albumin level (P = 0.009) and new lesion(s) (P = 0.029) were independently associated with OS. Percutaneous MWA is a relatively safe and effective treatment for patients with medium-sized HCC.

  1. Porous medium coffee ring effect and other factors affecting the first crystallisation time of sodium chloride at the surface of a drying porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidri, F.; Sghaier, N.; Eloukabi, H.; Prat, M.; Nasrallah, S. Ben

    2013-12-01

    We study the distribution of ions in a drying porous medium up to the formation of first crystals at the surface. The study is based on comparisons between numerical simulations and experiments with packings of glass beads. The experimental configuration, which is representative of many previous drying experiments, is characterized by the formation of an efflorescence fairy ring at the surface of the porous medium. The preferential formation of crystals at the periphery is explained by the combined effect of higher evaporation fluxes at the surface periphery, as in the classical coffee ring problem, and variations in the porosity near the wall bordering the packing. It is shown that both effects have a great impact on the time marking the occurrence of first crystals, which is referred to as the first crystallization time. The experiments indicate that the first crystallization time increases with a decreasing bead size for a given initial ion concentration. This is explained by the variation with bead size of the characteristic size of the near wall region where a preferential desaturation of the sample occurs as a result of the porosity increase near the wall. The study also reveals a significant salt supersaturation effect. This represents a noticeable fact in relation with salt weathering issues.

  2. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  3. The significance of medium- or small-size devices in fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hikosuke; Itoh, Sanae

    1990-10-01

    The significance of medium and small size devices is reviewed using the example of the ITER Physics R and D. It is noted that the heat flux density expected in a fusioning plasma will become large and it is not self-evident that one can use current energy confinement time scalings to predict ITER performance. The confinement of plasma is considered to be related to heat, momentum, and mass transport problems in a nonlinear, non-equilibrium system with a finite source and dissipation. Therefore, recent progress in fluid dynamics, especially where basic experiments are unveiling modes of heat and mass transport in the nonlinear non-equilibrium system (including conditions of transition to turbulence), is referred to frequently. Hence, systematic and basic research along the same lines is necessary in medium and small devices in order to develop further insight into the physics of plasma confinement.

  4. Energy performance of medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia- a case study.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini; Elkadi, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy performance of three medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia, that operate only during the daytime. The aim is to provide preliminary understanding of energy consumption in this particular typology in Australia in relation to the available benchmarks. This paper also identifies the differences of energy consumption between different functional areas within medium health facilities. Building features and operational characteristics contributing to the variations in healthcare energy performance are discussed. The total annual energy consumption data ranging from 167-306 kWh/m(2) or 42-72 kWh/m(3) were compared against international data from various climatic zones. Some of the drivers of energy consumption were determined and potentials for energy and water conservation were identified. Comparison with international standards shows a possibility to achieve lower energy consumption in Victorian healthcare buildings.

  5. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known.

  6. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. Results There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 ± 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 ± 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 ± 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Conclusion Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs. PMID:22247634

  7. Size and Composition Effects in Sb-Carbon Nanocomposites for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Sharma, Neeraj; Xing, Tan; Chen, Ying; Leforestier, Jeremie; Glushenkov, Alexey M

    2016-11-09

    Sodium-ion batteries are in the spotlight as viable alternatives to lithium-ion batteries in stationary storage and power grid applications. Among possible anode materials, Sb is one of the interesting candidates due to a combination of battery-type potential plateaus in the charge-discharge profiles, high capacity (theoretical capacity of 660 mAh g(-1)), and demonstrated good cyclic stability. The influence of Sb particle size (particularly at the nanoscale range) and the composition of Sb-carbon composites on the electrode performance, stability, and charge storage mechanism is systematically evaluated here for the first time. A range of Sb-carbon nanocomposites with varied Sb particle size (between 50 and ∼1 nm) are studied. The control of the particle size is achieved via varying the carbon and Sb weight ratio in the precursors. The shape of charge-discharge profiles, hysteresis, and the difference in cyclic stabilities and rate performance are analyzed. The nanocomposite with the smallest particle size (∼1 nm) and the largest carbon content provides the most stable cyclic behavior and a better rate capability but suffers from an increased hysteresis between charge and discharge curves. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments indicate that the storage mechanism in the Sb-carbon nanocomposites containing Sb nanoparticles is different from the electrodes with bulkier, micron-sized Sb particles, and the electrochemical reaction proceeds through a number of crystalline intermediates.

  8. Annulation Reactions of Allenyl Esters: An Approach to Bicyclic Diones and Medium-Sized Rings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A flexible approach to construct sterically congested bicyclo-alkenedione frameworks is reported. Under the action of potassium carbonate, α-sulphonyl cycloalkanones are added to functionalized allenyl esters, leading to a lactone intermediate that is subsequently reduced to initiate an intramolecular aldol cyclization to [3.2.1], [3.3.1], and [4.3.1] bicycles. Oxidation then affords bicyclic diones in good three-step yields. Under exceptionally mild conditions, these bicycles are converted to highly functionalized medium-sized rings through a Grob-type fragmentation. PMID:25184784

  9. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  10. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Murat; Laitinen, Heikki

    2016-07-20

    It is of great importance to develop an occupational health and safety management system (OHS MS) to form a systemized approach to improve health and safety. It is a known fact that thousands of accidents and injuries occur in the construction industry. Most of these accidents occur in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This article provides a 10-step user-friendly OHS MS for the construction industry. A quantitative OHS MS indexing method is also introduced in the article. The practical application of the system to real SMEs and its promising results are also presented.

  11. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed.

  12. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Kast, James; Marcinkoski, Jason; Vijayagopal, Ram; Duran, Adam

    2016-06-22

    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles. [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy.

  13. Grafting of sodium montmorillonite with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in ethanol/water dispersing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Mohammad; Abouelmagd, Ahmed; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2016-03-01

    In this work, silane grafted sodium montmorillonite was synthesized by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to make it compatible with the organic polymer. The grafting reaction was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 29Si NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The appearance of new peaks for FTIR results confirmed the presence of the grafted silane onto the clay platelets. Besides, 29Si NMR results revealed another extra resonance which belongs to new bonds formed at clay edges and on the internal nanoclay platelets. TGA results confirmed that by increasing the amount of silane, the amount of grafting silane also increased which was shown by increase of mass loss. DTG results showed that by increasing the amount of aminosilane used for modification, the amount of intercalated silane is also increased.

  14. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  15. The Sodium Channel β4 Auxiliary Subunit Selectively Controls Long-Term Depression in Core Nucleus Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Gao, Guangping; Lasek, Amy W.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Guildford, Melissa; Tapper, Andrew R.; Martin, Gilles E.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for generating the initial rapid depolarization of neuronal membrane potential during action potentials (APs) that enable cell-to-cell communication, the propagation of signals throughout the brain, and the induction of synaptic plasticity. Although all brain neurons express one or several variants coding for the core pore-forming sodium channel α subunit, the expression of the β (β1–4) auxiliary subunits varies greatly. Of particular interest is the β4 subunit, encoded by the Scn4b gene, that is highly expressed in dorsal and ventral (i.e., nucleus accumbens – NAc) striata compared to other brain regions, and that endows sodium channels with unique gating properties. However, its role on neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behaviors related to drugs of abuse remains poorly understood. Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with two-photon calcium imaging in Scn4b knockout (KO) and knockdown mice, we found that Scn4b altered the properties of APs in core accumbens medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These alterations are associated with a reduction of the probability of MSNs to evoke spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD) and a reduced ability of backpropagating APs to evoke dendritic calcium transients. In contrast, long-term potentiation (tLTP) remained unaffected. Interestingly, we also showed that amphetamine-induced locomotor activity was significantly reduced in male Scn4b KO mice compared to wild-type controls. Taken together, these data indicate that the Scn4b subunit selectively controls tLTD by modulating dendritic calcium transients evoked by backpropagating APs. PMID:28243192

  16. Actuator development at IAAT for the Cherenkov telescope array medium size telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, S.; Dick, J.; Pühlhofer, G.; Renner, S.; Santangelo, A.; Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the future observatory for TeV gamma-ray astronomy. In order to increase the sensitivity and to extend the energy coverage beyond the capabilities of current facilities, its design concept features telescopes of three diffierent size classes. Based on the experience from H.E.S.S. phase II, the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics Tübingen (IAAT) develops actuators for the mirror control system of the CTA Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs). The goals of this effiort are durability, high precision, and mechanical stability under all environmental conditions. Up to now, several revisions were developed and the corresponding prototypes were extensively tested. In this contribution our latest design revision proposed for the CTA MSTs are presented.

  17. Melting Properties of Medium-Sized Silicon Nanoclusters: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haipeng; Xu, Runfeng; Bi, Zetong; Shen, Xiaopeng; Han, Kui

    2017-07-01

    The structures and melting properties of the medium-sized silicon nanoclusters have been comparatively studied using the molecular dynamics method. Structural and thermodynamic parameters are used to characterize the melting properties of the clusters. The size dependence of the melting temperature of silicon nanoclusters is determined using the computation results. Different from the homogeneous melting of bulk silicon, melting of silicon nanoparticles proceeds over a finite temperature range due to surface effects, which shows the heterogeneous melting of nanoclusters. We found that the melting starts at the cluster surface and progressively shifts into the core region. This study provides a fundamental perspective on the melting behaviors of semiconductor silicon nanoclusters at the atomistic level.

  18. Melting Properties of Medium-Sized Silicon Nanoclusters: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haipeng; Xu, Runfeng; Bi, Zetong; Shen, Xiaopeng; Han, Kui

    2016-11-01

    The structures and melting properties of the medium-sized silicon nanoclusters have been comparatively studied using the molecular dynamics method. Structural and thermodynamic parameters are used to characterize the melting properties of the clusters. The size dependence of the melting temperature of silicon nanoclusters is determined using the computation results. Different from the homogeneous melting of bulk silicon, melting of silicon nanoparticles proceeds over a finite temperature range due to surface effects, which shows the heterogeneous melting of nanoclusters. We found that the melting starts at the cluster surface and progressively shifts into the core region. This study provides a fundamental perspective on the melting behaviors of semiconductor silicon nanoclusters at the atomistic level.

  19. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  20. Chemical and isotopic fractionation by grain size separates. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Fractionation of refractory elements according to grain size is argued to occur during their growth. Two major modes should exist: (1) during thermal condensation sequences whenever the condensing phase (e.g. Mg2SiO4) does not alloy with the precondensed phase (e.g. MgAl2O4); (2) during accretion of gaseous atoms in the nonequilibrated interstellar medium. Processes dynamically sorting grains according to size (e.g. sedimentation) therefore are potentially capable of achieving fractionations normally attributed to separations of dust and gas. This paper considers the first mode during supernova condensation; however, it also can occur in an equilibrium solar condensation sequence owing to an overlooked freedom in that simplified description.

  1. Promising practices in promotion of healthy weight at small and medium-sized US worksites.

    PubMed

    Hersey, James; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Sparling, Phillip B; Alexander, Jennifer; Hill, Mary D; Isenberg, Karen Bandel; Rooks, Adrienne; Dunet, Diane O

    2008-10-01

    We developed a new evaluation method to identify promising practices for promoting healthy weight among employees at small and medium-sized worksites. We used a structured rating and selection process to select 9 worksites with approximately 100 to 3,000 employees from a pool of worksites with health promotion programs reputed to be exemplary. A site visit over 2 sequential half-days at each site included interviews with senior management, program staff, vendors, and wellness committees; observation guided by a written environmental assessment; and structured review of program data on health outcomes of wellness program participants. The team corroborated findings from interviews, observations, and reviews of aggregate data on health outcomes of participants. Using the site visit reports, the project team and a separate panel of experts identified worksite health promotion practices that were promising, innovative, feasible to implement in a variety of settings, sustainable, and relevant for public health. Innovative practices included peer coaching, wellness screening coupled with motivational interviewing and follow-up, free access to fitness facilities, and incentives such as days of paid leave for participation in wellness programs. Introduction of incentives was associated with higher participation rates. To build the business case for their programs, staff at several worksites used aggregate data on decreases in high blood pressure, serum cholesterol concentrations, and body weight in longitudinal samples of program participants. The evaluation method identified promising practices implemented at small and medium-sized worksites to promote healthy weight and related favorable health outcomes.

  2. Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services. PMID:23634830

  3. Identification of Medium-Sized Copy Number Alterations in Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Hatice Gulcin; Usubalieva, Aisulu; Dorrance, Adrienne; Yilmaz, Ayse Selen; Caligiuri, Michael; Marcucci, Guido; Huang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    The genome-wide discoveries such as detection of copy number alterations (CNA) from high-throughput whole-genome sequencing data enabled new developments in personalized medicine. The CNAs have been reported to be associated with various diseases and cancers including acute myeloid leukemia. However, there are multiple challenges to the use of current CNA detection tools that lead to high false-positive rates and thus impede widespread use of such tools in cancer research. In this paper, we discuss these issues and propose possible solutions. First, since the entire genome cannot be mapped due to some regions lacking sequence uniqueness, current methods cannot be appropriately adjusted to handle these regions in the analyses. Thus, detection of medium-sized CNAs is also being directly affected by these mappability problems. The requirement for matching control samples is also an important limitation because acquiring matching controls might not be possible or might not be cost efficient. Here we present an approach that addresses these issues and detects medium-sized CNAs in cancer genomes by (1) masking unmappable regions during the initial CNA detection phase, (2) using pool of a few normal samples as control, and (3) employing median filtering to adjust CNA ratios to its surrounding coverage and eliminate false positives. PMID:25788829

  4. Performance of a Medium-Size Area nGEM Detector for Neutron Beam Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Albani, G.; Muraro, A.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    Fast neutron detectors with a sub-centimetric space resolution are required in order to qualify neutron beams in applications related to magnetically-controlled nuclear fusion plasmas and to spallation sources. Based on the results obtained with small area prototypes, the first medium-size (20 x 35.2 cm2 active area) nGEM detector has been realized for both the CNESM diagnostic system of the SPIDER NBI prototype for ITER and as a beam monitor for fast neutrons beam lines at spallation sources, too. The nGEM is a Triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with polyethylene layers used to convert fast neutrons into recoil protons through the elastic scattering process. This paper describes the performance of the medium-size nGEM detector tested at the VESUVIO beam line of the ISIS spallation source. Being this detector the actual largest area fast neutron detector based on the GEM technology, particular attention was paid in the study of detector response in different points over the active area. Measurements of GEM counting rate (both as a function of VGEM and of time) and of the capability of the detector to reconstruct the beam in different positions are presented. This detector serves as a basis for the realization of an even larger area detector that will be used in the MITICA NBI prototype for ITER that represents the evolution of SPIDER.

  5. Infrahyoid myocutaneous flap for medium-sized head and neck defects: surgical outcome and technique modification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hanwei; Wang, Steven J; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Liu, Muyuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes associated with infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps used in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects following head and neck cancer resection, as well as to discuss a novel technique modification. Case series with chart review. University cancer hospital. A total of 20 patients with oral or hypopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent infrahyoid myocutaneous flap reconstruction between June 2005 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. A novel technical modification of flap harvest, preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein, was attempted in 15 flaps and was successful in 13 flaps. Functional evaluation was performed in all patients 3 to 6 months after the operation or postoperative radiation. Total flap necrosis, marginal skin paddle necrosis, and total skin paddle loss were observed in 1, 2, and 1 patient(s), respectively. Pharyngocutaneous fistula without flap problem occurred in 1 patient. No flap complications occurred in 13 cases where the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein was successfully preserved. Functional results were excellent in 16 patients, good in 3 patients, and fair in 1 patient. The infrahyoid myocutaneous flap is a reliable and convenient technique that can serve as an alternative to free flaps in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects of the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein is a novel technical modification of harvesting this flap, which may result in better venous return of the skin paddle and reduce skin paddle necrosis.

  6. Microchannel anechoic corner for size-selective separation and medium exchange via traveling surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Ha, Byung Hang; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Alazzam, Anas; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-05-05

    We demonstrate a miniaturized acoustofluidic device composed of a pair of slanted interdigitated transducers (SIDTs) and a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for achieving size-selective separation and exchange of medium around polystyrene particles in a continuous, label-free, and contactless fashion. The SIDTs, deposited parallel to each other, produce tunable traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) at desired locations, which, in turn, yield an anechoic corner inside the microchannel that is used to selectively deflect particles of choice from their streamlines. The TSAWs with frequency fR originating from the right SIDT and propagating left toward the microchannel normal to the fluid flow direction, laterally deflect larger particles with diameter d1 from the hydrodynamically focused sample fluid that carries other particles as well with diameters d2 and d3, such that d1 > d2 > d3. The deflected particles (d1) are pushed into the top-left corner of the microchannel. Downstream, the TSAWs with frequency fL, such that fL > fR, disseminating from the left SIDT, deflect the medium-sized particles (d2) rightward, leaving behind the larger particles (d1) unaffected in the top-left anechoic corner and the smaller particles (d3) in the middle of the microchannel, thereby achieving particle separation. A particle not present in the anechoic corner could be deflected rightward to realize twice the medium exchange. In this work, the three-way separation of polystyrene particles with diameters of 3, 4.2, and 5 μm and 3, 5, and 7 μm is achieved using two separate devices. Moreover, these devices are used to demonstrate multimedium exchange around polystyrene particles ∼5 μm and 7 μm in diameter.

  7. Dermoscopic Features of Small, Medium, and Large-Sized Congenital Melanocytic Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-01-01

    Background Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are present at birth. It is well known that the presence of large-sized congenital nevus in early life could predict a major risk of developing melanoma. Objective To investigate the clinical and dermoscopic features of the CMN, to search for and highlight any differences between small-sized, medium-sized, large-sized CMN. Methods A nonrandomized observational study was performed. A total of 108 melanocytic nevi were analysed by clinical and dermoscopic examination. Results Of the subjects, 57.4% were aged less than 16 years, 42.6% were aged 16 and more. Of the nevi, 26 had reticular pattern (24.1%), 35 had globular pattern (32.4%), 13 had reticular-globular pattern (12.0%), 16 had homogeneous pattern (14.8%), 6 had reticular-homogeneous pattern (5.6%), 2 had globular-homogeneous pattern (1.9%), 7 had cobblestone pattern (6.5%), 3 had reticular patchy pattern (2.8%). Atypical dots and globules, focal hypopigmentation and perifollicular hypopigmentation are the most common dermoscopic features of CMN. The rarest dermoscopic feature is the blue-whitish veil. Conclusion Most of the dermoscopic features related with dysplastic nevi up to the present, such as atypical dots and globules, focal hypopigmentation, perifollicular hypopigmentation were observed in CMN, in our study. Congenital nevus and dysplastic nevi may share the same dermoscopic features, therefore it is important to know it is found at birth or not. PMID:28223743

  8. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time.

  9. Size Matters! Differences in Nutritional Care between Small, Medium and Large Nursing Homes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Burger, C; Kiesswetter, E; Gietl, A; Pfannes, U; Arens-Azevedo, U; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to comprehensively describe nutritional care in German nursing homes (NHs) and to examine if nutritional care differs between small, medium and large NHs. Nationwide cross-sectional postal survey. Nursing homes. 541 NHs across Germany. Information on structural NH characteristics and nutritional care (food provision and menu planning, nursing care, and management and quality assurance) was collected by means of a questionnaire addressed to the management of a random sample of German NHs. NHs were grouped by size as small (≤ 50 beds), medium (50 - 100 beds) or large (> 100 beds) institutions. Frequencies were used to describe nutritional care, and Chi2-test to identify differences in nutritional care by NH size. Aspects in the domain of food provision and menu planning regarding food variety and choice were widely implemented in German NHs (77 - 100 %). Best results were achieved in the domain of nursing care, where all aspects were implemented in at least 68 % of the NHs. Aspects regarding management and quality assurance, especially those concerning staffing, i.e. the availability of an interface manager (14 %), an interdisciplinary nutrition team (12 %) and a dietician (42 %), were only rarely implemented. Differences by NH size were found between small and medium or large NHs. On the one hand, small NHs stated more often to consider individual capabilities of the residents with texture-modified food (81 % vs. 60 %, p<0.05) and produce more often hot meals at ward level on a regular base (46 % vs. 32 %, p<0.05) than large NHs. On the other hand, several aspects regarding food provision and menu planning, and management and quality assurance were significantly more often implemented in larger than smaller NHs. Whereas kitchen and nursing-related aspects of nutritional care seem to be widely implemented in German NHs, management and quality assurance demands are often not met. The differences found by NH size support the hypothesis that

  10. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  11. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  12. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  13. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  14. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  15. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  16. Toward the construction of a medium size prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Griffiths, S.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T. B.; Jenke, P.; Kaaret, P.; Kieda, D.; Limon, M.; Mognet, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Peck, A.; Petrashyk, A.; Ribeiro, D.; Stevenson, B.; Vassiliev, V.; Yu, P.

    2015-09-01

    The construction of a prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT) started in early June 2015 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Southern Arizona, as a candidate medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Compared to current Davies-Cotton telescopes, this novel instrument with an aplanatic two-mirror optical system will offer a wider field-of-view and improved angular resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of the camera allows the use of highly-integrated photon detectors such as silicon photo multipliers. As part of CTA, this design has the potential to greatly improve the performance of the next generation ground-based observatory for very high-energy (E>60 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy. In this contribution we present the design and performance of both optical and alignment systems of the pSCT.

  17. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  18. Development of engineering model of medium-sized aperture camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ee-Eul; Choi, Young-Wan; Soon Yang, Ho; Kang, Myung-Seok; Jeong, Seong-Keun; Yang, Seung-Uk; Kim, Jong-Un; Rasheed, Ad. Aziz Ad.; Nasir, Hafizah Md.; Rosdi, Md. Rushdan Md.; Hai, Asma Hani Ad.; Ismail, Ismahadi; Sabirin Arshad, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    SaTReC i and ATSB are developing medium-sized aperture camera (MAC) system for earth observation. Following the first model, the development of the engineering model (EM) was completed. The optical subsystem incorporates a conventional approach of using low-expansion optical and structural materials. It is a 300-mm on-axis system with two aspheric mirrors and two field correction lenses. It has five linear detectors aligned on its focal plane together with proximity electronics. The electronics subsystem consists of five modules; two for management and control in cold redundancy, two for image data storage and one for power supply. EM was developed to have a storage capacity of 16 Gbits, which can be easily increased to 32 Gbits by adding memory packs for following models. EM weighs about 41.9 kg and consumes about 45.4 W of peak power.

  19. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say).

  20. Fully anharmonic IR and Raman spectra of medium-size molecular systems: accuracy and interpretation†

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Computation of full infrared (IR) and Raman spectra (including absolute intensities and transition energies) for medium- and large-sized molecular systems beyond the harmonic approximation is one of the most interesting challenges of contemporary computational chemistry. Contrary to common beliefs, low-order perturbation theory is able to deliver results of high accuracy (actually often better than those issuing from current direct dynamics approaches) provided that anharmonic resonances are properly managed. This perspective sketches the recent developments in our research group toward the development a robust and user-friendly virtual spectrometer rooted into the second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and usable also by non-specialists essentially as a black-box procedure. Several examples are explicitly worked out in order to illustrate the features of our computational tool together with the most important ongoing developments. PMID:24346191

  1. The natural selection of organizational and safety culture within a small to medium sized enterprise (SME).

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) form the majority of Australian businesses. This study uses ethnographic research methods to describe the organizational culture of a small furniture-manufacturing business in southern Australia. Results show a range of cultural assumptions variously 'embedded' within the enterprise. In line with memetics - Richard Dawkin's cultural application of Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, the author suggests that these assumptions compete to be replicated and retained within the organization. The author suggests that dominant assumptions are naturally selected, and that the selection can be better understood by considering the cultural assumptions in reference to Darwin's original principles and Frederik Barth's anthropological framework of knowledge. The results are discussed with reference to safety systems, negative cultural elements called Cultural Safety Viruses, and how our understanding of this particular organizational culture might be used to build resistance to these viruses.

  2. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  3. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-07

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  4. Nonlinear size-dependent longitudinal vibration of carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; El-Borgi, S.; Mousavi, S. M.; Reddy, J. N.; Mechmoum, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the longitudinal linear and nonlinear free vibration response of a single walled carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in an elastic medium subjected to different boundary conditions. This formulation is based on a large deformation analysis in which the linear and nonlinear von Kármán strains and their gradient are included in the expression of the strain energy and the velocity and its gradient are taken into account in the expression of the kinetic energy. Therefore, static and kinetic length scales associated with both energies are introduced to model size effects. The governing motion equation along with the boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton's principle. Closed-form solutions for the linear free vibration problem of the embedded CNT rod are first obtained. Then, the nonlinear free vibration response is investigated for various values of length scales using the method of multiple scales.

  5. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    PubMed

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  6. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  7. Healthy lifestyle behavior of employees in small and medium-sized enterprises in Aydin, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ozvurmaz, Safiye; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine healthy lifestyle behavior and affecting risk factors in workers at small and medium-sized enterprises from four different sectors in Aydin, Turkey. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at four different small and medium-sized enterprises in Aydin, Turkey and 264 employees participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. It consisted of questions about socio-demographic features (age, gender, marital status, education, perceived income, occupation and having children), health status, and medical history, medication use, having occupational accidents and occupational health and safety. Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale, which was developed by Walker et al. in 1996, was used to evaluate healthy lifestyle behaviors of the workers. Results: The mean score for Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale was 135.46±22.49. Gender, marital status, perceived income, sector of workplace, title, presence of a chronic disease, finding oneself healthy in the previous year and having an occupational accident in the previous year did not significantly affect any subscales of Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale. The workers aged over 50 years had significantly higher scores for health responsibility than those aged 20-29 years (p<0.05). The workers living in a village got significantly higher scores for Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale and its subscales health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition and spiritual development than those living in a city (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although workers have good spiritual development, they may not adopt physical activity as a healthy lifestyle and that workers benefiting from occupational health and safety services can display healthy lifestyle behavior. PMID:28523046

  8. Healthy lifestyle behavior of employees in small and medium-sized enterprises in Aydin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozvurmaz, Safiye; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2017-01-01

    To determine healthy lifestyle behavior and affecting risk factors in workers at small and medium-sized enterprises from four different sectors in Aydin, Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted at four different small and medium-sized enterprises in Aydin, Turkey and 264 employees participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. It consisted of questions about socio-demographic features (age, gender, marital status, education, perceived income, occupation and having children), health status, and medical history, medication use, having occupational accidents and occupational health and safety. Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale, which was developed by Walker et al. in 1996, was used to evaluate healthy lifestyle behaviors of the workers. The mean score for Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale was 135.46±22.49. Gender, marital status, perceived income, sector of workplace, title, presence of a chronic disease, finding oneself healthy in the previous year and having an occupational accident in the previous year did not significantly affect any subscales of Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale. The workers aged over 50 years had significantly higher scores for health responsibility than those aged 20-29 years (p<0.05). The workers living in a village got significantly higher scores for Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale and its subscales health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition and spiritual development than those living in a city (p<0.05). Although workers have good spiritual development, they may not adopt physical activity as a healthy lifestyle and that workers benefiting from occupational health and safety services can display healthy lifestyle behavior.

  9. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  10. Deep blank-field catalogue for medium- and large-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Esteban, F. M.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Cardiel, N.; Alacid, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium- and large-sized telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible through the virtual observatory tool TESELA, and the user can retrieve - and visualize using ALADIN - the deep blank fields available near a given position in the sky.

  11. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based γ-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  12. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of a medium-sized surface mine blasthole drill shroud

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Reed, W.R.; Zhou, L.; Rider, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently developed a series of models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to study airflows and respirable dust distribution associated with a medium-sized surface blasthole drill shroud with a dry dust collector system. Previously run experiments conducted in NIOSH’s full-scale drill shroud laboratory were used to validate the models. The setup values in the CFD models were calculated from experimental data obtained from the drill shroud laboratory and measurements of test material particle size. Subsequent simulation results were compared with the experimental data for several test scenarios, including 0.14 m3/s (300 cfm) and 0.24 m3/s (500 cfm) bailing airflow with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 dust collector-to-bailing airflow ratios. For the 2:1 and 3:1 ratios, the calculated dust concentrations from the CFD models were within the 95 percent confidence intervals of the experimental data. This paper describes the methodology used to develop the CFD models, to calculate the model input and to validate the models based on the experimental data. Problem regions were identified and revealed by the study. The simulation results could be used for future development of dust control methods for a surface mine blasthole drill shroud. PMID:27932851

  13. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  14. Understanding the Size-Dependent Sodium Storage Properties of Na2C6O6-Based Organic Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Ye; Yue, Zhuanghao; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2016-05-11

    Organic electroactive materials represent a new generation of sustainable energy storage technology due to their unique features including environmental benignity, material sustainability, and highly tailorable properties. Here a carbonyl-based organic salt Na2C6O6, sodium rhodizonate (SR) dibasic, is systematically investigated for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. A combination of structural control, electrochemical analysis, and computational simulation show that rational morphological control can lead to significantly improved sodium storage performance. A facile antisolvent method was developed to synthesize microbulk, microrod, and nanorod structured SRs, which exhibit strong size-dependent sodium ion storage properties. The SR nanorod exhibited the best performance to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C with over 90% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 10 C, 50% of the capacity can be obtained due to enhanced reaction kinetics, and such high electrochemical activity maintains even at 80 °C. These results demonstrate a generic design route toward high-performance organic-based electrode materials for beyond Li-ion batteries. Using such a biomass-derived organic electrode material enables access to sustainable energy storage devices with low cost, high electrochemical performance and thermal stability.

  15. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  16. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  17. Kinetic approach with ab initio MO method on ionic selectivity and size in sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Tani, S; Imamura, A; Kanda, K

    1989-10-23

    Three kinds of models for ionic selectivity and size of the filter in sodium channel have been treated by using ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculations with MINI-3 and MIDI-3* basis sets. A three-components system, HCO2M-H2O (M = Li+, Na+ or K+), is acceptable for describing experimental facts well. Thermochemical parameters obtained from harmonic vibrational analysis with MINI-3 basis sets, for the translocation of the permeant metal cations in the HCO2M-H2O system, are that the activation enthalpies for Li+, Na+ and K+ are 7.0, 6.4 and 23.4 kJ/mol, and also the free energies of activation are 10.6, 1.5 and 19.0 kJ/mol, respectively. These results are qualitatively in good correspondence with experimental facts of the ion selectivity of the channel. One of water molecule was found to have a key role in the translocation of the permeant cations.

  18. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-11-03

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sin(μ) (n = 20-30, μ = 0, -1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20-24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations.

  19. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum.

  20. Expedient total synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins via Fmoc chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Shen; Yu, Mu; Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Liu, Lei

    2014-03-05

    Total chemical synthesis provides a unique approach for the access to uncontaminated, monodisperse, and more importantly, post-translationally modified membrane proteins. In the present study we report a practical procedure for expedient and cost-effective synthesis of small to medium-sized membrane proteins in multimilligram scale through the use of automated Fmoc chemistry. The key finding of our study is that after the attachment of a removable arginine-tagged backbone modification group, the membrane protein segments behave almost the same as ordinary water-soluble peptides in terms of Fmoc solid-phase synthesis, ligation, purification, and mass spectrometry characterization. The efficiency and practicality of the new method is demonstrated by the successful preparation of Ser64-phosphorylated M2 proton channel from influenza A virus and the membrane-embedded domain of an inward rectifier K(+) channel protein Kir5.1. Functional characterizations of these chemically synthesized membrane proteins indicate that they provide useful and otherwise-difficult-to-access materials for biochemistry and biophysics studies.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  2. Use of anthropogenic linear features by two medium-sized carnivores in reserved and agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Georgina E; Johnson, Christopher N; Barmuta, Leon A; Jones, Menna E

    2017-09-14

    Many carnivores are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. These changes create linear features and habitat edges that can facilitate foraging and/or travel. To understand the significance of anthropogenic linear features in the ecology of carnivores, fine-scaled studies are needed. We studied two medium-sized carnivores: the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the near threatened spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), in a mixed landscape of conservation and agricultural land. Using GPS tracking, we investigated their use of intact habitat versus linear features such as roads, fences and the pasture/cover interface. Both species showed a positive selection for anthropogenic linear features, using the pasture/cover interface for foraging and roads for movement and foraging. Devils travelled along fence lines, while quolls showed little preference for them. Otherwise, both species foraged in forest and travelled through pasture. While devils and quolls can utilise anthropogenic linear features, we suggest that their continued survival in these habitats may depend on the intensity of other threats, e.g. persecution, and providing that sufficient intact habitat remains to sustain their ecological needs. We suggest that the management of both species and probably many other species of carnivores should focus on controlling mortality factors associated with human use of landscapes.

  3. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  4. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sinμ (n = 20–30, μ = 0, −1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20–24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations. PMID:26526519

  5. A radiophotoluminescent glass plate system for medium-sized field dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Keiichi; Koyanagi, Hiroki; Shiraki, Takashi; Saegusa, Shigeki; Sasaki, Katsutake; Oritate, Takashi; Mima, Kazuo; Miyazawa, Masanori; Ishidoya, Tatsuyo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoda, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-15

    A two-dimensional radiophotoluminescent system for medium-sized field dosimetry has been developed using a silver-activated phosphate glass plate with a dimension of 120 mmx120 mmx1 mm and a readout unit comprising a UV excitation lamp and a CCD imager. A dose ranging from 0 to 400 cGy, provided by a 6 MV x-ray beam, was delivered to the glass plate oriented perpendicularly to the beam and positioned in a water phantom at a depth of 10 cm, where the center of the glass plate coincided with the linac isocenter. After the dose delivery, the glass plate was placed in the readout system. The CCD output intensity increased linearly with the applied dose. The angular dependence of response on the direction of radiation incidence was measured by rotating the glass plate in the water phantom, indicating that the output remained constant up to 75 deg. from perpendicular incident direction, followed by a steep reduction down to 85% at an angle of 90 deg. A lateral dose distribution resulting from a 60 mmx60 mm irradiation was compared between the glass plate and an x-ray film having had the same exposure, showing that the glass plate and the x-ray film led to identical dose distributions. The dose reproducibility for a glass plate and the sensitivity variation among different glass plates were also evaluated.

  6. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fully Flexible Docking of Medium Sized Ligand Libraries with RosettaLigand

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, Samuel; Khar, Karen; Meiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    RosettaLigand has been successfully used to predict binding poses in protein-small molecule complexes. However, the RosettaLigand docking protocol is comparatively slow in identifying an initial starting pose for the small molecule (ligand) making it unfeasible for use in virtual High Throughput Screening (vHTS). To overcome this limitation, we developed a new sampling approach for placing the ligand in the protein binding site during the initial ‘low-resolution’ docking step. It combines the translational and rotational adjustments to the ligand pose in a single transformation step. The new algorithm is both more accurate and more time-efficient. The docking success rate is improved by 10–15% in a benchmark set of 43 protein/ligand complexes, reducing the number of models that typically need to be generated from 1000 to 150. The average time to generate a model is reduced from 50 seconds to 10 seconds. As a result we observe an effective 30-fold speed increase, making RosettaLigand appropriate for docking medium sized ligand libraries. We demonstrate that this improved initial placement of the ligand is critical for successful prediction of an accurate binding position in the ‘high-resolution’ full atom refinement step. PMID:26207742

  8. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    SciTech Connect

    Dijk, Meine Pieter van . E-mail: mpvandijk@few.eur.nl; Zhang Mingshun . E-mail: z.mingshun@ihs.nl

    2005-08-15

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plans.

  9. Diode laser anastemoses of medium-size arteries with indocyanine green dye-enhanced albumine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Guo-Xing; Williamson, Warren; Aretz, H. Thomas

    1998-11-01

    In order to achieve a better long-term patency result and solve the problem of tensile strength in laser artery anastomoses, diode laser and Indocyanine Green (ICG) enhanced albumin were applied to medium-size artery anastomoses with three different methods, that is, direct laser vascular anastomoses, direct method enforced with ICG albumin, and laser welding with ICG albumin as 'solder'. Internal mammary artery (IMA) harvested from patients undergoing coronary bypass procedures, in vivo rat abdominal artery, and in vitro swine heart and IMA were chosen as the experimental materials. The results revealed that only 3.15 +/- 0.36 minutes were required for each anastomosis; the bursting pressure and tensile strength were greater in the groups enforced with ICG albumin and laser welding than that with direct laser anastomoses. In the laser soldering group, the thermal damage was limited in the adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal arteries. However, end-to-side laser welding of IMA soronary artery with ICG albumin needs further investigation about its tensile strength in an in vivo model.

  10. Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Kaoru; Kushibiki, Toshisada; Matsue, Hajime; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes.

  11. Indoor particle levels in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Apte, Michael G; Bennett, Deborah H

    2012-11-20

    This study monitored indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in 37 small and medium commercial buildings (SMCBs) in California with three buildings sampled on two occasions, resulting in 40 sampling days. Sampled buildings included offices, retail establishments, restaurants, dental offices, and hair salons, among others. Continuous measurements were made for both ultrafine and fine particulate matter as well as black carbon inside and outside of the building. Integrated PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM(10) samples were also collected inside and outside the building. The majority of the buildings had indoor/outdoor (I/O) particle concentration ratios less than 1.0, indicating that contributions from indoor sources are less than removal of outdoor particles. However, some of the buildings had I/O ratios greater than 1, indicating significant indoor particle sources. This was particularly true of restaurants, hair salons, and dental offices. The infiltration factor was estimated from a regression analysis of indoor and outdoor concentrations for each particle size fraction, finding lower values for ultrafine and coarse particles than for submicrometer particles, as expected. The I/O ratio of black carbon was used as a relative measure of the infiltration factor of particles among buildings, with a geometric mean of 0.62. The contribution of indoor sources to indoor particle levels was estimated for each building.

  12. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  13. Respirable quartz exposure on two medium-sized farms in southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Franque Mirembo, José C; Swanepoel, Andrew J; Rees, David

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the potential for overexposure to respirable quartz in farming, in most parts of the world. To measure respirable dust and quartz exposure of tractor operators on two medium-sized dry climate farms. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of dust exposure of four tractor operators. Farms were selected by convenience sampling. The MDHS 14/3 and FTIR MDHS 101 HSE methods were used to measure dust and to analyze the mass of quartz in dust, respectively. Seventy respirable dust measurements were done. Respirable dust and quartz ranged from 0·01 to 2·88 and 0·001 to 0·30 mg/m(3), respectively. All operators had at least one respirable quartz exposure above 0·1 mg/m(3). Only 17% of respirable quartz concentrations were lower than the ACGIH TLV of 0·025 mg/m(3). The potential for overexposure to respirable quartz was demonstrated. There was a great deal of exposure variability on these farms which has implications for sampling strategies for dust in farming.

  14. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicenstein, J. F.; Abril, O.; Barrio, J.-A.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Bolmont, J.; Bouyjou, F.; Brun, P.; Chabanne, E.; Champion, C.; Colonges, S.; Corona, P.; Delagnes, E.; Delgado, C.; Diaz Ginzo, C.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fegan, S.; Ferreira, O.; Fesquet, M.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Fouque, N.; Gascon, D.; Giebels, B.; Henault, F.; Hermel, R.; Hoffmann, D.; Horan, D.; Houles, J.; Jean, P.; Jocou, L.; Karkar, S.; Knödlseder, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Le Flour, T.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leveque, A.; Louis, F.; Martinez, G.; Moudden, Y.; Moulin, E.; Nayman, P.; Nunio, F.; Olive, J.-F.; Panazol, J.-L.; Pavy, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pierre, E.; Prast, J.; Punch, M.; Ramon, P.; Rateau, S.; Ravel, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Sanuy, A.; Shayduk, M.; Sizun, P.-Y.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tejedor Alvarez, L.-A.; Toussenel, F.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voisin, V.; Waegebert, V.; Wischnewski, R.; Consortium, CTA

    2015-07-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electronics, read-out, clock distribution, slow control, data-acquisition, triggering, monitoring and services.

  15. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  16. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  17. An effective physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Peng, Shu Mei; Yeh, Ching Ying; Chen, Chiou Jong; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a practicable worksite physical fitness program for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Community-based intervention consisting of a three-month exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. A self-administrated structured questionnaire and physical fitness examination were designed to compare the difference between pre and post intervention. A total of 133 SME workers completed the lifestyle/exercise course and filled out the questionnaire, but 16 were excluded from the exercise group due to health reasons. After the intervention, health indicators such as weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, waistline, BMI, front and back trunk flexibility, abdominal muscle durability and back muscle strength were significantly improved, and improvements in musculoskeletal disorders were seen in reduced neck pain (18.8%), wrist pain (17.4%), and upper/lower back pain (8.7% and 21.7%, respectively). Cardiovascular risk factors (BMI and resting heart rate) showed a significant improvement related to frequent participation in the program (p=0.02), and the exercise group reported a significant difference in overall health (p=0.02). This study has demonstrated an effective approach to community-based fitness intervention through SMEs.

  18. Mousso structure: A deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact crater in northern Chad?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Mousso structure, a complex, ˜3.8 km circular structure centred on 17°58' N/19°53' E and located near the Mousso oasis, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, northern Chad, displays structural features typical for complex impact structures: a circular rim with concentric faults, an annular basin, and a central peak. Remote sensing investigations based on Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data reveal a specific morphological-structural resemblance of the complex central peak of the Mousso structure to the central uplift of the Spider impact structure, Western Australia, and, to some degree, to the central uplifts of the Upheaval Dome, Sierra Madera, and Gosses Bluff impact structures. This is consistent with the layered sedimentary rocks associated with all of these structures. No endogenic geological processes such as magmatism, diapirism, karst dissolution, and glacial or fluvial erosion can conclusively explain the formation of the Mousso structure within a large area of flat-lying early Paleozoic sandstones. Thus, this paper proposes that the Mousso structure might represent a deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact structure. As field investigations are currently impossible due to the civil war in Chad, the search for shock-metamorphic effects in rocks of the Mousso structure remains outstanding.

  19. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  20. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size.

  1. Fat-globule size in a propofol emulsion containing sodium metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David F; Dunbar, Jana G; Marmarou, Anthony

    2004-06-15

    The size distribution of fat globules from previously unopened, unexpired vials of Gensia Sicor's 1% propofol injectable lipid emulsion was studied. Fat globules in 20-mL samples from 50- and 100-mL vials of Gensia Sicor's 1% propofol emulsion containing 0.025% sodium metabisulfite were measured and counted by a laser-based, single-particle optical sensing technique. Measurements were performed during May 2001, June 2002, and October 2002, corresponding, respectively, to 17-21, 5-9, and 1-5 months before the vials' expiration dates, depending on the lot. Between measurements, the vials were stored at 4-22 degrees C. It was assumed that the pH for all lots was 4.5-6.4. Two separate lots of the innovator propofol emulsion (AstraZeneca) containing EDTA and having a labeled pH of 7.0-8.5 were analyzed in October 2002 in a post hoc assessment as the vials neared their expiration date. In May 2001, the volume-weighted percentage of fat globules with a diameter of >5 microm (PFAT5) was <0.05% for all seven Gensia Sicor lots. In four of the lots, PFAT5 increased significantly between May 2001 and June 2002. In all seven lots, PFAT5 increased significantly between May 2001 and October 2002. The two lots of the AstraZeneca product, tested two or three months before expiration, had low PFAT5 values. In samples from unopened, unexpired, and properly stored vials of Gensia Sicor propofol formulated at pH 4.5-6.4, PFAT5 increased over 18 months and in most cases exceeded 0.05% by the end of the study.

  2. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs.

  3. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  4. Urbanization alters communities of flying arthropods in parks and gardens of a medium-sized city.

    PubMed

    Lagucki, Edward; Burdine, Justin D; McCluney, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization. Flying arthropods were sampled from 30 gardens and parks along an urbanization gradient in Toledo, Ohio, during July and August 2016, using elevated pan traps. A variety of potential predictor variables were also recorded at each site. We collected a total of 2,369 individuals representing nine orders. We found that flying arthropod community composition was associated with percent impervious surface and canopy cover. Overall flying arthropod abundance was negatively associated with percent impervious surface and positively associated with distance to city center. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), and Araneae (spiders) were positively associated with distance to city center. Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Araneae were negatively associated with percent impervious surface. Both distance to city center and percent impervious surface are metrics of urbanization, and this study shows how these factors influence flying arthropod communities in urban gardens and city parks, including significant reductions in taxa that contain pollinators and predators important to urban agriculture and forestry. A variety of environmental factors also showed significant associations with responses (e.g. canopy cover and soil moisture), suggesting these factors may underlie or modulate the urbanization

  5. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Alves, D.; Ambrosino, R.; Amicucci, L.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Ariola, M.; Arnichand, H.; Arter, W.; Baciero, A.; Barnes, M.; Barrera, L.; Behn, R.; Bencze, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Bettini, P.; Bilková, P.; Bin, W.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P. S.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.; Bluteau, M.; Bobkov, V.; Bogar, O.; Böhm, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Brémond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Brida, D.; Brochard, F.; Buchanan, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Cahyna, P.; Calabrò, G.; Camenen, Y.; Caniello, R.; Cannas, B.; Canton, A.; Cardinali, A.; Carnevale, D.; Carr, M.; Carralero, D.; Carvalho, P.; Casali, L.; Castaldo, C.; Castejón, F.; Castro, R.; Causa, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavedon, M.; Cecconello, M.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Chapman, S.; Chernyshova, M.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Conway, G.; Corre, Y.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; De Angeli, M.; De Masi, G.; De Temmerman, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Decker, J.; Delogu, R. S.; Dendy, R.; Denner, P.; Di Troia, C.; Dimitrova, M.; D'Inca, R.; Dorić, V.; Douai, D.; Drenik, A.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Erdös, B.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Faitsch, M.; Fanni, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Ferreira, J.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Figini, L.; Figueiredo, A.; Fil, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Fontana, M.; Ford, O.; Frassinetti, L.; Fridström, R.; Frigione, D.; Fuchert, G.; Fuchs, C.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Futatani, S.; Gabellieri, L.; Gałązka, K.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Galeani, S.; Gallart, D.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Gao, Y.; Garavaglia, S.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Garzotti, L.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Geelen, P.; Geiger, B.; Ghendrih, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacomelli, L.; Giannone, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Gleason González, C.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Gruber, M.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hacek, P.; Hacquin, S.; Hall, S.; Ham, C.; Happel, T.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Hauer, V.; Havlickova, E.; Hellsten, T.; Helou, W.; Henderson, S.; Hennequin, P.; Heyn, M.; Hnat, B.; Hölzl, M.; Hogeweij, D.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Hornung, G.; Horváth, L.; Huang, Z.; Huber, A.; Igitkhanov, J.; Igochine, V.; Imrisek, M.; Innocente, P.; Ionita-Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Jacquet, P.; Jakubowski, M.; Jardin, A.; Jaulmes, F.; Jenko, F.; Jensen, T.; Jeppe Miki Busk, O.; Jessen, M.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, O.; Jonsson, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Kallinikos, N.; Kálvin, S.; Kappatou, A.; Karhunen, J.; Karpushov, A.; Kasilov, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kendl, A.; Kernbichler, W.; Kim, D.; Kirk, A.; Kjer, S.; Klimek, I.; Kocsis, G.; Kogut, D.; Komm, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Kovarik, K.; Krawczyk, N.; Krbec, J.; Krieger, K.; Krivska, A.; Kube, R.; Kudlacek, O.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Labit, B.; Laggner, F. M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lalousis, P.; Lang, P.; Lauber, P.; Lazányi, N.; Lazaros, A.; Le, H. B.; Lebschy, A.; Leddy, J.; Lefévre, L.; Lehnen, M.; Leipold, F.; Lessig, A.; Leyland, M.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Loarer, T.; Loarte, A.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Lupelli, I.; Lux, H.; Lyssoivan, A.; Madsen, J.; Maget, P.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Magnussen, M. L.; Mailloux, J.; Maljaars, B.; Malygin, A.; Mantica, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Marchand, B.; Marconato, N.; Marini, C.; Marinucci, M.; Markovic, T.; Marocco, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, Y.; Solis, J. R. Martin; Martitsch, A.; Mastrostefano, S.; Mattei, M.; Matthews, G.; Mavridis, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mazon, D.; McCarthy, P.; McAdams, R.; McArdle, G.; McCarthy, P.; McClements, K.; McDermott, R.; McMillan, B.; Meisl, G.; Merle, A.; Meyer, O.; Milanesio, D.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Mlynek, A.; Molina, D.; Molina, P.; Monakhov, I.; Morales, J.; Moreau, D.; Morel, P.; Moret, J.-M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Müller, H. W.; Nabais, F.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Nemes-Czopf, A.; Nespoli, F.; Neu, R.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nikolaeva, V.; Nimb, S.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Oberparleiter, M.; Ochoukov, R.; Odstrčil, T.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Orain, F.; Osterman, N.; Paccagnella, R.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Panjan, M.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Parail, V.; Parra, F. I.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pehkonen, S.-P.; Pereira, A.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Peterka, M.; Petersson, P.; Petrzilka, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pironti, A.; Pisano, F.; Pisokas, T.; Pitts, R.; Ploumistakis, I.; Plyusnin, V.; Pokol, G.; Poljak, D.; Pölöskei, P.; Popovic, Z.; Pór, G.; Porte, L.; Potzel, S.; Predebon, I.; Preynas, M.; Primc, G.; Pucella, G.; Puiatti, M. E.; Pütterich, T.; Rack, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Rasmussen, J.; Rattá, G. A.; Ratynskaia, S.; Ravera, G.; Réfy, D.; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reimold, F.; Reinke, M.; Reiser, D.; Resnik, M.; Reux, C.; Ripamonti, D.; Rittich, D.; Riva, G.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rohde, V.; Rosato, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salewski, M.; Salmi, A.; Samaddar, D.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Santos, J.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Scheffer, M.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schneller, M.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Seidl, J.; Sertoli, M.; Šesnić, S.; Shabbir, A.; Shalpegin, A.; Shanahan, B.; Sharapov, S.; Sheikh, U.; Sias, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Silva, A.; Silva Fuglister, M.; Simpson, J.; Snicker, A.; Sommariva, C.; Sozzi, C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stejner Pedersen, M.; Stepanov, I.; Stober, J.; Strand, P.; Šušnjara, A.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tál, B.; Tala, T.; Tamain, P.; Tardini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Teplukhina, A.; Terranova, D.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tolias, P.; Tophøj, L.; Treutterer, W.; Trevisan, G. L.; Tripsky, M.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Tudisco, O.; Uccello, A.; Urban, J.; Valisa, M.; Vallejos, P.; Valovic, M.; Van den Brand, H.; Vanovac, B.; Varoutis, S.; Vartanian, S.; Vega, J.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vicente, J.; Viezzer, E.; Vignitchouk, L.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Villone, F.; Viola, B.; Vlahos, L.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Vondráček, P.; Vu, N. M. T.; Wagner, D.; Walkden, N.; Wang, N.; Wauters, T.; Weiland, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Westerhof, E.; Wiesenberger, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wodniak, I.; Wolfrum, E.; Yadykin, D.; Zagórski, R.; Zammuto, I.; Zanca, P.; Zaplotnik, R.; Zestanakis, P.; Zhang, W.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.; ASDEX Upgrade, the; MAST; TCV Teams

    2017-10-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day devices. A two prong approach is adopted. On the one hand, scenarios with tolerable transient heat and particle loads, including active edge localised mode (ELM) control are developed. On the other hand, divertor solutions including advanced magnetic configurations are studied. Considerable progress has been made on both approaches, in particular in the fields of: ELM control with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP), small ELM regimes, detachment onset and control, as well as filamentary scrape-off-layer transport. For example full ELM suppression has now been achieved on AUG at low collisionality with n  =  2 RMP maintaining good confinement {{H}\\text{H≤ft(98,\\text{y}2\\right)}}≈ 0.95 . Advances have been made with respect to detachment onset and control. Studies in advanced divertor configurations (Snowflake, Super-X and X-point target divertor) shed new light on SOL physics. Cross field filamentary transport has been characterised in a wide parameter regime on AUG, MAST and TCV progressing the theoretical and experimental understanding crucial for predicting first wall loads in ITER and DEMO. Conditions in the SOL also play a crucial role for ELM stability and access to small ELM regimes. In the future we will refer to the author list of the paper as the EUROfusion MST1 Team.

  6. Microbiological tap water profile of a medium-sized building and effect of water stagnation.

    PubMed

    Lipphaus, Patrick; Hammes, Frederik; Kötzsch, Stefan; Green, James; Gillespie, Simon; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Whereas microbiological quality of drinking water in water distribution systems is routinely monitored for reasons of legal compliance, microbial numbers in tap water are grossly understudied. Motivated by gross differences in water from private households, we applied in this study flow cytometry as a rapid analytical method to quantify microbial concentrations in water sampled at diverse taps in a medium size research building receiving chlorinated water. Taps differed considerably in frequency of usage and were located in laboratories, bathrooms, and a coffee kitchen. Substantial differences were observed between taps with concentrations (per mL) in the range from 6.29 x 10(3) to 7.74 x 10(5) for total cells and from 1.66 x 10(3) to 4.31 x 10(5) for intact cells. The percentage of intact cells varied between 7% and 96%. Water from taps with very infrequent use showed the highest bacterial numbers and the highest proportions of intact cells. Stagnation tended to increase microbial numbers in water from those taps which were otherwise frequently used. Microbial numbers in other taps that were rarely opened were not affected by stagnation as their water is probably mostly stagnant. For cold water taps, microbial numbers and the percentage of intact cells tended to decline with flushing with the greatest decline for taps used least frequently whereas microbial concentrations in water from hot water taps tended to be somewhat more stable. We conclude that microbiological water quality is mainly determined by building-specific parameters. Tap water profiling can provide valuable insight into plumbing system hygiene and maintenance.

  7. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    PubMed

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Clinical audit of multidisciplinary care at a medium-sized hospital in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary care is a key enabler in the provision of high quality care for cancer patients. Despite compelling evidence supporting their benefit to patients and for providers, multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCC) are not universally occurring. Team composition of MCC reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the body. Lack of nursing input can have a negative impact on team decision making. The objective of this study was to evaluate multidisciplinary care and adherence to national recommendations at a medium-sized hospital through a clinical audit of cancer conferences and clinical records. Methods A total of 77 multidisciplinary cancer conferences were visited and 496 electronic health records were reviewed. The regularity of meetings and multidisciplinary attendance were evaluated. Each electronic health record was checked to verify documented prospective discussion before any treatment was started. Results Nine multidisciplinary teams meet on a weekly or biweekly basis at the hospital with an average number of ten people and six different specialties represented. Average duration of meetings was 46.8 min. Though most patients (64.5%) were discussed at some point at the relevant cancer conference, only 40% had a documented multidisciplinary team discussion prior to the first treatment. Pathological stage (pTNM) was documented in 53.6% of clinical records. Conclusions Nursing representatives should be included as usual attendees at cancer conferences. Prospective discussion of all cancer cases should be encouraged. Use of checklists and systematic collection of key information, specifically cancer staging, could improve clinical documentation in the electronic clinical record. PMID:24597686

  9. [Problems of implementing integration management at company level in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Weber, A; Schian, H-M

    2006-05-01

    At company level responsibility increases for the employment of workers with health-related problems or disabilities, but realisation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) is lacking. Therefore a model is developed based on theory and a survey. Minimum requirements for "betriebliches Eingliederungsmanagement" (integration management at company level) according to section 84 (2) SGB IX Book 9 of the German Social Code, the main products of the international movement "disability management", a description of roles for realisation and the main sources of employers' support are described. Although external supporting of SMEs is unquestioned, it is expensive and retards own initiative and own activity counting solely on this. Only by developing a minimum of SME's awareness, acceptance and competence, this will open up to (currently suboptimal) external support. Goal is identifying SME managers' attitudes, activities, proposals and expectations referring integration management at company level to derive concepts of SME's support. 13 interviews are analysed by qualitative content analysis identifying the following barriers: information deficit, absence of priority, limited possibilities for transitional work, cost, partially limited workers' self-responsibility, illness as a "tabes" subject. Possibilities overcoming these barriers are delineated. On that basis a model is presented: pragmatically for realisation, a company contact person with minimum competence, uniform external support, institutional partners' integration and quality assurance according to disability management. Interlocking SME world and social insurance world means first to support SME's awareness, acceptance and competence, second to create for SME a central contact in the "rehabilitation jungle" and third to develop SME-suitable premiums according to section 84 (3) SGB IX, Book 9 of the German social code.

  10. A structured strategy for assessing chemical risks, suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Balsat, A; de Graeve, J; Mairiaux, P

    2003-10-01

    A previous study carried out in 20 Belgian companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), showed that prevention advisors did not use any structured approaches to assess chemical risk. They used their personal judgement and the information contained in manufacturers' Safety Data Sheets to assess the risk. The purpose of the Regetox network is to provide companies with a global approach for assessing chemical health risks. The structured approach proposed consists of two successive steps of increasing complexity. For the first step, we chose a method developed by the INRS (France), the 'ranking of potential risk', which allows the safety officer or staff member to identify hazards and to set priorities among all the supplied products used in the workplace. For the second step, we applied the COSHH method and EASE model established by the UK Health & Safety Executive for assessing 'chemical risk by reference to occupational exposure limits'. The INRS and COSHH Essentials methods were chosen because they define hazards using R-phrases of the European classification system and assess the exposure by using simple information that is easy to collect in the workplace and toxicological databases. A feasibility study conducted in two enterprises shows the usefulness of this approach. In addition to the intrinsic limitations of the methods, the approach showed some limitations related to the inaccuracy of the manufactured safety data sheets and to the collection of the basic information needed for ranking potential risks. The use of the Regetox approach needs training of prevention advisors and a strategy involving employers, staff members and workers in collecting basic information and managing chemical risks. Under these conditions, Regetox seems to be a useful tool for chemical risk assessment in SMEs.

  11. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed <250 people; 43.2% did not have or had never reviewed a written health and safety policy. Only 18% had a written occupational health policy; 14.4% employed the services of a part-time occupational health physician; 7.2% employed a health and safety advisor; and 10.8% employed a part-time occupational health nurse. Twenty-five per cent had a nominated person responsible for occupational health and 67% thought that a doctor or nurse would be the best person to provide an occupational health service. Twenty-eight per cent of the companies carried out some form of pre-employment screening and 14.2% carried out health promotion. Fifteen (53.5%) collected some form of health related absence data. Eight companies (28.6%) organized a formal induction programme for all new employees. Further work should be undertaken in an attempt to improve access to local industry and particularly to SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs.

  12. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  13. Are fragment-based quantum chemistry methods applicable to medium-sized water clusters?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dandan; Shen, Xiaoling; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2016-06-28

    Fragment-based quantum chemistry methods are either based on the many-body expansion or the inclusion-exclusion principle. To compare the applicability of these two categories of methods, we have systematically evaluated the performance of the generalized energy based fragmentation (GEBF) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 2193) and the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) method (J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2007, 3, 46) for medium-sized water clusters (H2O)n (n = 10, 20, 30). Our calculations demonstrate that the GEBF method provides uniformly accurate ground-state energies for 10 low-energy isomers of three water clusters under study at a series of theory levels, while the EE-MB method (with one water molecule as a fragment and without using the cutoff distance) shows a poor convergence for (H2O)20 and (H2O)30 when the basis set contains diffuse functions. Our analysis shows that the neglect of the basis set superposition error for each subsystem has little effect on the accuracy of the GEBF method, but leads to much less accurate results for the EE-MB method. The accuracy of the EE-MB method can be dramatically improved by using an appropriate cutoff distance and using two water molecules as a fragment. For (H2O)30, the average deviation of the EE-MB method truncated up to the three-body level calculated using this strategy (relative to the conventional energies) is about 0.003 hartree at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level, while the deviation of the GEBF method with a similar computational cost is less than 0.001 hartree. The GEBF method is demonstrated to be applicable for electronic structure calculations of water clusters at any basis set.

  14. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Moribe, Takeshi; Sakai, Takaaki

    2006-07-01

    The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components are prone to have non-uniform flow and temperature distributions. These phenomena might lead to tube buckling or tube to tube-sheet junction failure in straight tube type SGs, owing to tubes thermal expansion difference. The flow adjustment devices installed in the SG are optimized to prevent these issues, and the temperature distribution properties are uncovered by analysis methods. The analysis model of the SG consists of two parts, a sodium inlet distribution plenum (the plenum) and a heat transfer tubes bundle region (the bundle). The flow and temperature distributions in the plenum and the bundle are evaluated by the three-dimensional code 'FLUENT' and the two dimensional thermal-hydraulic code 'MSG', respectively. The MSG code is particularly developed for sodium heated SGs in JAEA. These codes have revealed that the sodium flow is distributed uniformly by the flow adjustment devices, and that the lateral tube temperature distributions remain within the allowable temperature range for the structural integrity of the tubes and the tube to tube-sheet junctions. (authors)

  16. The Impact of the Public Library on Business Success: An Analysis Based on Medium-Sized Businesses in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Liwen Qiu

    1997-01-01

    Describes a survey of Ontario (Canada) medium-sized businesses that was conducted to investigate the impact of the public library on business success and discusses results that found a significant relationship between public library use and business success. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)

  17. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  18. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  19. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  20. 78 FR 22801 - Request for Comments on Developing a Program To Provide Loan Guarantees to Small- or Medium-Sized...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... structure loan guarantees for small- and medium-sized manufacturers through its authority under the... manufacture of innovative products, processes, or ideas developed by research funded in whole or in part by... listed below, on ways to structure this program, in order to assess the level of demand for such a...

  1. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  2. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  3. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  4. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically…

  5. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically…

  6. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  7. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  8. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in…

  9. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has…

  10. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  11. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training…

  12. Effect of medium, pH, and inoculum size on activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Borobio, M V; Pascual, A; Dominguez, M C; Perea, E J

    1986-01-01

    The effect of two media, three pH values, and three inoculum densities on the activity of ceftizoxime and Sch-34343 against anaerobic bacteria was evaluated. The activities of both antimicrobial agents were affected by medium composition, especially against Bacteroides fragilis. Changes in pH and inoculum size affected only the activity of ceftizoxime against anaerobic bacteria. PMID:3466569

  13. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  14. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  15. Attitudes about OCLC in Small and Medium-Sized Libraries. Illinois Valley Library System OCLC Experimental Project. Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, Linda G.; Wilford, Valerie

    A project was conducted from 1980 to 1982 to determine the costs and benefits of OCLC use in 29 small and medium-sized member libraries of the Illinois Valley Library System (IVLS). Academic, school, public, and special libraries participated in the project. Based on written attitude surveys of and interviews with library directors, staff,…

  16. Workplace Education Programs in Small and Medium-Sized Michigan Firms. Staff Working Paper 92-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin; Anderson, William

    A project collected data from small and medium-sized firms (employing fewer than 500) in Michigan concerning workplace education programs. It addressed why firms were or were not offering programs, program characteristics, and program impacts on firms and employees. Case studies of 28 businesses were undertaken from May 1991-July 1992 and a…

  17. Organoselenium and DMAP co-catalysis: regioselective synthesis of medium-sized halolactones and bromooxepanes from unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Jana, Sadhan; Prasad, Ch Durga; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-18

    A catalytic system consisting of bis(4-methoxyphenyl)selenide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bromo/iodo lactones and bromooxepanes possessing high transannular strain. (77)Se NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical studies reveal that the reaction proceeds via a quaternary selenium intermediate.

  18. Workplace Education Programs in Small and Medium-Sized Michigan Firms. Staff Working Paper 92-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Kevin; Anderson, William

    A project collected data from small and medium-sized firms (employing fewer than 500) in Michigan concerning workplace education programs. It addressed why firms were or were not offering programs, program characteristics, and program impacts on firms and employees. Case studies of 28 businesses were undertaken from May 1991-July 1992 and a…

  19. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  20. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22

  1. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  2. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂) or XX (♀). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of

  3. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  4. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    PubMed

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

  5. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes.

  6. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  7. Distinguishing between the bone fragments of medium-sized mammals and children. A histological identification method for archaeology.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Saddha A G F M

    2009-06-01

    In archaeology, it is not always possible to identify bone fragments. A novel approach was chosen to assess the potential of histology as an identification tool. Instead of studying a few bones of different categories from many species, this study concentrated on the diaphyses of long bones in four species of comparable size which are relevant to archaeology; young humans, pigs, sheep and goats, to broaden the insight into variations in diaphyseal bone structure within and between these species. A general difference in the primary bone structure was found between children older than one year and the three medium-sized mammals, namely lamellar vs. fibro-lamellar primary bone. Although, the diaphyseal bone structure of children below the age of one year also showed (developing) fibro-lamellar bone, its composition was distinctive from the medium-sized mammals. A difference in the secondary bone structure was also observed. Connecting (Volkmann's) canals, giving the secondary bone a reticular aspect, were seen in the medium-sized mammals but not in the young human long bones. To confirm the validity and applicability of these observed histological differences, a blind test was conducted on 14 diaphyseal fragments of identified long bones from archaeological sites. The results were very promising. All the bone fragments were correctly attributed using the difference in primary bone structure, even when the bone was severely degraded.

  8. [Company integration management in small and medium-sized companies. Legal requirements and prerequisites for successful implementation].

    PubMed

    Ramm, D; Mahnke, C; Tauscher, A; Welti, F; Seider, H; Shafaei, R

    2012-01-01

    The article is based on the results of the project “Company integration management in small and medium-sized companies. Legal requirements and prerequisites for a successful implementation” (01 January 2009-31 August 2010). Since 2004 all employers have been legally bound to offer company integration management (BEM, Betriebliches Eingliederungsmanagement) for all employees who have been incapacitated for work for more than 6 weeks within a year (Section 84 SGB IX, Book 9 of the German Social Code). Objective of this law is to ensure ongoing employment. The aim of the study was to investigate the requirements companies, rehabilitation centres and services as well as social insurance institutions are faced with according to Section 84 SGB IX. Prerequisites for an effective implementation of BEM in small and medium-sized enterprises were analyzed. Protocol-based interviews with experts were adopted. A total of 38 interviews with experts were carried out. The experts interviewed were either willing to give information by interest (concernment) or were named by law as an initiator or co-operator in the process of integration. A substantial literature research was performed in advance of the interviews. The awareness level of BEM is still very low even 7 years after its introduction. Small and medium-sized enterprises do not have any significant experiential knowledge of long-term incapacity for work and, hence, about BEM. Due to a lack of workers representation in many small and medium companies, management does not receive initiatives or support in implementation of BEM from employees' side. Employers prefer a central contact point providing them with the information and help needed, the common service units, however, being widely unknown in this context. Cost comparisons suggest that a company integration management might be more cost-effective than dismissing employees who are incapacitated for some fields of work. These findings might even hold true for small

  9. [Uncertainty in estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in small- and medium-size cities].

    PubMed

    Giannini, Simone; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Lauriola, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a growing number of small- and medium-size cities have been included in meta-analytic studies on short-term health effects of air pollution in order to increase the statistical power of these studies. This has produced an increase in the precision of meta-analytic estimates, but also a growing interest in city-specific results. As a consequence, relevant differences in the estimates have been frequently found, even for nearby cities with similar environmental and sociodemographic characteristics. This article aims at showing the variability of effect estimates for small- to medium-size cities in relation to the extent of the considered time frame, highlighting quantitatively the caution that must be taken in interpreting and communicating the results derived from short time series of data. The study was based on the analysis of the data from two cities in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): Ravenna and Reggio Emilia.

  10. Inhalation and deposition of nebulized sodium cromoglycate in two different particle size distributions in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Nerbrink, O L; Lindström, M; Meurling, L; Svartengren, M

    2002-11-01

    The relative deposition of two inhaled droplet size distributions of sodium cromoglycate produced by a Hudson Updraft II nebulizer was evaluated, using a setup modified from the proposed Comité Européen Normalisé (CEN) standard prEN 13544-1. The modified setup comprised an Andersen 296 impactor and a Spira Electro 2 dosimeter. The setup was characterized prior to use in children with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and sodium fluoride as tracer aerosol. The main in vivo study was designed to allow nine children with a mean age of 10 years to inhale SCG aerosol at two different relative humidities (RH), a high RH (> 90%) and a low RH (13%), which in turn resulted in two different droplet size distributions. The nebulizer/dosimeter was set to provide 1-sec nebulization during 50 inhalations. Throughout the exposures, the children were instructed to inhale in a consistent manner with target tidal volumes (0.5 L) and inhalation flows (0.4 L/sec). Blood samples were taken at predefined time intervals, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. A lung deposition program, TGLD2, was used to calculate the expected deposition, using the droplet sizes and inhalation parameters obtained during in vivo exposures. The in vivo monitoring of droplet size distribution during the exposure showed that the low, intermediate (room air), and high RHs gave a mean droplet size distribution with a mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) of 1.2, 1.7, and 2.0 microm, respectively. The average tidal volume over all exposures was 0.51 +/- 0.12 L. The total deposition fraction was 33.4% of the estimated nebulizer output. A correlation was found between tidal volume and the calculated deposited fraction. The results indicate that there is a difference in total deposition, depending on the size of the droplet size distribution, with the larger droplet size distribution (MMAD, 2.0 microm) having a higher total deposition than the smaller droplet size distribution (MMAD, 1.2 microm). The

  11. Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.

    PubMed

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Monterde-Díaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Torres-Sibille, Ana Del Carmen

    2008-05-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role.

  12. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  13. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments.

    PubMed

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  14. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers. 1983-84 EADC Program period

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Perrotti, G.M.

    1986-02-01

    Almost 300 small and medium-size manufacturers were able to benefit during 1983-84 from the services provided in their plants by 12 Energy Analysis and diagnostic Centers (EADCs) managed by University City Science Center under an agreement with the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs. This report describes and analyzes what the EADCs recommended, reviews and assesses what the manufacturers implemented, and evaluates how cost-effective the manufacturers found the EADCs' recommendations to be.

  15. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-07-25

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa.

  16. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Minami, T.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  17. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Motojima, G; Sakamoto, R; Okada, H; Nagasaki, K; Yamada, H; Nakamura, Y; Kado, S; Kobayashi, S; Konoshima, S; Minami, T; Ohshima, S; Yamamoto, S; Mizuuchi, T; Mutoh, T

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  18. Neurolymphomatosis in Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Pleomorphic Small/Medium-sized T-cell Lymphoma Mimicking Hansen's Disease.

    PubMed

    Khader, Anza; Vineetha, Mary; George, Mamatha; Manakkad, Shiny Padinjarayil; Balakrishnan, Sunitha; Rajan, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) refers to nerve infiltration by neurotropic neoplastic cells in the setting of a known or an unknown hematological malignancy. It typically presents as painful or painless peripheral mononeuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, polyneuropathy, polyradiculopathy, or cranial neuropathy. A 32-year-old male presented with a hyperpigmented hypoesthetic plaque over the anterolateral aspect of the right leg with thickening of the right common peroneal nerve and foot drop clinically diagnosed as Hansen's disease. Biopsy taken from skin showed infiltrates of pleomorphic small and medium sized lymphocytes in the dermis and subcutis. On immunohistochemistry, the cells were positive for CD3, CD4 and negative for CD8, CD20, and CD30. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of the thickened nerve showed infiltrates of atypical lymphoid cells. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of NL in primary cutaneous CD4+ pleomorphic small/medium-sized T-cell lymphoma was made. The disease responded to systemic chemotherapy and localized radiotherapy with no evidence of relapse during 3 years follow-up. NL in primary cutaneous CD4+ pleomorphic small/medium-sized T-cell lymphoma presenting with manifestations redolent of Hansen's disease is not described in available literature. This case also demonstrates the utility of fine needle aspiration of nerve, a minimally invasive procedure in the diagnosis of NL.

  19. Comparison of endoscopic transcanal myringoplasty and endoscopic type I tympanoplasty in repairing medium-sized tympanic perforations.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Ding, Yi-Fang

    2017-12-01

    The tympanomeatal flap elevation technique has been used in tympanoplasty for decades; however, this procedure has disadvantages. In recent years, endoscopic transcanal myringoplasty (ETM) has been increasingly practiced and has yielded positive results.This study compares the efficacy of ETM and endoscopic type I tympanoplasty (ETT) in repairing medium-sized perforations of the tympanic membrane. This retrospective medical record review included patients undergoing surgery for medium-sized perforations of the tympanic membrane from January 1, 2013 to August 1, 2015. We divided our patients into 2 groups: the ETM group and ETT group. The main outcome measure was comparison of the graft take rates and hearing results between ETM and ETT. A total of 113 patients were enrolled in this study; of these patients, 64 underwent ETM and 49 received ETT. The overall graft take rates and improvement of air-bone gaps were comparable between the groups. However, the patients in the ETM group had shorter operative times and fewer follow-up visits over 3 months than those in the ETT group did. We recommend that ETM (instead of ETT) be used for repairing medium-sized perforations of the tympanic membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Small- to Medium-Sized Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical Significance of the Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Map.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Nakai, Tomoaki; Kohta, Masaaki; Kimura, Hidehito; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of hydrocephalus associated with the small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas is still controversial. We investigated tumor-specific factors related to the association of hydrocephalus with small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. Among the 77 patients with vestibular schwannoma smaller than 30 mm, 9 patients demonstrated associated communicating hydrocephalus. Patient medical records, radiologic data, and histopathologic specimens were reviewed retrospectively. The age of the patients, and size, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and histologic features of the tumors were compared with those of patients without hydrocephalus. The symptoms related to hydrocephalus improved in all patients after tumor removal. Both the mean size and ADC values exhibited a statistically significant difference between the tumors with and without hydrocephalus (P < 0.01). The size and ADC value of the tumor were significantly related to the association with hydrocephalus. The increased tumor ADC value was considered to be the result of degenerative change and suggested the involvement of protein sloughing in the etiology of the associated hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Future of Small- and Medium-Sized Communities in the Prairie Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellar, Barry S., Ed.

    Four papers are featured. The first is a statistical overview and analysis of past, present and future happenings to small communities in the Region; it focuses on two indicators: (1) population growth or declining community class size and, (2) the changing distribution of commercial outlets by community class size. The other three papers report…

  2. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly.

  3. 78 FR 51746 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... prepare a report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive...

  4. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Olga V; Godymchuk, Anna Yu; Gusev, Alexander A; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I; Vasyukova, Inna A; Kuznetsov, Denis V

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu(2+) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed.

  5. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Olga V.; Godymchuk, Anna Yu.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I.; Vasyukova, Inna A.; Kuznetsov, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu2+ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed. PMID:26339611

  6. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors.

  7. The role of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the phase behavior of medium sized Lennard-Jones clusters.

    PubMed

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Poon, Louis; Bowles, Richard K

    2010-08-21

    The free energy of a 600-atom Lennard-Jones cluster is calculated as a function of surface and bulk crystallinity in order to study the structural transformations that occur in the core of medium sized clusters. Within the order parameter range studied, we find the existence of two free energy minima at temperatures near freezing. One minimum, at low values of both bulk and surface order, belongs to the liquid phase. The second minimum exhibits a highly ordered core with a disordered surface and is related to structures containing a single fcc-tetrahedral subunit, with an edge length of seven atoms (l=7), located in the particle core. At lower temperatures, a third minimum appears at intermediate values of the bulk order parameter which is shown to be related to the formation of multiple l=6 tetrahedra in the core of the cluster. We also use molecular dynamics simulations to follow a series of nucleation events and find that the clusters freeze to structures containing l=5, 6, 7, and 8 sized tetrahedra as well as those containing no tetrahedral units. The structural correlations between bulk and surface order with the size of the tetrahedral units in the cluster core are examined. Finally, the relationships between the formation of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the core, the phase behavior of medium sized clusters and the nucleation of noncrystalline global structures such as icosahedra and decahedra are discussed.

  8. Short- and medium-term grain size changes in deltaic beaches (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, Jorge; Palanques, Albert

    1996-01-01

    The beach sediment of the Ebro Delta shows significant temporal grain size changes unrelated with seasonal processes. The evolution of the grain size during the 1988-1991 period shows coarsening and fining variations, with a general coarsening trend which ranges from 2.10 to 1.96 phi (about 8 · 10 -3 mm/year). This low-magnitude grain size change is considered significant because it is indicated by both mean values from the data set (textural zones) and individualized sampling points. The coarsening trend of the beach sediment in the Ebro Delta is mainly caused by the sedimentary deficit affecting the Ebro coast. The finer sand fractions of the sediment are progressively winnowed from the initial beach deposit without being replaced by new river sediment supplies. Superimposed on the general coarsening trend there exist grain size variations that may be related with processes of a shorter period such as changes in the sediment supplied from the river into the nearshore zone, variations in the wave energy affecting the beach, and man-induced actions, such as beach nourishment. The mean grain size of beach sediment sampled 20 years ago indicates that the coarsening gradient measured during the study period cannot be extrapolated to longer periods of time (decades). This work shows that processes of a different temporal scale but a similar magnitude must be integrated in order to explain the evolution of sediment grain size in deltaic beaches.

  9. Sorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat from aqueous medium by polymeric resins in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate: Kinetic and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-07-02

    The goal of this work was to propose a novel method for the solid-phase extraction of the herbicides diquat (DQT(2+)) and difenzoquat (DFQT(+)) from aqueous medium using polymeric Amberlite XAD-2 and XAD-4 resins in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The addition of SDS to the medium was of fundamental importance in order to allow the formation of a negatively charged surface able to sorb the cationic solutes. Several factors that could influence the sorption process, such as SDS concentration in the medium, sorbent mass, pH, ionic strength, and initial concentration of the solutes were investigated. Kinetic studies were also performed to model the system and to identify the mechanisms that operate the sorption process of the herbicides. SDS concentration in the medium presented remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency, achieving maximum values when the ratios [SDS]/[herbicide] were approximately 90, for XAD-2, and 22 and 11 for DQT(2+) and DFQT(+), respectively, for XAD-4. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetic in all cases studied. It was also found that an intraparticle diffusion process controlled exclusively the sorption of the herbicides by the Amberlite XAD-2 and XAD-4 resins in the first 15 min, becoming less active with time.

  10. Characteristics of small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears with and without disruption of the anterior supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Donegan, Ryan P; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Galatz, Leesa M; Yamaguchi, Ken; Keener, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the baseline function and results of arthroscopic cuff repair in shoulders with small and medium-sized full-thickness cuff tears with complete supraspinatus disruption compared with those with an intact anterior supraspinatus tendon. The study evaluated 112 subjects with small and medium-sized cuff tears. Subjects were grouped according to anterior supraspinatus integrity (83 shoulders intact, group 1; and 29 shoulders with anterior supraspinatus tendon disruption, group 2). Functional assessments included visual analogue scale for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test score, and Constant score. Repair integrity was assessed by ultrasound examination. Group 2 shoulders had greater mean tear width, length, and area (P < .0001) and greater supraspinatus muscle degenerative changes (P < .0001) compared with shoulders with an intact anterior supraspinatus tendon. There were no differences in demographics or baseline function (ASES score: 45 group 1 vs 46 group 2, P = .79; Constant score: 56 group 1 vs 52 group 2, P = .29) before surgery. There were no differences in any functional parameter (ASES score: 92 group 1 vs 93 group 2, P = .71; Constant score: 84 group 1 vs 85 group 2, P = .84) after surgery. There was no difference in tendon healing rates (93% group 1 vs 86% group 2; P = .26). In the setting of painful small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears, disruption of the anterior supraspinatus tendon was associated with greater tear size and more advanced supraspinatus muscle degeneration. However, anterior supraspinatus tendon integrity had no influence on the clinical presentation or the functional and structural results of cuff repair surgery. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The 'island rule' in birds: medium body size and its ecological explanation.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Sonya M; Owens, Ian P F

    2002-07-07

    Do birds show a different pattern of insular evolution from mammals? Mammals follow the 'island rule', with large-bodied species getting smaller on islands and small-bodied species getting bigger. By contrast, the traditional view on birds is that they follow no general island rule for body size, but that there is an insular trend for large bills. Insular shifts in feeding ecology are, therefore, widely assumed to be the primary cause of divergence in island birds. We use a comparative approach to test these ideas. Contrary to the traditional view, we find no evidence for increased bill size in insular populations. Instead, changes in both bill size and body size obey the 'island rule'. The differences between our results and the traditional view arise because previous analyses were based largely on passerines. We also investigate some ecological factors that are thought to influence island evolution. As predicted by the traditional view, shifts in bill size are associated with feeding ecology. By contrast, shifts in body size are associated with the potential for intraspecific competition and thermal ecology. All these results remain qualitatively unchanged when we use different methods to score the ecological factors and restrict our analyses to taxa showing pronounced morphological divergence. Because of strong covariation between ecological factors, however, we cannot estimate the relative importance of each ecological factor. Overall, our results show that the island rule is valid for both body size and bill length in birds and that, in addition to feeding ecology, insular shifts in the level of intraspecific competition and the abiotic environment also have a role.

  12. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  13. Influence of Temperature and Grain Size on Austenite Stability in Medium Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li; Findley, Kip O.; Speer, John G.

    2017-05-01

    With an aim to elucidate the influence of temperature and grain size on austenite stability, a commercial cold-rolled 7Mn steel was annealed at 893 K (620 °C) for times varying between 3 minutes and 96 hours to develop different grain sizes. The austenite fraction after 3 minutes was 34.7 vol pct, and at longer times was around 40 pct. An elongated microstructure was retained after shorter annealing times while other conditions exhibited equiaxed ferrite and austenite grains. All conditions exhibit similar temperature dependence of mechanical properties. With increasing test temperature, the yield and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the uniform and total elongation increase, followed by an abrupt drop in strength and ductility at 393 K (120 °C). The Olson-Cohen model was applied to fit the transformed austenite fractions for strained tensile samples, measured by means of XRD. The fit results indicate that the parameters α and β decrease with increasing test temperature, consistent with increased austenite stability. The 7Mn steels exhibit a distinct temperature dependence of the work hardening rate. Optimized austenite stability provides continuous work hardening in the temperature range of 298 K to 353 K (25 °C to 80 °C). The yield and tensile strengths have a strong dependence on grain size, although grain size variations have less effect on uniform and total elongation.

  14. Influence of Temperature and Grain Size on Austenite Stability in Medium Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li; Findley, Kip O.; Speer, John G.

    2017-02-01

    With an aim to elucidate the influence of temperature and grain size on austenite stability, a commercial cold-rolled 7Mn steel was annealed at 893 K (620 °C) for times varying between 3 minutes and 96 hours to develop different grain sizes. The austenite fraction after 3 minutes was 34.7 vol pct, and at longer times was around 40 pct. An elongated microstructure was retained after shorter annealing times while other conditions exhibited equiaxed ferrite and austenite grains. All conditions exhibit similar temperature dependence of mechanical properties. With increasing test temperature, the yield and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the uniform and total elongation increase, followed by an abrupt drop in strength and ductility at 393 K (120 °C). The Olson-Cohen model was applied to fit the transformed austenite fractions for strained tensile samples, measured by means of XRD. The fit results indicate that the parameters α and β decrease with increasing test temperature, consistent with increased austenite stability. The 7Mn steels exhibit a distinct temperature dependence of the work hardening rate. Optimized austenite stability provides continuous work hardening in the temperature range of 298 K to 353 K (25 °C to 80 °C). The yield and tensile strengths have a strong dependence on grain size, although grain size variations have less effect on uniform and total elongation.

  15. Seasonally different reproductive investment in a medium-sized rodent (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Rübensam, K; Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Guenther, A

    2015-09-01

    Pronounced seasonal variations in day length, temperature, and resource availability characterize the temperate regions and strongly influence the animals living in these environments. To survive and reproduce successfully, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems, and they usually adjust their time of breeding to the most adequate season. Here, we examined whether reproductive investment in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) differs across seasons. We kept animals in combined indoor-outdoor enclosures under natural light and temperature year-round. We measured littering probability, litter size, and birth weight, as well as maternal weight loss during lactation. In addition, we measured ovulation rate as a parameter to adjust reproductive investment prenatally. Our data reveal strong seasonal variations in reproductive traits despite the fact that the animals reproduced year-round. The results show a reduced reproductive investment in winter, indicated by a lower litter size and birth weight of pups, whereas investment was highest in warm seasons (summer and autumn) with higher litter size and birth weight. Maternal weight loss in lactation was highest in cold seasons even if the litter size was lower. Furthermore, we found the regulation on the proximate level of the reproductive investment, the ovulation rate, to differ significantly between the seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Supply Chain Management Practices for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoo, AC; Sulaiman, Z.; Choi, SL; Kohar, UHA

    2017-06-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are a major source of dynamism, innovation and flexibility for emerging and developing countries, as well as for the economies of the most industrialised nations. However, the survival and growth of SMEs can be difficult in the current competitive business environment and global marketplace. It can be a real challenge to deliver the right product and service at the most opportune time and at the lowest possible cost to the right customer. The challenge stresses the importance of managing cross-boundary relationships between business partners. For gaining a competitive advantage, supply chain management (SCM) is an effective tool to SMEs. Therefore, this paper aims to review the tenet of SCM, its benefits and practices to SMEs.

  17. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  18. The Alignment System for a Medium-Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope Prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Deivid; Humensky, Brian; Nieto, Daniel; V Vassiliev Group in UCLA division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P Kaaret Group at Iowa University Department of Physics and Astronomy, CTA Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder design is a candidate 9-m diameter medium-sized telescope featuring a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field of view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict mirror alignment requirements that necessitate a sophisticated alignment system. This system uses a collection of position sensors between panels to determine the relative position of adjacent panels; each panel is mounted on a Stewart platform to allow motion control with six degrees of freedom, facilitating the alignment of the optical surface for the segmented primary and secondary mirrors. Alignments of the primary and secondary mirrors and the camera focal plane with respect to each other are performed utilizing a set of CCD cameras which image LEDs placed on the mirror panels to measure relative translation, and custom-built auto-collimators to measure relative tilt between the primary and secondary mirrors along the optical axis of the telescope. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope (pSCT) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

  19. Early serial Q-switched ruby laser therapy for medium-sized to giant congenital melanocytic naevi.

    PubMed

    Kishi, K; Okabe, K; Ninomiya, R; Konno, E; Hattori, N; Katsube, K; Imanish, N; Nakajima, H; Nakajima, T

    2009-08-01

    Medium-sized to giant congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) are difficult to treat, especially if the lesions appear on the face or extremities where treated areas are visible and cosmesis is important. In infants, nests of pigmented naevus reside more superficially and the skin is more transparent than in adults, so we treated medium-sized to giant CMN with early serial Q-switched ruby laser therapy from infancy. We treated nine patients with medium-sized to giant CMN on the face or upper limbs from 1 month of age with early serial Q-switched ruby laser therapy. The laser power was initially 5 J cm(-2) and increased in 0.5 J cm(-2) steps to a maximum of 10 J cm(-2). There were three treatment sites on the forehead, one on the temple, one on the cheek and four on the upper arm. It took 8-15 treatments for the CMN to become a colour similar to the surrounding skin. The mean number of treatments was 9.6. The colour was reduced to 0-20% of the colour of the baseline lesion in all nine patients. Partial slight repigmentation occurred in eight of these patients. These naevi were treated with an additional one or two Q-switched ruby laser irradiations and successfully lightened for at least 1 year. In the remaining patient, pigmentation returned to a level similar to the original lesion within 1 month of the last treatment. Therefore, the lesion was excised for cosmetic reasons. After the treatment series, the skin texture was fine and no patients had hypertrophic scarring. Although treatment of one patient with the Q-switched ruby laser therapy failed, the remaining patients responded well and had good to excellent skin texture without hypertrophic scarring. Early serial Q-switched ruby laser treatment, starting from infancy, is a promising treatment method for this condition.

  20. Discriminating between Medium-Sized Tridactyl Trackmakers: Tracking Ornithopod Tracks in the Base of the Cretaceous (Berriasian, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Diego; Pascual, Carlos; Razzolini, Novella L.; Vila, Bernat; Barco, José L.; Canudo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work on the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition of the Iberian Range (Spain) has opened a new window onto the interpretation of the trackmakers of some medium-sized tridactyl tracks. The ichnotaxon Therangospodus oncalensis has been described in the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) and is one of the classical tracks from the area assigned to medium-sized theropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A review of the type locality of Therangospodus oncalensis (Fuentesalvo tracksite) and other tracksites from the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) has yielded new information on the morphology, gait and trackmaker identity of the aforementioned ichnospecies. The new data suggest that the trackmaker is an ornithopod rather than a theropod on the basis of the length/width ratio, the anterior triangle length-width ratio, the short steps, the round to quadrangular heel pad impression and the probable manus impressions. Conclusions/Significance T. oncalensis shows similarities with various tracks from the Berriasian of Europe assigned to Iguanodontipus. The ichnotaxonomical status of this ichnospecies is here considered as Iguanodontipus? oncalensis due to the current state of knowledge of the ichnotaxonomy of medium-sized ornithopod tracks. This reassessment of I? oncalensis also has two significant implications for the palaeoecology of the faunas during the deposition of the Huérteles Formation: 1- the high number and percentage of theropod tracks would be lower than previous papers have suggested. 2- the gregarious behaviour described in the type locality (Fuentesalvo) would be among ornithopods instead of theropods. PMID:24303075

  1. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ˜103 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  2. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  3. Mechanization of Library Procedures in the Medium-sized Medical Library: X. Uniqueness of Compression Codes for Bibliographic Retrieval *

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Mary Jordan

    1970-01-01

    Two-word compression techniques, the University of Chicago experimental search code and a phonetic code similar to the SOUNDEX coding system, were tested as search codes on a data base of 7,464 bibliographic records. These codes were automatically generated and tested for uniqueness. A modified version of the University of Chicago search code produced the best results with a uniqueness factor of 98.83 percent. The algorithms for generating these codes are explained, and implication of the findings for medium-sized libraries are discussed. PMID:4924789

  4. Intra-Arterial Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Rare Case Report of Peripheral Medium Sized Muscular Artery Involvement.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ashima; Umashankar, T; Dsouza, Chryselle Olive

    2015-08-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign vasoproliferative disease with distinct clinical and histopathological features. The most common clinical presentation is dermal and subcutaneous painless nodules in the head and neck region. The involvement of medium sized peripheral muscular artery is uncommon. It predominantly affects Caucasian adults during the third and fourth decades, but is also known to occur in Asians and it very rarely occurs in children. We here by present a case of intravascular ALHE in a 46-year-old female presenting with subcutaneous forearm nodule clinically diagnosed as ulnar artery thrombosis.

  5. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  6. Development of a selective enterococcus medium based on manganese ion deficiency, sodium azide, and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, C J; Joseph, S W

    1974-09-01

    Rogosa broth, without its salt supplement and dissolved in deionized water, was adapted for the selective isolation and enumeration of enterococci. This medium supported good growth of enterococci, but it suppressed growth of other lactic acid bacteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the medium were tested after addition of various increasing concentrations of NaN(3) against known strains of enterococci and other bacteria. Many strains of Streptococcus faecium showed low azide tolerance; optimal growth was obtained at a concentration of 0.01% NaN(3), which totally or partially inhibited unrelated species of lactic acid bacteria. The selectivity of the medium was further increased by pH adjustment to 9.6. Carbonate and Tween 80 were added to overcome partial inhibition of enterococcal growth by the new combination of selective conditions. The final medium was evaluated in agar form in isolations from human and animal feces, polluted water, meat, and dairy products. Counts were obtained after 16 to 17 h of incubation at 37 C. The isolates satisfactorily conformed to the group characteristics of enterococci.

  7. Development of a Selective Enterococcus Medium Based on Manganese Ion Deficiency, Sodium Azide, and Alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, C. J.; Joseph, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Rogosa broth, without its salt supplement and dissolved in deionized water, was adapted for the selective isolation and enumeration of enterococci. This medium supported good growth of enterococci, but it suppressed growth of other lactic acid bacteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the medium were tested after addition of various increasing concentrations of NaN3 against known strains of enterococci and other bacteria. Many strains of Streptococcus faecium showed low azide tolerance; optimal growth was obtained at a concentration of 0.01% NaN3, which totally or partially inhibited unrelated species of lactic acid bacteria. The selectivity of the medium was further increased by pH adjustment to 9.6. Carbonate and Tween 80 were added to overcome partial inhibition of enterococcal growth by the new combination of selective conditions. The final medium was evaluated in agar form in isolations from human and animal feces, polluted water, meat, and dairy products. Counts were obtained after 16 to 17 h of incubation at 37 C. The isolates satisfactorily conformed to the group characteristics of enterococci. Images PMID:4214072

  8. A sensitivity approach to the sizing of insulated power cables in low and medium voltage electrical power distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranandani, A.K.

    1989-07-01

    The sizing of insulated power cables for use in electrical power distribution systems is based on definite engineering criteria. Cable or conductor size for a given current loading (ampacity) is the cross-sectional area or size of the current carrying portion of the cable, namely the conductor expressed in AWG (American Wire Gauge) or KCM (Kilocircular mils). The most commonly used voltage classes for electrical power distribution in raceways and cable trays are: (a) Low Voltage-600 volts and below. (b) Medium-Voltage-over 600 volts. The paper develops cable sizing criteria using sensitivity techniques. High sensitivity parameters that influence cable size can be determined in each voltage class and design criteria formulated; to apply to both a.c. and d.c. systems. Copper and aluminum conductors with thermosetting (EPR or XLPE) or thermoplastic insulations are compared for use in the above systems with regard to their electrical characteristics only. It must be realized that cost might also play an important role in the selection of conductor material. It is assumed that the cables under consideration meet the mechanical requirements for installation.

  9. Effect of Sodium Fluorescein and Plating Medium on Recovery of Irradiated Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens from Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Emerson L.; Berendt, Richard F.; Neff, Everett L.

    1970-01-01

    Irradiation of aerosols of either Escherichia coli or Serratia marcescens with simulated solar (xenon) radiation caused a significant decrease in viability. When sodium fluorescein was employed to determine the physical loss of organisms from the aerosol, an additional adverse effect upon survival was noted. The decay curves indicated that at least two mechanisms of inactivation were operative, one due to aerosolization, the other to irradiation. After collection from aerosols, both species of microorganisms grew better on blood agar base than on Casitone agar, but this finding did not appear to be related to the effect of irradiation. PMID:4922085

  10. The Current State of Sensing, Health Management, and Control for Small-To-Medium-Sized Manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Helu, Moneer; Weiss, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The development of digital technologies for manufacturing has been challenged by the difficulty of navigating the breadth of new technologies available to industry. This difficulty is compounded by technologies developed without a good understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the manufacturing environment, especially within small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs). This paper describes industrial case studies conducted to identify the needs, priorities, and constraints of manufacturing SMEs in the areas of performance measurement, condition monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis. These case studies focused on contract and original equipment manufacturers with less than 500 employees from several industrial sectors. Solution and equipment providers and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) centers were also included. Each case study involved discussions with key shop-floor personnel as well as site visits with some participants. The case studies highlight SME's strong need for access to appropriate data to better understand and plan manufacturing operations. They also help define industrially-relevant use cases in several areas of manufacturing operations, including scheduling support, maintenance planning, resource budgeting, and workforce augmentation. PMID:28736773

  11. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers: 1986-1987 EADC program period

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1989-03-01

    The Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program provides energy-conserving and cost-saving assistance to small and medium-size manufacturers in 36 states. Engineering faculty from 13 universities, assisted by graduate and undergraduate students, analyze energy usage and manufacturing operations in each plant and then prepare an individualized report that recommends specific actions and estimates their costs and their benefits. Manufacturing plants are eligible if they meet the size criteria and are not more than 150 miles from an EADC. The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs, sponsors the EADC program, which is managed by University City Science Center, through its Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) Division. This and similar reports are prepared from data which ITEM staff members extract as they review every energy audit report prepared by the EADCs. Eventually these data also include the results of manufacturers' implementation of EADCs' recommendations, together with costs and savings. 14 tabs.

  12. Molecular (global) and atom-in-cluster (local) polarizabilities of medium-size gold nanoclusters: isomer structure effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Juan I.; Baltazar-Méndez, Maria I.; Autschbach, Jochen; Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we extend our recent study [J.I. Rodríguez, J. Autschbach, F.L. Castillo-Alvarado, M.I. Baltazar-Méndez, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034109 (2011)] to quantify the isomer structure effects on the atom-in-cluster polarizabilities of medium size gold clusters Au ( n = 6, 12, 20, 34, 54). For three isomers for each cluster size, a density functional perturbation theory calculation was performed to compute the cluster polarizability and the polarizability of each atom in the cluster using Bader's "quantum theory of atoms in molecules" formalism. The cluster polarizability tensor is expressed as a sum of the atom-in-cluster atomic tensors. We found that the strong quadratic correlation ( R 2 = 0.98) in the isotropic polarizability of atoms in the cluster and their distance to the cluster center of mass reported before holds independently of the cluster structure.

  13. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  14. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; ...

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  15. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  16. System size dependence of the structure and rheology in a sheared lamellar liquid crystalline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.

    2016-12-01

    The structural and rheological evolution of an initially disordered lamellar phase system under a shear flow is examined using a mesoscale model based on a free energy functional for the concentration field, which is the scaled difference in the concentration between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. The dimensionless numbers which affect the shear evolution are the Reynolds number (γ ˙ ¯ L2 /ν ) , the Schmidt number (ν /D ) , a dimensionless parameter Σ =(A λ2 /ρ ν2 ) , a parameter μr which represents the viscosity contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, and (L /λ ) , the ratio of system size and layer spacing. Here, ρ, ν, and D are the density, kinematic viscosity (ratio of viscosity and density), and the mass diffusivity, and A is the energy density in the free energy functional which is proportional to the compression modulus. Two distinct modes of structural evolution are observed for moderate values of the parameter Σ depending only on the combination ScΣ and independent of system size. For ScΣ less than about 10, the layers tend to form before they are deformed by the mean shear, and layered but misaligned domains are initially formed, and these are deformed and rotated by the flow. In this case, the excess viscosity (difference between the viscosity and that for an aligned state) does not decrease to zero even after 1000 strain units, but appears to plateau to a steady state value. For ScΣ greater than about 10, layers are deformed by the mean shear before they are fully formed, and a well aligned lamellar phase with edge dislocation orders completely due to the cancellation of dislocations. The excess viscosity scales as t-1 in the long time limit. The maximum macroscopic viscosity (ratio of total stress and average strain rate over the entire sample) during the alignment process increases with the system size proportional to (L/λ ) 3 /2. For large values of Σ, there is localisation of shear at the walls

  17. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  18. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  19. Hepatic contrast medium enhancement at computed tomography and its correlation with various body size measures.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anders; Nouhad, Jallo; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Nyman, Ulf; Björk, Jonas; Torkel, Brismar B

    2012-07-01

    When the same dose of iodine is given to all patients when performing abdominal computed tomography (CT) there may be a wide inter-individual variation in contrast medium (CM) enhancement of the liver. To evaluate if any of the measures body height (BH), body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), ideal body weight (IBW), and body surface area (BSA) correlated better than body weight (BW) with hepatic enhancement, and to compare the enhancement when using iodixanol and iomeprol. One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase CT examination of abdomen were enrolled. Body weight and height were measured at the time of the CT examination. Forty grams of iodine (iodixanol 320 mg I/mL or iomeprol 400 mg I/mL) was injected at a rate of 1.6 g-I/s, followed by a 50 mL saline flush. The late arterial phase was determined by using a semi-automatic smart prep technique with a scan delay of 20 s. The hepatic parenchymal phase started automatically 25 s after the late arterial phase. CM concentration was estimated by placement of regions of interest in aorta (native and late arterial phase) and in liver (native and parenchymal phase). BW (r = -0.51 and -0.64), LBM (r = -0.54 and -0.59), and BSA (r = -0.54 and -0.65) showed the best correlation coefficients with aortic and hepatic parenchymal enhancement, respectively, without any significant differences between the measures. Comparing iodixanol and iomeprol there was no significant difference in aortic enhancement. The liver enhancement was significantly higher (P < 0.05) using iodixanol than iomeprol. To achieve a consistent hepatic enhancement, CM dose may simply be adjusted to body weight instead of using more complicated calculated parameters based on both weight and height.

  20. Effects of equivolume isometric training programs comprising medium or high resistance on muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, H; Nagareda, H; Kawakami, Y; Akima, H; Masani, K; Kouzaki, M; Fukunaga, T

    2002-06-01

    Isometric unilateral elbow extension training was conducted for 10 weeks (3 times per week) on 12 young adult men to investigate the effects of equivolume exercise programs with different combinations of intensity and duration on the morphological and functional aspects of the triceps brachii muscle. One group of 6 subjects trained by developing maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 6 s per set with 12 sets per session (100%G), while the other group of 6 subjects trained at 60% of MVC for 30 s per set with 4 sets per session (60%G). Training significantly increased the muscle volume ( V(m)), fascicle pennation angle of the triceps brachii, and torque output during concentric and eccentric elbow extensions at three constant velocities of 0.52, 1.57, and 3.14 rad.s(-1) as well as under the training condition, with no significant differences in the relative gains between the two programs. However, 100%G showed significantly greater V(m) than 60%G after training, when V(m) before training was normalized. Thus, only 60%G significantly increased the ratio of torque to V(m) developed in the eccentric actions at the three velocities and concentric action at 1.57 rad.s(-1). The present results indicate that isometric training programs of medium resistance/long duration and high resistance/short duration produce different effects on V(m) and dynamic strength relative to V(m), even if the training volume is equalized between the two protocols.

  1. 3D Characterization of the Magnetic Signature of a Medium Sized Impact Crater at Odessa, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A.; Soule, D.; Everett, M.; Rodman, T.; Mangue Ndong, M.; Pereira, A.; Platt, P.; Trahan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorite impacts are a common occurrence throughout Earth's geologic history. Many of the surface expressions of large ancient impacts have been subsequently erased by weathering and erosion processes. The study of preserved meteorite impacts is necessary to better understand this natural hazard which has been increasingly linked to rapid climate change and mass extinctions. The 60 ka Odessa meteorite crater located in Ector Co. Texas, is unique because it is not only well-preserved, but also has been the subject of extensive geologic examination. Geologic mapping and numeric models indicate that the crater was caused by a relatively small oblique impactor. The crater rim is remarkably well exposed. Much of the ejecta blanket is present, although deeply eroded. There has been considerable site disturbance due to drilling, shaft excavation, trenching, construction of a museum, trails, and the oil/gas activity in surrounding fields. Two previous geophysical investigations have shown that our data clearly corresponds to large-scale thrust deformation. With this in mind we have performed 3D high resolution magnetic gradiometer surveys that will allow us to quantify and characterize the magnetic signature of small to medium impacts. We will tie this data set to a 3D photorealistic outcrop image provided by laser scanning with coarser-scale, below-ground geophysical information. Our geophysical imagery provides a useful constraint on numerical simulations of the impact and its immediate regional-scale environmental effects. This information can be used to identify impact sites whose surface expression has been erased by natural erosional processes, allowing for improved frequency estimates and improved geo-hazard assessment.

  2. Estimated performance of an adaptive trailing-edge device aimed at reducing fuel consumption on a medium-size aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodati, Gianluca; Concilio, Antonio; Ricci, Sergio; De Gaspari, Alessandro; Huvelin, Fabien; Dumont, Antoine; Godard, Jean-Luc

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance of a medium-size aircraft (3-hour flight range) equipped with an adaptive trailing edge device (ATED) that runs span-wise from the wing root in the flap zone and extends chord-wise for a limited percentage of the MAC. Computations are calculated referring to the full wing and do not refer to the complete aircraft configuration. Aerodynamic computations, taking into account ideal shapes, have been performed by using both Euler and Navier- Stokes method in order to extract the wing polars for the reference and the optimal wing, implementing an ATED, deflected upwards and downwards. A comparison of the achieved results is discussed. Considering the shape domain, a suitable interpolation procedure has been set up to obtain the wing polar envelop of the adaptive wing, intended as the set of "best" values, picked by each different polar. At the end, the performances of the complete reference and adaptive wing are computed and compared for a symmetric, centered, leveled and steady cruise flight for a medium size aircraft. A significant fuel burn reduction estimate or, alternatively, an increased range capability is demonstrated, with margins of further improvements. The research leading to these results has gratefully received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007- 2013) under Grant Agreement n° 284562.

  3. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  4. Medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for xylanase induction in Prevotella bryantii B14.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohji; Hirase, Tatsuaki; Kojima, Yoichi; Flint, Harry James

    2005-12-01

    Experiments were done to define the nature of the xylan-derived induction signal for xylanase activity, and evaluate which xylanase genes among the three known ones (xynA, xynB and xynC) are induced by the presence of xylan in Prevotella bryantii B(1)4. During the later stages of exponential growth on glucose, addition of 0.05 % water-soluble xylan (WS-X) stimulated xylanase formation within 30 min. Xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, arabinose and glucuronic acid all failed to induce the xylanase activity. An acid-ethanol-soluble fraction of WS-X (approximate degree of polymerization 30) enhanced the activity significantly, whereas the acid-ethanol-insoluble fraction had no effect, unless first digested by the cloned P. bryantii XynC xylanase. These results indicate that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction. The transcription of all three known xylanase genes from P. bryantii was upregulated coordinately by addition of WS-X. There have been relatively few investigations into the regulation of xylanase activity in bacteria, and it appears to be unique that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction.

  5. Calculation of Iron Loss of Medium-sized High Voltage Motor which Have Axial Ventilation Holes in Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Da-wei; Li, Jin-xiao

    2017-05-01

    When optimizing the ventilation and cooling system of medium-sized high power density asynchronous motor, it is found that the temperature rise of the motor can be greatly reduced after punching the axial ventilation holes in the rotor yoke, but the traditional method based on the magnetic circuit method cannot accurately calculate the motor iron loss of this new structure. In this paper combined with the finite element field-circuit-motion coupled analysis method, taking YXKK355-4, 355kW and YKK400-4, 400kW medium-sized high voltage asynchronous motor for example, a two-dimensional geometric model and mathematical model of the motor are established, then the iron loss calculation method is improved. Using this method not only the iron loss value of the whole motor can be obtained, but also the specific distribution of iron loss in different areas of the motor can be known, and the correctness of the simulation results is proved by experiments.

  6. The rarity of Dark Matter Halos in medium-sized walls of the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Tze; Primack, Joel R.; Lee, Christoph; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; Behroozi, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, Marshall McCall mapped out our Local Sheet, the cosmic wall containing the Milk Way and Andromeda galaxies. We use the large new Bolshoi-Planck cosmological simulation to investigate how rare our type of Local Sheet is, with 2 nearby halos like those of Milky Way and Andromeda. The conclusion of our investigation is that the occurrence of a pair of galaxies the size of Milky Way and Andromeda near the center of a wall 8 mpc in diameter, with the pair of galaxies within 0.7 mpc/h of each other, is very rare : it makes up only 0.05% of all walls in the simulation.

  7. Two-stage kinetics of field-induced aggregation of medium-sized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzaier, H.; Alves Marins, J.; Razvin, I.; Abbas, M.; Ben Haj Amara, A.; Zubarev, A.; Kuzhir, P.

    2017-03-01

    The present paper is focused on the theoretical and experimental study of the kinetics of field-induced aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles of a size range of 20-100 nm. Our results demonstrate that (a) in polydisperse suspensions, the largest particles could play a role of the centers of nucleation for smaller particles during the earliest heterogeneous nucleation stage; (b) an intermediate stage of the aggregate growth (due to diffusion and migration of individual nanoparticles towards the aggregates) is weakly influenced by the magnetic field strength, at least at high supersaturation; (c) the stage of direct coalescence of drop-like aggregates (occurring under magnetic attraction between them) plays a dominant role at the intermediate and late stages of the phase separation, with the time scale decreasing as a square of the aggregate magnetization.

  8. Investigation of urban water quality using simulated rainfall in a medium size city of China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium for impacting the characteristics of pollutants in stormwater runoff; it is of critical importance to investigate the water quality of urban environments. The paper develops a rainfall simulator as an important research tool to ensure homogeneity and reduce the large number of variables that are usually inherent to urban water quality research. The rainfall simulator was used to experiment runoff samples from typical residential and traffic areas in the Zhenjiang. The data show that land use is one of the major factors contributing to the difference in the pollutants concentration in the RDS. The maximum mean EMC for TN, TDN, TP, and TDP at residential area was 5.52, 3.07, 1.65, and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations. Concentrations of runoff pollutants varied greatly with land use and storm characteristics. The correlation of pollutant concentrations with runoff times was another predominant phenomenon. Peaks in pollutants concentration occurred at 1 and 10 min during the whole storm event. A concentration peak that correlates with a peak in runoff flowrate correlates with rainfall intensity. The pollutant loadings (kilograms per hectare) in the Zhenjiang were 11.39 and 55.28 for COD, 8.42 and 57.48 for SS, 0.11 and 0.88 for TN, 0.02 and 0.14 for TP, 0.02 and 0.09 for Zn, and 0.01 and 0.04 for Pb. The higher rainfall contribute to the higher pollutant loading at the residential and intense traffic areas, as a result of the pollutant loadings direct dependence on rainfall intensity. The results confirmed that the rainfall simulator is a reliable tool for urban water quality research and can be used to simulate pollutant wash-off. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas.

  9. Effects of preferred orientation and crystal size on thermoelectric properties of sodium cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yin; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Boyu; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of crystal size and orientation effect on ZT, polycrystalline NaxCo2O4 materials were prepared by pressing layered crystals obtained in sol-gel (SG) synthesis, molten salt synthesis (MSS) with and without additional ball milling (BM) treatment and 1:1 molar ratio mixture (Mixture) of BM powder and MSS powders. We found that the orientation effect and crystal size for four samples follow Mixture < SG < BM < MSS and BM < Mixture < SG < MSS, respectively. Electrical conductivity was obviously enhanced in the highly orientated BM and MSS samples when compared with SG and Mixture. It appears that the crystal size plays a dominant role in thermal conductivity rather than Seebeck coefficient by controlling the phonon scattering at grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity for BM was significantly decreased in comparison to MSS, although both BM and MSS show comparable orientation effect. The maximum ZT value is developed to near 0.51 at 814K upon increasing the electrical resistivity and decreasing the thermal conductivity, which are mainly governed by the condition of crystal size and orientation effect.

  10. Simulation of MEIS spectra for quantitative understanding of average size, composition, and size distribution of Pt-Rh alloy nanoparticles[Medium-Energy Ion Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Konomi, I.; Hyodo, S.; Motohiro, T.

    2000-05-15

    In automobile emissions control, it has been of great importance to develop catalysts which have good thermal stability and high NO{sub x} conversion. To achieve this goal, it is crucially important to understand the behavior of metal particles and supports in engine exhaust gas. The authors have newly developed a medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) simulation program for the analysis of alloy nanoparticles. The program was applied to the composition and average particle size analysis of Pt-Rh/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} treated in oxidative and reductive atmospheres. It was found that the Pt concentration near the surface decreased after oxidative treatment at 800 C and returned to its original value after reductive treatment at the same temperature. It was shown that Pt particle average sizes less than 10 nm can be evaluated quantitatively. Also, this technique gives some insight into particle size distribution in the initial stage of particle sintering, which has been quite out of the reach of conventional analytical tools.

  11. Mean force on a finite-sized spherical particle due to an acoustic field in a viscous compressible medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, Manoj K.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical expression to evaluate the second-order mean force (acoustic radiation force) on a finite-sized, rigid, spherical particle due to an acoustic wave is presented. The medium in which the particle is situated is taken to be both viscous and compressible. A far-field derivation approach has been used in determining the force, which is a function of the particle size, acoustic wavelength, and viscous boundary-layer thickness. It is assumed that the viscous length scale is negligibly small compared to the acoustic wavelength. The force expression presented here (i) reduces to the correct inviscid behavior (for both small- and finite-sized particles) and (ii) is identical to recent viscous results [M. Settnes and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016327] for small-sized particles. Further, the computed force qualitatively matches the computational fluid dynamics (finite-element) results [D. Foresti, M. Nabavi, and D. Poulikakos, J. Fluid Mech. 709, 581 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2012.350] for finite-sized particles. Additionally, the mean force is interpreted in terms of a multipole expansion. Subsequently, considering the fact that the force expansion is an infinite series, the number of terms that are required or adequate to capture the force to a specified accuracy is also provided as a function of the particle size to acoustic wavelength ratio. The dependence of the force on particle density, kinematic viscosity, and bulk viscosity of the fluid is also investigated. Here, both traveling and standing waves are considered.

  12. Deformation Behavior in Medium Mn Steel of Nanometer-Sized α' + γ Lamellar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dong Hwi; Heo, Nam Hoe; Hong, Chang Wan; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-12-01

    Yielding and work-hardening phenomena in an Fe-10.62Mn-2.84Al-0.17C-0.5Mo steel, which is composed of nanometer-sized lamellae of α' and γ, are described on the basis of the Hall-Petch relations. Unlike the general expectation, yielding in the steel, which consists of lamellae of α' and mechanically stable γ, occurs through the propagation of pileup dislocations from α' to γ. However, when γ is mechanically unstable, yielding occurs through the stress-assisted martensitic transformation (SAMT) within the unstable γ region, resulting in a low YS of about 500 MPa. The overall prominent work-hardening behavior of this steel after yielding is due to the active SAMT, which does not accompany the increase in mobile dislocation density and so causes the high elastic strain rate. The carbon partitioning treatment increases the SAMT starting strength to about 980 MPa, which is caused by the mechanical stabilization of γ. The overall low work-hardening behavior of this case is mainly attributed to the active propagation of pile-up dislocation from α' to γ which causes the high plastic strain rate through the abrupt increase of mobile dislocation density.

  13. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed.

  14. Electrocardiogram on a chip: overview and first experiences of an electrocardiogram manufacturer of medium size.

    PubMed

    Abächerli, Roger; Braun, Francis; Zhou, Lingchuan; Kraemer, Michel; Felblinger, Jacques; Schmid, Hans-Jakob

    2006-10-01

    The integration of an electrocardiogram (ECG) device into a chip is already well known in the field of implanted devices, such as pacemakers. For noninvasive electrocardiology, this approach has not been used on a broad scale commercially. The extension of electrocardiology to telemetry, home care, and special applications as in magnetic resonance imaging has spawned a new interest in highly miniaturized ECG devices. In our company, we are aiming for using highly integrated devices exactly in these fields. On one hand, the home monitoring market ("eHealth," "pHealth") requires small and lightweight devices ("ECG in an electrode"); on the other hand, the use of an ECG device within a hostile environment as in an magnetic resonance imaging machine with strong electromagnetic fields requires small dimensions of the device. Of these 2 fields, the one of home monitoring is the most promising. There is a large population in need of such monitoring (eg, patients with congestive heart failure), and the cost issue in medical care drives the market in this direction. Projects in both fields will be presented as well as the first experiences as a middle-sized manufacturer in trying to produce an integrated ECG "device."

  15. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 μm were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 μm) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA).

  16. Size dependence of the folding of multiply charged sodium cationized polylactides revealed by ion mobility mass spectrometry and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Julien; Lemaur, Vincent; Ballivian, Renaud; Chirot, Fabien; Coulembier, Olivier; Antoine, Rodolphe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Cornil, Jérôme; Dubois, Philippe; Dugourd, Philippe; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2011-08-22

    Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry was used to experimentally determine the three-dimensional structure of multiply charged sodium cationized polylactides (PLA). In particular, the experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of the charge state and the size on the gas-phase conformation of cationized PLA. The measured collision cross sections were then compared to calculated values obtained by computational chemistry methods. The most striking feature was the experimental and theoretical observation of a breaking point in the quasilinear relationship between the average collision cross sections and the number of monomer units for the triply charged cations. This breaking point was theoretically demonstrated, for the doubly and triply charged cations, to be associated with a significant folding of the polymer chains around the cationizing agents. The occurrence of such breaking points could be exploited to correlate the charge state of the most intense ion series observed upon electrospray ionization with the number-average molecular mass of a polymer.

  17. Quantifying the Perturbation of Atmospheric Chemistry from Medium-Size Asteroid Impacts in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierazzo, E.; Garcia, R. R.; Kinnison, D. E.; Marsh, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The continuous monitoring of space in the Earth’s neighborhood by the Spaceguard program has reassured us that there are currently no asteroids capable of causing mass extinctions threatening Earth. Although it is believed that about 80% of all Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) larger than 1 km in diameter have been discovered and catalogued, there is still a large number of undiscovered NEOs between 300m and 1km in diameter that are looming in our neighborhood. The consequences of a collision of a NEO in this size range with the Earth have never been explored in detail. If headed on a collision course with Earth, such NEOs will be more likely to hit the Earth’s oceans than continental areas. Using a 3D shock physics code SOVA, we estimated the amount of water vapor injected in the atmosphere by the impact of an asteroid 500m in diameter (with an average asteroidal impact velocity of 18km/s and impact angle of 45° from the surface) into a 4 km deep region of the ocean. While the ocean floor is hardly affected by the impact, large amounts of water are ejected in the atmosphere. We found that, overall, about 5×1012 kg of water was ejected in the middle atmosphere (above about 12 km). Liquid water is removed on a short timescale, but about 1×1012 kg of water vapor is entrained in the middle atmosphere where it can produce a sizeable perturbation to atmospheric chemistry. This is an important, yet largely unexplored, environmental effect of oceanic impacts. The localized distribution of water vapor from the impact simulation is introduced into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) a 3D Chemistry-Climate Model whose vertical domain extends to about 140km. WACCM has a fully interactive Chemistry package that can track the chemical consequences of water vapor into the middle atmosphere. We will report on initial WACCM calculations of the perturbation to the atmospheric chemistry from the injected water vapor. Oceanic water contains significant amounts of

  18. Effects of replacing medium sodium by choline, caesium, or rubidium, on water and ion contents of renal cortical slices

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Pauline M.; Macknight, Anthony D. C.

    1977-01-01

    1. Renal cortical slices from rat, rabbit, and guinea-pig were incubated in media in which choline, caesium or rubidium replaced sodium. 2. Slices of rabbit and guinea-pig renal cortex incubated in oxygenated choline Ringer decreased in volume initially and did not swell over 3 hr at 25° C. There was a steady loss of potassium. Inhibition of metabolism (N2 + 1 mM iodoacetamide) caused some swelling. Ouabain, 10 mM, in choline Ringer affected neither loss of potassium nor tissue water content. 3. Slices of rat renal cortex similarly incubated in choline Ringer swelled over 3 hr at 25° C whether or not metabolism was inhibited; ouabain (15 mM) affected neither tissue potassium loss nor tissue water content. 4. Incubation in choline Ringer containing either 0·2 mM p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, or 1 mM ethacrynic acid increased the tissue water content of guinea-pig renal cortical slices. 5. Depletion of cellular potassium (by preliminary incubation in oxygenated potassium-free sodium Ringer with 10 mM ouabain at 30° C) resulted in increased tissue water content when rabbit renal cortical slices were subsequently incubated in oxygenated choline Ringer at 25° C for 3 hr. 6. There was no evidence of energy-dependent extrusion of water or ions from either equilibrated rat or rabbit renal cortical slices leached at 0·5° C and then reincubated at 25° C in choline Ringer. 7. Rat and guinea-pig renal cortical slices leached at 0.5° C and reincubated at 25° C swelled in rubidium Ringer and in caesium Ringer. There was no evidence of energy-dependent water or ion extrusion when metabolism was restored after leaching in either of these media. Metabolizing rat slices but not guinea-pig slices swelled faster than slices whose metabolism was inhibited. 8. These results lend no support to the mechano-chemical hypothesis which ascribes cellular volume regulation to a contractile mechanism squeezing isotonic extracellular fluid from the cells. Instead it is suggested that

  19. Bioreactor culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and effects of nitrogen source, inoculum size, and conditioned medium on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Gorret, Nathalie; bin Rosli, Samsul Kamal; Oppenheim, Sheldon F; Willis, Laura B; Lessard, Philip A; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2004-03-18

    We report the successful culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) suspension cells in a bioreactor. In vitro propagation of this perennial monocotyledonous tree is an important part of the oil palm industry's approach to clonal propagation of high-yielding accessions. During culture of oil palm cells in a batch bioreactor, nutrients and extracellular metabolites were monitored, and kinetic parameters and nutrient-to-biomass conversion yields were calculated. The biomass increased approximately 3.5-fold per month, consistent with values reported for shake flask cultures. Although the carbon source was completely depleted by the end of the run, nitrogen sources remained in large excess and the sugar-to-biomass conversion yield remained low. Linear growth indicated that the cells were limited. The results obtained from the bioreactor runs indicated that we should be able to improve biomass production by carrying out optimization studies. Therefore, we initiated multi-factorial analyses using response surface experimental designs to investigate the effects of different nitrogen sources, as well as inoculum size and conditioned medium, on biomass production in flask cultures. Whereas glutamine does not have a significant effect on biomass production, ammonia has a positive effect up to an optimum concentration. Both inoculum density and conditioned medium have positive, synergistic effects on biomass production.

  20. Cosecretion of Chaperones and Low-Molecular-Size Medium Additives Increases the Yield of Recombinant Disulfide-Bridged Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schäffner, Jörg; Winter, Jeannette; Rudolph, Rainer; Schwarz, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Attempts were made to engineer the periplasm of Escherichia coli to an expression compartment of heterologous proteins in their native conformation. As a first approach the low-molecular-size additive l-arginine and the redox compound glutathione (GSH) were added to the culture medium. Addition of 0.4 M l-arginine and 5 mM reduced GSH increased the yield of a native tissue-type plasminogen activator variant (rPA), consisting of the kringle-2 and the protease domain, and a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) up to 10- and 37-fold, respectively. A variety of other medium additives also had positive effects on the yield of rPA. In a second set of experiments, the effects of cosecreted ATP-independent molecular chaperones on the yields of native therapeutic proteins were investigated. At optimized conditions, cosecretion of E. coli DnaJ or murine Hsp25 increased the yield of native rPA by a factor of 170 and 125, respectively. Cosecretion of DnaJ also dramatically increased the amount of a second model protein, native proinsulin, in the periplasm. The results of this study are anticipated to initiate a series of new approaches to increase the yields of native, disulfide-bridged, recombinant proteins in the periplasm of E. coli. PMID:11525996

  1. Infectious vasculopathy of intracranial large- and medium-sized vessels in neurological intensive care unit: a clinico-radiological study.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, J; Siebert, E; Klingebiel, R; Endres, M

    2010-06-01

    Infections are a well-known cause of cerebral vasculopathy and vasculitis. We aimed to analyze the frequency of intracranial vasculopathy attributable to infection, the spectrum of causative microorganisms, imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics as well as clinical course and outcome. We used our institution's medical record system to identify all patients diagnosed with nonatherosclerotic central nervous system vasculopathy from January 1, 1999 through February 28, 2009. We reviewed their clinical charts, imaging data, and results of CSF studies. Twenty-five adult patients with nonatherosclerotic cerebral vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized intracranial vessels were identified. Eight patients had vasculopathy attributable to infection (32%). The underlying pathologies were acute bacterial meningitis (n = 4), varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection (n = 2), borreliosis (n = 1), and syphilis (n = 1). In six patients, magnetic resonance angiography was performed and showed vasculopathic changes in all patients examined (100%). In both patients with VZV-associated vasculopathy, the arterial wall enhanced on magnetic resonance imaging. The CSF examination of the patients with infectious vasculopathy showed a significantly higher white blood cell count. The outcome of the infectious cohort was unfavorable with one death, two patients with locked-in syndrome, and five patients discharged from intensive care with severe neurological deficits. In this cohort, one-third of all cases of nonatherosclerotic vasculopathy were due to infectious vasculopathy of large and medium intracranial vessels.

  2. Radioisotopic Purity of Sodium Pertechnetate 99mTc Produced with a Medium-Energy Cyclotron: Implications for Internal Radiation Dose, Image Quality, and Release Specifications.

    PubMed

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Lavallée, Éric; Senta, Helena; Caouette, Lyne; Sader, Jayden A; van Lier, Erik J; Zyuzin, Alexander; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric; Lecomte, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc is a promising route to supply 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals. Higher 99mTc yields can be obtained with medium-energy cyclotrons in comparison to those dedicated to PET isotope production. To take advantage of this capability, evaluation of the radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced at medium energy (20-24 MeV) and its impact on image quality and dosimetry was required. Thick 100Mo (99.03% and 99.815%) targets were irradiated with incident energies of 20, 22, and 24 MeV for 2 or 6 h. The targets were processed to recover an effective thickness corresponding to approximately 5-MeV energy loss, and the resulting sodium pertechnetate 99mTc was assayed for chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclidic purity. Radioisotopic content in final formulation was quantified using γ-ray spectrometry. The internal radiation dose for 99mTc-pertechnetate was calculated on the basis of experimentally measured values and biokinetic data in humans. Planar and SPECT imaging were performed using thin capillary and water-filled Jaszczak phantoms. Extracted sodium pertechnetate 99mTc met all provisional quality standards. The formulated solution for injection had a pH of 5.0-5.5, contained greater than 98% of radioactivity in the form of pertechnetate ion, and was stable for at least 24 h after formulation. Radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.03% enriched 100Mo was greater than 99.0% decay corrected to the end of bombardment (EOB). The radioisotopic purity of 99mTc produced with 99.815% enriched 100Mo was 99.98% or greater (decay corrected to the EOB). The estimated dose increase relative to 99mTc without any radionuclidic impurities was below 10% for sodium pertechnetate 99mTc produced from 99.03% 100Mo if injected up to 6 h after the EOB. For 99.815% 100Mo, the increase in effective dose was less than 2% at 6 h after the EOB and less than 4% at 15 h after the EOB when the target was irradiated at an incident energy of 24 MeV. Image spatial resolution

  3. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  4. Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Belgium: the role of neighbourhood perceptions.

    PubMed

    Buffel, Tine; De Donder, Liesbeth; Phillipson, Chris; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Verté, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the associations between neighbourhood perceptions and social participation in a sample of older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium. Strong evidence of the influence of place on older people's physical and mental health exists. However, the question of how neighbourhoods promote or hinder social participation remains under-explored in social gerontology. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies, a multivariate regression model (n = 1877) is tested, with personal characteristics, subjective neighbourhood assessments and objective city-level measures as independent variables, and two indicators of social participation as dependent variables: social activity and formal participation. Positive predictors included neighbourhood involvement, frequent contact with neighbours and availability of activities for older people. However, the predictive role of neighbourhood perceptions is stronger for formal participation than for social activity, which is explained more by individual characteristics. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice pertaining to health promotion interventions.

  5. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  6. Aggregate Production Planning, Casestudy in a Medium-sized Industry of the Rubber Production Line in Ecuador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero-Mantilla, César; Sánchez-Sailema, Mayra; Sánchez-Rosero, Carlos; Galleguillos-Pozo, Rosa

    2017-06-01

    This research aims to improve the productivity in the rubber line of a medium-sized industry by increasing the production capacities through the use of the Aggregate Production Planning model. For this purpose an analysis of the production processes of the line was made and the aggregate plan was defined evaluating two strategies: Exact Production Plan (Zero Inventory) and Constant Workforce Plan (Vary Inventory) by studying the costs of both inventory maintenance and workforce. It was also determined how the installed capacity was used with the standards of the rubber line and measures for decreasing production costs were proposed. It was proven that only 70% of the plant capacity was being used so it could be possible to produce more units and to obtain a bigger market for the products of this line.+

  7. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  8. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  9. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokareva, Olga S.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]+ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Agn (n = 19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yields only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared with its constituents. However, the density of states as well as the fine structure of the spectra is strongly modified upon complexation. It is shown that the standard range separation parameter (0.47 bohr-1) cannot predict these properties correctly and the optimized value of 0.16 bohr-1 should be used instead.

  10. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  11. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  12. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.

  13. Comparison of the reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals and Peromyscus leucopus for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Nicholson, William L; Massung, Robert F; Sumner, John W; Fish, Durland

    2002-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. The white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus is a competent reservoir for this agent, but the reservoir competence of non-Peromyscus hosts of I. scapularis has not been studied. Here, we report data confirming reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals for A. phagocytophilum. Raccoons, Virginia opossums, gray squirrels, and striped skunks were live-trapped in June-August of 1998-1999 at two locations in Connecticut. Captured animals were kept for several days at the laboratory in wire-mesh cages over water to allow naturally attached ticks to drop off. Samples of blood and serum were taken from each animal prior to its release at the site of capture. Engorged ticks collected from each animal were allowed to molt. Resulting I. scapularis nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by polymerase chain reaction, as were the blood samples from the animals. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in the blood of >10% of the raccoons tested. Raccoons, opossums, squirrels, and skunks produced adult I. scapularis infected with the agent of HGE. Prevalence of infection was the highest in adult ticks fed as nymphs upon raccoons (23%) and the lowest in those fed upon skunks and opossums (5-7%). The agent was present in nymphal I. scapularis fed as larvae upon raccoons and squirrels, but not in ticks fed upon skunks or opossums. We also tested the ability of I. scapularis to transmit A. phagocytophilum to laboratory-reared white-footed mice after acquiring it from medium-sized mammals. Ticks that acquired the agent from raccoons and squirrels successfully transmitted it to mice. Thus, raccoons and gray squirrels are reservoir-competent for the agent of HGE-they become naturally infected, and are capable of transmitting the infection to feeding ticks.

  14. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists.

  16. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in a Medium-Sized Mediterranean Catchment on a Millennium Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales in Mediterranean environments. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to i) investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across the landscape in a medium-sized Mediterranean catchment (Contrada Maddalena; ~14km2, Calabria, Italy) and ii) to establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties and to verify them against observations, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on essential feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic or seismic events or human intervention. Although the results are evidently conditioned by the physiographic setting of the study area and by the

  17. Increased excitability of medium-sized dorsal root ganglion neurons by prolonged interleukin-1β exposure is K+ channel dependent and reversible

    PubMed Central

    Stemkowski, Patrick L; Noh, Myung-chul; Chen, Yishen; Smith, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constriction injury of rat sciatic nerve promotes signs of neuropathic pain. This is associated with an increase in the level of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in primary afferents that peaks at 7 days. This initial cytokine exposure has been proposed to trigger an enduring alteration in neuronal phenotype that underlies chronic hyper-excitability in sensory nerves, which initiates and maintains chronic neuropathic pain. We have shown previously that 5–6 days of exposure of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to 100 pm IL-1β increases the excitability of medium-sized neurons. We have now found using whole-cell recording that this increased excitability reverts to control levels within 3–4 days of cytokine removal. The effects of IL-1β were dominated by changes in K+ currents. Thus, the amplitudes of A-current, delayed rectifier and Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents were reduced by ∼68%, ∼64% and ∼36%, respectively. Effects of IL-1β on other cation currents were modest by comparison. There was thus a slight decrease in availability of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel current, a small increase in rates of activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current (IH), and a shift in the voltage dependence of activation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S INa) to more negative potentials. It is unlikely, therefore, that direct interaction of IL-1β with DRG neurons initiates an enduring phenotypic shift in their electrophysiological properties following sciatic nerve injury. Persistent increases in primary afferent excitability following nerve injury may instead depend on altered K+ channel function and on the continued presence of slightly elevated levels IL-1β and other cytokines. PMID:26110238

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IX. The interstellar medium seen through diffuse interstellar bands and neutral sodium&

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.; Bailey, M.; Tatton, B. L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I. D.; Richter, P.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.; Walborn, N. R.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), seen through gas in the Galactic disc and halo. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. Aims: The aim is to use DIBs as diagnostics of the local interstellar conditions, whilst at the same time deriving properties of the yet-unknown carriers of these enigmatic spectral features. Methods: Spectra of over 800 early-type stars from the Very Large Telescope Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) were analysed. Maps were created, separately, for the Galactic and LMC absorption in the DIBs at 4428 and 6614 Å and - in a smaller region near the central cluster R 136 - neutral sodium (the Na i D doublet); we also measured the DIBs at 5780 and 5797 Å. Results: The maps show strong 4428 and 6614 Å DIBs in the quiescent cloud complex to the south of 30 Dor but weak absorption in the harsher environments to the north (bubbles) and near the OB associations. The Na maps show at least five kinematic components in the LMC and a shell-like structure surrounding R 136, and small-scale structure in the Milky Way. The strengths of the 4428, 5780, 5797 and 6614 Å DIBs are correlated, also with Na absorption and visual extinction. The strong 4428 Å DIB is present already at low Na column density but the 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs start to be detectable at subsequently larger Na column densities. Conclusions: The carriers of the 4428, 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs are increasingly prone to removal from irradiated gas. The relative strength of the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs clearly confirm the Tarantula Nebula as well as Galactic high-latitude gas to represent a harsh radiation environment. The resilience of the 4428 Å DIB suggests its carrier is large, compact and neutral. Structure is detected in the distribution of cool-warm gas on scales between one and >100 pc in the LMC and as little as 0.01 pc in the Sun

  19. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  20. The use of bipolar cautery, laparosonic coagulating shears, and vascular clips for hemostasis of small and medium-sized vessels.

    PubMed

    Spivak, H; Richardson, W S; Hunter, J G

    1998-02-01

    Advanced laparoscopic surgery requires a reliable method of hemostasis. In order to determine the efficacy of common hemostatic devices, we tested bipolar electrosurgery (BPES), laparosonic coagulating shears (LCS), and vascular clips (VC) on arteries of various sizes to compare the strength of hemostasis against elevated intraarterial pressure. The procedures were performed on a porcine model through a laparotomy. Segments of visceral arteries were isolated and cannulated with an angiocatheter that was linked to a pressure monitor. After hemostasis with the tested instrument and division of the vessel, the intraarterial pressure was elevated by infusion of saline solution through the angiocatheter. The pressure was recorded when bleeding occurred through the cut end of the vessel or when the pressure reached 300 mm Hg. All three devices were effective in maintaining hemostasis on small (diameter, 0.25-0.5 mm) and medium-sized arteries (diameter, 2-3.5 mm) with a success rate ranging between 75% and 100% (p = n.s.). Practice and technical finesse were required with the use of the LCS and BPES before excellent results could be obtained. The LCS has an advantage over BPES because it allows the surgeon to perform hemostasis and division simultaneously, thus keeping the operating field clean and avoiding instrument adhesion to the tissue.

  1. On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Šimunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G.

    2009-08-01

    In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the C12H4 and C12H2D2 isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4•108)×(4•108). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach.

  2. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  3. Examinations on the Meteorologic Factors of Urban Heat Island Development in Small and Medium-sized Towns of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegedi, S.; Gyarmati, R.; Kapocska, L.; Toth, T.

    2010-09-01

    EXAMINATIONS ON THE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS OF HUNGARY Sandor Szegedi, Renata Gyarmati, Laszlo Kapocska and Tamas Toth University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are mainly determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements. Meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. International and Hungarian studies usually deal with metropolises and big cities; much less attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns. Consequently this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such Hungarian urbanized areas as mentioned above. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (ca. 220,000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Car-mounted digital thermometers with data loggers were used. Twenty four measurements were carried out during a one-year-long campaign in 2003-2004. Synoptic conditions, especially cloudiness, wind direction and wind speed were taken to consideration as determinant factors. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. The non-heating season proved to be more advantageous for the development of UHI due to stronger irradiance and frequent anticyclonic synoptic conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. St type clouds have proved to be most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. A 90-100% St cover could completely eliminate the thermal differences between natural and artificial surfaces. Ci type clouds had the weakest impact, they could prevent the formation of the heat island only in the smallest

  4. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S. Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-04-15

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  5. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C.; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S.; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Results: Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty

  6. Think Locally, Act Locally: The Detection of Small, Medium-Sized, and Large Communities in Large Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or “meso-scale”) features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify “communities,” which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that “communities” are associated with bottlenecks of locally-biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for “size-resolved community structure” that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (i) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (ii) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (iii) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify “good” communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that

  7. Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the gamma-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Waché, Y; Bergmark, K; Courthaudon, J L; Aguedo, M; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2000-03-01

    Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d32 of 2.5 microm whereas it was 0.7 microm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 microm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytica in both media was very similar except for the lag phase which was lowered in homogenized medium conditions.

  8. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  9. FIRST-based survey of Compact Steep Spectrum sources. II. MERLIN and VLA observations of medium-sized symmetric objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Marecki, A.; Thomasson, P.; Spencer, R. E.

    2005-09-01

    A new sample of candidate Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources that are much weaker than the CSS source prototypes has been selected from the VLA FIRST catalogue. MERLIN "snapshot" observations of the sources at 5 GHz indicate that six of them have an FR II-like morphology, but are not edge-brightened as is normal for Medium-sized Symmetric Objects (MSOs) and FR IIs. Further observations of these six sources with the VLA at 4.9 GHz and MERLIN at 1.7 GHz, as well as subsequent full-track observations with MERLIN at 5 GHz of what appeared to be the two sources of greatest interest are presented. The results are discussed with reference to the established evolutionary model of CSS sources being young but in which not all of them evolve to become old objects with extended radio structures. A lack of stable fuelling in some of them may result in an early transition to a so-called coasting phase so that they fade away instead of growing to become large-scale objects. It is possible that one of the six sources (1542+323) could be labelled as a prematurely "dying" MSO or a "fader".

  10. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control.

  11. Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

    About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

  12. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  13. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriyanti, Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair, Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

  14. L-Phosphinothricin modulation of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels increased excitability in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Laetitia; Desrus, Agnès; Même, Sandra; Même, William

    2016-07-01

    Phosphinotricin (L-PPT) is the active compound of a broad-spectrum herbicide. Acute poisoning with L-PPT has various clinical manifestations, including seizures and convulsions. However, the exact mechanism of L-PPT toxicity remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of L-PPT, in the excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). In whole-cell current-clamp experiments, L-PPT increased the input resistance (Ri), decreased the rheobase and increased the firing frequency of action potentials. In voltage-clamp experiments, L-PPT inhibited the inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) currents. Finally, the effects of L-PPT mimicked the inhibition of Kir channels with Ba(2+) on neuronal excitability. Altogether, these results suggest that the herbicide L-PPT is a modulator of Kir channels in MSNs. Thereby, Kir channels are potent regulators of the excitability of MSNs and reduced open probability of these channels would generate a powerful upregulation of neuronal output. This effect may represent a possible mechanism for L-PPT dependent neuronal toxicity.

  15. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties.

  16. Developmentally coordinated extrinsic signals drive human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward authentic DARPP-32+ medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Delli Carri, Alessia; Onorati, Marco; Lelos, Mariah J; Castiglioni, Valentina; Faedo, Andrea; Menon, Ramesh; Camnasio, Stefano; Vuono, Romina; Spaiardi, Paolo; Talpo, Francesca; Toselli, Mauro; Martino, Gianvito; Barker, Roger A; Dunnett, Stephen B; Biella, Gerardo; Cattaneo, Elena

    2013-01-15

    Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only neostriatum projection neurons, and their degeneration underlies some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease. Using knowledge of human developmental biology and exposure to key neurodevelopmental molecules, human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells were induced to differentiate into MSNs. In a feeder-free adherent culture, ventral telencephalic specification is induced by BMP/TGFβ inhibition and subsequent SHH/DKK1 treatment. The emerging FOXG1(+)/GSX2(+) telencephalic progenitors are then terminally differentiated, resulting in the systematic line-independent generation of FOXP1(+)/FOXP2(+)/CTIP2(+)/calbindin(+)/DARPP-32(+) MSNs. Similar to mature MSNs, these neurons carry dopamine and A2a receptors, elicit a typical firing pattern and show inhibitory postsynaptic currents, as well as dopamine neuromodulation and synaptic integration ability in vivo. When transplanted into the striatum of quinolinic acid-lesioned rats, hPS-derived neurons survive and differentiate into DARPP-32(+) neurons, leading to a restoration of apomorphine-induced rotation behavior. In summary, hPS cells can be efficiently driven to acquire a functional striatal fate using an ontogeny-recapitulating stepwise method that represents a platform for in vitro human developmental neurobiology studies and drug screening approaches.

  17. Deriving default dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Warren, N; Goede, H A; Tijssen, S C H A; Oppl, R; Schipper, H J; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalized' dermal exposure data sets. These data sets are grouped according to task and then further subdivided by making a distinction between processes involving solid and liquid products. For each of the resulting 12 groups, two default exposure rates are required: potential exposure rate to the hands and potential exposure rate to the body. Default values for risk assessment are then derived by taking a weighted average of the 75th percentiles of these normalized exposure distributions. In addition, a measure of peak surface concentration is required to take into account the risk of local skin effects. The higher of the (modified) hand and body exposure rates after applying the relevant penetration factors for clothing and gloves is used. Usually this will be the hand exposure rate. These default values serve as robust initial exposure estimates in a risk assessment toolkit for SMEs.

  18. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  19. Pediatric Oncology Clinic Care Model: Achieving Better Continuity of Care for Patients in a Medium-sized Program.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Halton, Jacqueline; Bassal, Mylène; Klaassen, Robert J; Mandel, Karen; Ramphal, Raveena; Simpson, Ewurabena; Peckan, Li

    2016-10-25

    Providing the best care in both the inpatient and outpatient settings to pediatric oncology patients is all programs goal. Using continuous improvement methodologies, we changed from a solely team-based physician care model to a hybrid model. All patients were assigned a dedicated oncologist. There would then be 2 types of weeks of outpatient clinical service. A "Doc of the Day" week where each oncologist would have a specific day in clinic when their assigned patients would be scheduled, and then a "Doc of the Week" week where one physician would cover clinic for the week. Patient satisfaction surveys done before and 14 months after changing the model of care showed that patients were very satisfied with the care they received in both models. A questionnaire to staff 14 months after changing showed that the biggest effect was increased continuity of care, followed by more efficient clinic workflow and increased consistency of care. Staff felt it provided better planning and delivery of care. A hybrid model of care with a primary physician for each patient and assigned clinic days, alternating with weeks of single physician coverage is a feasible model of care for a medium-sized pediatric oncology program.

  20. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  1. Ultrafine particle deposition to vegetation branches: wind tunnel investigation of the effect of canopy medium and particle size and charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Lin, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their influence on atmospheric concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the consequent effect on cloud albedo and global climate. To understand UFP lifetime in the atmosphere, both sources and sinks need to be known. One important sink for UFP is removal by vegetation. The main collection mechanism by vegetation is Brownian diffusion with a possible contribution of electrostatic forces. Here we report measurements of collection efficiency of UFP by pine and juniper branches in a wind tunnel at different wind speeds, branch orientations, and packing densities. The effect of particle charge is also investigated. Two modeling approached have been developed to describe UFP deposition to vegetation branches. One treats vegetation as a fibrous filter with a characteristic fiber size; the other treats it as a random porous medium. The experiments agreed well with predictions from both models within 20%. Upon bridging these two modeling approaches, estimates of the effective fiber diameter can now be derived from conventional canopy attributes, such as the leaf area index. These results can benefit future air quality and climate models incorporating UFP.

  2. African swine fever outbreak on a medium-sized farm in Uganda: biosecurity breaches and within-farm virus contamination.

    PubMed

    Chenais, Erika; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Liu, Lihong; LeBlanc, Neil; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl

    2017-02-01

    In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination. The study was carried out on a medium-sized pig farm with 35 adult pigs and 103 piglets or growers at the onset of the outbreak. Within 3 months, all pigs had died or were slaughtered. The study included interviews with farm representatives as well as biological and environmental sampling. ASF was confirmed by the presence of ASF virus (ASFV) genomic material in biological (blood, serum) and environmental (soil, water, feed, manure) samples by real-time PCR. The ASFV-positive biological samples confirmed the clinical assessment and were consistent with known virus characteristics. Most environmental samples were found to be positive. Assessment of farm biosecurity, interviews, and the results from the biological and environmental samples revealed that breaches and non-compliance with biosecurity protocols most likely led to the introduction and within-farm spread of the virus. The information derived from this study provides valuable insight regarding the implementation of biosecurity measures, particularly in endemic areas.

  3. Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (<1000 km2) local deposits are thought to result from Vulcanian eruptions in which magma is slowly emplaced beneath the surface until enough volatiles exsolve and the high pressure causes an explosion. Bennett et al. (2013) identified a local deposit (674 km2 area) that may have resulted from both Vulcanian activity and fire fountaining. This deposit potentially represents a new intermediate class of LPDs that straddles the interface between the two formation mechanisms. The deposit also exhibits the highest inferred FeO wt.% of any known lunar glass. In this work we investigate the inferred FeO abundances of other medium-sized deposits to characterize this potential new class of deposits and understand the magnitude of variations in inferred FeO among pyroclastic deposits. We use the method of Greenhagen et al. (2010) to calculate the wavelength of the Christiansen Feature (CF) from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances

  4. Using Hydrodynamic Simulations to Understand the Structure and Composition of the Circumgalactic Medium of Milky Way-sized Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Munier Azzam

    We explore the structure and evolution of baryons within Milky Way-sized halos (M ~ 1012 Msun) via hydrodynamic simulations. First, we employ a two-fluid model to study the dynamics of a relativistic, diffusive cosmic ray proton (CR) fluid interacting with the thermal interstellar medium (ISM). This model was implemented into the eulerian hydrodynamics code enzo, used throughout this dissertation. After testing this model on analytically tractable scenarios in one dimension, it is unleashed upon an idealized disk simulation in a rapidly-star forming setting, where we find evidence for robust, mass-loaded winds driven by the diffusive CR fluid. These winds reduce the galaxy's star formation rate (SFR) and circulate on order as much mass into winds as into forming stars. We then extend this model to a cosmological setting where the diffuse CR fluid proves capable of redistributing star formation within the forming disk, reducing the overly-peaked rotation curves in non-CR runs and producing thin, extended disks with visible spiral structure. From these same runs, we then explore the effect of CRs on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) within the halo, comparing our results to observed metal column lines from L ~ L* galaxies and gamma-ray emission observed by Fermi LAT. From this body of work, we find the cosmic ray population of forming galaxies likely alters the system's baryonic structure and dynamics in fundamental ways, and has a measurable impact on both the galaxy's disk and CGM. Complimenting this work, we also explore the distribution of baryons in the CGM via simulations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) orbiting through our own MW halo. We perform a broad suite of "wind tunnel" simulations to constrain models for the MW CGM's density profile. From this work, we find that the extent of HI gas along the LMC's leading edge is a direct, localized probe of MW CGM gas density at r ~ 50 kpc from the Galactic Center. Assuming a beta-profile for the diffuse gas

  5. Cortical and thalamic innervation of direct and indirect pathway medium-sized spiny neurons in mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Doig, Natalie M; Moss, Jonathan; Bolam, J Paul

    2010-11-03

    The striatum receives major excitatory inputs from the cortex and thalamus that predominantly target the spines of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). We aimed to determine whether there is any selectivity of these two excitatory afferents in their innervation of direct and indirect pathway MSNs. To address this, we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reports the presence of D(1) or D(2) dopamine receptor subtypes, markers of direct and indirect pathway MSNs, respectively. Excitatory afferents were identified by the selective expression of vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 (VGluT1) by corticostriatal afferents and vesicular glutamate transporter type 2 (VGluT2) by thalamostriatal afferents. A quantitative electron microscopic analysis was performed on striatal tissue from D(1) and D(2) mice that was double immunolabeled to reveal the EGFP and VGluT1 or VGluT2. We found that the proportion of synapses formed by terminals derived from the cortex and thalamus was similar for both direct and indirect pathway MSNs. Furthermore, qualitative analysis revealed that individual cortical or thalamic terminals form synapses with both direct and indirect pathway MSNs. Similarly, we observed a convergence of cortical and thalamic inputs onto individual MSNs of both direct and indirect pathway: individual EGFP-positive structures received input from both VGluT2-positive and VGluT2-negative terminals. These findings demonstrate that direct and indirect pathway MSNs are similarly innervated by cortical and thalamic afferents; both projections are thus likely to be critical in the control of MSNs and hence play fundamental roles in the expression of basal ganglia function.

  6. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure, highly functionalized, medium-sized carbocycles from carbohydrates: formal total synthesis of (+)-calystegine b(2).

    PubMed

    Marco-Contelles, José; de Opazo, Elsa

    2002-05-31

    The free radical cyclization (FR) and the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reaction have been analyzed in order to develop new and original synthetic protocols for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure, highly functionalized, medium-sized carbocycles from carbohydrates. As a result, we report here for the first time examples of the 7-exo FR cyclization of acyclic radical precursors derived from sugars. This process appears to be extremely sensitive to the conformational mobility of the radical species in the transition state. The use of two isopropylidene groups blocking four of the total present hydroxyl groups and a good radical acceptor (as an alpha,beta-unsaturated ester) are mandatory conditions for a successful ring closure protocol. The RCM reaction by using Grubbs' catalyst on selected carbohydrate-derived precursors has afforded variable yields of the expected unsaturated cycloheptane or cycloctane derivatives. The synthesis of the cycloheptitols has been carried out in good yields, regardless of the absolute configuration at the different stereocenters and the nature of the O-functional groups bound in allylic positions to one of the double bonds implicated in the metathesis reaction. Conversely, in the cyclooctane synthesis, we have observed that the success of the reaction depends not only on the absolute configuration at the different stereocenters close to the double bonds but also on the nature of the O-protecting groups on these stereocenters. Finally, the RCM strategy has been used in an attempt to prepare natural (+)-calystegine B(2) from D-glucose. The synthesis of compound 92 from D-glucose constitutes a formal total synthesis of (+)-calystegine B(2), showing the importance of the steric hindrance in allylic positions for a successful RCM reaction.

  7. Concentration, sources and light absorption characteristics of dissolved organic carbon on a medium-sized valley glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Qin, Xiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhaofu; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-11-01

    Light-absorbing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a major part of the organic carbon in glacierized regions, and has important influences on the carbon cycle and radiative forcing of glaciers. However, few DOC data are currently available from the glacierized regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, DOC characteristics of a medium-sized valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12, LHG) on the northern TP were investigated. Generally, DOC concentrations on LHG were comparable to those in other regions around the world. DOC concentrations in snow pits, surface snow and surface ice (superimposed ice) were 332 ± 132, 229 ± 104 and 426 ± 270 µg L-1, respectively. The average discharge-weighted DOC of proglacial stream water was 238 ± 96 µg L-1, and the annual DOC flux released from this glacier was estimated to be 6949 kg C yr-1, of which 46.2 % of DOC was bioavailable and could be decomposed into CO2 within 1 month of its release. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) of DOC at 365 nm was 1.4 ± 0.4 m2 g-1 in snow and 1.3 ± 0.7 m2 g-1 in ice, similar to the values for dust transported from adjacent deserts. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between DOC and Ca2+; therefore, mineral dust transported from adjacent arid regions likely made important contributions to DOC of the glacierized regions, although contributions from autochthonous carbon and autochthonous/heterotrophic microbial activity cannot be ruled out. The radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m-2, demonstrating that DOC in snow needs to be taken into consideration in accelerating melt of glaciers on the TP.

  8. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  9. Size and medium conductivity dependence on dielectrophoretic behaviors of gas core poly-L-lysine shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chungja; Wu, Chun-Jen; Ostafin, Agnes E; Thibaudeau, Giselle; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic (dis)assembly of biocompatible nanoparticles into 3D, packed structures would benefit drug delivery, films, and diagnostics. Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microdevices can rapidly assemble and manipulate polarizable particles within nonuniform electric fields. DEP has primarily discerned micrometer particles since nanoparticles experience smaller forces. This work examines conductivity and size DEP dependencies of previously unexplored spherical core-shell nanoparticle (CSnp) into 3D particle assemblies. Poly-L-lysine shell material was custom synthesized around a gas core to form CSnps. DEP frequencies from 1 kHz to 80 MHz at fixed 5 volts peak-to-peak and medium conductivities of 10(-5) and 10(-3) S/m were tested. DEP responses of ∼220 and ∼400 nm poly-L-lysine CSnps were quantified via video intensity densitometry at the microdevice's quadrapole electrode center for negative DEP (nDEP) and adjacent to electrodes for positive DEP. Intensity densitometry was then translated into a relative DEP response curve. An unusual nDEP peak occurred at ∼57 MHz with 25-80 times greater apparent nDEP force. All electrical circuit components were then impedance matched, which changed the observed response to weak positive DEP at low frequencies and consistently weak nDEP from ∼100 kHz to 80 MHz. This impedance-matched behavior agrees with conventional Clausius-Mossotti DEP signatures taking into account the gas core's contributions to the polarization mechanisms. This work describes a potential pitfall when conducting DEP at higher frequencies in microdevices and concurrently demonstrates nDEP behavior for a chemically and structurally distinct particle system. This work provides insight into organic shell material properties in nanostructures and strategies to facilitate dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.

  10. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  11. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  12. Self-reported illnesses and service utilisation among migrants working in small-to medium sized enterprises in Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Zeng, Z; Chen, W; Ling, L

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most vulnerable populations in China, many migrants work in the small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study aims to describe the self-reported illnesses and service utilization of the migrants working in the SMEs in Pearl River Delta Areas (PRDA) of Guangdong province, China. Cross-sectional survey. We interviewed 856 migrants working in the SMEs of different manufacturing industries in 2012. Descriptive analysis was employed to report self-reported illnesses and service utilisation among migrants in the last two weeks and in the last year. Statistical tests such as χ2 test were used to explore factors influencing their service utilisation. In the last two weeks, 91(11%) of the respondents reported having any illness. The most reported illness was respiratory problem (69%), while 9.9%, 7.7% and 13% reported having digestive, skin and other problems respectively. The most important symptom was cough (39%). Thirty-seven percent of the respondents who reported any illness had visited health facilities. The lower income group were more likely to visit health facilities than the higher income group (P = 0.006). The most reported reason for not visiting health facilities was 'feeling not serious' (65%). In the last year, 13% reported having respiratory problems and 7.8% reported accidental injuries. Less than 3% received hospitalization care. The proportion of those without hospitalization to those who should have been hospitalized was 31%. Underuse of the health service among migrants working in the SMEs could be associated with the 'healthy migrant' effect. However, when assessed among the ill migrants in the SMEs, the utilisation rate was still low mainly due to their poor health awareness. Improving their risk perception and integration of occupational and general health service is crucial to improve the health conditions and utilisation of service among migrants in the SMES. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published

  13. Model-data comparison of high frequency compressional wave attenuation in water-saturated granular medium with bimodal grain size distribution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haesang; Seong, Woojae; Lee, Keunhwa

    2017-08-19

    Several acoustic models, such as the poro-elastic model, visco-elastic model, and multiple scattering model, have been used for describing the dispersion relation in a porous granular medium. However, these models are based on continuum or scattering theory, and therefore cannot explain the broadband measurements in cases where scattering and non-scattering losses co-exist. Additionally, since the models assume that the porous granular medium consists of grains of identical size (unimodal size distribution), the models does not account for the behavior of wave dispersion in a medium that has a distribution of differing grain sizes. As an alternative approach, this study proposes a new broadband attenuation model that describes the high frequency dispersion relation for the p-wave in the case of elastic grain scatterers existing in the background fluid medium. The broadband model combines the Biot-Stoll plus grain contact squirt and shear flow (BICSQS) model and the quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) multiple scattering model. Additionally, distribution of grain size effect is examined rudimentarily through consideration of bimodal grain size distribution. Through the quantitative analysis of the broadband model and measured data, it is shown that the model can explain the attenuation dependencies of frequency and grain size distribution for a water-saturated granular medium in the frequency range from 350kHz to 1.1MHz. This study can be applied to the high frequency acoustic SONAR modeling and design in the water-saturated environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  15. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the... Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation and scheduling of public hearing. SUMMARY...

  16. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  17. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2)…

  18. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  19. Knowledge Management as a Service: Co-operation between Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and Training, Consulting and Research Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheff, Josef; Kailer, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    A study of 372 companies examined the cooperation between small-to-medium-sized businesses and external providers of training in Austria. New forms of cooperation such as integrated training and consulting programs, process consultation of in-house projects, and support of cooperation are needed. (JOW)

  20. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2)…

  1. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  2. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  3. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  4. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  5. Report on the 2nd European conference on computer-aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD 82)

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, W.G. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    A summary is presented of the 2nd European conference on computer aided design (CAD) in small- and medium-size industries (MICAD82) held in Paris, France, September 21-23, 1982. The conference emphasized applications of CAD in industries with limited investment resources and which are forced to innovate in order to sustain competition.

  6. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  7. Development of a novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of cefazolin sodium in injectable powder and human urine based on a luminol-Cu(III) complex reaction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Wang, Juan; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of cefazolin sodium based on the CL reaction between the [Cu(HIO6)2](5-) Cu(III) complex and luminol in alkaline solution. Results showed that CL emission of Cu(III) complex-luminol in alkaline medium was significantly different from that in acidic medium. A possible mechanism of the enhanced effect of cefazolin on CL emission of the [Cu(HIO6)2](5-)-luminol system was proposed. The effect of the reaction conditions on CL emissions was examined. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between CL intensity and concentrations of cefazolin sodium in the range of 2.0 x 10(-8) to 2.0 x 10(-6) g/mL with a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9978. The limit of detection was 4.58 x 10(-9) g/mL. The proposed method was applied for the determination of cefazolin sodium in real samples with recoveries of 82.0-109% with an RSD of 0.7-2.1%. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of cefazolin sodium in injectable powder preparations and human urine with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons: identification by nuclear staining and study of neuronal subpopulations in BAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Matamales, Miriam; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Salomon, Lucas; Degos, Bertrand; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Valjent, Emmanuel; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Precise identification of neuronal populations is a major challenge in neuroscience. In the striatum, more than 95% of neurons are GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which form two intermingled populations distinguished by their projections and protein content. Those expressing dopamine D(1)-receptors (D1Rs) project preferentially to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), whereas those expressing dopamine D(2)- receptors (D2Rs) project preferentially to the lateral part of the globus pallidus (LGP). The degree of segregation of these populations has been a continuous subject of debate, and the recent introduction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins driven by specific promoters was a major progress to facilitate striatal neuron identification. However, the fraction of MSNs labeled in these mice has been recently called into question, casting doubt on the generality of results obtained with such approaches. Here, we performed an in-depth quantitative analysis of striatal neurons in drd1a-EGFP and drd2-EGFP mice. We first quantified neuronal and non-neuronal populations in the striatum, based on nuclear staining with TO-PRO-3, and immunolabeling for NeuN, DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr approximately 32,000), and various markers for interneurons. TO-PRO-3 staining was sufficient to identify MSNs by their typical nuclear morphology and, with a good probability, interneuron populations. In drd1a-EGFP/drd2-EGFP double transgenic mice all MSNs expressed EGFP, which was driven in about half of them by drd1a promoter. Retrograde labeling showed that all MSNs projecting to the SNr expressed D1R and very few D2R (<1%). In contrast, our results were compatible with the existence of some D1R-EGFP-expressing fibers giving off terminals in the LGP. Thus, our study shows that nuclear staining is a simple method for identifying MSNs and other striatal neurons. It also unambiguously confirms

  9. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  10. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed

  11. Moving to business - changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior after multilevel intervention in small and medium-size workplaces.

    PubMed

    Aittasalo, Minna; Livson, Matleena; Lusa, Sirpa; Romo, Ahti; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Tokola, Kari; Sievänen, Harri; Mänttäri, Ari; Vasankari, Tommi

    2017-04-17

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes and excessive sedentary behavior (SB) deteriorates health. Yet the Finnish working-aged population spends most of the day sitting. A 1-year Moving To Business (MTB) -intervention supported small and medium-size workplaces to combat sedentariness. This paper reports the changes in employees' PA and SB from before MTB (baseline) to 1 year after baseline (follow-up). Twelve workplaces with a total of 396 employees participated. Each workplace nominated a team to promote PA and reduce SB at organizational, working unit and employee level. The teams were mentored regionally through meetings, workshop and tools. Changes in PA and SB were assessed with a questionnaire and an accelerometer. Wald Confidence Interval (Cl) for a difference of proportions with matched pairs was used in the questionnaire data (%-points with 95% CI) and linear mixed model in the accelerometer data (minutes and % of wear-time with 95% CI). The mean age of the respondents to the questionnaire (N = 296; 75%) was 42.6 (SD 10.9), 64% were women, 95% had some education after high school, 74% worked in the day shift, 71% did sedentary work and 51% were overweight. The mean number of actions implemented in the workplaces was 6.8 and the multilevel approach was fully applied in 6 workplaces. Based on the questionnaire the time spent in SB decreased from baseline to follow-up 16% (95% CI -29 to -3) in total and 22% (-41 to -3) at work. The accelerometer showed daily increases of 33.7 min (15.3 to 52.1) and 6.8% (3.1 to 10.4) in total PA, 30.9 min (15.3 to 46.5) and 6.1% (2.9 to 9.2) in light PA and 673 (209 to 1139) more steps at work. Daily SB at work decreased 44.9 min (-68.0 to -21.8) and 7.6% (-11.9 to -3.2). Daily leisure PA declined 11.0 min (-24.9 to 2.9) and 3.2% (-6.2 to -0.2). Number of levels or actions had no effect on changes. Employees' PA increased and SB reduced at work during the intervention. At the same time leisure PA decreased slightly

  12. Lunar Gravity Studies from the Lunar Prospector Line-of-Sight Acceleration Data: Isostatic Compensation of Medium Sized Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, T.; Heki, K.

    2002-12-01

    Direct estimation of mass distribution on the lunar nearside surface using the Lunar Prospector (LP) line-of-sight (LOS) acceleration data has several merits over conventional methods to estimate Stokes' coefficients of the lunar gravity field, such as (1) high resolution gravity anomaly recovery without introducing Kaula's constraint, (2) fast inversion calculation by stepwise estimation of parameter sets enabled by small correlation between parameters sets. Resolution of the lunar free-air gravity anomaly map obtained here, is as high as a gravity model complete to degree/order 225, and yet less noisy than the recent models. Next we performed terrain correction for the raw LOS acceleration data using lunar topography model from the Clementine laser altimetry data and the average crustal density of 2.9 g/cm3. By conducting the same inversion for the data after the correction, we obtained the map of Bouguer gravity anomaly that mainly reflects the MOHO topography. By comparing maps we notice that signatures of medium-sized (80-300 km in diameter) craters visible as topographic depression and negative free air anomaly, disappear in the Bouguer anomaly. The absence of mass deficits in the Bouguer anomaly suggests that the MOHO beneath them is flat. Generally speaking, longer wavelength topographic features have to be supported by MOHO topography (Airy isostatic compensation) while small scale topographic features are supported by lithospheric strength. The boundary between these two modes constrains the lithosphere thickness, and hence thermal structure near the surface. Larger craters are known to have become Mascons; mantle plugs and high-density mare basalts cause positive gravity anomalies there. The smallest Mascon has diameters a little larger than 300 km (e.g. Schiller-Zuccius), and the boundary between the two compensation status seems to lie around 300 km. Thermal evolution history of the Moon suggests temporally increasing thickness of lithosphere over its

  13. Effect of the addition of nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate to fluoride toothpastes on tooth demineralization: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dalpasquale, Giovanna; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Nunes, Gabriel Pereira; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Neto, Francisco Nunes Souza; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Danelon, Marcelle

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of toothpastes containing 1100 ppm F associated with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization in vitro using a pH-cycling model. Bovine enamel blocks (4 mm × 4 mm, n = 72) selected by initial surface hardness (SHi) were randomly allocated into six groups (n = 12), according to the test toothpastes: without fluoride or HMPnano (Placebo), 550 ppm F (550F), 1100 ppm F (1100F), 1100F plus HMPnano at concentrations of 0.25% (1100F/0.25%HMPnano), 0.5% (1100F/0.5%HMPnano), and 1.0% (1100F/1.0%HMPnano). Blocks were treated 2×/day with slurries of toothpastes and submitted to five pH cycles (demineralizing/remineralizing solutions) at 37 °C. Next, final surface hardness (SHf), integrated loss subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), integrated mineral loss (gHAp × cm(-3)), and enamel fluoride (F) concentrations were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Toothpaste with 1100F/0.5%HMPnano led to the lowest mineral loss and the highest mineral concentration among all groups, which were 26% (SHf) and 21% (ΔKHN) lower and ~58% higher (gHAp × cm(-3)) when compared to 1100F (p < 0.001). Similar values of enamel F were observed for all fluoridated toothpastes (p > 0.001). The addition of 0.5%HMPnano to a 1100 F toothpaste significantly enhances its effects against enamel demineralization when compared to its counterpart without HMPnano in vitro. Toothpaste containing 1100 ppm F associated with HMPnano has a higher potential to reduce the demineralization compared to 1100 ppm F. This toothpaste could be a viable alternative to patients at high risk of caries.

  14. The coupling law of the interaction between economic development and eco-environment in medium-sized city: a case from Lianyungang city in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingyou; Lin, Zhenshan; Xie, Biao

    2008-10-01

    City plays a strong role in the development of national economy and society. But its high economic development speed results in big resource depletion and environmental pressure. The coupling law between economic development and eco-environment refers to the collection of all interaction non-linear relations among economic, social and eco-environmental system during the economic development course. Many large cities have been in the medium or later stage of industrialization while medium-sized cities are just in the beginning for the industrialization. For this special development period of industrialization of medium-sized city, it is a great practical significance for analyzing the coupling law of the interaction between economic development and eco-environment. In this paper, Lianyungang City was selected as the study demonstration area. 6 mathematics models for describing the quantitative relations between environment and economic development were achieved through the analysis of the relativity and quadratic and cubic equation fit and regression based on the data of environmental quality, pollutant discharge and economic development in the period of the years 1983-2006. The results showed that there exists the coupling law of the Interaction between Economic Development and Eco-environment. Through the establishment of conceptual model, the coupling law of the interaction between economic development and eco-environment in Lianyungang City was quantitatively analyzed and studied, which is helpful for the comprehensive policy-making and sustainable development in medium-sized city.

  15. High bovine blastocyst development in a static in vitro production system using SOFaa medium supplemented with sodium citrate and myo-inositol with or without serum-proteins.

    PubMed

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Schmidt, M H; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1999-09-01

    We describe a bovine embryo culture system that supports repeatable high development in the presence of serum or BSA as well as under defined conditions in the absence of those components. In the first experiment, embryo development in SOF with amino acids (SOFaa), sodium citrate (SOFaac) and myo-inositol (SOFaaci) and with BSA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was compared with that in a M199 granulosa cell co-culture (M199 co-culture). Subsequently, development and cell numbers of blastocysts cultured under defined conditions in SOFaaci with PVA (SOFaaci-PVA), or under undefined conditions in SOFaaci with 5% cow serum (SOFaaci-CS) or M199 co-culture were compared. The repeatability of culture results in SOFaaci-CS was checked by weekly replicates (n = 30) spread over 11 months. The viability of embryos developed in SOFaaci-PVA was estimated by transfer of morphologically good blastocysts (n = 10) to synchronized recipients. In the second experiment, the effect of omitting CS or BSA from IVM and IVM-IVF on subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-PVA or in SOFaaci-CS was investigated. Blastocyst development in SOFaa-PVA, SOFaac-PVA, SOFaa-BSA and M199 was 16 +/- 3b, 23 +/- 2ab, 30 +/- 8a and 36 +/- 7a%, respectively (Pab < 0.05). Additional inclusion of myoinositol resulted in 42 +/- 1a% blastocysts in SOFaaci-PVA vs 19 +/- 3b% in SOFaac-PVA, 47 +/- 7a% in SOFaac-BSA, and 36 +/- 7a% in M199 co-culture, respectively (Pab < 0.01). In 30 replicates, the average cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes in SOFaaci-CS were 87 +/- 4 and 49 +/- 5%, respectively. Five normal calves were produced after transfer of 10 blastocysts developed in defined culture medium (i.e., SOFaaci-PVA). Defined IVM or IVM-IVF (i.e., in absence of CS and BSA) reduced cleavage rates (83 +/- 3 and 55 +/- 3% vs 90 +/- 1% in presence of CS; P < 0.01). Subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-CS was not affected in either of these defined conditions. However, cleavage and blastocyst rates under completely

  16. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to

  17. Angular dependence of the reflectance from an isotropic polydomain medium: effect of large domain size on total reflection.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G; Popp, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the angular dependence of the reflectance from an isotropic medium consisting of optically large and anisotropic, randomly oriented domains, assuming a highly refractive, isotropic, and homogeneous incidence medium, which is presumed to have a higher refractive index than any of the domains' principal indices of refraction. By employing average reflectance and transmittance theory, we are able to show that the onset of total reflection is considerably shifted to higher angles of incidence compared with an isotropic medium with domains that are small compared with the wavelength. The onset of total reflection for a random medium with large domains is found to be dependent only on the largest principal index of refraction of the domains, assuming that all domains have the same optical properties. Therefore the shift of the onset depends on the magnitude of the optical anisotropy of the domains. Even in the case of a small optical anisotropy, large cross-polarization terms are predicted in the vicinity of the onset of total reflection. These terms show a pronounced maximum near that onset and extend beyond it.

  18. Measurements of the equilibrium size of supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride droplets at low relative humidity using aerosol optical tweezers and an electrodynamic balance.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, G; Kwamena, N-O A; Zhang, Y H; Butler, J R; Rushworth, S; Clegg, S L; Reid, J P

    2010-02-04

    An approach for examining the hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles over a broad range in relative humidity (RH) using aerosol optical tweezers is presented and compared with measurements made using an electrodynamic balance. In particular, benchmark measurements on aqueous sodium chloride aerosol are presented over the RH range 45-75% (293 K), a RH range that had not previously been explored with aerosol optical tweezers. Measurements of the variation in equilibrium wet droplet size with RH are made using cavity-enhanced Raman scattering, with an accuracy of 1 nm in the determination of the wet particle radius. The full range of optical tweezers experimental measurements (including previous dual trapping comparative studies approaching a saturation relative humidity of 100%) are compared with determinations using other experimental techniques and with a range of model treatments. An assessment of the models and all experimental data for estimating the equilibrium size of a sodium chloride droplet suggests that the size can be predicted with an accuracy of better than 0.1% over the RH range 48-100%. Discrepancies between different measurements lead to an increase in uncertainty above 1% below an RH of 48% as efflorescence is approached. The optical tweezers' measurements of equilibrium size consistently agree with model predictions to within an error of 1% (<50 nm for the size range explored here) and mostly with an error of less than +/-0.1%. These data demonstrate the highly accurate nature of measurements of thermodynamic equilibrium size by aerosol optical tweezers and suggest that this approach may be used to investigate the competition between thermodynamic and kinetic factors in governing aerosol particle size over the full RH range.

  19. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers: 1985-1986 EADC (Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) program period

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1988-03-01

    The Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program continues to provide energy-conserving and cost-saving assistance in the plants of small and medium-size manufacturers. This report presents the results of energy audits in 300 such plants carried out by ten EADCs during the 1985-86 program period. Also included are the results obtained during 1987 from manufacturers who implemented 1267 of the EADCs' recommendations from the preceding year.

  20. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers: (Final and annual report), 1985-86 EADC (Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center) program period

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1988-03-01

    The Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program continues to provide energy-conserving and cost-saving assistance in the plants of small and medium-size manufacturers. This report presents the results of energy audits in 300 such plants carried out by ten EADCs during the 1985-1986 program period. Also included are the results obtained during 1987 from manufacturers who implemented 1,267 of the EADCs' recommendations from the preceding year.

  1. Medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of arthoscopic-subacromial decompression versus mini-open repair for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Bidwai, Amit Sharad Chandra; Birch, Ann; Temperley, David; Odak, Saurabh; Walton, Michael J; Haines, John F; Trail, Ian

    2016-04-01

    We report on the medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to determine whether rotator cuff repair confers any advantage over arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression (ASAD) alone in the management of medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Ethical approval was sought to follow-up patients previously enrolled in a completed and previously published RCT comparing the outcome of ASAD with mini-open cuff repair for the treatment of rotator cuff tear. Forty-two patients were enrolled in the original study, with a mean of 64 years (range 54 years to 77 years). Fifteen of the original 17 patients randomized to ASAD alone and 18 of the original 25 patients randomized to cuff repair were available for follow-up. Each patient underwent American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Constant scoring, and clinical and ultrasound examination. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range 5 years to 11 years). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores at follow-up between the two groups. Some 33% of patients in the cuff-repair group had a proven re-rupture on ultrasound. This patient subgroup had significantly worse Constant scores compared to patients where the repair remained intact. None of the patients from either group developed cuff-tear arthropathy requiring arthroplasty surgery. In this medium- to longer-term study, there is no demonstrable significant benefit of cuff repair over decompression alone for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears, in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores for pain, function and strength modules. The presence of cuff tear does not necessitate surgical repair. This conclusion should drive surgical strategies and shared decision-making between patients and surgeons.

  2. Medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of arthoscopic-subacromial decompression versus mini-open repair for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Ann; Temperley, David; Odak, Saurabh; Walton, Michael J; Haines, John F; Trail, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background We report on the medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to determine whether rotator cuff repair confers any advantage over arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression (ASAD) alone in the management of medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Methods Ethical approval was sought to follow-up patients previously enrolled in a completed and previously published RCT comparing the outcome of ASAD with mini-open cuff repair for the treatment of rotator cuff tear. Forty-two patients were enrolled in the original study, with a mean of 64 years (range 54 years to 77 years). Results Fifteen of the original 17 patients randomized to ASAD alone and 18 of the original 25 patients randomized to cuff repair were available for follow-up. Each patient underwent American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Constant scoring, and clinical and ultrasound examination. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range 5 years to 11 years). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores at follow-up between the two groups. Some 33% of patients in the cuff-repair group had a proven re-rupture on ultrasound. This patient subgroup had significantly worse Constant scores compared to patients where the repair remained intact. None of the patients from either group developed cuff-tear arthropathy requiring arthroplasty surgery. Conclusions In this medium- to longer-term study, there is no demonstrable significant benefit of cuff repair over decompression alone for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears, in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores for pain, function and strength modules. The presence of cuff tear does not necessitate surgical repair. This conclusion should drive surgical strategies and shared decision-making between patients and surgeons. PMID:27583006

  3. Use of Care Management Practices in Small- and Medium-Sized Physician Groups: Do Public Reporting of Physician Quality and Financial Incentives Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Maeng, Daniel; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. Data Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. Study Design We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. Findings (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. Conclusion Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting. PMID:22880957

  4. Compact non-rock-salt structures in sodium fluoride cluster ions at specific sizes revealed by ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ohshimo, Keijiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Moriyama, Ryoichi; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2014-10-30

    Structures of small sodium fluoride cluster cations, Na(n)F(n-1)(+), have been determined for n = 5-23 by ion mobility mass spectrometry. In the mass spectrum of Na(n)F(n-1)(+) cluster ions measured after collisions in the ion-drift cell, cuboid ions with near-regular hexahedron such as n = 14 (3 × 3 × 3), 23 (3 × 3 × 5), 38 (3 × 5 × 5), 63 (5 × 5 × 5), and 88 (5 × 5 × 7) were predominantly observed as magic numbers. By comparison of the collision cross sections obtained from the ion mobility measurements with theoretical ones, we have experimentally shown that the ions of n = 7 and 10 have stable non-rock-salt type structures in which one sodium atom is encapsulated into the sodium fluoride cuboid lattice. The collision cross sections of n = 12 and 13 are almost equal to that of the n = 14 cuboid. A similar feature was also observed in collision cross sections of n = 21 and 22, which are equal to that of the n = 23 cuboid. These features indicate that the cluster ions of n = 12, 13, 21, and 22 have near-cuboid structures with some surface defects.

  5. Evaluation of natural zeolite as microorganism support medium in nitrifying batch reactors: influence of zeolite particle size.

    PubMed

    Mery, C; Guerrero, L; Alonso-Gutiérrez, J; Figueroa, M; Lema, J M; Montalvo, S; Borja, R

    2012-01-01

    An evaluation of natural zeolite as a microorganism carrier in nitrifying reactors operated in batch mode was carried out. Specifically, the influence of zeolite particle sizes of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm in diameter on microorganism adherence to zeolite, ammonium adsorption capacity and the identification of microbial populations were assessed. The greatest amount of total biomass adhered was observed for a zeolite particle size of 1 mm (0.289 g) which was achieved on the 12th day of operation. The highest ammonium adsorption capacity was observed for a zeolite particle size of 0.5 mm, which was 64% and 31% higher than that observed for particle sizes of 1.0 and 2.0 mm, respectively. The maximum de-sorption values were also found for a zeolite particle size of 0.5 mm, although when equilibrium was reached the ammonium concentrations were similar to those observed for a zeolite particle size of 1.0 mm. It was also found that the experimental data on ammonium adsorption fitted very well to the Freundlich isotherm for the three particle sizes studied. Finally, the nitrifying reactors showed similar microbial populations independently of the particle size used as microorganism carrier. The dominant bacterial community was Gammaproteobacteria making up 80% of the total population found. Betaproteobacteria were also identified and made up 12% approx. of the total population. Ammonium Oxidant Betaproteobacteria and Nitrobacter were also detected.

  6. Preparation and characterization of a new lipid nano-emulsion containing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate for droplet size reduction and sucrose palmitate for stability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Kawada, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Yu; Kitade, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiroharu; Nagata, Chieyo

    2008-08-01

    A new lipid nano-emulsion (LNE) was prepared from soybean oil and phosphatidylcholine (PC) employing two cosurfactants, sodium palmitate (PA) for reduced droplet size and sucrose palmitate (SP) for stability enhancement. The mean droplet size of LNEs prepared at a PA/PC (w/w) ratio of larger than 1/10 was found to be ca. 50 nm by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. However, during the 12-month storage, the PA/PC (1/10)-LNE showed an increase in mean droplet size and broadening of the droplet size distribution due to coalescence of the LNE particles. In a saline solution, the coalescence proceeded very rapidly, i.e., the mean droplet size increased to more than 150 nm within 0.5 h. To suppress the coalescence of LNE particles, four sucrose fatty acid esters of different chain lengths were examined as candidate cosurfactants. The results showed that PA/SP/PC (1/4/10)-LNE could maintain a mean droplet size around 50 nm for 12 months. In a saline solution, the mean droplet size could be maintained within 100 nm even after 24 h. Slight formation of flocculation in the LNEs depending on the storage period was suggested by measurement of the 31P nuclear magnetic resonance line width of the LNEs.

  7. Study on critical-sized ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles loaded with alendronate sodium: in vitro release and cell response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Shi, Feng; Gong, Kemeng; Liu, Yang; Zhi, Wei; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro release and the effect of RAW 264.7 macrophages of critical-sized wear particles of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), one of the most effective drugs to treat osteoporosis in clinic. The critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.% wear particles were prepared by vacuum gradient filtration combined with Pluronic F-68. In vitro release of ALN from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C with a shaker. Cell morphology, proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and secretions of cytokines were evaluated after co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles in vitro. Results showed that ALN released from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles included burst release and slow release in vitro. Macrophages would be chemotaxis and aggregated around the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN or UHMWPE wear particle, which was phagocytosed with time. The proliferation of macrophages co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was significantly decreased compared with that of critical-sized UHMWPE group. Meanwhile, the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles significantly induced the LDH leakage of macrophages, which indicated the cell death. The death of macrophages induced by ALN was one of pathways to inhibit their proliferation. The secretions of cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN group were significantly lower than those in critical-sized UHMWPE group due to the released ALN. The present results suggested that UHMWPE-ALN had the potential application in clinic to treat osteolysis induced by wear particles.

  8. Quantitative Characterization of the Growth of Deinococcus geothermalis DSM-11302: Effect of Inoculum Size, Growth Medium and Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bornot, Julie; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Gorret, Nathalie

    2015-08-20

    Due to their remarkable resistance to extreme conditions, Deinococcaceae strains are of great interest to biotechnological prospects. However, the physiology of the extremophile strain Deinococcus geothermalis has scarcely been studied and is not well understood. The physiological behaviour was then studied in well-controlled conditions in flask and bioreactor cultures. The growth of D. geothermalis type strains was compared. Among the strains tested, the strain from the German Collection of Microorganisms (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen DSM) DSM-11302 was found to give the highest biomass concentration and growth rate: in a complex medium with glucose, the growth rate reached 0.75 h(-1) at 45 °C. Yeast extract concentration in the medium had significant constitutive and catalytic effects. Furthermore, the results showed that the physiological descriptors were not affected by the inoculum preparation steps. A batch culture of D. geothermalis DSM-11302 on defined medium was carried out: cells grew exponentially with a maximal growth rate of 0.28 h(-1) and D. geothermalis DSM-11302 biomass reached 1.4 g·L(-1) in 20 h. Then, 1.4 gDryCellWeight of biomass (X) was obtained from 5.6 g glucose (Glc) consumed as carbon source, corresponding to a yield of 0.3 CmolX·CmolGlc(-1); cell specific oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production rates reached 216 and 226 mmol.CmolX(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and the respiratory quotient (QR) value varied from 1.1 to 1.7. This is the first time that kinetic parameters and yields are reported for D. geothermalis DSM-11302 grown on a mineral medium in well-controlled batch culture.

  9. Quantitative Characterization of the Growth of Deinococcus geothermalis DSM-11302: Effect of Inoculum Size, Growth Medium and Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bornot, Julie; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Gorret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Due to their remarkable resistance to extreme conditions, Deinococcaceae strains are of great interest to biotechnological prospects. However, the physiology of the extremophile strain Deinococcus geothermalis has scarcely been studied and is not well understood. The physiological behaviour was then studied in well-controlled conditions in flask and bioreactor cultures. The growth of D. geothermalis type strains was compared. Among the strains tested, the strain from the German Collection of Microorganisms (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen DSM) DSM-11302 was found to give the highest biomass concentration and growth rate: in a complex medium with glucose, the growth rate reached 0.75 h−1 at 45 °C. Yeast extract concentration in the medium had significant constitutive and catalytic effects. Furthermore, the results showed that the physiological descriptors were not affected by the inoculum preparation steps. A batch culture of D. geothermalis DSM-11302 on defined medium was carried out: cells grew exponentially with a maximal growth rate of 0.28 h−1 and D. geothermalis DSM-11302 biomass reached 1.4 g·L−1 in 20 h. Then, 1.4 gDryCellWeight of biomass (X) was obtained from 5.6 g glucose (Glc) consumed as carbon source, corresponding to a yield of 0.3 CmolX·CmolGlc−1; cell specific oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production rates reached 216 and 226 mmol.CmolX−1·h−1, respectively, and the respiratory quotient (QR) value varied from 1.1 to 1.7. This is the first time that kinetic parameters and yields are reported for D. geothermalis DSM-11302 grown on a mineral medium in well-controlled batch culture. PMID:27682099

  10. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating

  11. Kagomé lattices as cathode: Effect of particle size and fluoride substitution on electrochemical lithium insertion in sodium- and ammonium Jarosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandineni, Prashanth; Yaghoobnejad Asl, Hooman; Choudhury, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    Highly crystalline sodium and ammonium Jarosites, NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and NH4Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, have been synthesized employing hydrothermal synthesis routes. The structures consist of anionic layers of vertex-sharing FeO6 octahedra and SO4 tetrahedral units with interlayer space occupied by Na and ammonium ions, respectively. The corner-sharing FeO6 octahedral units form six and three rings similar to hexagonal tungsten bronze sheets also known as kagomé lattice. These sodium and ammonium Jarosites are thermally stable up to 400 °C and undergo facile electrochemical lithium insertion through the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Galvanostatic charge-discharge indicates that up to 2.25 and 2 lithium ions per formula unit can be inserted at an average voltage of 2.49 and 2.26 V to the sodium and the ammonium Jarosites, respectively, under slow discharge rate of C/50. The cycle-life and experimental achievable capacity show strong dependence on particle sizes and synthesis conditions. A small amount of fluoride substitution improves both achievable capacity and average voltage.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Study of Spread and Sorption of VX Sessile Droplets into Medium Grain-Size Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    saturation is set equal to one (i.e., fully saturated).8 The liquid/substrate interac- tions influence the sessile volume shape and contact angle ,9,10 where...θd changes in time and is defined as an angle between porous medium surface and tangent at the sessile droplet shape from the contact line. This...droplet sorption, including the definitions of inlet Ainl and interface Aint boundary, dynamic θd, and liquid|solid θ contact angle for sessile volume

  13. Size-selective DNA separation: recovery spectra help determine the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations required.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangyong; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Min; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    In the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), DNA fragments can be size-selectively separated by varying the final concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This separation strategy in combination with the use of paramagnetic particles provides a valuable platform for achieving the desired DNA size interval, which is important in automated library preparation for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Here, we report the establishment of recovery spectra of DNA fragments that enable the determination of suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective separation. Firstly, at a given NaCl concentration, the recovery equation was obtained by fitting the DNA recovery ratios versus the PEG concentrations using the logistic function to determine the required parameters. Secondly, the slope function of the recovery equation was achieved by deducing its first derivative. Therefore, the recovery spectrum can be generated using the slope function based on those parameters. According to the recovery spectra of different length DNA fragments, suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations can be determined, respectively, by calculating their resolution values and recovery ratios. The strategy was effectively applied to the size-selective separation of 532-, 400-, and 307-bp fragments at the selected reagent concentrations with recoveries of 96.9, 64.7, and 85.9%, respectively. Our method enables good predictions of NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective DNA separation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  15. New technique: Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-10-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories.

  16. Effect of water-soluble polymers on the state of aggregation, vesicle size, and phase transformations in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate.

    PubMed Central

    Meyuhas, D; Lichtenberg, D

    1996-01-01

    The state of aggregation and the steady-state size of mixed aggregates made of phospholipids and surfactants are both determined by the surfactant/lipid ratio in the mixed aggregates (Re). Water-soluble polymers, such as dextrans and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weights, induce reversible aggregation of phospholipid vesicles, mostly due to dehydration of the vesicle surface and depletion forces, and only at much higher concentrations, PEGs (but not dextran) also induce irreversible size growth of the vesicles. Here we show that the water-soluble polymers dextrans and PEGs do not affect the vesicle-micelle phase boundaries in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and the anionic surfactant sodium cholate. By contrast, these polymers affect markedly the steady-state size of cholate-containing vesicles. As compared with pure phosphatidylcholine vesicles, the cholate-containing vesicles have a lower tendency to undergo polymer-induced aggregation, probably due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged vesicles, but a higher tendency to undergo irreversible size growth at relatively low polymer concentrations. Such irreversible size growth was observed not only for PEG but also for dextran, which in the absence of cholate is incapable of inducing vesicle size growth. These findings are consistent with the prevailing concept that the polymer-induced size growth is due to the effect of large structural fluctuations in the bilayers of deformed aggregated vesicles, the surface of which is dehydrated by the polymer. The presence of cholate in the bilayers at sufficiently high concentrations induces such fluctuations, yielding irreversible size growth within the clusters of dehydrated vesicles formed upon mixing with polymers. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8913599

  17. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  18. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  19. Eruptive activity of enigmatic medium-sized volcanoes in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF), Central Mexico: The case of El Metate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, M.; Siebe, C.; Guilbaud, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The MGVF has a total area of ca. 40,000 km2 and is well known for being the host of the only two monogenetic volcanoes in Mexico that were born in historical times: Jorullo (1759-1774) and Paricutin (1943-1952). Another particularity of the MGVF is its high number of eruptive vents with over 1000 small monogenetic cones and associated lava flows (average vol. of 0.021 km3) and ca. 400 medium-sized volcanoes (average vol. from 0.5 to 50 km3). Most of these medium-sized volcanoes may be characterized as shields that were produced dominantly by effusive activity as opposed to the small cones formed also by explosive phases of activity. The products of the small cones range from olivine basalts to andesites whereas the medium-sized volcanoes are restricted to a smaller compositional range in the andesitic domain. Although the medium-sized volcanoes are more sparsely distributed in time and space and less abundant than the small cones, the risks associated with renewal of this type of activity should not be neglected. This study focuses on El Metate which is probably the youngest shield of the MGVF (< 3,700 y. BP). Unlike a typical shield volcano composed of a succession of thin fluid basaltic flows, El Metate consists of well-preserved >60 m thick andesite flows distributed radially around a summit dome. Detailed mapping and sampling allowed us to reconstruct its eruptive activity and the time sequence of lava flow emplacement. We have identified 13 individual lava flows with lengths ranging between 3 and 15 km covering 103 km2 and average thicknesses between 60 and 150 m. Individual volumes range between 0.5 and 3.5 km3 for a total of 11 to 15 km3. Estimates of flow emplacement parameters indicate maximum average effusion rates ranging between 15 and 100 m3.s-1 and a cumulative duration from 15 to 30 years. Such a short emplacement time is comparable to the historical monogenetic eruption of nearby Paricutin volcano (9 years) but the erupted volume of lava is

  20. Health status of workers in small and medium-sized companies as compared to large companies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamataki, Hajime; Suwazono, Yasushi; Okubo, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Uetani, Mirei; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-05-01

    The health status of workers in small companies has been noted to be relatively poor, but no actual comparisons of groups of variously sized companies within the same region based on the same methodology have ever been conducted. We undertook this study to clarify differences in health status according to company size. The subjects comprised workers of a Japanese steel company and various subcontractors who received health checkups in 2003. We obtained answers from 83 companies employing 11,844 workers and analyzed the data for 6,480 men aged 40 yr or more, comparing results of the health checkups, health management practices, and number of occupational health personnel according to company size (number of employees). Mean worker age in the various groups ranged from 49.7 to 54.0 yr. Drinking and smoking habits did not differ between them. There was a significant trend to higher prevalences of diabetes and hypertension, and lower prevalences of renal disease and hypercholesterolemia in smaller companies. Mean body mass index and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in companies with 1,000-2,999 workers. Health management practices satisfied the legal requirements of the respective company size. Occupational physicians devoted more time per worker in companies with 1,000-2,999 and 50-299 workers. No consistent differences were apparent between small and large companies in worker health status. Inter-company activities for occupational safety and health were undertaken and labor regulations almost equally adhered to. Endeavors to maintain a certain level of hygiene and health management play an important role in maintaining worker health in small companies.

  1. A novel alginate-encapsulated system to study biological response to critical-sized wear particles of UHMWPE loaded with alendronate sodium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Shi, Feng; Bo, Lin; Zhi, Wei; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel alginate-encapsulated system (Alg beads) to investigate the cell response to critical-sized wear particles of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene loaded with alendronate sodium (UHMWPE-ALN), one of the most effective drugs to treat bone resorption in clinic. The extrusion method was used to prepare Alg beads encapsulating rat calvarial osteoblasts (RCOs) and critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles with spherical morphology and uniform size. The morphology, permeability and stability of Alg beads were characterized. The proliferation, ALP activity, cell apoptosis and distribution of live/dead RCOs co-cultured with wear particles in Alg beads were evaluated. RCOs and critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles distributed evenly and contacted efficiently in Alg beads. Alg beads were both permeable to trypsin and BSA, while the smaller the molecular was, the larger the diffuse was. The proliferation of RCOs in Alg beads increased with time, which indicated that Alg beads provided suitable conditions for cell culture. The long-term stability of Alg beads indicated the possibility for the longer time of co-cultured cells with wear particles. Critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE wear particles both inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of RCOs, and induced the apoptosis of RCOs encapsulated in Alg beads. However, these effects could be significantly alleviated by the ALN released from the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles. The present results suggested that this novel-developed co-culture system was feasible to evaluate the cell response to critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles for a longer time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Size-Tunable Olive-Like Anatase TiO2 Coated with Carbon as Superior Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Guoqiang; Huang, Zhaodong; Li, Simin; Liao, Hanxiao; Wang, Jufeng; Hou, Hongshuai; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-10-01

    Olive-shaped anatase TiO2 with tunable sizes in nanoscale are designed employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as structure directing agents to exert dramatic impacts on structure shaping and size manipulation. Notably, the introduced PVA simultaneously serves as carbon sources, bringing about a homogenous carbon layer with intimate coupling interfaces for boosted electronic conductivity. Constructed from tiny crystalline grains, the uniformly dispersed carbon-coated TiO2 nano-olives (TOC) possess subtle loose structure internally for prompt Na(+) transportations. When utilized for sodium-ion storage, the size effects are increasingly significant at high charge-discharge rates, leading to the much superior rate performances of TOC with the smallest size. Bestowed by the improved Na(+) adsorption and diffusion kinetics together with the promoted electron transfer, it delivers a high specific capacity of 267 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C (33.6 mA g(-1) ) and sustains 110 mAh g(-1) at a rather high rate of 20 C. Even after cycled at 10 C over 1000 cycles, a considerable capacity of 125 mAh g(-1) with a retention of 94.6% is still obtained, highlighting its marvelous long-term cyclability and high-rate capabilities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Constraining the size of the Comptonizing medium by modelling the energy-dependent time lags of kHz QPOs of neutron star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-09-01

    We study the dependence of the estimated size and geometry of the medium on the time-averaged spectral model assumed and on the frequency of the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the framework of a thermal Comptonization model. We use the high-quality time lag and rms obtained during 1996 March 3 observation of 4U 1608-52 by RXTE as well as other observations of the source at different QPO frequencies where a single time lag between two broad energy bands has been reported. We compare the results obtained when assuming that the time-averaged spectra are represented by the spectrally degenerate `hot (kTb ≥ 1 keV)' and `cold (kTb ≤ 0.5 keV)' seed spectral models where Tb is seed source temperature. We find that for the `hot-seed' model the medium size is in the range of 0.3-2.0 km and the size decreases with increasing QPO frequency. On the other hand, for the `cold-seed' model, the range for the sizes is much larger 0.5-20 km and hence perhaps show no variation with QPO frequency. Our results emphasize the need for broad-band spectral information combined with high-frequency timing to lift this degeneracy. We further compare the rms as a function of energy for the upper kHz QPO, and indeed we find that the driver for this QPO should be temperature variations of the corona identical to the lower kHz QPO. However, the time lag reported for the upper kHz QPO is hard, which if confirmed would challenge the simple Comptonization model presented here.

  4. Arthroscopic proximal versus open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young; Lee, Jong-Myoung; Kwon, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Woo

    2016-12-01

    The study was aimed to compare arthroscopic proximal biceps tenodesis and open subpectoral biceps tenodesis in repair of small or medium rotator cuff tears. Eighty-five patients underwent biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear, and 66 patients were followed for median of 26.8 (18-42) months with ultrasonography were reviewed. The arthroscopic biceps tenodesis group included 34 cases, and the open subpectoral biceps group included 32 cases. Patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and constant scores. Rotator cuff repair and fixation of the biceps tendon were assessed by ultrasonography. Fixation failure and degree of deformity were evaluated by the pain in the bicipital groove and biceps apex distance (BAD). VAS score and tenderness at the bicipital groove decreased significantly in the open subpectoral group at 3 months postoperative. In both groups, the range of motion, ASES score, and constant score increased significantly (P < 0.05). Rotator cuff retear occurred in three cases (8.8 %) in the arthroscopic group and two cases in the open subpectoral group (6.2 %). There was no significant difference in BAD between the two groups. There was no difference between open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic proximal tenodesis at the time of the final follow-up; however, open subpectoral tenodesis showed encouraging results at 3-month follow-up. This early result of subpectoral tenodesis was related to removing most part of biceps tendinitis and using intra-bicipital groove tenodesis technique. III.

  5. Study of the Surface Heterogeneity of icy dwarf?planets and other medium size Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a comprehensive analysis of the surface heterogeneity of a selected sample of dwarf-planets and candidates to be considered as dwarf-planets. The sample has been carefully selected to reach the scientific goals with a relative low cost in observing time. The research proposed here will be based on the analysis of the light-curve of these objects obtained using IRAC/Spitzer photometry. KBOs likely retain some of the most primitive material in the Solar System. Models of the retention of volatiles by small-bodies in the Solar System show that dwarf-planets can retain most of the original inventory of volatiles. A good example is Pluto. The surface of this body is formed by patches of CH4, N2 and CO and exhibits a large degree of surface heterogeneity. Our preliminary results of the IRAC/Spitzer light curves of Pluto, obtained by this group in 2004 and 2014, show the potential of these data to map the surface distribution of the different species of ices on the surface of KBOs. For this project we have selected six objects (out of a list of 15) that are ideal for this study using Spitzer photometry. Our sample covers two classes of bodies: Eris, Makemake and Haumea, all large enough to retain volatiles and so how signs of sublimation and condensation cycles on their surfaces; and Quaoar, Varuna and Ixion (D<1000 km) that may not have retained volatiles. If signs of heterogeneity are detected on IRAC data from these medium bodies (as suggested by previous studies) this could be due to a combination of collisions and irradiation. By addressing the compositional heterogeneity of this sample of KBOs the proposed work will address gaps in the scientific knowledge of the chemical and dynamical history of the outer Solar System as well as other planetary systems.}

  6. Post-operative complications associated with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System in small- to medium-sized dogs: A retrospective analysis (2009–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Rappa, Nick S.; Radasch, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study classified and determined the post-operative complication rate associated with stabilization of cranial (CCL) ligament deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System (CCLRAS). Eighty-five medical records from 2009 to 2012 from 1 institution were evaluated. Complications were classified according to previously proposed definitions for orthopedic studies in veterinary medicine. Fifty-two owners were contacted by telephone at least 6 months after surgery and given a questionnaire to classify complications related to the implant. A visual analog scale was used to assess functionality and degree of pain. The overall complication rate was 30.3% with an inflammation-infection rate of 5.4% and a documented infection rate requiring implant removal of 1.8%. Owners reported full or acceptable function in 96% of cases with an average functional score of 86.5. Stabilization of CCL-deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine CCLRAS is reliable with acceptable complication rates. PMID:27493284

  7. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  8. A signet-ring cell melanoma arising from a medium-sized congenital melanocytic nevus in an adult: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Patients with congenital nevus, especially giant congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) measuring >20 cm, are known to be at elevated risk of developing melanomas, especially during the first and second decades of life. Melanomas rarely develop in patients with small and medium-sized CMNs, but if they do, they occur during the fourth and fifth decades of life. We present a case of a rapidly enlarging signet-ring cell melanoma (over 3 months) that arose from a medium-sized CMN in a 57-year-old Japanese man. Only 11 other cases of signet-ring cell melanomas at the primary site have been reported. On the basis of morphology alone, it is difficult to diagnose a nodule appearing in a CMN as a signet-ring cell melanoma, because even a benign melanocytic nevus can appear as signet-ring cell morphology. Moreover, a rapidly growing proliferative nodule (PN) more often develops in a CMN than melanoma; PNs may at times exhibit enough atypia to be comparable to melanomas. In our case, loss of p16 expression in the melanoma distinguished it from the nevus cells and was helpful in making the correct diagnosis. Clinical information, such as the patient's age, was also useful in establishing the diagnosis.

  9. Vaccine Pipeline Has Grown During The Past Two Decades With More Early-Stage Trials From Small And Medium-Size Companies.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Thomas J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    Many serious diseases lack safe and effective vaccines. Using a large commercial database, we examined trends in global vaccine research and development and found that the proportion of new vaccine candidates entering all stages of clinical development increased by 3-5 percentage points over the past two decades. Small and medium-size companies accounted for nearly twice as many new Phase I vaccine trials compared to large companies, but late-stage (Phase III) vaccine trials were dominated by large companies. There were no significant differences between vaccines and drugs in the probability of success in clinical trials or in profitability. Small and medium-size companies, including spin-outs from academic research centers, play an important role in innovative research and discovery. Our findings suggest that policy making targeted at smaller companies, such as prizes or opportunities for public-private partnerships, could support the development of new vaccines, particularly those targeting unmet medical needs and emerging public health threats.

  10. Impact of the Local Public Hospital Reform on the Efficiency of Medium-Sized Hospitals in Japan: An Improved Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing; Tone, Kaoru; Lu, Yingzhe

    2017-03-06

    To assess the change in efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the local public hospitals in Japan after the local public hospital reform launched in late 2007, which was aimed at improving the financial capability and operational efficiency of hospitals. Secondary data were collected from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications on 213 eligible medium-sized hospitals, each operating 100-400 beds from FY2006 to FY2011. The improved slacks-based measure nonoriented data envelopment analysis models (Quasi-Max SBM nonoriented DEA models) were used to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The dynamic efficiency measure indicated an efficiency gain in the first several years of the reform and then was followed by a decrease. Malmquist Index analysis showed a significant decline in the TFP between 2006 and 2011. The financial improvement of medium-sized hospitals was not associated with enhancement of efficiency. Hospital efficiency was not significantly different among ownership structure and law-application system groups, but it was significantly affected by hospital location. The results indicate a need for region-tailored health care policies and for a more comprehensive reform to overcome the systemic constraints that might contribute to the decline of the TFP. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different devices used for the closure of small-to-medium-sized patent ductus arteriosus in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    El-Saiedi, Sonia A; El Sisi, Amal M; Mandour, Rodina Sobhy; Abdel-Aziz, Doaa M; Attia, Wael A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the differences in cost and effectiveness of various devices used for the closure of small to medium sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We retrospectively studied 116 patients who underwent closure of small PDAs between January 2010 and January 2015. Three types of devices were used: the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) II, the cook detachable coil and the Nit Occlud coil (NOC). Immediate and late complications were recorded and patients were followed up for 3 months after the procedure. All statistical calculations were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science software. P <0.05 were considered significant. We successfully deployed ADO II devices in 33 out of 35 cases, cook detachable coils in 36 out of 40 cases and NOCs in 38 out of 41 cases. In the remaining nine cases, the first device was unsuitable or embolized and required retrieval and replacement with another device. Eleven patients (9.5%) developed vascular complications and required anticoagulation therapy. Patients who had hemolysis or vascular complications remained longer in the intensive care unit, with consequently higher total cost (P = 0.016). Also, the need for a second device increased the cost per patient. The cook detachable coil is the most cost-effective device for closure of small-to medium-sized PDAs. Calculations of the incremental cost-effectiveness. (ICE) revealed that the Cook detachable coil had less ICE than the ADO II and NOC. The NOC was more effective with fewer complications.

  13. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-06-15

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  14. Exploring the effect of silver nanoparticle size and medium composition on uptake into pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, Katja; Krystek, Petra; Giannakou, Christina; Hendriks, A. Jan; de Jong, Wim H.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of nanotechnology products on the market poses increasing human health risks by particle exposures. Adverse effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various cell lines have been measured based on exposure dose after a fixed time point, but NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Even though knowledge about relevant timescales for NP uptake is essential, e.g. for time- and cost-effective risk assessment through modelling, insufficient data are available. Therefore, the authors examined uptake rates for three different AgNP sizes (20, 50 and 75 nm) and two tissue culture medium compositions (with and without foetal calf serum, FCS) under realistic exposure concentrations in pulmonary epithelial 16HBE14o-cells. The quantification of Ag in cells was carried out by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We show for the first time that uptake kinetics of AgNPs into 16HBE14o-cells was highly influenced by medium composition. Uptake into cells was higher in medium without FCS, reaching approximately twice the concentration after 24 h than in medium supplemented with FCS, showing highest uptake for 50-nm AgNPs when expressed on a mass basis. This optimum shifts to 20 nm on a number basis, stressing the importance of the measurand in which results are presented. The importance of our research identifies that not just the uptake after a certain time point should be considered as dose but also the process of uptake (timing) might need to be considered when studying the mechanism of toxicity of nanoparticles.

  15. Retrospective Comparison of Intermediate-term Efficacy of 350 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Implants and Medium-sized 230-250 mm2 Implants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Alissa M; Rodgers, Cooper D; Zou, Baiming; Rosenberg, Nicole C; Webel, Aaron D

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim To compare the intermediate-term efficacy of a large surface area Baerveldt 350 mm2 glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with medium surface area implants (Baerveldt 250 mm2 and Molteno 3, 230, or 245 mm2). Design This is a retrospective, nonrandomized comparative trial. Materials and methods A total of 94 eyes of 94 patients of mixed glaucoma diagnoses without any prior glaucoma surgical procedures and who had undergone a glaucoma drainage implant surgery with either a large Baerveldt 350 mm2 GDD or a medium-sized GDD (Baerveldt 250 mm2 or Molteno 230 or 245 mm2) were reviewed for intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, and visual acuity (VA) preoperatively, and at 1, 2, and 3 years postprocedure. Results No significant differences were found in mean IOP, number of glaucoma medications used, and VA at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. The rate of additional glaucoma procedures was similar between the two groups. Conclusion There is no clear evidence that a larger implant surface area beyond 230 to 250 mm2 is advantageous in providing intermediate-term IOP control. Clinical significance It may be technically easier to surgically place a GDD that does not need to have its wings placed underneath the recti muscles, and the IOP results are similar. How to cite this article Meyer AM, Rodgers CD, Zou B, Rosenberg NC, Webel AD, Sherwood MB. Retrospective Comparison of Intermediate-term Efficacy of 350 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Implants and Medium-sized 230-250 mm2 Implants. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(1):8-15. PMID:28138212

  16. Influence of store dimensions and auxiliary volume configuration on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, Magdalena; Zass, Katrin; Wilhelms, Claudius; Vajen, Klaus; Jordan, Ulrike

    2010-07-15

    To increase the fractional energy savings achieved with solar thermal combisystems the store volume may be increased. Installation of large stores in single-family houses is, however, often limited by space constraints. In this article the influence of the store dimensions, as well as internal and external auxiliary volume configurations, are investigated for large solar water stores by annual dynamic TRNSYS simulations. The results show that store sizes up to 4 m{sup 3} may be used in solar heating systems with 30 m{sup 2} collector area. It is further shown that well-insulated stores are rather insensitive to the geometry. Stores deviating from the conventional dimensions still yield high fractional energy savings. Furthermore, the simulations show that the performance of an internal auxiliary volume configuration in most cases exceeds that of a solution with an external auxiliary unit. The practical limitations of very thin auxiliary volumes must, however, be further investigated. (author)

  17. An improved size exclusion-HPLC method for molecular size distribution analysis of immunoglobulin G using sodium perchlorate in the eluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiaoling; Levi, Mark S; Del Grosso, Alfred V; McCormick, William M; Bhattacharyya, Lokesh

    2017-05-10

    Size exclusion (SE) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used for the molecular size distribution (MSD) analyses of various therapeutic proteins. We report development and validation of a SE-HPLC method for MSD analyses of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in products using a TSKgel SuperSW3000 column and eluting it with 0.4M NaClO4, a chaotropic salt, in 40mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The chromatograms show distinct peaks of aggregates, tetramer, and two dimers, as well as the monomer and fragment peaks. In addition, the method offers about half the run time (12min), better peak resolution, improved peak shape and more stable base-line compared to HPLC methods reported in the literature, including that in the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A comparison of MSD analysis results between our method and the EP method shows interactions between the protein and the stationary phase and partial adsorption of aggregates and tetramer on the stationary phase, when the latter method is used. Thus, the EP method shows lower percent of aggregates and tetramer than are actually present in the products. In view of the fact that aggregates have been attributed to playing a critical role in adverse reactions due to IgG products, our observation raises a major concern regarding the actual aggregate content in these products since the EP method is widely used for MSD analyses of IgG products. Our method eliminates (or substantially reduces) the interactions between the proteins and stationary phase as well as the adsorption of proteins onto the column. Our results also show that NaClO4 in the eluent is more effective in overcoming the protein/column interactions compared to Arg-HCl, another chaotropic salt. NaClO4 is shown not to affect the molecular size and relative distribution of different molecular forms of IgG. The method validated as per ICH Q2(R1) guideline using IgG products, shows good specificity, accuracy, precision and a linear concentration dependence of peak areas

  18. On the monitoring and prediction of flash floods in small and medium-sized catchments - the EXTRUSO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemann, Stefan; Eltner, Anette; Sardemann, Hannes; Spieler, Diana; Singer, Thomas; Thanh Luong, Thi; Janabi, Firas Al; Schütze, Niels; Bernard, Lars; Bernhofer, Christian; Maas, Hans-Gerd

    2017-04-01

    for decision makers and emergency responders in the case of an event and, third, the development of open, interoperable tools for other researchers to be applied and further developed. The test area of the project is the Free State of Saxony (Germany) with a number of small and medium catchment areas. However, the whole system, comprising models, tools and sensor setups, is planned to be transferred and tested in other areas, within and outside Europe, as well. The team working on the project consists of eight researchers, including five PhD students and three postdocs. The EXTRUSO project is funded by the European Social Fund (ESF grant nr. 100270097) with a project duration of three years until June 2019. EASAC (2013): Trends in extreme weather events in Europe: implications for national and European Union adaption strategies. European Academies Science Advisory Council. Policy report 22, November 2013 The EXTRUSO project is funded by the European Social Fund (ESF), grant nr. 100270097

  19. Locomotion in some small to medium-sized mammals: a geometric morphometric analysis of the penultimate lumbar vertebra, pelvis and hindlimbs.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Alicia; Ercoli, Marcos D; Prevosti, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the influence of a variety of aspects of locomotion and ecology including gait and locomotor types, maximal running speed, home range, and body size on postcranial shape variation in small to medium-sized mammals, employing geometric morphometric analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods. The four views analyzed, i.e., dorsal view of the penultimate lumbar vertebra, lateral view of the pelvis, posterior view of the proximal femur and proximal view of the tibia, showed clear phylogenetic signal and interesting patterns of association with movement. Variation in home range size was related to some tibia shape changes, while speed was associated with lumbar vertebra, pelvis and tibia shape changes. Femur shape was not related to any locomotor variables. In both locomotor type and high-speed gait analyses, locomotor groups were distinguished in both pelvis and tibia shape analyses. These results suggest that adaptations to both typical and high-speed gaits could explain a considerable portion of the shape of those elements. In addition, lumbar vertebra and tibia showed non-significant relationships with body mass, which suggests that they might be used in morpho-functional analyses and locomotor inferences on fossil taxa, with little or no bias for body size. Lastly, we observed morpho-functional convergences among several mammalian taxa and detected some taxa that achieve similar locomotor features following different morphological paths.

  20. Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2006-05-01

    We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters GeN in the size range of 21⩽N⩽29. The basin-hopping global optimization method is employed for the search. The potential-energy surface is computed based on the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. A new series of low-lying clusters is found on the basis of several generic structural motifs identified previously for silicon clusters [S. Yoo and X. C. Zeng, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054304 (2006)] as well as for smaller-sized germanium clusters [S. Bulusu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 164305 (2005)]. Among the generic motifs examined, we found that two motifs stand out in producing most low-lying clusters, namely, the six/nine motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a tricapped trigonal prism Ge9, and the six/ten motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a bicapped antiprism Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N ˜65.

  1. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical study of medium-sized explosive eruptions at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Antonio; Michieli Vitturi, Mattia de'; Barsotti, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1970s, multiple reconstruction techniques have been proposed and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled tephra fall deposit datasets. Atmospheric transport and deposition processes strongly control the spatial distribution of tephra deposit; therefore, a large uncertainty affects mass derived estimations especially for fall layer that are not well exposed. This paper has two main aims: the first is to analyse the sensitivity to the deposit sampling strategy of reconstruction techniques. The second is to assess whether there are differences between the modelled values for emitted mass and grainsize, versus values estimated from the deposits. We find significant differences and propose a new correction strategy. A numerical approach is demonstrated by simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna on 24 November 2006. Eruptive parameters are reconstructed by an inversion information collected after the eruption. A full synthetic deposit is created by integrating the deposited mass computed by the model over the computational domain (i.e., an area of 7.5 × 104 km 2). A statistical analysis based on 2000 sampling tests of 50 sampling points shows a large variability, up to 50 % for all the reconstruction techniques. Moreover, for some test examples Power Law errors are larger than estimated uncertainty. A similar analysis, on simulated grain-size classes, shows how spatial sampling limitations strongly reduce the utility of available information on the total grain size distribution. For example, information on particles coarser than ϕ(-4) is completely lost when sampling at 1.5 km from the vent for all columns with heights less than 2000 m above the vent. To correct for this effect an optimal sampling strategy and a new reconstruction method are presented. A sensitivity study shows that our method can be extended to a wide range of eruptive scenarios including those in which

  2. Lung volume, chest size, and hematological variation in low-, medium-, and high-altitude central Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Fiori, G; Facchini, F; Ismagulov, O; Ismagulova, A; Tarazona-Santos, E; Pettener, D

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate adaptive responses to high-altitude environment, we examined three groups of healthy adult males from Central Asia: 94 high-altitude (HA) Kirghiz subjects (3,200 m above sea level); 114 middle-altitude (MA) Kazakh subjects (2,100 m), and 90 low-altitude (LA) Kirghiz subjects (900 m). Data on chest size (chest perimeter and chest diameter), lung volume (forced expiratory volume (FEV) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)), and hematological parameters (hemoglobin, erythrocytes, hematocrit, and SaO(2)) are discussed. The results show that 1) chest shape is less flat in the samples living at higher altitude. In the HA sample, chest perimeter is lower but chest excursion is high. 2) In the highlanders, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 are no higher than in the other samples, even when corrected for stature and body weight. The negative correlation between FVC-FEV1 and age decreases with increasing altitude. 3) The HA and MA samples have higher values of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and hematocrit. The HA sample has lower SaO(2) and higher arterial oxygen content than the LA sample. No association between hematocrit and age was detected in the four samples. The results indicate that the high-altitude Kirghiz present features of developmental acclimatization to hypobaric hypoxia which are also strongly influenced by other major high-altitude environmental stresses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery, shockwave lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of medium-sized radiolucent renal stones.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Berkan; Unsal, Ali; Ziypak, Tevfik; Diri, Akif; Atis, Gokhan; Guven, Selcuk; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Bozkurt, Omer Faruk; Oztuna, Derya

    2013-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for 10-20 mm radiolucent renal calculi by evaluating stone-free rates and associated complications. A total of 437 patients at 7 institutions who underwent SWL (n = 251), PNL (n = 140), or RIRS (n = 46) were enrolled in our study. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments <3 mm. The success rates, auxiliary procedures, and complications were compared in each group. Success rates were 66.5, 91.4, and 87% for SWL, PNL, and RIRS (p < 0.001). The need for auxiliary procedures was more common after SWL than PNL and RIRS (21.9 vs 5.7 vs 8.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). The overall complication rates for the SWL, PNL, and RIRS were 7.6, 22.1, and 10.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). Thirteen patients in PNL group received blood transfusions, while none of the patients in RIRS and SWL groups transfused. Hospitalization time per patient was 1.3 ± 0.5 days in the RIRS group, while it was 2.6 ± 0.9 days in the PNL group (p < 0.001). Fluoroscopy and operation time were significantly longer in the PNL group compared to RIRS (145.7 ± 101.7 vs 28.7 ± 18.7 s, and 57.5 ± 22.1 vs 43.1 ± 17 min, respectively). For treatment of moderate-sized radiolucent renal stones, RIRS and PNL provide significantly higher success and lower retreatment rate compared with SWL. Although PNL is effective, its biggest drawback is its invasiveness. Blood loss, radiation exposure, hospital stay, and morbidities of PNL can be significantly reduced with RIRS technique.

  4. Characterization of the origin of fine particulate matter in a medium size urban area in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, Michael; Tasoglou, Antonios; Florou, Kalliopi; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-stage methodology for investigating particulate pollution is developed and implemented for the case study area of Patras, Greece. Initially a low cost particulate matter mass monitor was used to assess aerosol mass concentrations indicating that the city, despite its small size (population around 200,000) and lack of heavy industry, violates both the daily and annual European Union PM standards. Increased PM10 concentrations were observed during the winter but local vehicular traffic was estimated to account for only 12 ± 4% of the PM10 concentration on an annual basis. In the second stage, PM2.5 chemical composition was measured at the urban center and biomass burning was identified as a major PM source during the colder months. In the third stage, PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition was also followed at a mostly upwind rural site around 40 km from the city. The transported pollution was found to account for 50% of the PM2.5 during winter and for more than 70% during the rest of the year. Almost all of the sulfates and 40-90%, depending on the season, of the organic aerosol are transported to the city from other areas. In the last stage, an intensive campaign took place during winter in order to quantify PM sources during the most polluted period. Nighttime sharp increases of the aerosol levels were observed with organic aerosol levels exceeding 80 μg m-3. Local biomass combustion and fossil fuel emissions for domestic heating were responsible for these levels.

  5. Simultaneous determination of desloratadine and montelukast sodium using second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry enhanced by an organized medium with applications to tablets and human plasma.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, F A; El-Enany, N; El-Shaheny, R N; Mikhail, I E

    2015-06-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive second-derivative synchronous fluorimetric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of a binary mixture of desloratadine (DSL) and montelukast sodium (MKT) in their co-formulated tablets. The method is based on measurement of the synchronous fluorescence intensities of the two drugs in McIlvaine's buffer, pH 2.3, in the presence of carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) as a fluorescence enhancer at a constant wavelength difference (Δλ) of 160 nm. The presence of CMC enhanced the synchronous fluorescence intensity of DSL by 216% and that of MKT by 28%. A linear dependence of the concentration on the amplitude of the second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectra was achieved over the ranges of 0.10-2.00 and 0.20-2.00 µg/mL with limits of detection of 0.02 and 0.03, and limits of quantification of 0.05 and 0.10 µg/mL for DSL and MKT, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied compounds in laboratory-prepared mixtures and tablets. The results were in good agreement with those obtained with the comparison method. The high sensitivity attained by the proposed method allowed the determination of MKT in spiked human plasma with average % recovery of 100.11 ± 2.44 (n = 3).

  6. Using Sodium-Chloride Tracers and Grain Size Analysis to Determine Hyporheic Permeability in Salmonid Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbery, J. W.; Janes, M. K.; Heffernan, J. E.; Horner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Embryonic mortality rates of salmonids are greatly affected by gravel permeability and grain size distributions within the host gravel. Typical permeability testing methods use a single standpipe to measure the permeability. For studies on the American and Feather Rivers in northern California, tracer tests were used to measure seepage velocity using a main "injection" well and several downstream monitoring wells. Bulk samples and pebble counts were used to measure grain size. Measurements were recorded at approximately 30cm depth in the gravel, where salmonid species typically lay their eggs. Sites were examined before and after stream restoration to compare subsurface habitat conditions. During each tracer test, a super-saturated NaCl solution was introduced into an "injection" standpipe with a short well screen located 30cm deep in the gravel. Identical downstream standpipes contained conductivity meters that sensed the NaCl as it passed through the gravel, causing a spike in specific conductance. Plotting the peak conductance against the arrival time allowed a seepage velocity to be measured in cm/second. Seepage velocity ranged from 0.2 - 0.7 cm/sec in restored gravel, and was less than 1.6 x 10-4 cm/sec in some un-restored areas. Grain size analysis showed that un-restored areas had an armored surface with d50 values ranging from 4-10 cm, while the subsurface showed excessive fine material supporting large grains smaller than those in the surface sample with d50 values ranging from 1.3 - 3.0 cm. Restored areas were found to contain a well sorted composition containing little to no fine material and a subsurface which closely matched the surface showing d50 values from 1.6 - 3.8 cm. Comparing results of tracer tests with grain size distributions in both restored and un-restored spawning gravels gives an indication of the relative health of a particular portion of a hyporheic river system, and the relative success of some restoration projects.

  7. Cellular responses by stable and uniform ultrafine titanium dioxide particles in culture-medium dispersions when secondary particle size was 100 nm or less.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Fujita, Katsuhide; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Mie; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyauchi, Arisa; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hideki; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2010-09-01

    Even though there have been some investigations into cellular responses induced by ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in vitro, the relationship between cellular responses and secondary particle size is still not clear. In this study, a stable and uniform TiO(2)-cell culture-medium dispersion was prepared, and cellular responses prompted by "ultrafine secondary particles" were examined. The TiO(2)-DMEM-FBS dispersion included secondary particles in which the secondary particle size was 100 nm or less. In the present study, a "secondary particle" was defined as a complex aggregate of TiO(2) primary particles, proteins from FBS and other medium components. Secondary particle size did not influence the cell viability. The TiO(2)-DMEM-FBS dispersion introduced to the human keratinocyte HaCaT cells caused weak intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. The cellular influence of ultrafine TiO(2)in vitro is caused by the following mechanisms: (1) Secondary particles are formed. Ultrafine TiO(2) particles dispersed in medium immediately form secondary particles with proteins and salts. (2) "Ultrafine" secondary particles are taken up by the cells. The secondary particles reach the cells by diffusion and/or sedimentation and are taken up by the cells, through endocytosis. (3) Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level increases. Internalized secondary particles induce an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, although the secondary particles do not break up in the cell. In the case of ultrafine TiO(2), the increase of the intracellular ROS level was minimal. Moreover, the antioxidation system of cells such as glutathione was working. (4) Apoptotic cell death is induced. An accumulation of oxidative stress activates the apoptotic pathway (such as the caspase-3) and subsequently induces apoptotic cell death. After 24h of exposure to TiO(2), the percentage of apoptotic cells was only 6-7%. As a result, although the ultrafine TiO(2) particles

  8. The proximally based long peroneal muscle turnover flap: A novel salvage flap for small to medium-sized defects of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Till; Hupkens, Pieter; Slater, Nicholas J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O

    2016-04-01

    Coverage of soft-tissue defects of the knee due to multiple operations, trauma, and infection remains a surgical challenge. Often, these defects are repaired using free tissue transfer. The aim of this study was to find an easy and reliable local method of repair for small to medium-sized defects. The authors describe a new surgical option for tissue coverage using a proximally based long peroneal muscle turnover flap (LPTF) with split-thickness skin graft. Proximally based LPTFs were harvested and transposed into same-size created defects in five cadavers. After optimizing this technique, it was clinically used in two patients with defects secondary to total knee replacement revisions. Average cadaver flap size was 4.7 × 15.8 cm allowing reach of all knee joint areas and was based consistently on a sufficient (2-mm-diameter average) proximal arterial branch of the anterior tibial artery. Donor sites were closed without tension. Subsequent application of the flap on two patients resulted in good functional outcome. The proximally based LPTF is a new option available in the reconstruction of knee defects and should be added to the reconstructive surgeon's armamentarium of pedicled flaps, providing short operating time and promising clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Structural Basis for Size-selective Permeation of Organic Cations through the Voltage-gated Sodium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye-Ming; Favre, Isabelle; Schild, Laurent; Moczydlowski, Edward

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that ionic selectivity in voltage-gated Na+ channels is mediated by a small number of residues in P-region segments that link transmembrane elements S5 and S6 in each of four homologous domains denoted I, II, III, and IV. Important determinants for this function appear to be a set of conserved charged residues in the first three homologous domains, Asp(I), Glu(II), and Lys(III), located in a region of the pore called the DEKA locus. In this study, we examined several Ala-substitution mutations of these residues for alterations in ionic selectivity, inhibition of macroscopic current by external Ca2+ and H+, and molecular sieving behavior using a series of organic cations ranging in size from ammonium to tetraethylammonium. Whole-cell recording of wild-type and mutant channels of the rat muscle μ1 Na+ channel stably expressed in HEK293 cells was used to compare macroscopic current–voltage behavior in the presence of various external cations and an intracellular reference solution containing Cs+ and very low Ca2+. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the Lys residue in domain III of the DEKA locus is responsible for restricting the permeation of large organic cations. Mutation of Lys(III) to Ala largely eliminated selectivity among the group IA monovalent alkali cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and permitted inward current of group IIA divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+). This same mutation also resulted in the acquisition of permeability to many large organic cations such as methylammonium, tetramethylammonium, and tetraethylammonium, all of which are impermeant in the native channel. The results lead to the conclusion that charged residues of the DEKA locus play an important role in molecular sieving behavior of the Na+ channel pore, a function that has been previously attributed to a hypothetical region of the channel called the “selectivity filter.” A detailed examination of individual contributions of the Asp(I), Glu

  10. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  11. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs.

  12. [Analysis of workplace health promotion and its effect on work ability and health-related quality of life in a medium-sized business].

    PubMed

    Biallas, B; Froböse, I; Zöller, M; Wilke, C

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of workplace health promotion on work ability and health-related quality of life in white-collar and blue-collar workers in a medium-sized business. The intervention group contains 75 subjects with a mean age of 36.6±10.63 years (55 men, 20 women). The participation rate is 47%. White-collar workers show improvement in their health-related quality of life regarding physical and psychological aspects and work ability. Physically inactive employees show improvement in their health-related quality of life regarding physical and psychological aspects as well as context. Active employees only show significant improvement in terms of work ability. In conclusion, the promotion of exercise in the context of occupational health promotion has a positive effect on quality of life and work ability of employees and, thus, is a benefit for both the individual as well as the business itself.

  13. Medium-sized Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters with distinct gold-kernel structures and spectroscopic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs of two other prevailing Au-kernels identified from previous experiments, namely the Ino-decahedral kernel and icosahedral kernel. The distinct X-ray diffraction patterns of RS-AuNPs with the three different types of Au-kernels can be utilized as signature features for future studies of structures of RS-AuNPs. Moreover, the simulated UV/Vis absorption spectra and Kohn-Sham orbital energy-level diagrams are obtained for the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32, on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory computation. The extrapolated optical band-edges of Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are 1.1 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. The feature peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of the two clusters can be attributed to the d --> sp electronic transition. Lastly, the catalytic activities of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are examined using CO oxidation as a probe. Both medium-sized thiolate-protected gold clusters can serve as effective stand-alone nanocatalysts.We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS

  14. Validation of a New Metric for Assessing the Integration of Health Protection and Health Promotion in a Sample of Small and Medium Size Employer Groups

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica A.R.; Nelson, Candace C.; Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Sorensen, Glorian; McLellan, Deborah L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct validation analyses for a new measure of the integration of worksite health protection and health promotion approaches developed in earlier research. Methods A survey of small to medium size employers located in the United States was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 (N=111). Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was used to assess reliability and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess convergent validity. Results The Integration Score was positively associated with the measures of occupational safety and health and health promotion activities/policies–supporting its convergent validity (Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.32–0.47). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94, indicating excellent reliability. Conclusions The Integration Score appears to be a promising tool for assessing integration of health promotion and health protection. Further work is needed to test its dimensionality and validate its use in other samples. PMID:26340291

  15. Automated payload and instruments for astrobiology research developed and studied by German medium-sized space industry in cooperation with European academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Wolfgang; Hofer, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Thiele, Hans; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Toporski, Jan; Rettberg, Petra

    2007-06-01

    For more than a decade Kayser-Threde, a medium-sized enterprise of the German space industry, has been involved in astrobiology research in partnership with a variety of scientific institutes from all over Europe. Previous projects include exobiology research platforms in low Earth orbit on retrievable carriers and onboard the Space Station. More recently, exobiology payloads for in situ experimentation on Mars have been studied by Kayser-Threde under ESA contracts, specifically the ExoMars Pasteur Payload. These studies included work on a sample preparation and distribution systems for Martian rock/regolith samples, instrument concepts such as Raman spectroscopy and a Life Marker Chip, advanced microscope systems as well as robotic tools for astrobiology missions. The status of the funded technical studies and major results are presented. The reported industrial work was funded by ESA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).

  16. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  17. Fixed-time Insemination in Pasture-based Medium-sized Dairy Operations of Northern Germany and an Attempt to Replace GnRH by hCG.

    PubMed

    Marthold, D; Detterer, J; Koenig von Borstel, U; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2016-02-01

    A field study was conducted aimed at (i) evaluating the practicability of a fixed-time insemination regime for medium-sized dairy operations of north-western Germany, representative for many regions of Central Europe and (ii) substituting hCG for GnRH as ovulation-inducing agent at the end of a presynch or ovsynch protocol in an attempt to reduce the incidence of premature luteal regression. Cows of two herds synchronized by presynch and two herds synchronized by ovsynch protocol were randomly allotted to three subgroups; in one group ovulation was induced by the GnRH analog buserelin, in another by hCG, whereas a third group remained untreated. The synchronized groups were fixed-time inseminated; the untreated group bred to observed oestrus. Relative to untreated herd mates, pregnancy rate in cows subjected to a presynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation-inducing agent was 74%; for hCG it was 60%. In cows subjected to an ovsynch protocol, the corresponding relative pregnancy rates reached 138% in the case of buserelin and 95% in the case of hCG. Average service interval was shortened by 1 week in the presynch and delayed by 2 weeks in the ovsynch group. It may be concluded that fixed-time insemination of cows synchronized via ovsynch protocol with buserelin as ovulation-inducing agent is practicable and may help improve efficiency and reduce the work load involved with herd management in medium-sized dairy operations. The substitution of hCG for buserelin was found to be not advisable. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different devices used for the closure of small-to-medium-sized patent ductus arteriosus in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Saiedi, Sonia A; El Sisi, Amal M; Mandour, Rodina Sobhy; Abdel-Aziz, Doaa M; Attia, Wael A

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In this study, we examined the differences in cost and effectiveness of various devices used for the closure of small to medium sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Setting and Design: We retrospectively studied 116 patients who underwent closure of small PDAs between January 2010 and January 2015. Subjects and Methods: Three types of devices were used: the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) II, the cook detachable coil and the Nit Occlud coil (NOC). Immediate and late complications were recorded and patients were followed up for 3 months after the procedure. Statistical Methods: All statistical calculations were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science software. P <0.05 were considered significant. Results: We successfully deployed ADO II devices in 33 out of 35 cases, cook detachable coils in 36 out of 40 cases and NOCs in 38 out of 41 cases. In the remaining nine cases, the first device was unsuitable or embolized and required retrieval and replacement with another device. Eleven patients (9.5%) developed vascular complications and required anticoagulation therapy. Patients who had hemolysis or vascular complications remained longer in the intensive care unit, with consequently higher total cost (P = 0.016). Also, the need for a second device increased the cost per patient. Conclusions: The cook detachable coil is the most cost-effective device for closure of small-to medium-sized PDAs. Calculations of the incremental cost-effectiveness. (ICE) revealed that the Cook detachable coil had less ICE than the ADO II and NOC. The NOC was more effective with fewer complications. PMID:28566822

  19. Influence of Root Diameter and Soil Depth on the Xylem Anatomy of Fine- to Medium-Sized Roots of Mature Beech Trees in the Top- and Subsoil.

    PubMed

    Kirfel, Kristina; Leuschner, Christoph; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter (D), vessel density (VD), relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area) and derived potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp) in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1-10 mm) in the topsoil and subsoil (0-200 cm) of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits. All anatomical and functional traits showed strong dependence on root diameter and thus root age but no significant relation to soil depth. Averaged over topsoil and deep soil and variable flow path lengths in the roots, D increased linearly with root diameter from ∼50 μm in the smallest diameter class (1-2 mm) to ∼70 μm in 6-7 mm roots (corresponding to a mean root age of ∼12 years), but remained invariant in roots >7 mm. D never exceeded ∼82 μm in the 1-10 mm roots, probably in order to control the risk of frost- or drought-induced cavitation. This pattern was overlain by a high variability in xylem anatomy among similar-sized roots with Kp showing a higher variance component within than between root diameter classes. With 8% of the roots exceeding average Kp in their diameter class by 50-700%, we obtained evidence of the existence of 'high-conductivity roots' indicating functional differentiation among similar-sized roots. We conclude that the hydraulic properties of small to medium diameter roots of beech are mainly determined by root age, rendering root diameter a suitable predictor of hydraulic functioning, while soil depth - without referring to path length - had a negligible effect.

  20. Monitoring the aeration efficiency and carbon footprint of a medium-sized WWTP: experimental results on oxidation tank and aerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Caivano, Marianna; Bellandi, Giacomo; Mancini, Ignazio M; Masi, Salvatore; Brienza, Rosanna; Panariello, Simona; Gori, Riccardo; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-03-01

    The efficiency of aeration systems should be monitored to guarantee suitable biological processes. Among the available tools for evaluating the aeration efficiency, the off-gas method is one of the most useful. Increasing interest towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biological processes has resulted in researchers using this method to quantify N2O and CO2 concentrations in the off-gas. Experimental measurements of direct GHG emissions from aerobic digesters (AeDs) are not available in literature yet. In this study, the floating hood technique was used for the first time to monitor AeDs. The floating hood technique was used to evaluate oxygen transfer rates in an activated sludge (AS) tank of a medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Italy. Very low values of oxygen transfer efficiency were found, confirming that small-to-medium-sized plants are often scarcely monitored and wrongly managed. Average CO2 and N2O emissions from the AS tank were 0.14 kgCO2/kgbCOD and 0.007 kgCO2,eq/kgbCOD, respectively. For an AeD, 3 × 10(-10) kgCO2/kgbCOD direct CO2 emissions were measured, while CO2,eq emissions from N2O were 4 × 10(-9) kgCO2,eq/kgbCOD. The results for the AS tank and the AeD were used to estimate the net carbon and energy footprint of the entire plant.

  1. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion.

  2. Altered cytotoxicity of ROS-inducing compounds by sodium pyruvate in cell culture medium depends on the location of ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Kelts, Jessica L; Cali, James J; Duellman, Sarah J; Shultz, John

    2015-01-01

    Induction of oxidative stress by drugs and other xenobiotics is an important mechanism of cytotoxicity. However, in vitro studies on the relationship between oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cultured cells is frequently complicated by the fact that cell culture medium components affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposures in ways that vary with the mode of ROS production. The objectives of this study were to first determine the mode of ROS induction by certain model compounds when they are applied to cultured cells, and then to determine how ROS induction and cytotoxicity were affected by the ROS-quenching medium component pyruvate. Three compounds, eseroline, benserazide, and pyrogallol induced H2O2 in cell culture media independent of cells. However, another compound, menadione, induced H2O2 in a manner largely dependent on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells used in this study, which is consistent with its known mechanism of inducing ROS through intracellular redox cycling. 1 mM pyruvate, as well as catalase, reduced the H2O2 in culture wells with each ROS inducer tested but it only reduced the cytotoxicity of cell-independent inducers. It reduced the cytotoxicity of benserazide and pyrogallol >10-fold and of eseroline about 2.5-fold, but had no effect on menadione cytotoxicity. From this data, it was concluded that depending on the mechanism of ROS induction, whether intra- or extracellular, a ROS-quenching medium component such as pyruvate will differentially affect the net ROS-induction and cytotoxicity of a test compound.

  3. Development of medium-size half-mask facepiece for male workers at a shipyard and its fit performance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Kim, David

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, three differently sized half-mask facepiece prototypes were constructed from silicon using computer graphics and statistical analysis to fit them according to Korean facial dimensions. The purpose of this study was to complete the medium-size half-mask respirator based on the prototype, which would provide an adequate fit performance for male workers at a shipyard, Hyundai Samho Heavy Industry Co., in Korea. The complete respirator--the hardness 55--was manufactured with existing accessories such as a filter, exhalation valve, and strap attached. The fit performance test was conducted by performing a quantitative fit-test on 48 male subjects: workers who usually wear half-mask respirators (Dobulife Tech Co., Model DM-911, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The results showed that the hardness 55 provided male subject workers with much better fit performance than the existing mask constructed by the same company. Because softness of the material of the facepiece, in particular the inner part, influenced faceseal leakage, further research on developing better-fit respirator facepieces should consider carefully the fine control of material softness.

  4. Occupational health care in small and medium-sized enterprises--introduction of services to craftsmen by using their professional networks.

    PubMed

    Froneberg, B; Boldt, U

    1999-01-01

    In order to ensure equality of occupational health care among employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and of larger companies amendments in the regulations of the numerous German accident insurance funds had to be made to provide for full availability of services, as requested by German and European law. According to these amendments, sectors formerly exempted due to small size and due to lack of an adequate number of qualified personnel, had to be covered by occupational health care. In order to reach this target group new strategies of care delivery had to be developed, making use of pre-existing infrastructure and networks. In Germany, district trade association (Kreishandwerkerschaften) have proved to be very effective for introducing occupational safety and health care into SMEs by either hiring external multidisciplinary services or by establishing a common service to be used by all associated crafts establishments. In a study conducted by the Federal Office for Health and Safety at Work in 1996 (Boldt, Gille, & Grahl, 1997), 7 district trade association were looked at in detail for their strategies. The results were discussed and supplemented in a 2-day workshop.

  5. [An improved differential medium, CA medium, for differentiating Shigella].

    PubMed

    Tokoro, M; Nagano, I; Goto, K; Nakamura, A

    1990-07-01

    We devised a Citrate-Acetate (CA) medium for rapidly differentiating Shigella. The medium consisted of 3.0 g of sodium citrate, 2.0 g of sodium acetate, 0.2 g of glucose, 1.0 g of dipotassium phosphate, 1.0 g of mono ammonium phosphate, 0.2 g of magnesium sulfate, 5.0 g of sodium chloride, 0.08 g of brom thymol blue, 15.0 g of agar, and 1000 ml of distilled water. An evaluation was made of the CA medium, for the rapid differentiation of 23 Shigella strains, 129 Escherichia coli strains and 130 isolates, that formed colourless colonies suspected to be Shigella on SS agar plate, from feces of healthy people. The results obtained were as follows 1) On the CA medium, all Shigella strains did not grow and there was no change in colour. 2) Positive growth rates of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, sodium acetate medium (Acet) and Christensen citrate medium (C-Cit) were 96.0%, 95.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rate of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on C-Cit medium. 3) Positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, Acet medium and C-Cit medium were 95.4%, 83.1% and 71.5%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on Acet medium and C-Cit medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Interfacial and Micellization Behaviors of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Amphiphiles (Tween-20, Brij-35, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) in Aqueous Medium.

    PubMed

    Ghosh; Moulik

    1998-12-15

    The formation of micelles of Tween-20 and Brij-35 as well as of SDS, Tween-20, and Brij-35 mixed in different proportions in aqueous medium has been physicochemically investigated. The critical micellar concentration (CMC), micellar aggregation number, counterion binding by micelles, micellar polarity, free energies of micellization and interfacial adsorption, and entropy of micellization have been evaluated by conductometric, tensiometric, and fluorimetric measurements. The solution composition has been found to have a complex say on the measured physicochemical parameters. The enthalpies of micellization of both Tween-20 + Brij-35 and SDS + Tween-20 + Brij-35 mixed surfactant systems have been found to be negligibly small. Attempts to understand the properties of mixed micelles (composition, mutual synergism, component activity coefficients, and CMC) have been made with the help of the propositions of Clint, Rubingh, and Rubingh and Holland. The mixed binary and ternary systems can be adequately described by these theories. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Comparison between classical polyarteritis nodosa and single organ vasculitis of medium-sized vessels: a retrospective study of 25 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kint, N; De Haes, P; Blockmans, D

    2016-02-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by necrotizing inflammation of medium-sized vessels. In clinical practice, the distinction is made between a limited, mostly cutaneous, form and a generalized form. The Chapel Hill Consensus Conference of 2012 on the classification of the vasculitides classifies PAN as a medium vessel vasculitis, whereas the limited forms fall under the heading 'single-organ vasculitis' (SOV), with subdivions such as 'cutaneous arteritis' (formerly called cutaneous PAN) and 'others'. In this last category, forms of PAN limited to a single organ (e.g. testicle, gall bladder or appendix) should be categorized. The relation between classical and limited forms of PAN remains enigmatic. To compare demographics, clinical characteristics and prognosis between SOV and generalized PAN. Clinical files of all patients with a diagnosis of classical or limited PAN made in the departments of general internal medicine and dermatology between 1983 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital were reviewed. The patients of the SOV group tend to be younger, with a female predominance, while we observed a male predominance in the generalized PAN group. Relapses were more common in SOV than in classical PAN. None of the patients initially diagnosed with cPAN/SOV progressed to generalized disease. Though SOV and classical PAN share a lot of similarities, they are probably different disease entities, based on their different demographical, clinical and prognostic characteristics. The 1990 ACR-criteria for classical PAN are too broad since they allow patients with limited disease to be classified as classic PAN.

  8. Detection of intermolecular transferred-NOE interactions in small and medium size protein complexes: RANTES complexed with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide.

    PubMed

    Abayev, Meital; Srivastava, Gautam; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Anglister, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    NMR is a powerful tool for studying structural details of protein/peptide complexes exhibiting weak to medium binding (KD > 10 μm). However, it has been assumed that intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) interactions are difficult to observe in such complexes. We demonstrate that intermolecular NOEs can be revealed by combining the (13) C-edited/(13) C-filtered experiment with the transferred NOE effect (TRNOE). Due to the TRNOE phenomenon, intermolecular NOE cross peaks are characterized by both the chemical shifts (CSs) of the protein protons and the average CSs of the peptide protons, which are dominated by the CSs of the protons of the free peptide. Previously, the TRNOE phenomenon was used almost exclusively to investigate the conformation of small ligands bound to large biomolecules. Here, we demonstrate that TRNOE can be extended to enable the study of intermolecular interactions in small- and medium-sized protein complexes. We used the (13) C-edited/(13) C-filtered TRNOE experiment to study the interactions of the chemokine regulated upon activation, normal T cell, expressed and secreted (RANTES) with a 27-residue peptide, containing two sulfotyrosine residues, representing the N-terminal segment of the CCR5 receptor ((Nt-CCR5(1-27). The TRNOE phenomenon led to more than doubling of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for the intermolecular NOEs observed in the (13) C-edited/(13) C-filtered experiment for the 11.5-kDa monomeric RANTES/Nt-CCR5(1-27) complex. An even better improvement in the SNR was achieved with dimeric Nt-CCR5(1-27)/RANTES (23 kDa), especially in comparison with the spectra measured with a 1 : 1 protein to peptide ratio. In principle, the isotope-edited/isotope-filtered TRNOE spectrum can discern all intermolecular interactions involving nonexchangeable protons in the complex.

  9. Treatment outcomes of single- versus double-row repair for larger than medium-sized rotator cuff tears: the effect of preoperative remnant tendon length.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kyu; Moon, Sung Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun

    2013-10-01

    In rotator cuff repair, no practical guidelines exist for deciding which technique is the most beneficial to outcomes. To determine which of 2 repair techniques, the single-row (SR) and double-row suture bridge (DR-SB) methods, leads to better therapeutic outcomes in terms of remnant tendon length in patients with larger than medium-sized cuff tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Remnant tendon length, muscle atrophy, and fatty degeneration were measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 78 patients with larger than medium-sized rotator cuff tears who were available for follow-up MRI. There were 30 patients with remnant tendons <10 mm in length (group 1) and 48 with remnant tendons ≥10 mm in length (group 2). In group 1, the SR technique was performed on 17 patients and the DR-SB technique on 13 patients. In group 2, the SR technique was performed on 16 patients and the DR-SB technique on 32 patients. The mean follow-up period for all patients was 26.6 months (range, 24-42 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. In group 1, there was 1 retear (6%) with the SR repair and 6 (46%) with the DR-SB repair. In group 2, there were 3 retears (19%) with the SR repair and 2 (6%) with the DR-SB repair. The retear rate was significantly higher in patients with the DR-SB repair in group 1 (P = .025), while there was no significant difference between the 2 techniques in group 2 (P = .316). The UCLA and Constant scores were significantly higher in patients with the SR repair in group 1 (P = .02 and P = .029, respectively), and the UCLA and ASES scores were significantly higher in patients with the DR-SB repair in group 2 (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Remnant tendon length should be considered to improve repair integrity. The SR technique may provide superior rotator cuff integrity when remnant tendons are <10 mm in length.

  10. Mental health status and work environment among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises in Guangdong, China-a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Lu, Liming; Han, Lu; Chen, Wen; Ling, Li

    2014-11-12

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China. Data were collected in 2012 through a cross-sectional survey among 1200 workers working in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Guangdong, China. Mental health was measured by psychological well-being in the current study. Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model was used as a theoretical framework to examine the psychosocial factors associated with workers' psychological well-being. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and analysis was performed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. About three in ten workers (35.3%) in the sample had poor psychological well-being. Those who were men, younger in age, or migrant workers had worse psychological outcome in bivariate analyses. After controlling for individual variables (gender, age, marital status, and household registration), we found that longer weekly work hours (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13 ~ 1.50), more exposure to hazardous work environment (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10 ~ 1.44), higher job demands (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 1.49), and lower job autonomy (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.60 ~ 0.81) were significant associated with worse psychological well-being. The results were consistent with predictions of the JDCS model. The results indicate that the JDCS model is a useful framework in predicting psychological well-being among Chinese workers in SMEs. Future mental health promotion should focus on young

  11. P2Y1 receptor modulation of Ca2+-activated K+ currents in medium-sized neurons from neonatal rat striatal slices

    PubMed Central

    Coppi, E.; Pedata, F.

    2012-01-01

    ATP signaling to neurons and glia in the nervous system occurs via activation of both P2Y and P2X receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of P2Y1 receptor stimulation in developing striatal medium-sized neurons using patch-clamp recordings from acute brain slices of 7- and 28-day-old rats. Application of the selective P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-(Methylthio) ADP trisodium salt (2-MeSADP; 250 nM) increased outward K+ currents evoked by a ramp depolarization protocol in voltage-clamp recordings. This effect was observed in 59 out of 82 cells (72%) and was blocked completely by the P2Y1 antagonist, 2′-deoxy-N6-methyl adenosine 3′,5′-diphosphate. The averaged 2-MeSADP-sensitive conductance was fitted by the sum of a linear conductance and a Boltzmann relation, giving one-half activation voltage of −14.2 mV and an equivalent charge of 2.91. The 2MeSADP-mediated effect was sensitive to submillimolar concentrations of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 200 μM), to 200 nM iberiotoxin and to 100 nM apamin, suggesting the involvement of both big and small potassium (BK and SK, respectively) calcium-activated channels. In current-clamp experiments, 2-MeSADP decreased depolarization-evoked action potential (AP) firing in all 26 cells investigated, and this effect was reversed by TEA and by apamin but not by iberiotoxin. We conclude that the stimulation of P2Y1 receptors in developing striatal neurons leads to activation of calcium-activated potassium channels [IK(Ca)] of both BK and SK subtypes, the latter responsible for decreasing the frequency of AP firing in response to current injection. Therefore, P2Y1 signaling leading to activation of IK(Ca) may be important in regulating the activity of medium-sized neurons in the striatum. PMID:22131374

  12. Clinical Trial with Sodium (99m)Tc-Pertechnetate Produced by a Medium-Energy Cyclotron: Biodistribution and Safety Assessment in Patients with Abnormal Thyroid Function.

    PubMed

    Selivanova, Svetlana V; Lavallée, Éric; Senta, Helena; Caouette, Lyne; McEwan, Alexander J B; Guérin, Brigitte; Lecomte, Roger; Turcotte, Éric

    2017-05-01

    A single-site prospective open-label clinical study with cyclotron-produced sodium (99m)Tc-pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-NaTcO4) was performed in patients with indications for a thyroid scan to demonstrate the clinical safety and diagnostic efficacy of the drug and to confirm its equivalence with conventional (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 eluted from a generator. Methods:(99m)Tc-NaTcO4 was produced from enriched (100)Mo (99.815%) with a cyclotron (24 MeV; 2 h of irradiation) or supplied by a commercial manufacturer (bulk vial eluted from a generator). Eleven patients received 325 ± 29 (mean ± SD) MBq of the cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc-NaTcO4, whereas the age- and sex-matched controls received a comparable amount of the generator-derived tracer. Whole-body and thyroid planar images were obtained for each participant. In addition to the standard-energy window (140.5 keV ± 7.5%), data were acquired in lower-energy (117 keV ± 10%) and higher-energy (170 keV ± 10%) windows. Vital signs and hematologic and biochemical parameters were monitored before and after tracer administration. Results: Cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 showed organ and whole-body distributions identical to those of conventional (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 and was well tolerated. All images led to a clear final diagnosis. The fact that the number of counts in the higher-energy window was significantly higher for cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 did not influence image quality in the standard-energy window. Image definition in the standard-energy window with cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc was equivalent to that with generator-eluted (99m)Tc and had no particular features allowing discrimination between the (99m)Tc production methods. Conclusion: The systemic distribution, clinical safety, and imaging efficacy of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 in humans provide supporting evidence for the use of this tracer as an equivalent for generator-eluted (99m)Tc-NaTcO4 in routine clinical practice. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine

  13. Small and medium sized HDL particles are protectively associated with coronary calcification in a cross-sectional population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Ditah, Chobufo; Otvos, James; Nassar, Hisham; Shaham, Dorith; Sinnreich, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D

    2016-08-01

    Failure of trials to observe benefits by elevating plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has raised serious doubts about HDL-C's atheroprotective properties. We aimed to identify protective HDL biomarkers by examining the association of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measures of total HDL-particle (HDL-P), large HDL-particle, and small and medium-sized HDL-particle (MS-HDL-P) concentrations and average HDL-particle size with coronary artery calcification (CAC), which reflects the burden of coronary atherosclerosis, and compare with that of HDL-C. Using a cross-sectional design, 504 Jerusalem residents (274 Arabs and 230 Jews), recruited by population-based probability sampling, had HDL measured by NMR spectroscopy. CAC was determined by multidetector helical CT-scanning using Agatston scoring. Independent associations between the NMR measures and CAC (comparing scores ≥100 vs. <100) were assessed with multivariable binary logistic models. Comparing tertile 3 vs. tertile 1, we observed protective associations of HDL-P (multivariable-adjusted OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.79, plinear trend = 0.002) and MS-HDL-P (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19-0.69), plinear trend = 0.006 with CAC, which persisted after further adjustment for HDL-C. HDL-C was not significantly associated with CAC (multivariable-adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.27-1.29 for tertiles 3 vs. 1, plinear trend = 0.49). Large HDL-P and average particle size (which are highly correlated; r = 0.83) were not associated with CAC: large HDL-P (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.33-1.83, plinear trend = 0.29) and average HDL-P size (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.35-1.48, plinear trend = 0.58). MS-HDL-P represents a protective subpopulation of HDL particles. HDL-P and MS-HDL-P were more strongly associated with CAC than HDL-C. Based on the accumulating evidence, incorporation of MS-HDL-P or HDL-P into the routine prediction of CHD risk should be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The control system of the 12-m medium-size telescope prototype: a test-ground for the CTA array control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, E. A.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Lindemann, R.; Melkumyan, D.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high energy -ray observatory. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different sizes and types and in addition numerous auxiliary devices. In order to provide a test-ground for the CTA array control, the steering software of the 12-m medium size telescope (MST) prototype deployed in Berlin has been implemented using the tools and design concepts under consideration to be used for the control of the CTA array. The prototype control system is implemented based on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) control middleware, with components implemented in Java, C++ and Python. The interfacing to the hardware is standardized via the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture (OPC UA). In order to access the OPC UA servers from the ACS framework in a common way, a library has been developed that allows to tie the OPC UA server nodes, methods and events to the equivalents in ACS components. The front-end of the archive system is able to identify the deployed components and to perform the sampling of the monitoring points of each component following time and value change triggers according to the selected configurations. The back-end of the archive system of the prototype is composed by two different databases: MySQL and MongoDB. MySQL has been selected as storage of the system configurations, while MongoDB is used to have an efficient storage of device monitoring data, CCD images, logging and alarm information. In this contribution, the details and conclusions on the implementation of the control software of the MST prototype are presented.

  15. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Volks, Natalie; Oschlies, Ilske; Cario, Gunnar; Weichenthal, Michael; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL) is a rare disease that has been added as a provisional entity to the World Health Organization European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification of lymphomas with primary cutaneous manifestations. Patients commonly present with a solitary nodule or plaque on the head or upper trunk, but are usually otherwise in good health. The prognosis is favorable, but the optimal treatment has not been defined. Recent publications have described the expression of programmed death-1 in PCSM-TCL and T-cell pseudolymphoma, suggesting a diagnostic value of this marker in the differential diagnosis of PCSM-TCL in contrast to other types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a tumor of the right supraorbital area. She was treated as an outpatient four times with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. In addition to the case history, this report includes the clinical and histologic findings and a review of the current literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis.

  17. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 does not correlate with translation efficiency in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Biever, Anne; Puighermanal, Emma; Nishi, Akinori; David, Alexandre; Panciatici, Claire; Longueville, Sophie; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Meyuhas, Oded; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2015-03-11

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit, is phosphorylated on several residues in response to numerous stimuli. Although commonly used as a marker for neuronal activity, its upstream mechanisms of regulation are poorly studied and its role in protein synthesis remains largely debated. Here, we demonstrate that the psychostimulant d-amphetamine (d-amph) markedly increases rpS6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 sites in both crude and synaptoneurosomal preparations of the mouse striatum. This effect occurs selectively in D1R-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and requires the cAMP/PKA/DARPP-32/PP-1 cascade, whereas it is independent of mTORC1/p70S6K, PKC, and ERK signaling. By developing a novel assay to label nascent peptidic chains, we show that the rpS6 phosphorylation induced in striatonigral MSNs by d-amph, as well as in striatopallidal MSNs by the antipsychotic haloperidol or in both subtypes by papaverine, is not correlated with the translation of global or 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract mRNAs. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic insights into the in vivo regulation of the post-translational modification of rpS6 in the striatum and point out the lack of a relationship between PKA-dependent rpS6 phosphorylation and translation efficiency.

  18. Integrating health promotion and occupational safety and health in manufacturing worksites: Perspectives of leaders in small-to-medium sized businesses.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Candace C; Allen, Jennifer D; McLellan, Deborah; Pronk, Nico; Davis, Kia L

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that worksite interventions integrating worksite health promotion (WHP) and occupational safety and health (OSH) may be more efficacious and have higher participation rates than health promotion programs offered alone. However, dissemination of integrated programs is complicated by lack of tools for implementation - particularly for small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). The goal of this study is to describe perceptions of acceptability and feasibility of implementing an integrated approach to worker health that coordinates WHP and OSH in SMBs. In September to November 2012, decision-makers for employee health programming within SMBs (< 750 employees) in greater Minneapolis were identified. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed to develop an understanding of perceived benefits and barriers, awareness, and capacity for implementing an integrated approach. Worker health was widely valued by participants. They reported strong management support for improving employee health and safety. Most participants indicated that their company was open to making changes in their approach to worker health; however, cost and staffing considerations were frequently perceived as barriers. There are opportunities for implementing integrated worksite health programs in SMBs with existing resources and values. However, challenges to implementation exist, as these worksites may lack the appropriate resources.

  19. Organic–inorganic binary mixture matrix for comprehensive laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis and imaging of medium-size molecules including phospholipids, glycerolipids, and oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, Adam D.; O'Neill, Kelly C.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-10-13

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a widely adopted, versatile technique, especially in high-throughput analysis and imaging. However, matrix-dependent selectivity of analytes is often a severe limitation. In this work, a mixture of organic 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and inorganic Fe3O4 nanoparticles is developed as a binary MALDI matrix to alleviate the well-known issue of triacylglycerol (TG) ion suppression by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In application to lipid standards and maize seed cross-sections, the binary matrix not only dramatically reduced the ion suppression of TG, but also efficiently desorbed and ionized a wide variety of lipids such as cationic PC, anionic phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and neutral digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The binary matrix was also very efficient for large polysaccharides, which were not detected by either of the individual matrices. As a result, the usefulness of the binary matrix is demonstrated in MS imaging of maize seed sections, successfully visualizing diverse medium-size molecules and acquiring high-quality MS/MS spectra for these compounds.

  20. Health-related quality of life and its correlates among Chinese migrants in small- and medium-sized enterprises in two cities of Guangdong.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liming; Zou, Guanyang; Zeng, Zhi; Han, Lu; Guo, Yan; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) status and associated factors among rural-to-urban migrants in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 856 rural-to-urban migrants working at small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Shenzhen and Zhongshan City in 2012. Andersen's behavioral model was used as a theoretical framework to exam the relationships among factors affecting HRQOL. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Workers with statutory working hours, higher wages and less migrant experience had higher HRQOL scores. Need (contracting a disease in the past two weeks and perception of needing health service) had the greatest total effect on HRQOL (β = -0.78), followed by enabling (labor contract, insurance purchase, income, physical examination during work and training) (β = 0.40), predisposing (age, family separation, education) (β = 0.22) and health practices and use of health service (physical exercise weekly, health check-up and use of protective equipments) (β = -0.20). Priority should be given to satisfy the needs of migrant workers, and improve the enabling resources.

  1. Analysis of Socio-demographics, Self-rated Health, Social Capital, and Happiness in a Medium-Sized Healthy City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui Sug; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Bong Gi; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationships between social capital, self-rated health, and happiness and suggests ways to improve the happiness level of a community. Methods The survey was conducted with 445 people using stratified random sampling in a medium-sized city in Korea. Collected information included socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, self-rated health, and happiness. Results Among the demographic characteristics, age had a statistically significant association with happiness level. People in their 40s (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.88) and 50s (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57) were less happy than people of other ages. Married people (OR = 4.58, CI = 1.99–10.53) were more likely to have a high happiness level compared to unmarried people. Cognitive social capital (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.19–1.51) and self-rated health (OR = 2.22, CI = 1.59–3.09) were positively associated with happiness. Conclusion The results suggest that social capital and level of health are determinants of subjective happiness. Public policies and programs for improving social capital are needed to support happiness among community residents. PMID:26770893

  2. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  3. Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a Swedish medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, A; von Borgstede, C; Krantz, G; Spak, F; Hensing, G

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, but few evidence-based prevention programs have yet been implemented. This study explored the perceptions and beliefs of local-level decision makers, social and health-care professionals, and representatives from the police force regarding the possibilities and hindrances for prevention of IPV. An explorative qualitative approach was used, and participants were strategically selected for focus group discussions. The participants, 19 men and 23 women, were professionals or decision makers within health-care services, social welfare, municipal administration, the police force, local industry, and local politicians in a Swedish town of 54,000 inhabitants. The focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A manifest content analysis was performed on the text. Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media were suggested as possible arenas for prevention measures. The proposed activities included norm building and improved social support structures. Hindrances were conceptualized as societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. The participants demonstrated closeness and distance to IPV, expressed as acceptance or referral of responsibility to others regarding where and by whom prevention measures should be executed. This study gave new insights in the prevailing perceptions of professionals and decision makers of a medium-sized Swedish town, which can be a useful knowledge in future preventive work and contribute to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  4. Medium-sized icy satellites in the outer solar system - differentiation due to radiogenic heating in Charon or the moons of Uranus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, K.; Spohn, T.

    2007-08-01

    A thermal history model developed for medium-sized icy satellites containing silicate rock at low volume fractions is applied to Charon and five satellites of Uranus. The model assumes stagnant lid convection in homogeneously accreted bodies either confined to a spherical shell or encompassing the whole interior below the immobile surface layer. We employ a simple model for accretion assuming that infalling planetesimals deposit a fraction of their kinetic energy as heat at the instantaneous surface of the growing moon. Rheology parameters are chosen to match those of ice I, although the satellites under consideration likely contain admixtures of lighter constituents. Consequences thereof are discussed. Thermal evolution calculations considering radiogenic heating by long-lived isotopes suggest that Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon and Charon may have started to differentiate after a few hundred million years of evolution. Results for Miranda - the smallest satellite of Uranus - however, indicate that it never convected or differentiated. Miranda's interior temperature was found to be not even close to the melting temperatures of reasonable mixtures of water and ammonia. This finding is in contrast to its heavily modified surface and supports theories that propose alternative heating mechanisms such as early tidal heating. Except for Miranda, our results lend support to differentiated icy satellite models. We also point out parallels to previously published results obtained for several of Saturn's icy satellites (Multhaup and Spohn, 2007). The predicted early histories of Ariel, Umbriel and Charon are evocative of Dione's and Rhea's, while Miranda's resembles that of Mimas.

  5. VerdEE: a new tool for the adoption of life-cycle assessment in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoni, Paolo; Scimia, Emanuela; Sara, Balazs

    2001-02-01

    Data and time requirements and complex methodological problems of a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are well-known and discussed. Its application has specific difficulties in Italian Small- and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs) where environmental information is generally dispersed, a short-term problem-oriented environmental management approach is common and dedicated human resources are usually missing. As a consequence, a new procedure specifically designed for SMEs, VerdEE (Verifica dell'Eco-Efficienza - Verification of Eco-Efficiency), was developed and implemented on an interactive CD-ROM. It is based on the following criteria: relying on a life cycle approach; aimed at evaluating the environmental profile of a product and at identifying improvement opportunities; sufficiently simple to be applied in a limited time; containing as much quantitative information as possible to make it usable by a non-expert user. The VerdEE procedure includes four main steps: "Goal and Scope definition" semi-quantitative "Inventory" "Check-list" visualisation of results in "Matrix" and "Target-plot" form. The procedure is supported by an interconnected informative part about advantages of the life cycle approach for SMEs, principles of eco-design and environmental concerns.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to occupational health and safety in small and medium-sized enterprises: a descriptive exploratory study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Gohar, Basem; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam; Garbaczewska, Martyna; Chapovalov, Olena; Myette-Côté, Étienne; Carter, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this particular study was to test a newly created instrument in describing the facilitators and barriers to occupational health and safety in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the occupational health and safety culture of SMEs in public and private sectors in Ontario. A total of 153 questionnaires were completed. The majority of respondents were female (84%) with a mean age of 49.8 years (SD 10.6). Seventy-four percent were supervisors. Seventy percent of respondents were from the private sector while 30% derived from the public sector including healthcare, community services, and non-profit organizations. Further, conducting regular external safety inspections of the workplace was found to be statistically associated with a safe work environment 2.88 95% CI [1.57, 5.27]. Strategies and training opportunities that focus on how to adapt occupational health and safety legislation to the nature and diversity of SMEs are recommended. Furthermore, employers may use such information to improve safety in their SMEs, while researchers can hopefully use such evidence to develop interventions that are applicable to meeting the occupational health and safety needs of SMEs.

  7. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  8. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-01-22

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Correlates among Chinese Migrants in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Two Cities of Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liming; Zou, Guanyang; Zeng, Zhi; Han, Lu; Guo, Yan; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) status and associated factors among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 856 rural-to-urban migrants working at small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Shenzhen and Zhongshan City in 2012. Andersen's behavioral model was used as a theoretical framework to exam the relationships among factors affecting HRQOL. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results Workers with statutory working hours, higher wages and less migrant experience had higher HRQOL scores. Need (contracting a disease in the past two weeks and perception of needing health service) had the greatest total effect on HRQOL (β = −0.78), followed by enabling (labor contract, insurance purchase, income, physical examination during work and training) (β = 0.40), predisposing (age, family separation, education) (β = 0.22) and health practices and use of health service (physical exercise weekly, health check-up and use of protective equipments) (β = −0.20). Conclusions Priority should be given to satisfy the needs of migrant workers, and improve the enabling resources. PMID:24392084

  10. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO2 samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO(2) were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 microg m(-3) respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO2 occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO2 exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  11. An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises.

    PubMed

    Terwoert, Jeroen; Verbist, Koen; Heussen, Henri

    2016-09-01

    Management and workers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) often find it hard to comprehend the requirements related to controlling risks due to exposure to substances. An intervention study was set up in order to support 45 SMEs in improving the management of the risks of occupational exposure to chemicals, and in using the control banding tool and exposure model Stoffenmanager in this process. A 2-year intervention study was carried out, in which a mix of individual and collective training and support was offered, and baseline and effect measurements were carried out by means of structured interviews, in order to measure progress made. A seven-phase implementation evolutionary ladder was used for this purpose. Success and failure factors were identified by means of company visits and structured interviews. Most companies clearly moved upwards on the implementation evolutionary ladder; 76% of the companies by at least one phase, and 62% by at least two phases. Success and failure factors were described. Active training and coaching helped the participating companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager. The use of validated tools embedded in a community platform appears to support companies to organize and structure their chemical risk management in a business-wise manner, but much depends upon motivated occupational health and safety (OHS) professionals, management support, and willingness to invest time and means.

  12. Development of multi-dimensional action checklist for promoting new approaches in participatory occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Noriko; Yuasa, Akiko; Motoki, Chiharu; Tanaka, Mika; Arai, Sumiko; Matsuda, Kazumi; Ikeda, Tomoko; Iijima, Miyoko; Hirata, Mamoru; Hojoh, Minoru; Tsutaki, Miho; Ito, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Kazutoshi; Miyoshi, Yukari; Mitsuhashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Eiko; Kawakami, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    To meet diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in developed countries, occupational safety and health (OSH) activities should be extended. The objective of this study is to develop a new multi-dimensional action checklist that can support employers and workers in understanding a wide range of OSH activities and to promote participation in OSH in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The general structure of and specific items in the new action checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with OSH specialists based upon the results of a literature review and our previous interviews with company employers and workers. To assure practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members and, as a result, modifications were made. The new multi-dimensional action checklist was finally formulated consisting of 6 core areas, 9 technical areas, and 61 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the information guidebook that we developed concomitantly with the action checklist. Combined usage of the action checklist with the information guidebook would provide easily comprehended information and practical support. Intervention studies using this newly developed action checklist will clarify the effectiveness of the new approach to OSH in SMEs.

  13. Occupational health care in small and medium sized enterprises--How many doctors do we need and how do we ensure good care?

    PubMed

    Froneberg, B; Wienhold, L; Glomm, D

    1999-01-01

    The translation of the framework directive 89/391/EEC (Council Directive 89/391/EEC) into national law aims at supplying occupational protection and health care to all employees of large, small, and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) likewise, depending on assessed exposure. Prior incomplete protection of the German workforce with bias against the SMEs requires an assessment of quantitative and qualitative adequacy of present occupational health care practice and also of future needs. Therefore, the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of Germany initiated a study to evaluate the present state of occupational health care in 4 regions with different geographic and economic structure. Based on these data the future demand for adequately trained occupational physicians will be estimated by employing a statistical method that allows for including a large number of modifying variables (economic development, demographic change, etc.). Expected result of the applied technique are the estimated minimal and maximal number of occupational physicians that have to be trained to meet future demand. In the same study models of best practice will be identified and evaluated for general application. The project started in October 1997 and will be finished by January 2000.

  14. A study of the efficacy of carbon dioxide and pigment-specific lasers in the treatment of medium-sized congenital melanocytic naevi.

    PubMed

    August, P J; Ferguson, J E; Madan, V

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of medium-sized congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) can be challenging. To present the results of treatment of 55 CMN with the carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) and pigment-specific lasers. CO(2) and Q-switched lasers (frequency-doubled Nd:YAG, Nd:YAG and alexandrite) were used to treat 55 CMN. Patients were treated at 3-month intervals until maximum clearance. Clinical response at 3-6 months after final treatment was graded as poor (< 50%), good (50-75%) or excellent (> 75%). Outcomes were evaluated on case note review and questionnaire. Thirty-six of the 55 CMN were macular and 19 were mammillated. Twenty-seven CMN were present on the head and neck. For macular CMN, outcomes were better for truncal CMN. Scarring and pallor were seen in three lower limb macular CMN treated with a CO(2) laser. Mammillated CMN on the head and neck showed most improvement. Pigment-specific lasers were of no additional benefit. Repigmentation occurred in 6% of macular and 21% of mammillated CMN. Partial or complete regimentation of CMN was reported by 46% of patients. Compared with macular CMN, mammillated CMN show a marginally better response to laser treatment. CMN on the limbs respond poorly. Pigment-specific lasers do not lighten mammillated CMN. Adverse effects can occur with CO(2) laser treatment of macular CMN on lower limbs. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. [The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Santos, Veridiana de Paula; de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; de Lima, Thaiza Agostini Córdoba; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. Cross-sectional study using data of live births to mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM, SO and O) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1,25; IC95% 1,00-1,56). Maternal exposure to PM and SO during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28 g and 3.15 g, respectively) for each 1mg/m(3) increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO within the last month of pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of the Life Change Unit model for the prevention of accident proneness among small to medium sized industries in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngsig; Hahm, Hyojoon; Yang, Sunghwan; Kim, Taegu

    2008-10-01

    Behavior models have provided an accident proneness concept based on life change unit (LCU) factors. This paper describes the development of a Korean Life Change Unit (KLCU) model for workers and managers in fatal accident areas, as well as an evaluation of its application. Results suggest that death of parents is the highest stress-giving factor for employees of small and medium sized industries a rational finding the viewpoint of Korean culture. The next stress-giving factors were shown to be the death of a spouse or loved ones, followed by the death of close family members, the death of close friends, changes of family members' health, unemployment, and jail terms. It turned out that these factors have a serious effect on industrial accidents and work-related diseases. The death of parents and close friends are ranked higher in the KLCU model than that of Western society. Crucial information for industrial accident prevention in real fields will be provided and the provided information will be useful for safety management programs related to accident prevention.

  17. The effect of an electronic medicine dispenser on diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone-experience from a medium-sized Finnish city.

    PubMed

    Uosukainen, Hanna; Pentikäinen, Hannu; Tacke, Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Providing unobserved opioid substitution treatment (OST) safely is a major challenge. This study examined whether electronic medicine dispensers (EMDs) can reduce diversion of take-home buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) in a medium-sized Finnish city. All BNX treated OST patients in Kuopio received their take-home BNX in EMDs for 4months. EMDs' effect on diversion was investigated using questionnaires completed by patients (n=37) and treatment staff (n=19), by survey at the local needle exchange service and by systematic review of drug screen data from the Kuopio University Hospital. The majority of patients (n=21, 68%) and treatment staff (n=11, 58%) preferred to use EMDs for the safe storage of tablets. Five patients (16%) declared that EMDs had prevented them from diverting BNX. However, EMDs had no detectable effect on the availability or origin of illegal BNX or on the hospital-treated buprenorphine-related health problems. EMDs may improve the safety of storage of take-home BNX, but their ability to prevent diversion needs further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo☆

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Veridiana de Paula; de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; de Lima, Thaiza Agostini Córdoba; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56). Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively) for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25510993

  19. Size-controllable synthesis of trimetallic RhPdPt island-shaped nanoalloys with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Bing; He, Pei-Lei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Size-controllable, high-yield, island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanocrystals with sub-2.0 nm islands have been successfully synthesized through a facile aqueous solution approach. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) line scanning and elemental mapping analysis showed the as-synthesized RhPdPt nanocrystals are alloy structures. These island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanoalloys showed a composition-dependent electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. Due to the special structure and intermetallic synergies, the Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity and durability relative to island-shaped Pd50Pt50 bimetallic nanoalloys and commercial Pt black. The peak current density for Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys was 1.81 and 1.38 times that for commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys, respectively. In addition, the peak potential on Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys decreased 42 mV relative to commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys.

  20. Organic–inorganic binary mixture matrix for comprehensive laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis and imaging of medium-size molecules including phospholipids, glycerolipids, and oligosaccharides

    DOE PAGES

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Ames Lab., Ames, IA; O'Neill, Kelly C.; ...

    2016-10-13

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a widely adopted, versatile technique, especially in high-throughput analysis and imaging. However, matrix-dependent selectivity of analytes is often a severe limitation. In this work, a mixture of organic 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and inorganic Fe3O4 nanoparticles is developed as a binary MALDI matrix to alleviate the well-known issue of triacylglycerol (TG) ion suppression by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In application to lipid standards and maize seed cross-sections, the binary matrix not only dramatically reduced the ion suppression of TG, but also efficiently desorbed and ionized a wide variety of lipids such as cationic PC, anionic phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)more » and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and neutral digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The binary matrix was also very efficient for large polysaccharides, which were not detected by either of the individual matrices. As a result, the usefulness of the binary matrix is demonstrated in MS imaging of maize seed sections, successfully visualizing diverse medium-size molecules and acquiring high-quality MS/MS spectra for these compounds.« less

  1. How to benefit from ergonomic interventions through participation by workers, managers and the company: an example of a small- to medium-sized factory with no ergonomic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kumashiro, M

    1995-06-01

    Many of the managers, and supervisors in small- and medium-sized businesses are technicians. These are workers with many years of experience in one specialized technical area. They know, in their minds, what should be improved, and how, in order to make the work easier to do. However, their knowledge of work improvement techniques, and how to think together with the workers, and further how to best lead their troops, is nil. This report focuses on managers and supervisors who had never even heard the word "ergonomics," and touches on cases of successful implementation of ergonomic work improvements. The subject work-places are part of an automobile parts manufacturing plant operating under a typical production system of small amounts of many product types: cutting process machinery workshop, press workshop and packing and distribution workshop. At the stage when they became aware of ergonomics, the key words for improvement which they mentioned were "manual lifting" and "working posture." As a result of various observations, analysis techniques and meetings, they introduced a push car with lifters as support equipment. However, the most significant result was that they were able to convince the company's owner of its contribution to productivity improvement, using objective data. Also, with regard to the push car manufacturer, they designed the specifications for the push car themselves and participated in its production. Of course, they were also praised by the workers for achieving a work method involving no strain or waste.

  2. Social-cognitive correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected individuals receiving infectious disease care in a medium-sized northeastern US city.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Littlewood, Rae A; Vanable, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    High levels of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are required to achieve optimal viral suppression. To better understand mechanisms associated with ART adherence, this study characterized demographic and social-cognitive correlates of ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals from a medium-sized northeastern US city (n=116; 42% female; 43% African-American). Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey assessing demographics, social-cognitive constructs, and ART adherence, and the participants' most recent viral load was obtained from their medical charts. Suboptimal ART adherence (taking less than 95% of prescribed medications during the past month) was reported by 39% of participants and was associated with being female, being a minority, and having a detectable viral load. In a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, greater than 95% ART adherence was associated with higher levels of adherence self-efficacy (AOR =1.1; p=0.015), higher perceived normative beliefs about the importance of ART adherence (AOR=1.3; p=0.03), and lower concern about missing ART doses (AOR=0.63; p=0.002). Adherence did not differ based on ART outcome expectancies, ART attitudes, or the perceived necessity of ART. In fact, most participants endorsed positive attitudes and expectancies regarding the need for and effectiveness of ART. Taken together, results indicate that suboptimal adherence remains high among HIV-infected minority women, a subpopulation that experiences particularly high rates of chronic stress due to both illness-specific stressors and broader environmental stressors. Consistent with social-cognitive theory, adherence problems in our sample were linked with deficits in self-efficacy as well as perceived norms and behavioral intentions that do not support a goal of 100% adherence. We suggest that interventions to improve adherence informed by social-cognitive theory (1) target patients who are at risk for adherence problems, (2

  3. Development of a spatial sampling protocol using GIS to measure health disparities in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, a medium-sized African city.

    PubMed

    Kassié, Daouda; Roudot, Anna; Dessay, Nadine; Piermay, Jean-Luc; Salem, Gérard; Fournet, Florence

    2017-04-18

    Many cities in developing countries experience an unplanned and rapid growth. Several studies have shown that the irregular urbanization and equipment of cities produce different health risks and uneven exposure to specific diseases. Consequently, health surveys within cities should be carried out at the micro-local scale and sampling methods should try to capture this urban diversity. This article describes the methodology used to develop a multi-stage sampling protocol to select a population for a demographic survey that investigates health disparities in the medium-sized city of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. It is based on the characterization of Bobo-Dioulasso city typology by taking into account the city heterogeneity, as determined by analysis of the built environment and of the distribution of urban infrastructures, such as healthcare structures or even water fountains, by photo-interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. Principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification were then used to generate the city typology. Five groups of spaces with specific profiles were identified according to a set of variables which could be considered as proxy indicators of health status. Within these five groups, four sub-spaces were randomly selected for the study. We were then able to survey 1045 households in all the selected sub-spaces. The pertinence of this approach is discussed regarding to classical sampling as random walk method for example. This urban space typology allowed to select a population living in areas representative of the uneven urbanization process, and to characterize its health status in regards to several indicators (nutritional status, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and anaemia). Although this method should be validated and compared with more established methods, it appears as an alternative in developing countries where geographic and population data are scarce.

  4. Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in mice: increased excitability of medium-sized spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Henley, Sandy M; Toll, Jeff; Jentsch, James D; Evans, Christopher J; Levine, Michael S; Cepeda, Carlos

    2013-10-02

    To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration) in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in the NAc (nucleus accumbens) before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever) pressings followed by IV (intravenous) cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential)-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold) for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction.

  5. Differential Synaptic and Extrasynaptic Glutamate-Receptor Alterations in Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons of Aged YAC128 Huntington's Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Eliã P; Wang, Elizabeth; Chen, Jane Y; Holley, Sandra; Andre, Veronique; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a late-onset, slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of glutamine repeats. The YAC128 mouse model has been widely used to study the progression of HD symptoms, but little is known about synaptic alterations in very old animals. The present experiments examined synaptic properties of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in 16 month-old YAC128 mice. These mice were crossed with mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptor promoters to identify MSNs originating the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. The input-output curves of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by activation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were reduced in MSNs in both pathways. In the presence of DL-threo-β-Benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA), a glutamate transporter blocker used to increase activation of extrasynaptic receptors, NMDA receptor-mediated currents displayed altered amplitudes, longer decay times, and greater charge (response areas) in both direct and indirect pathway MSNs in YAC128 mice compared to wildtype controls. Amplitudes were significantly increased, primarily in direct pathway MSNs while normalized areas were significantly increased only in indirect pathway MSNs, suggesting that the two types of MSNs are affected in different ways. It may be that indirect pathway neurons are more susceptible to changes in glutamate transport. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate differential alterations in synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in both direct and indirect pathway MSNs in late HD, which may contribute to the dysfunction and degeneration in both pathways.

  6. Altered excitatory and inhibitory inputs to striatal medium-sized spiny neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons in the Q175 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Indersmitten, Tim; Tran, Conny H; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    The Q175 knockin mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD) carries a CAG trinucleotide expansion of the human mutant huntingtin allele in its native mouse genomic context and recapitulates the genotype more closely than transgenic models. In this study we examined the progression of changes in intrinsic membrane properties and excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using whole cell patch-clamp recordings of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the dorsolateral striatum and cortical pyramidal neurons (CPNs) in layers 2/3 of the primary motor cortex in brain slices from heterozygous (Q175(+/-)) and homozygous (Q175(+/+)) mice. Input resistance in MSNs from Q175(+/+) and Q175(+/-) mice was significantly increased compared with wild-type (WT) littermates beginning at 2 mo. Furthermore, the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) was significantly reduced in MSNs from Q175(+/+) and Q175(+/-) mice compared with WTs beginning at 7 mo. In contrast, the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) and IPSC-to-EPSC ratios were increased in MSNs from Q175(+/+) mice beginning at 2 mo. Morphologically, significant decreases in spine density of MSNs from Q175(+/-) and Q175(+/+) mice occurred at 7 and 12 mo. In CPNs, sIPSC frequencies and IPSC-to-EPSC ratios were significantly increased in Q175(+/-) mice compared with WTs at 12 mo. There were no changes in intrinsic membrane properties or morphology. In summary, we show a number of alterations in electrophysiological and morphological properties of MSNs in Q175 mice that are similar to other HD mouse models. However, unlike other models, CPN inhibitory activity is increased in Q175(+/-) mice, indicating reduced cortical excitability.

  7. Regional and cell-type-specific effects of DAMGO on striatal D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Cepeda, Carlos; Chatta, Payush; Franklin, Lana; Evans, Christopher J; Levine, Michael S

    2012-03-08

    The striatum can be divided into the DLS (dorsolateral striatum) and the VMS (ventromedial striatum), which includes NAcC (nucleus accumbens core) and NAcS (nucleus accumbens shell). Here, we examined differences in electrophysiological properties of MSSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) based on their location, expression of DA (dopamine) D1/D2 receptors and responses to the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO {[D-Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(ol)(5)]enkephalin}. The main differences in morphological and biophysical membrane properties occurred among striatal sub-regions. MSSNs in the DLS were larger, had higher membrane capacitances and lower Rin (input resistances) compared with cells in the VMS. RMPs (resting membrane potentials) were similar among regions except for D2 cells in the NAcC, which displayed a significantly more depolarized RMP. In contrast, differences in frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic inputs were more prominent between cell types, with D2 cells receiving significantly more excitatory inputs than D1 cells, particularly in the VMS. Inhibitory inputs were not different between D1 and D2 cells. However, MSSNs in the VMS received more inhibitory inputs than those in the DLS. Acute application of DAMGO reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents, but the effect was greater in the VMS, in particular in the NAcS, where excitatory currents from D2 cells and inhibitory currents from D1 cells were inhibited by the largest amount. DAMGO also increased cellular excitability in the VMS, as shown by reduced threshold for evoking APs (action potentials). Together the present findings help elucidate the regional and cell-type-specific substrate of opioid actions in the striatum and point to the VMS as a critical mediator of DAMGO effects.

  8. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  9. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Jason M; Sabol, Jonathan P; Rastogi, Vipin K

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm), resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2) panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT) lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  10. eVerdEE: a web-based screening life-cycle assessment tool for European small and medium-sized enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldesi, Luciano; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Misceo, Monica; Sára, Balázs

    2004-12-01

    "eLCA" is a European Commission financed project aimed at realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)". Knowledge and use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by SMEs are strategic to introduce the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in Europe, but methodology simplification is needed. LCA requires a large amount of validated general and sector specific data. Since their availability and cost can be insuperable barriers for SMEs, pre-elaborated data/meta-data, use of standards and low cost solutions are required. Within the framework of the eLCA project an LCA software - eVerdEE - based on a simplified methodology and specialised for SMEs has been developed. eVerdEE is a web-based tool with some innovative features. Its main feature is the adaptation of ISO 14040 requirements to offer easy-to-handle functions with solid scientific bases. Complex methodological problems, such as the system boundaries definition, the data quality estimation and documentation, the choice of impact categories, are simplified according to the SMEs" needs. Predefined "Goal and Scope definition" and "Inventory" forms, a user-friendly and well structured procedure are time and cost-effective. The tool is supported by a database containing pre-elaborated environmental indicators of substances and processes for different impact categories. The impact assessment is calculated automatically by using the user"s input and the database values. The results have different levels of interpretation in order to identify the life cycle critical points and the improvement options. The use of a target plot allows the direct comparison of different design alternatives.

  11. Three-dimensional organization of dendrites and local axon collaterals of shell and core medium-sized spiny projection neurons of the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Yvette C; Mailly, Philippe; Thierry, Anne-Marie; Groenewegen, Henk J; Deniau, Jean-Michel

    2008-09-01

    Medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSN) in the head of the primate caudate nucleus are thought to have preferred dendritic orientations that tend to parallel the orientations of the striosomes. Moreover, recurrent axon collaterals of MSN in the rat dorsal striatum have been categorized into two types, i.e., restricted and widespread. The nucleus accumbens (Acb) has a highly complex compartmental organization, and the spatial organization of dendritic and axonal arbors of MSN has not yet been systematically studied. In this study, using single-cell juxtacellular labeling with neurobiotin as well as anterograde neuroanatomical tracing with biotinylated dextran amine, we investigated the three-dimensional (3D) organization of dendrites and axons of MSN of the rat Acb in relation to subregional (shell-core) and compartmental (patch-matrix) boundaries. Our results show that dendritic arbors of MSN in both the Acb shell and core subregions are preferentially oriented, i.e., they are flattened in at least one of the 3D-planes. The preferred orientations are influenced by shell-core and patch-matrix boundaries, suggesting parallel and independent processing of information. Dendritic orientations of MSN of the Acb core are more heterogeneous than those of the shell and the dorsal striatum, suggesting a more complex distribution of striatal inputs within the core. Although dendrites respect the shell-core and patch-matrix boundaries, recurrent axon collaterals may cross these boundaries. Finally, different degrees of overlap between dendritic and axonal arborizations of individual MSN were identified, suggesting various possibilities of lateral inhibitory interactions within and between, functionally distinct territories of the Acb.

  12. Predictors of a Desire to be Helpful to Professional Nurses Among Japanese Nursing Assistants in Small- to Medium-Sized Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kono, Keiko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Sugisaki, Hitomi; Matsuhashi, Ayako; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2016-06-01

    Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses have been educated as professional nurses. Professional nurses can concentrate on their jobs requiring a high degree of expertise with help they get from nursing assistants.If professional nurses have improper attitudes toward nursing assistants, it is most likely that the nursing assistants will not help them to the best of their ability. We investigated nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes, and what effects nursing assistants' impressions have on their "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." The study design was a cross sectional study. Twenty-five small- to medium-sized hospitals with 55 to 458 beds were included in this study. The analyzed subjects were 642 nursing assistants (96 males, 546 females). Factor analyses were conducted to extract the factors of nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the predictors of "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." We discovered 5 factors: 1. professional nurses' model behavior, 2. manner dealing with nursing assistants, 3. respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work, 4. respect for nursing assistants' work, and 5. enhancing the ability of nursing assistants to do their work. The "desire to be helpful to professional nurses" was significantly associated with "professional nurses' model behavior," "manner dealing with nursing assistants" and "respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work." Factors 1 to 3 are fundamental principles when people establish appropriate relationships. Professional nurses must consider these fundamentals in their daily work in order to get complete cooperation from nursing assistants.

  13. Decontamination Efficacy of Three Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Sporicidal Disinfectants on Medium-Sized Panels Contaminated with Surrogate Spores of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Sabol, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation’s remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm), resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2) panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT) lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types. PMID:24940605

  14. Influence of large wood on channel hydraulics, sediment (dis-)connectivity and channel morphology in a medium-sized mixed-load Austrian stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Anne; Pöppl, Ronald; Morche, David

    2017-04-01

    It is widely known that large wood (LW) in rivers alters channel hydraulics, channel morphology and sediment transport. Channel spanning LW can create blocking barriers, steps and dams which store sediment and organic material in small reservoirs for the lifetime of the damming structure. Otherwise, the breach of LW key logs and jams makes the long term stored sediment available for fluvial transport. However, detailed field measurements on the distribution of LW and its influence on hydraulic variables, channel morphology and (especially) sediment connectivity are still rare, thus further constituting the major aim of this study. The study was performed along the lower reaches ( 6 km) of the Fugnitz River, a mixed-load, medium-sized (catchment area 130 km2) single-thread perennial stream, located in the Bohemian Massif, Austria. The spatial distribution and characterization of LW (>1 m in length and >10 cm in diameter) was examined along the main stem via field mapping and dGPS measurements. Hydraulic channel parameters (e.g. channel gradient, cross-sectional profiles) and volumes of retained sediment were determined via field measurements, while channel morphology incl. indications of LW-induced geomorphic processes (e.g. bank undercutting, scouring) was obtained via geomorphic mapping. Flow characteristics and bed load transport rates were measured using an Ott-Nautilus and a portable Helley-Smith bed load sampler during different water stages. Additionally, bed sediment textures were examined by performing pebble count analyses. In-channel LW accumulations (total volume of 588 m3) were primarily observed in meandering river reaches as well as in reaches with steep hillslopes. 36% of all LW accumulations were classified as dams, steps or deflectors altering flow conditions or creating backwater areas decreasing sediment connectivity. Highest volumes of sediment storage (total volume of 26 m3) have been primarily recorded at locations where bank erosion processes

  15. NdhO, a subunit of NADPH dehydrogenase, destabilizes medium size complex of the enzyme in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiaohong; Gao, Fudan; Zhang, Jingsong; Ogawa, Teruo; Ma, Weimin

    2014-09-26

    Two mutants that grew faster than the wild-type (WT) strain under high light conditions were isolated from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 transformed with a transposon-bearing library. Both mutants had a tag in ssl1690 encoding NdhO. Deletion of ndhO increased the activity of NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1)-dependent cyclic electron transport around photosystem I (NDH-CET), while overexpression decreased the activity. Although deletion and overexpression of ndhO did not have significant effects on the amount of other subunits such as NdhH, NdhI, NdhK, and NdhM in the cells, the amount of these subunits in the medium size NDH-1 (NDH-1M) complex was higher in the ndhO-deletion mutant and much lower in the overexpression strain than in the WT. NdhO strongly interacts with NdhI and NdhK but not with other subunits. NdhI interacts with NdhK and the interaction was blocked by NdhO. The blocking may destabilize the NDH-1M complex and repress the NDH-CET activity. When cells were transferred from growth light to high light, the amounts of NdhI and NdhK increased without significant change in the amount of NdhO, thus decreasing the relative amount of NdhO. This might have decreased the blocking, thereby stabilizing the NDH-1M complex and increasing the NDH-CET activity under high light conditions. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Health and well-being in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). What public health support do SMEs really need?

    PubMed

    Holt, Maxine; Powell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Health and well-being in the workplace is a concept that is understood as a fundamental business case for a productive, happy and healthy workforce. The workplace is also a setting by which knowledge and skills about health can be disseminated to assist people, in improving their health and well-being. Public health professionals are in a position to develop workplace health and well-being interventions, which support those in jobs and those seeking employment. They can also influence the extent to which work and the workplace affects health and well-being outcomes. This article aims to identify the main health and well-being needs of a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across Greater Manchester and the support that public health professionals can offer. The research adopted a Health Needs Assessment (HNA) approach using convenience and opportunistic sampling methods, from the list of SMEs in Greater Manchester. The SMEs varied in size and type of business, and 91 telephone interviews, using semi-structured questions, were used to collect data which identified the health and well-being needs of a sample of SMEs in Greater Manchester. This research resulted in qualitative data using thematic analysis. Two key themes emerged from the study. Acute seasonal sickness was the most pressing reason for employee absence from work (viruses, flu, seasonal disorders) for the SMEs in this research. This accumulated to the theme of sickness presenteeism. This research highlighted that employees will present at work with acute illness that requires rest, is easily transmitted to other employees and most likely will take a longer time to recover from as cross infection and re-infection occur. A subsidiary theme was that of authenticity and the reporting of sickness, contributing further to sickness presenteeism as employees seek to legitimise their illness. This article provides issues which are specific to SMEs in Greater Manchester. In particular, the pressing

  17. The Potential of Distance Education and Training for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Community. A Report for the Commission of the European Communities--Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintino, Luisa

    An evaluation was made of the training needs of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy and the potential of open, distance, flexible, and multimedia learning to meet those needs. The methodology included contacts with training providers, governmental institutions, and SMEs and circulation of…

  18. The Potential of Distance Education and Training for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Community. A Report for the Commission of the European Communities--Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintino, Luisa

    An evaluation was made of the training needs of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy and the potential of open, distance, flexible, and multimedia learning to meet those needs. The methodology included contacts with training providers, governmental institutions, and SMEs and circulation of…

  19. Conversion of elemental sodium to sodium carbonate at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S.D.; Bushman, H.W.; Washburn, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    An integral part of the liquid-metal reactor program is to provide the safe and effective disposition of elemental sodium, previously used as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plants. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has constructed a sodium process facility (SPF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to convert elemental sodium into 5