Science.gov

Sample records for medium size sodium

  1. Structures of medium-sized silicon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kai-Ming; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Pan, Bicai; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Wacker, Jacob G.; Fye, James L.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    1998-04-01

    Silicon is the most important semiconducting material in the microelectronics industry. If current miniaturization trends continue, minimum device features will soon approach the size of atomic clusters. In this size regime, the structure and properties of materials often differ dramatically from those of the bulk. An enormous effort has been devoted to determining the structures of free silicon clusters. Although progress has been made for Sin with n < 8, theoretical predictions for larger clusters are contradictory and none enjoy any compelling experimental support. Here we report geometries calculated for medium-sized silicon clusters using an unbiased global search with a genetic algorithm. Ion mobilities determined for these geometries by trajectory calculations are in excellent agreement with the values that we measure experimentally. The cluster geometries that we obtain do not correspond to fragments of the bulk. For n = 12-18 they are built on a structural motif consisting of a stack of Si9 tricapped trigonal prisms. For n >= 19, our calculations predict that near-spherical cage structures become the most stable. The transition to these more spherical geometries occurs in the measured mobilities for slightly larger clusters than in the calculations, possibly because of entropic effects.

  2. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  3. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  4. Historical Research and Medium-Sized Public Libraries: The Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special collections and archival materials often found in medium-sized public libraries which should be fully used by historical researchers. It is suggested that public libraries need to advertise their collections which are of historical interest and to be more aware of the needs of the historical researcher. (Author/JL)

  5. Promoting Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Gray, Sue

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, small and medium-sized enterprises constituted 99% of all businesses in the United Kingdom in all but the electricity, gas, and water supply sector, providing 46% of nongovernment employment. SMEs' concern with day-to-day demands leaves them with limited time and resources to consider their training needs. Although providing support and…

  6. Using Bitmaps for Medium Sized Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, A.; Klein, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a retrieval system that uses data structures called bitmaps to improve search algorithms for medium-sized systems. Information retrieval systems that contain the full text of the documents are discussed, and the use of inverted files such as concordances for small texts is explained. (24 references) (LRW)

  7. Library Webmasters in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneip, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Library webmasters in medium-sized academic libraries were surveyed about their educational backgrounds, job responsibilities, and training and experience levels in Web development. The article summarizes the findings of the survey with recommendations for libraries and library and information science programs. (Contains 7 tables, 5 figures,and 5…

  8. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  9. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  10. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  11. Effective-medium theory for finite-size aggregates.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Mallet, Pierre; Sentenac, Anne

    2006-02-01

    We propose an effective-medium theory for random aggregates of small spherical particles that accounts for the finite size of the embedding volume. The technique is based on the identification of the first two orders of the Born series within a finite volume for the coherent field and the effective field. Although the convergence of the Born series requires a finite volume, the effective constants that are derived through this identification are shown to admit of a large-scale limit. With this approach we recover successively, and in a simple manner, some classical homogenization formulas: the Maxwell Garnett mixing rule, the effective-field approximation, and a finite-size correction to the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA). The last formula is shown to coincide with the usual low-frequency QCA in the limit of large volumes, while bringing substantial improvements when the dimension of the embedding medium is of the order of the probing wavelength. An application to composite spheres is discussed.

  12. Climatic Effects of Medium-Sized Asteroid Impacts on Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeen, C.; Garcia, R. R.; Toon, O. B.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Wolf, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), a three-dimensional coupled climate model with interactive chemistry, we have simulated the climate response to a medium-sized (1 km) asteroid impact on the land. An impact of this size would cause local fires and may also generate submicron dust particles. Dust aerosols are injected into the upper atmosphere where they persist for ~3 years. Soot aerosols from fires are injected into the troposphere and absorb solar radiation heating the air which helps loft the soot into the stratosphere where it persists for ~10 years. Initially, these aerosols cause a heating of over 240 K in the stratosphere and up to a 70% reduction in downwelling solar radiation at the surface. Global average surface temperature cools by as much as -8.5 K, ocean temperature cools by -4.5 K, precipitation is reduced by 50%, and the ozone column is reduced by 55%. The surface UV Index exceeds 20 in the tropics for several years. These changes represent a significant hazard to life on a global scale. These results extend the work of Pierazzo et al. (2010), also using CESM, which found a significant impact on stratospheric ozone, but little change in surface temperature or precipitation, from a 1 km asteroid impact in the ocean.

  13. Rotational variability in medium and large sized TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System. Their surfaces display a wide range of compositions, going from surfaces covered by dark irradiation mantels, to surfaces totally covered by ices. According to models of the retention of volatiles, only TNOs with a diameter d > 1000 km are expected to retain any of their original complement of volatile ices on their surface. However, surface refreshing processes on smaller bodies (e.g., collisions, transient atmospheres and cometary activity) could bring to the surface some amount of ices that are stable at depth. When these processes affect only part of the surface they cause surface heterogeneity. The study of rotational variability of medium and large sized TNOs is important to better understand the physical processes affecting their surfaces, and if these processes are local in scale or, on the contrary, extend across the whole surface. We present rotationally resolved spectroscopy of two TNOs, (20000) Varuna and (136472) Makemake. Varuna is a medium sized TNO ( 621 km). We observed Varuna with NICS@TNG telescope, in the NIR, covering two entire rotations of the object. The analysis of the data shows a homogeneous surface composed of a mixture of complex organics, silicates and water ice. Our data also indicate an upper limit of 10% of methane ice on the surface. The Dwarf Planet Makemake is also studied in this work. The surface of this large TNO shows that, similar to Pluto and Eris, it clearly retains large amounts of volatile ices. Moreover, thermal observations indicate that Makemake has a heterogeneous surface that could be the result of volatile migration. We present new visible spectra of Makemake, obtained with ISIS@WHT telescope, covering 80% of the surface. We present a detailed study of the differences in the absorption bands across the surface that are indicative of changes in the relative abundances of ices, temperature, and/or particle size

  14. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 °C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  15. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  16. Accurate thermochemistry for medium-sized and large molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B.B.; Curtiss, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Accurate techniques such as Gaussian-2 (G2) theory have been proposed in recent years to evaluate the thermochemistry of small molecules from first-principles. However, as the molecules get larger, the errors in G2 theory and similar approaches tend to accumulate. For example, the computed heats of formation of benzene and naphthalene with G2 and G2(MP2) theories, respectively, have errors of 3.9 and 7.2 kcal/mol. In this work, we explore strategies for computing accurate heats of formation for medium-sized and large molecules. In our first scheme, G2 theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  17. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  18. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity. PMID:21175775

  19. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  20. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  1. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution... consumer deaths. Sodium phosphates oral solution has been marketed in 45-milliliter (mL), 90-mL, and 240-mL container sizes. The 45-mL and 90-mL container sizes of sodium phosphates oral solution are...

  2. Design and implementation of web server soft load balancing in small and medium-sized enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liu

    2011-12-01

    With the expansion of business scale, small and medium-sized enterprises began to use information platform to improve their management and competition ability, the server becomes the core factor which restricts the enterprise's infomationization construction. This paper puts forward a suitable design scheme for small and medium-sized enterprise web server soft load balancing, and proved it effective through experiment.

  3. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  4. Anion size of sodium salts and simple taste reaction times.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, J F; Halpern, B P; Desimone, J A

    1999-03-01

    Simple taste reaction times (RT) and taste intensities were measured in adult humans for 100-mM aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, acetate, glutamate, ascorbate, and gluconate flowed over the anterodorsal tongue with a closed liquid delivery system. Results from 12 subjects showed a significant increase in RT with molecular weight of the tastant, and a correlation of 0.941 between RT and the square roots of anionic weights. A multiple regression analysis controlling for perceived taste intensity indicated that RT increased linearly with the square root of the anionic weight. These findings support a model that includes both the permeability of ions through the tight junctions between the taste receptor cells of fungiform papillae taste buds and the effects of ions at apical portions of the receptor cells. They also suggest that gustatory transduction of sodium salts in humans normally involves intercellular spaces of taste buds as part of the functional sensory structures, in addition to individual taste receptor cells. PMID:10222469

  5. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  6. Kinetics of the reduction of vanadium(V) by sodium sulfite in an acidic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Khyarsing, I.V.; Filippov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of vanadium(V) by sodium sulfite was studied by uv-visible spectrometry at 25/sup 0/C. The acidity of the solutions was controlled by the addition of calculated amounts of hydrochloric, sulfuric acids and sodium hydroxide. The pH of the medium varied from -0.45 to 3. The reagents were mixed, remained thermostated for 20 min; and the optical density vs time was recorded with a Specord uv vis spectrophotometer. Rate curves were measured in the absorption region of vanadium(V) and vanadium(IV). The light absorption followed the Lambert-Berr-Bouguer law. The effective rate constant was calculated from the change in optical density in the region of vanadium(IV) absorption. The most active species appear to be HSO/sub 3//sup -/ and VO/sub 2/SO/sub 4//sup -/. Above pH 3, the reaction is accompanied by a slow increase in optical density over the entire visible spectrum, and after a period of time these solutions deposit a green precipitate which is, apparently a polymeric vanadyl vanadate. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. JB-300: An advanced medium size transport for 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrouwer, Giles; Graham, Katherine; Ison, Jim; Juarez, Vince; Moskalik, Steve; Pankonin, Jon; Weinstein, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1992, the TAC Team was presented with a Request for Proposal (PFP) for a mid-size (250-350 passenger) commercial transport. The aircraft was to be extremely competitive in the areas of passenger comfort, performance, and economic aspects. Through the use of supercritical airfoils, a technologically advanced Very High By-pass Ratio (VHBR) turbofan engine, a low overall drag configuration, a comparable interior layout, and mild use of composites, the JB-300 offers an economically viable choice to the airlines. The cents per passenger mile of the JB-300 is 1.76, which is considerably lower than current aircraft in the same range. Overall, the JB-300 is a technologically advanced aircraft, which will meet the demands of the 21st century.

  8. Dense medium radiative transfer theory for two scattering layers with a Rayleigh distribution of particle sizes

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.; Tsang, Leung; Winebrenner, D.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Dense medium radiative transfer theory is applied to a three-layer model consisting of two scattering layers overlying a homogeneous half space with a size distribution of particles in each layer. A model with a distribution of sizes gives quite different results than those obtained from a model with a single size. The size distribution is especially important in the low frequency limit when scattering is strongly dependent on particle size. The size distribution and absorption characteristics also affect the extinction behavior as a function of fractional volume. Theoretical results are also compared with experimental data. The sizes, permittivities, and densities used in the numerical illustrations are typical values for snow.

  9. Medium-range order in sodium phosphate glasses: a quantitative rotational echo double resonance solid state NMR study.

    PubMed

    Strojek, Wenzel; Eckert, Hellmut

    2006-05-21

    Sodium ultraphosphate glasses (Na(2)O)(x)(P(2)O(5))(1-x) show a strongly non-linear dependence of the glass transition temperatures T(g)(x) on composition. To explore the structural origins of this behaviour, local and medium range ordering processes have been investigated by state-of-the-art (23)Na high-resolution and dipolar NMR spectroscopies. In particular, (31)P(23)Na) and (23)Na((31)P) rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) experiments have been analyzed to yield quantitative constraints for the structural description of these glasses. The sodium ions are found to be randomly distributed and, for x < 0.25, spatially correlated with a single metaphosphate-type Q((2)) unit at a distance of 330 pm. In this region, unusual compositional trends observed for the (23)Na chemical shifts and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants, measured by triple-quantum magic-angle spinning (TQMAS) NMR, suggest a systematic decrease of Na coordination number with x. At higher sodium contents (x > 0.25), the magnitude of the (31)P((23)Na) dipolar interaction increases markedly, indicating a significantly increased extent of Q((2))-Na-Q((2)) crosslinking. Based on these results, a comprehensive description of medium-range order in sodium ultraphosphate glasses is developed, suggesting that the T(g)(x) dependence is closely linked to changes in the relative phosphorus/sodium distance distributions.

  10. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  11. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  12. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded,...

  13. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  14. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  15. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  16. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  17. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  18. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded,...

  19. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  20. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  1. Formulation and optimization of nano-sized ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, R.; Anoop, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The current study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium using a novel lipid vesicular carrier, ethosomes. Materials And Methods: Ethosomes of cromolyn sodium was prepared, optimized, and characterized for vesicle shape, vesicle size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vitro skin permeation, in vitro skin deposition and vesicle stability. Histological examination of porcine ear skin treated with optimized ethosomal formulation was performed to study the change of skin morphologies. Results: The optimized cromolyn sodium ethosomes showed reasonable entrapment efficiency (49.88±1.84%), optimum nanometric size range (133.8 ± 7.5 nm), and high zeta potential (-69.82 ± 1.2 mV). In vitro drug release studies of optimized ethosomal formulation through cellophane membrane showed an enhanced and sustained delivery of drug compared to conventional liposomes, hydroethanolic, (45% v/v) and phosphate buffer saline PBS pH 7.4 drug solutions. The optimized ethosomal formulation showed significantly-enhanced transdermal flux (18.49 ± 0.08 mg/cm2/h) across porcine ear skin as compared to liposome (1.80 ± 0.12 mg/cm2/h), hydroethanolic drug solution (4.45 ± 0.71 mg/cm2/h), and PBS pH 7.4 drug solution (1.18 ± 0.35 mg/cm2/h). Moreover, ethosomal formulation showed better skin drug deposition (10.28 ± 0.67%) and shortest lag time (0.11 ± 0.09 h) for cromolyn sodium. Conclusion: Our significant results suggest that ethosomes can be a promising tool for transdermal delivery of cromolyn sodium. PMID:23248569

  2. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  3. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  4. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  5. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  6. Handbook of Reference Sources and Services for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Margaret Irby

    This guide to adult reference works and services for the small or medium-sized public library is divided into two sections. Section One lists 559 numbered items arranged in 22 subsections, and 222 additional items in notes following entries or at the end of the relevant subsection. Subject areas are as follows: guides and bibliographies; general…

  7. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  8. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  9. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  10. Canadian Colleges and Institutes and Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises, Productivity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This document was prepared by the Association of Community Colleges in order to describe the relationship between colleges and small- and medium-sized enterprises in Canada. The ACCC collected information for this survey from the 150 Canadian colleges by conducting a literature/data review and a survey of member institutions in addition to on site…

  11. Business Continuity Planning Resources for Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document/memo summarizes existing resources and guidance on business continuity planning for small- to medium-sized businesses. DTRA will share this information with large commercial businesses who identified the need to help their suppliers and other key collaborators prepare business continuity plans in order to speed recovery from a wide-area bioterrorism incident.

  12. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  13. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  14. Expectations, Realities, and Perceptions of Subject Specialist Librarians' Duties in Medium-Sized Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Sonja L.; Graham, John-Bauer

    2005-01-01

    This study surveys 138 librarians in 21 medium-sized academic libraries to identify time on tasks and value of tasks to address problems between the expectations of library administrators and the perceptions of librarians to their job descriptions. The results validate that the administration's expectations are within the norm.

  15. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  16. Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution Based on Acoustic Propagation in Bubbly Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongjun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Choi, Jin-Keun; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    Acoustic properties are strongly affected by bubble size distribution in a bubbly medium. Measurement of the acoustic transmission becomes increasingly difficulty as the void fraction of the bubbly medium increases due to strong attenuation, while acoustic reflection can be measured more easily with increasing void fraction. The ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright, an instrument for bubble size measurement that is under development tries to take full advantage of the properties of acoustic propagation in bubbly media to extract bubble size distribution. Properties of both acoustic transmission and reflection in the bubbly medium from a range of short single-frequency bursts of acoustic waves at different frequencies are measured in an effort to deduce the bubble size distribution. With the combination of both acoustic transmission and reflection, assisted with validations from photography, the ABS ACOUSTIC BUBBLE SPECTROMETER®\\copyright has the potential to measure bubble size distributions in a wider void fraction range. This work was sponsored by Department of Energy SBIR program

  17. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  18. Field observations of medium-sized debris from postburnout solid-fuel rocket motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Marc D.; Sheeks, Benny J.

    1997-10-01

    Solid-fuel rocket motors are well recognized as a source of numerous small-sized (10 micrometer or less) debris that are ejected at high velocities during the propellant burning process. Medium-sized (1 mm to 10 cm), low velocity versions of these metallic oxide or other combustion chamber debris have also been reported from static ground tests of solid-fuel motors. Field observations of a third component of the debris generated by solid-fuel rocket motor operation are presented in this paper. These are medium-sized debris that are expelled at low velocities through the rocket motor nozzles after the nominal cessation of propellant burning. These post-burnout debris, referred to as chuffing debris, may be a significant component of the orbital debris environment. Radar and optical measurements of these debris have been collected during numerous sub-orbital flight tests conducted over the past several years. The large database of such observations that has now been accumulated indicates that such post-burnout debris are a generic consequence of solid-fuel rocket motor operation. Selected portions of this database are reviewed, and a preliminary model of such medium-sized debris production is presented that is suitable for correlation with existing orbital debris observations and population models.

  19. Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

  20. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Medium-Sized Rings by Intramolecular Au(I)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Iain D. G.; Ritter, Stefanie; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-01-01

    An efficient method for the asymmetric gold(I)-catalyzed preparation of medium sized rings has been developed. The method provides 7- to 9-membered rings in excellent yield. High enantioselectivities can be achieved for 7- and 8-membered ring products employing chiral gold(I) complexes. The results provide insight into the mechanism, showing the fluxional nature of gold(I)-stabilized vinyl carbenoid intermediates. PMID:19161306

  2. On the graphical analysis of the electronic structure of ferromagnetic clusters of medium size.

    PubMed

    Collado, José Ramón Alvarez

    2004-12-01

    In a previous work, a theoretical approach, suitable to describe systems having a large number of fermions, was proposed, and results for ferromagnetic surface clusters of medium size (100-1000 atoms) were presented. The aim of the present contribution is to complete this previous work. Several significant theoretical and technical details, omitted previously, are provided here. The obtained spin orbitals are analyzed, by studying their symmetry, energy, and d contribution properties.

  3. Ionic Liquid-Induced Unprecedented Size Enhancement of Aggregates within Aqueous Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Rewa; Baker, Gary A; Behera, Kamalakanta; Mohanty, Pravakar; Kurur, Narayanan; Pandey, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of aqueous micellar solutions may change in the presence of ionic liquids (ILs). Micelles help to increase the aqueous solubility of ILs. The average size of the micellar aggregates within aqueous sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to increase in a sudden and drastic fashion as the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) is added. Similar addition of [bmim][PF6] to aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) results in only a slow gradual increase in average aggregate size. While addition of the IL [bmim][BF4] also gives rise to sudden aggregate size enhancement within aqueous SDBS, the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4]), and inorganic salts NaPF6 and NaBF4, only gradually increase the assembly size upon their addition. Bulk dynamic viscosity, microviscosity, dipolarity (indicated by the fluorescent reporter pyrene), zeta potential, and electrical conductance measurements were taken to gain insight into this unusual size enhancement. It is proposed that bmim cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups at the micellar surface at all [bmim][PF6] concentrations in aqueous SDS; in aqueous SDBS, beyond a critical IL concentration, bmim becomes involved in cation- interaction with the phenyl moiety of SDBS within micellar aggregates with the butyl group aligned along the alkyl chain of the surfactant. This relocation of bmim results in an unprecedented size increase in micellar aggregates. Aromaticity of the IL cation alongside the presence of sufficiently aliphatic (butyl or longer) alkyl chains on the IL appear to be essential for this dramatic critical expansion in self-assembly dimensions within aqueous SDBS.

  4. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises.

  5. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  6. Age-related decline in metabolic competence of small and medium-sized synaptic mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Spazzafumo, Liana; Solazzi, Moreno; Balietti, Marta

    2005-02-01

    A computer-assisted morphometric investigation of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, selectively evidenced by preferential diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, has been carried out on synaptic mitochondria in the cerebellar cortex of adult and old rats. The ratio (R) of the area of the cytochemical precipitate (CPA) to the overall area of each mitochondrion (MA) was calculated. R refers to the fraction of the inner mitochondrial membrane actively involved in cellular respiration, thus its quantitative estimation constitutes a reliable index of the mitochondrial metabolic competence (MMC). In adult rats a significant negative correlation between MA and R values was found, while in old animals there was just a positive trend. Paired-quartile comparisons of R values showed a significant age-related decrease in small and medium-sized mitochondria, whereas the lowest and not significant age-related reduction was found in oversized organelles. A paired decrease in number and increase in size is reported to be a general trend for mitochondria during aging, but oversized organelles, according to their low R value, constitute a scanty, though functional, compensating reaction. Thus, the present findings support the argument that the currently reported age-related cellular metabolic decay appears to rely both on the decline in MMC of the small and medium-sized mitochondria, and on their specific reduction in number. This novel result is of biological relevance since it is largely the small and medium-sized mitochondria that are required for the provision of adequate amounts of ATP for actual cellular performance, while the significantly enlarged organelles are thought to represent an intermediate ultrastructural feature in mitochondrial genesis and/or remodelling.

  7. Tunable size and spectral properties of fluorescent nanoGUMBOS in modified sodium deoxycholate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Das, Susmita; de Rooy, Sergio L; Jordan, Atiya N; Chandler, Lin; Negulescu, Ioan I; El-Zahab, Bilal; Warner, Isiah M

    2012-01-10

    Microstructures of sodium deoxycholate hydrogels were altered considerably in the presence of variable tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) concentrations. These observations were confirmed by use of X-ray diffraction, polarized optical microscopy, rheology, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Our studies reveal enhanced gel crystallinity and rigidity with increasing TRIS concentrations. The tunable hydrogel microstructures obtained under various conditions have been successfully utilized as templates to synthesize cyanine-based fluorescent nanoGUMBOS (nanoparticles from a group of uniform materials based on organic salts). A systematic variation in size (70-200 nm), with relatively low polydispersity and tunable spectral properties of [HMT][AOT] nanoGUMBOS, was achieved by use of these modified hydrogels. The gel microstructures are observed to direct the size as well as molecular self-assembly of the nanomaterials, thereby tuning their spectral properties. These modified hydrogels were also found to possess other interesting properties such as variable morphologies ranging from fibrous to spherulitic, variable degrees of crystallinity, rigidity, optical activity, and release profiles which can be exploited for a multitude of applications. Hence, this study demonstrates a novel method for modification of sodium deoxycholate hydrogels, their applications as templates for nanomaterials synthesis, as well as their potential applications in biotechnology and drug delivery.

  8. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    SciTech Connect

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  9. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known. PMID:26588131

  10. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  11. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  12. Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation.

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s were characterised by many people exposed to hazardous working conditions. Statistics recorded a considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases. They also showed that it was more dangerous to work for a small company. The transition from planned to market economy has brought about an increase in the number of SMEs in Poland. Data on them are provided. The role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying SMEs is presented. A pilot study of employers and employees is discussed.

  13. Effect of saline adaptation and renal portal sodium infusion on glomerular size distributions and kidney function in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Satnick, J L; Mitsos, W J; Bennett, K R; Smith, S R

    1987-02-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate acute and chronic effects of sodium on glomerular size distributions and kidney function of Single Comb White Leghorns. Chicks were raised on either tap water (control) or .6% NaCl (saline) drinking water. Kidney function studies were conducted when the birds reached 14 to 16 weeks of age. Saline-adapted birds had significantly lower glomerular filtration rates and significantly higher sodium and potassium excretion rates when compared with birds raised on tap water. Acute effects of sodium on kidney function were assessed by infusing 25 mM tetrasodium pyrophosphate unilaterally into the renal portal system. For birds raised on tap water, unilateral sodium infusion caused a significant unilateral reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. However, neither the acute nor the chronic reductions in glomerular filtration rates in response to sodium were associated with a reduction in the number of filtering nephrons. Saline-adapted birds had significantly hypertrophied glomeruli.

  14. Grafting of sodium montmorillonite with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane in ethanol/water dispersing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, Mohammad; Abouelmagd, Ahmed; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2016-03-01

    In this work, silane grafted sodium montmorillonite was synthesized by γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to make it compatible with the organic polymer. The grafting reaction was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 29Si NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The appearance of new peaks for FTIR results confirmed the presence of the grafted silane onto the clay platelets. Besides, 29Si NMR results revealed another extra resonance which belongs to new bonds formed at clay edges and on the internal nanoclay platelets. TGA results confirmed that by increasing the amount of silane, the amount of grafting silane also increased which was shown by increase of mass loss. DTG results showed that by increasing the amount of aminosilane used for modification, the amount of intercalated silane is also increased.

  15. Search for global minimum geometries for medium sized germanium clusters: Ge12-Ge20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, S.; Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2005-04-01

    We have performed an unbiased search for the global minimum geometries of small-to-medium sized germanium clusters Gen(12⩽n⩽18) as well as a biased search (using seeding method) for Gen(17⩽n⩽20). We employed the basin-hopping algorithm coupled with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional calculations. For each size, we started the unbiased search with using several structurally very different initial clusters, or we started the biased search with three different seeds. Irrespective of the initial structures of clusters we found that the obtained lowest-energy clusters of the size n =12-16 and 18 are the same. Among them, the predicted global minima of Gen(12⩽n⩽16) are identical to those reported previously [Shvartsburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 167 (1999)]. For n =17-20, we have identified two or three nearly isoenergetic low-lying isomers (for each size) that compete for the global minimum. Nearly all the low-lying clusters in the size range of 12⩽n⩽20 contain the tri-caped trigonal prism motif and are all prolate in geometry, in agreement with the experiment.

  16. Search for global minimum geometries for medium sized germanium clusters: Ge12-Ge20.

    PubMed

    Bulusu, S; Yoo, S; Zeng, X C

    2005-04-22

    We have performed an unbiased search for the global minimum geometries of small-to-medium sized germanium clusters Gen(12< or =n< or =18) as well as a biased search (using seeding method) for Gen(17< or =n< or =20). We employed the basin-hopping algorithm coupled with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional calculations. For each size, we started the unbiased search with using several structurally very different initial clusters, or we started the biased search with three different seeds. Irrespective of the initial structures of clusters we found that the obtained lowest-energy clusters of the size n=12-16 and 18 are the same. Among them, the predicted global minima of Gen(12< or =n< or =16) are identical to those reported previously [Shvartsburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 167 (1999)]. For n=17-20, we have identified two or three nearly isoenergetic low-lying isomers (for each size) that compete for the global minimum. Nearly all the low-lying clusters in the size range of 12< or =n< or =20 contain the tri-caped trigonal prism motif and are all prolate in geometry, in agreement with the experiment.

  17. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  18. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  19. Performance of a Medium-Size Area nGEM Detector for Neutron Beam Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Albani, G.; Muraro, A.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    Fast neutron detectors with a sub-centimetric space resolution are required in order to qualify neutron beams in applications related to magnetically-controlled nuclear fusion plasmas and to spallation sources. Based on the results obtained with small area prototypes, the first medium-size (20 x 35.2 cm2 active area) nGEM detector has been realized for both the CNESM diagnostic system of the SPIDER NBI prototype for ITER and as a beam monitor for fast neutrons beam lines at spallation sources, too. The nGEM is a Triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with polyethylene layers used to convert fast neutrons into recoil protons through the elastic scattering process. This paper describes the performance of the medium-size nGEM detector tested at the VESUVIO beam line of the ISIS spallation source. Being this detector the actual largest area fast neutron detector based on the GEM technology, particular attention was paid in the study of detector response in different points over the active area. Measurements of GEM counting rate (both as a function of VGEM and of time) and of the capability of the detector to reconstruct the beam in different positions are presented. This detector serves as a basis for the realization of an even larger area detector that will be used in the MITICA NBI prototype for ITER that represents the evolution of SPIDER.

  20. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  1. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time. PMID:27213562

  2. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  3. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  4. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  5. Medium-size power generation market now focus of Rolls-Royce

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    John Rose, Rolls-Royce chief executive, explained that the focus in power generation would now be upon small- and medium-sized power applications up to 150MW using its ranges of aeroderivative gas turbines, small steam turbines and diesel engines. The company already has an established position in this area and expects to become more competitive as aeroderivative gas turbines like the marine WR21 and industrial Trent reach the market. A measure of Rolls-Royce`s broad capability in medium power generation can be seen in the company`s decision to build its own cogen power station to provide heat and power to its major aerospace manufacturing facilities at Derby in the U.K. Work has already started on preparing land adjoining the site and the 60 MW power station is scheduled to go on line in January 1998. The US$60 million project is being carried out by Derby Cogeneration, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce Power Ventures and National Power Cogen, a subsidiary of the U.K.`s largest electrical power generator. 5 figs.

  6. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  7. Benchmarking Density Functionals on Structural Parameters of Small-/Medium-Sized Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Brémond, Éric; Savarese, Marika; Su, Neil Qiang; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel José; Xu, Xin; Sancho-García, Juan Carlos; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    In this Letter we report the error analysis of 59 exchange-correlation functionals in evaluating the structural parameters of small- and medium-sized organic molecules. From this analysis, recently developed double hybrids, such as xDH-PBE0, emerge as the most reliable methods, while global hybrids confirm their robustness in reproducing molecular structures. Notably the M06-L density functional is the only semilocal method reaching an accuracy comparable to hybrids'. A comparison with errors obtained on energetic databases (including thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and interaction energies) indicate that most of the functionals have a coherent behavior, showing low (or high) deviations on both energy and structure data sets. Only a few of them are more prone toward one of these two properties. PMID:26730741

  8. IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

    Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

  9. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, Therese; Blumstein, Carl; Culler, David; Modera, Mark; Meier, Alan

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  10. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moleri, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Arazi, L.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Breskin, A.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Oliveri, E.; Pereira, F. A.; Shaked Renous, D.; Schaarschmidt, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Bressler, S.

    2016-09-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30 × 30 cm2 Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm2 readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (> 98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~ 1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH4), Ar/(5%CH4) and Ar/(7%CO2). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  11. Toward the construction of a medium size prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselle, J.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Connaughton, V.; Errando, M.; Griffiths, S.; Guarino, V.; Humensky, T. B.; Jenke, P.; Kaaret, P.; Kieda, D.; Limon, M.; Mognet, I.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Okumura, A.; Peck, A.; Petrashyk, A.; Ribeiro, D.; Stevenson, B.; Vassiliev, V.; Yu, P.

    2015-09-01

    The construction of a prototype Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (pSCT) started in early June 2015 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Southern Arizona, as a candidate medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Compared to current Davies-Cotton telescopes, this novel instrument with an aplanatic two-mirror optical system will offer a wider field-of-view and improved angular resolution. In addition, the reduced plate scale of the camera allows the use of highly-integrated photon detectors such as silicon photo multipliers. As part of CTA, this design has the potential to greatly improve the performance of the next generation ground-based observatory for very high-energy (E>60 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy. In this contribution we present the design and performance of both optical and alignment systems of the pSCT.

  12. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics. PMID:27155640

  13. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  14. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  15. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  16. Understanding the Size-Dependent Sodium Storage Properties of Na2C6O6-Based Organic Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Ye; Yue, Zhuanghao; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2016-05-11

    Organic electroactive materials represent a new generation of sustainable energy storage technology due to their unique features including environmental benignity, material sustainability, and highly tailorable properties. Here a carbonyl-based organic salt Na2C6O6, sodium rhodizonate (SR) dibasic, is systematically investigated for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. A combination of structural control, electrochemical analysis, and computational simulation show that rational morphological control can lead to significantly improved sodium storage performance. A facile antisolvent method was developed to synthesize microbulk, microrod, and nanorod structured SRs, which exhibit strong size-dependent sodium ion storage properties. The SR nanorod exhibited the best performance to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C with over 90% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 10 C, 50% of the capacity can be obtained due to enhanced reaction kinetics, and such high electrochemical activity maintains even at 80 °C. These results demonstrate a generic design route toward high-performance organic-based electrode materials for beyond Li-ion batteries. Using such a biomass-derived organic electrode material enables access to sustainable energy storage devices with low cost, high electrochemical performance and thermal stability.

  17. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  18. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies.

  19. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based γ-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  20. Deep blank-field catalogue for medium- and large-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Esteban, F. M.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Cardiel, N.; Alacid, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The observation of blank fields, defined as regions of the sky that are devoid of stars down to a given threshold magnitude, constitutes one of the most relevant calibration procedures required for the proper reduction of astronomical data obtained following typical observing strategies. In this work, we have used Delaunay triangulation to search for deep blank fields throughout the whole sky, with a minimum size of 10 arcmin in diameter and an increasing threshold magnitude from 15 to 18 in the R band of the USNO-B Catalog of the United States Naval Observatory. The result is a catalogue with the deepest blank fields known so far. A short sample of these regions has been tested with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, and it has been shown to be extremely useful for medium- and large-sized telescopes. Because some of the regions found could also be suitable for new extragalactic studies, we have estimated the galactic extinction in the direction of each deep blank field. This catalogue is accessible through the virtual observatory tool TESELA, and the user can retrieve - and visualize using ALADIN - the deep blank fields available near a given position in the sky.

  1. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  2. Effect of Berry Size and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment on the Drying Characteristics of Blueberries under Infrared Radiation Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research studied the effect on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were...

  3. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-07-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. PMID:3662506

  4. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-07-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus.

  5. Entropic nature of the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on nanoparticles of aluminum and iron oxides in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansurov, R. R.; Safronov, A. P.; Lakiza, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solution on the hydrophilic surfaces of aluminum oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles is studied via UV spectrophotometry, electrophoretic light scattering, and isothermal microcalorimetry. It is shown that the isotherms of the adsorption of SDBS on the surfaces of both oxides in the area of concentrations up to 0.6 mmol/L is linear. It is found that the positive zeta potential of the surfaces of the particles falls to zero and shifts toward the range of negative values due to adsorption. The adsorption of SDBS is characterized by positive enthalpy values over the investigated range of concentrations, while the loss of energy during adsorption indicates it is of an entropic nature. It is concluded that the probable cause of the increase in entropy is the dehydration of SDBS molecules during on surface adsorption. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the formation of hemimicelles of surfactant on the hydrophilic surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles in an aqueous medium.

  6. [Sodium flux as a function of the salinity of the medium in the Isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum (Fabricius)].

    PubMed

    Thuet, P

    1981-09-01

    The crustacean isopod Sphaeroma serratum, in steady state towards its medium, shows intensive sodium fluxes which have been evaluated by several different technics. In normal sea water (SW) the Na influx reaches 37.9 +/- 9.8 and the outflux represents 35.1 +/- 9.3 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. Renewable internal Na constitute three kinetic compartments whose turnover rate are 228.9; 63.2 +/- 14.6; 13.0 +/- 4.3%. h-1 respectively. The volume of the faster kinetic compartment is equal to 32.0 +/- 2.7% of the wet weight and it is likely equivalent to the extracellular space. In half diluted sea water (SW 1/2) the Na influx is 9.6 +/- 1.5 while outflux is found to be 9.3 +/- 2.2 microEq h-1 100 mg-1. The potential difference between internal and external media is equal to -2.0 +/- 0.4 mV in SW and -5.1 +/- 1.0 mV in SW 1/2. The ratio of the unidirectional fluxes in SW matches the electrochemical gradient, however in SW 1/2 the existence of an active Na influx is plausible.

  7. Comparison of microperc and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for medium-sized lower calyx stones.

    PubMed

    Tok, Adem; Akbulut, Fatih; Buldu, Ibrahim; Karatag, Tuna; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Armagan, Abdullah; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to present the outcomes of comparative clinical study of microperc versus mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in the treatment of lower calyx stones of 10-20 mm. Patients with lower calyx stones treated with microperc (Group-1) or mini-PNL (Group-2) between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics of the patients were compared, including age, gender, BMI, stone size, laterality and procedural parameters (operation and fluoroscopy time), and outcomes (success and complication rates). A total of 98 patients were evaluated, assigned to Group-1 (n = 58) and to Group-2 (n = 40). Groups were statistically similar in terms of age, stone size, and BMI (p = 0.3, 0.07, 0.6, respectively). The mean procedure and fluoroscopy duration for Group-1 were 43.02 ± 27.98 min and 112.05 ± 72.5 s, and 52.25 ± 23.09 min and 138.53 ± 56.39 s in Group-2 (p = 0.006 and 0.006). The mean hematocrit drop was significantly higher in Group-2 compared to Group-1 (3.98 vs. 1.96%; p < 0.001); however, none of the cases required blood transfusion. Overall complication rates exhibited no statistically significant difference (p = 0.57). Stone-free status was similar (86.2 vs. 82.5%, p = 0.66). The tubeless procedure rate was significantly higher in Group-1 (p < 0.001). In Group-2, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer than in Group-1 (2.63 vs. 1.55 days; p < 0.01). Outcomes of the present retrospective study show that microperc is a treatment option for medium-sized lower calyx stone, being associated with lower blood loss, procedure, reduced fluoroscopy and hospitalization time, and a higher tubeless rate. PMID:26194110

  8. Think locally, act locally: Detection of small, medium-sized, and large communities in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeub, Lucas G. S.; Balachandran, Prakash; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    It is common in the study of networks to investigate intermediate-sized (or "meso-scale") features to try to gain an understanding of network structure and function. For example, numerous algorithms have been developed to try to identify "communities," which are typically construed as sets of nodes with denser connections internally than with the remainder of a network. In this paper, we adopt a complementary perspective that communities are associated with bottlenecks of locally biased dynamical processes that begin at seed sets of nodes, and we employ several different community-identification procedures (using diffusion-based and geodesic-based dynamics) to investigate community quality as a function of community size. Using several empirical and synthetic networks, we identify several distinct scenarios for "size-resolved community structure" that can arise in real (and realistic) networks: (1) the best small groups of nodes can be better than the best large groups (for a given formulation of the idea of a good community); (2) the best small groups can have a quality that is comparable to the best medium-sized and large groups; and (3) the best small groups of nodes can be worse than the best large groups. As we discuss in detail, which of these three cases holds for a given network can make an enormous difference when investigating and making claims about network community structure, and it is important to take this into account to obtain reliable downstream conclusions. Depending on which scenario holds, one may or may not be able to successfully identify "good" communities in a given network (and good communities might not even exist for a given community quality measure), the manner in which different small communities fit together to form meso-scale network structures can be very different, and processes such as viral propagation and information diffusion can exhibit very different dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that, for many large realistic

  9. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  11. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  12. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. PMID:24364995

  13. Diode laser anastemoses of medium-size arteries with indocyanine green dye-enhanced albumine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Guo-Xing; Williamson, Warren; Aretz, H. Thomas

    1998-11-01

    In order to achieve a better long-term patency result and solve the problem of tensile strength in laser artery anastomoses, diode laser and Indocyanine Green (ICG) enhanced albumin were applied to medium-size artery anastomoses with three different methods, that is, direct laser vascular anastomoses, direct method enforced with ICG albumin, and laser welding with ICG albumin as 'solder'. Internal mammary artery (IMA) harvested from patients undergoing coronary bypass procedures, in vivo rat abdominal artery, and in vitro swine heart and IMA were chosen as the experimental materials. The results revealed that only 3.15 +/- 0.36 minutes were required for each anastomosis; the bursting pressure and tensile strength were greater in the groups enforced with ICG albumin and laser welding than that with direct laser anastomoses. In the laser soldering group, the thermal damage was limited in the adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal adventitial layer, only at a depth of 200 micrometers . There was also a satisfied result in the in vivo laser welding rat's abdominal arteries. However, end-to-side laser welding of IMA soronary artery with ICG albumin needs further investigation about its tensile strength in an in vivo model.

  14. Signaling from the Cytoplasm to the Nucleus in Striatal Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Matamales, Miriam; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation. PMID:21779236

  15. Mousso structure: A deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact crater in northern Chad?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Mousso structure, a complex, ˜3.8 km circular structure centred on 17°58' N/19°53' E and located near the Mousso oasis, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, northern Chad, displays structural features typical for complex impact structures: a circular rim with concentric faults, an annular basin, and a central peak. Remote sensing investigations based on Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data reveal a specific morphological-structural resemblance of the complex central peak of the Mousso structure to the central uplift of the Spider impact structure, Western Australia, and, to some degree, to the central uplifts of the Upheaval Dome, Sierra Madera, and Gosses Bluff impact structures. This is consistent with the layered sedimentary rocks associated with all of these structures. No endogenic geological processes such as magmatism, diapirism, karst dissolution, and glacial or fluvial erosion can conclusively explain the formation of the Mousso structure within a large area of flat-lying early Paleozoic sandstones. Thus, this paper proposes that the Mousso structure might represent a deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact structure. As field investigations are currently impossible due to the civil war in Chad, the search for shock-metamorphic effects in rocks of the Mousso structure remains outstanding.

  16. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  17. FastCam: a new lucky imaging instrument for medium-sized telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oscoz, Alejandro; Rebolo, Rafael; López, Roberto; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Pérez, Jorge Andrés; Hildebrandt, Sergi; Rodríguez, Luis Fernando; Piqueras, Juan José; Villó, Isidro; González, José Miguel; Barrena, Rafael; Gómez, Gabriel; García-Hernández, D. Aníbal; Montañés, Pilar; Rosenberg, Alfred; Cadavid, Emilio; Calcines, Ariadna; Díaz-Sánchez, Anastasio; Kohley, Ralf; Martín, Yolanda; Peñate, José; Sánchez, Vicente

    2008-07-01

    FastCam is an instrument jointly developed by the Spanish Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena designed to obtain high spatial resolution images in the optical wavelength range from ground-based telescopes. The instrument consists of a very low noise and very fast readout speed EMCCD camera capable of reaching the diffraction limit of medium-sized telescopes from 500 to 850 nm. FastCam incorporates a FPGAs-based device to save and evaluate those images minimally disturbed by atmospheric turbulence in real time. The undisturbed images represent a small fraction of the observations. Therefore, a special software package has been developed to extract, from cubes of tens of thousands of images, those with better quality than a given level. This is done in parallel with the data acquisition at the telescope. After the first tests in the laboratory, FastCam has been successfully tested in three telescopes: the 1.52-meter TCS (Teide Observatory), the 2.5-meter NOT, and the 4.2-meter WHT (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory). The theoretical diffraction limit of each telescope has been reached in the I band (850 nm) -0.15, 0.08 and 0.05 arcsec, respectively-, and similar resolutions have been also obtained in the V and R bands. Future work will include the development of a new instrument for the 10.4-meter GTC telescope on La Palma.

  18. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  19. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Laner, David Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-15

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  1. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  2. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  3. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  4. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  5. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city.

    PubMed

    Morato, Daniela G; Barreto, Florisneide R; Braga, José U; Natividade, Marcio S; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Morato, Vanessa; Teixeira, Maria da Glória Lima Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics. PMID:26061236

  6. Understanding the structural transformation, stability of medium-sized neutral and charged silicon clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li Ping; Zhang, Fang Hui; Zhu, Yong Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao Yu; Lv, Jian; Shao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties for the global minimum structures of medium-sized neutral, anionic and cationic Sinμ (n = 20–30, μ = 0, −1 and +1) clusters have been studied using an unbiased CALYPSO structure searching method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. A large number of low-lying isomers are optimized at the B3PW91/6-311 + G* level of theory. Harmonic vibrational analysis has been performed to assure that the optimized geometries are stable. The growth behaviors clearly indicate that a structural transition from the prolate to spherical-like geometries occurs at n = 26 for neutral silicon clusters, n = 27 for anions and n = 25 for cations. These results are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical predicted findings. In addition, no significant structural differences are observed between the neutral and cation charged silicon clusters with n = 20–24, both of them favor prolate structures. The HOMO-LUMO gaps and vertical ionization potential patterns indicate that Si22 is the most chemical stable cluster, and its dynamical stability is deeply discussed by the vibrational spectra calculations. PMID:26526519

  7. Use of the helium medium for preparation of nano-sized powder materials by the example of industrial cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyavin, O. V.; Aruev, N. N.; Boltenkov, B. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. O.; Chernov, Yu. M.; Shpeizman, V. V.

    2014-02-01

    Based on the phenomenon of the mechanodynamic diffusion of particles of the external medium in solids, a new in principle method has been proposed for the first time for producing nano-sized powder materials using industrial cement milled in a helium medium as an example. The temperature dependences of the extraction rate and the amount of helium in powders upon their heating in a temperature range of 20-1200°C have been obtained using mass spectrometry. It has been shown that milling of the cement powder of the M-400 brand using an MK-1 laboratory mill in helium leads to a considerable shift of its extraction curve towards lower temperatures compared with the air medium. The particle sizes of the powder milled in helium lie in a range of 5-10 nm, which is smaller than the powder size (˜500 nm) after milling in the air medium by a factor of 100. The compression strength of cement samples obtained from the powders milled in helium increased by a factor of 2 compared with the strength of the samples from the initial material. The activation energies of helium extraction from the cement powders milled in helium and in air have been analyzed. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the method for producing nano-sized powder materials in the helium medium. The method can be used in the industrial scale based on the existing mill equipment with its minimal modernization.

  8. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    PubMed Central

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  9. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  10. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size.

  11. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  12. Temperature and relative humidity distributions in a medium-size administrative town in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbode, O M; Eludoyin, A O; Fashae, O A

    2008-04-01

    This study was carried out in one of the medium-sized public administrative towns in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to highlight the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socio-economic activities on urban air temperature and humidity in the town. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from three meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The stations are located within the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements were also obtained from 27 points, which were cited to include road junctions, markets, built up areas, etc., using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations using statistical packages (SPSS and Microsoft Excel) and isolines. Actual vapour pressure and dew point temperature were computed using Magnus conversion formulae. The results obtained showed that spatial variation was insignificant, in terms of the temperature and humidity variables. The annual mean temperature (Tmean) ranged between 21.9 and 30.4 degrees C while minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures varied from 13 to 26 and 21.5-39.6 degrees C, respectively. Relative humidity (RH), actual vapour pressure (Es) and dew point temperature (Td) values also varied from 39.1% to 98.2%, 19.7-20.8 gm(-3), and 17.3-17.8 degrees C, respectively. A significant relationship (p>0.6; r<0.05) between Tmin, Es and Td was observed while the daytime 'urban heat island' intensity (UHI) ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees C within the study period. The study concluded that there is influence of urban canopy on the microclimate of Akure, and hypothesizes that the urban dwellers may be subjected to some levels of weather related physiological disorderliness.

  13. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed <250 people; 43.2% did not have or had never reviewed a written health and safety policy. Only 18% had a written occupational health policy; 14.4% employed the services of a part-time occupational health physician; 7.2% employed a health and safety advisor; and 10.8% employed a part-time occupational health nurse. Twenty-five per cent had a nominated person responsible for occupational health and 67% thought that a doctor or nurse would be the best person to provide an occupational health service. Twenty-eight per cent of the companies carried out some form of pre-employment screening and 14.2% carried out health promotion. Fifteen (53.5%) collected some form of health related absence data. Eight companies (28.6%) organized a formal induction programme for all new employees. Further work should be undertaken in an attempt to improve access to local industry and particularly to SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs.

  14. Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Kittas, Constantinos

    2012-02-01

    This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually starts developing after sunset during both seasons. It could be attributed to the different nocturnal radiative cooling rate and to the different anthropogenic heat emission rate that are observed at the city center and at the suburb, as well as to meteorological conditions. The analysis reveals that during both seasons the daily maximum hourly (DMH) UHI intensity is positively correlated with solar radiation and with previous day's maximum hourly UHI intensity and negatively correlated with wind speed. It is also negatively correlated with relative humidity during winter but positively correlated with it during summer. This difference could be attributed to the different mechanisms that mainly drive humidity levels (i.e., evaporation in winter and sea breeze (SB) in summer). Moreover, it is found that SB development triggers a delay in UHI formation in summer. The impact of atmospheric pollution on maximum UHI intensity is also examined. An increase in PM10 concentration is associated with an increase in maximum UHI intensity during winter and with a decrease during summer. The impact of PM10 on UHI is caused by the attenuation of the incoming and the outgoing radiation. Additionally, this study shows that the weekly cycle of the city activities induces a weekly variation in maximum UHI intensity levels. The weekly range of DMH UHI intensity is not very large, being more pronounced during winter (0.4°C). Moreover, a first attempt is made to predict the DMH UHI intensity by applying regression models, whose success is rather promising.

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs. PMID:26986455

  16. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    PubMed

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27068422

  17. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    PubMed Central

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  18. Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities.

    PubMed

    Comte, S; Raton, V; Raoul, F; Hegglin, D; Giraudoux, P; Deplazes, P; Favier, S; Gottschek, D; Umhang, G; Boué, F; Combes, B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, most cities are currently colonized by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are considered to be the main definitive host of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The risk of transmission to humans is of particular concern where high fox populations overlap with high human populations. The distribution of baits containing praziquantel has successfully reduced the infection pressure in rural areas and in small plots within large cities. The purpose of this study was to assess its efficiency in two medium size cities (less than 100,000 inhabitants) in areas of high human alveolar echinococcosis incidence. From August 2006 to March 2009, 14 baiting campaigns of praziquantel treatment were run in Annemasse and Pontarlier (Eastern France), each of which encompassed 33 km(2), with a density of 40 baits/km(2). The bait consumption appeared to be lower in strictly urban context compared to suburban areas (78.9% vs. 93.4%) and lower in Annemasse than in Pontarlier (82.2% vs. 89.5%). During our study, the prevalence of E. multilocularis, as assessed by EM-ELISA on fox faeces collected in the field in Annemasse, was lower within the treated area than in the rural control area. A "before/during" treatment comparison revealed a significant decrease of spring prevalence from 13.3% to 2.2%. No significant change in prevalence was detected in Pontarlier (stable prevalence: 9.1%) where the contamination of the treated area followed the temporal trend observed in the control area. There, a greater resilience of the parasite's life cycle, probably due to a strong pressure of recontamination from outside the treated area, may have counteracted the prophylaxis treatment. These contrasted outcomes suggest that the frequency of fox anthelmintic treatment should be adapted to the local situation. PMID:23642656

  19. Clinical audit of multidisciplinary care at a medium-sized hospital in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary care is a key enabler in the provision of high quality care for cancer patients. Despite compelling evidence supporting their benefit to patients and for providers, multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCC) are not universally occurring. Team composition of MCC reflects the multidisciplinary nature of the body. Lack of nursing input can have a negative impact on team decision making. The objective of this study was to evaluate multidisciplinary care and adherence to national recommendations at a medium-sized hospital through a clinical audit of cancer conferences and clinical records. Methods A total of 77 multidisciplinary cancer conferences were visited and 496 electronic health records were reviewed. The regularity of meetings and multidisciplinary attendance were evaluated. Each electronic health record was checked to verify documented prospective discussion before any treatment was started. Results Nine multidisciplinary teams meet on a weekly or biweekly basis at the hospital with an average number of ten people and six different specialties represented. Average duration of meetings was 46.8 min. Though most patients (64.5%) were discussed at some point at the relevant cancer conference, only 40% had a documented multidisciplinary team discussion prior to the first treatment. Pathological stage (pTNM) was documented in 53.6% of clinical records. Conclusions Nursing representatives should be included as usual attendees at cancer conferences. Prospective discussion of all cancer cases should be encouraged. Use of checklists and systematic collection of key information, specifically cancer staging, could improve clinical documentation in the electronic clinical record. PMID:24597686

  20. Lateral plume spreading in a medium size river plume using surface Lagrangian drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoulaki, Georgia; MacDonald, Daniel; Cole, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    Groups of 27 Lagrangian drifters deployed in the Merrimack River plume over twelve tides, with river discharges ranging between 150-800 m3/s, are used to understand the external forcing mechanisms responsible for the extent of spreading in river plumes. The transition of buoyant flow from a confined estuary to an unconfined coastal ocean introduces the complicated phenomenon of lateral spreading, which occurs preferentially near the surface and results in a flow that spreads laterally as plume water propagates forward in the direction of mean flow. In this work, the temporal and spatial scales of the active spreading region are estimated in the sampled plumes and related to environmental parameters at the river mouth such as inflow river discharge, initial drifter velocity at the point of release, initial reduced gravity and initial internal wave speed. The initial wave speed was found to be the environmental parameter that best predicts the magnitude of the spatial and temporal scales of the active spreading region. Previous studies have asserted the importance of initial plume parameters in near-field plume evolution and here we extrapolate this idea to the mid-field. Interestingly, we find that that lateral plume spreading is arrested at approximately one inertial radius from the river mouth. We therefore propose that the shutdown of spreading is controlled almost exclusively by Coriolis force and it is responsible for converting spreading motion to spinning motion after the mid field region. The outcomes of this research are widely applicable to other energetic, medium size river plume systems and to the author's knowledge this is the first study to estimate lateral plume expansion using observations beyond the immediate near field region of a river plume. This work will provide further development in understanding plume dynamics and the fundamental physical processes that influence coastal ecosystems.

  1. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  2. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  3. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  4. Is Small Finally Becoming Beautiful? Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in the New Economy. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, J.; Ramioul, M.; Van Hootegem, G.

    This report addresses small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs') role in the changing international division of labor and trade in information service activities. Chapter 2 describes the EMERGENCE project to map and measure eWork. Chapter 3 reviews literature that shows SMEs account for the overwhelming majority of companies and make a crucial…

  5. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  6. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  7. Concept of an Exchange Network for the Development of Vocational Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudet, Rene

    An examination of the ways in which vocational training can be extended to small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Economic Community, this document consists of: an introduction; four parts containing multiple chapters; 10 case studies; and a bibliography. Following the introduction, which is an update of a report made in 1985, part one…

  8. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  9. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  10. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  11. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Brettschuh, Werner

    2006-07-01

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70

  12. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  13. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  14. Assessment of metal exposure, ecological status and required water quality monitoring strategies in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

    PubMed

    Marijić, Vlatka Filipović; Perić, Mirela Sertić; Kepčija, Renata Matoničkin; Dragun, Zrinka; Kovarik, Ivana; Gulin, Vesna; Erk, Marijana

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the seasonal variability of total dissolved metal/metalloid levels and physicochemical parameters within small- to medium-size freshwater ecosystems in temperate climate region. The research was conducted in four seasons in the Sutla River, medium-size polluted, and the Črnomerec Stream, small-size unpolluted watercourse in Croatia. In the Sutla River, characterized by the rural/industrial catchment, physicochemical parameters and total dissolved metal concentrations of 21 trace and 4 macro elements were analysed downstream of the point source of pollution, the glass production facility, indicating for the first time their variability across four seasons. Based on dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nutrient concentrations, conductivity and total chemical oxygen demand, quality status of the Sutla River was good, but moderate to poor during summer, what was additionally confirmed by the highest levels of the most of 25 measured metals/metalloids in summer. Comparison with the reference small-size watercourse, the Črnomerec Stream, indicated significant anthropogenic impact on the Sutla River, most evident for Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb and Tl levels (3-70-fold higher in the Sutla River across all seasons). Generally, presented results indicated significant decrease of the water quality in the anthropogenically impacted small- to medium-size watercourses in summer, regarding physicochemical water parameters and total dissolved metal/metalloid concentrations, and pointed to significant seasonality of these parameters. Confirmed seasonality of river ecological status indicates that seasonal assessment represents a prerequisite for proper classification of the water quality in small- to medium-size temperate rivers.

  15. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  16. Distinguishing between the bone fragments of medium-sized mammals and children. A histological identification method for archaeology.

    PubMed

    Cuijpers, Saddha A G F M

    2009-06-01

    In archaeology, it is not always possible to identify bone fragments. A novel approach was chosen to assess the potential of histology as an identification tool. Instead of studying a few bones of different categories from many species, this study concentrated on the diaphyses of long bones in four species of comparable size which are relevant to archaeology; young humans, pigs, sheep and goats, to broaden the insight into variations in diaphyseal bone structure within and between these species. A general difference in the primary bone structure was found between children older than one year and the three medium-sized mammals, namely lamellar vs. fibro-lamellar primary bone. Although, the diaphyseal bone structure of children below the age of one year also showed (developing) fibro-lamellar bone, its composition was distinctive from the medium-sized mammals. A difference in the secondary bone structure was also observed. Connecting (Volkmann's) canals, giving the secondary bone a reticular aspect, were seen in the medium-sized mammals but not in the young human long bones. To confirm the validity and applicability of these observed histological differences, a blind test was conducted on 14 diaphyseal fragments of identified long bones from archaeological sites. The results were very promising. All the bone fragments were correctly attributed using the difference in primary bone structure, even when the bone was severely degraded.

  17. [Uncertainty in estimating short-term health effects of air pollution in small- and medium-size cities].

    PubMed

    Giannini, Simone; Zauli Sajani, Stefano; De Girolamo, Gianfranco; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Lauriola, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a growing number of small- and medium-size cities have been included in meta-analytic studies on short-term health effects of air pollution in order to increase the statistical power of these studies. This has produced an increase in the precision of meta-analytic estimates, but also a growing interest in city-specific results. As a consequence, relevant differences in the estimates have been frequently found, even for nearby cities with similar environmental and sociodemographic characteristics. This article aims at showing the variability of effect estimates for small- to medium-size cities in relation to the extent of the considered time frame, highlighting quantitatively the caution that must be taken in interpreting and communicating the results derived from short time series of data. The study was based on the analysis of the data from two cities in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): Ravenna and Reggio Emilia. PMID:27436256

  18. How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

  19. Injection barrel with a tapered structure for a low speed and small size cryogenic hydrogen pellet in medium-sized plasma fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, G.; Sakamoto, R.; Okada, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Kado, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Konoshima, S.; Minami, T.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mutoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    An injection barrel was designed and fabricated for a small size 0.8 mm cryogenic pellet with a low speed of 200-300 m/s in medium-sized plasma fusion devices. Pellet injection with pneumatic acceleration was examined using a conventional in situ technique. A tapered structure was applied in the downstream side of the injection barrel to satisfy the requirement of pellet speed reduction by expansion of the propellant gas. Shadowgraph and light gate measurements show that the intact pellets have speeds of 260 ± 30 m/s and a typical size of 1.1-1.2 mm. The pellet ablation code based on a neutral gas shielding model shows that the penetration depth of the measured pellet parameters does not cross the plasma center, even in medium-sized plasma devices such as the Heliotron J helical device. The injection barrel with a tapered structure developed in this study is feasible for low speed pellet injection.

  20. Environmental education for small- and medium-sized enterprises: methodology and e-learning experience in the Valencian region.

    PubMed

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustín; Monterde-Díaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Víctor-Andrés; Torres-Sibille, Ana Del Carmen

    2008-05-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing social demand for environmental awareness, which firms are inevitably required to adapt to. More and more, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are finding it necessary to train their staff in environmental issues if they wish to survive in a market where it is no longer sufficient to excel in price competitiveness exclusively, but where quality, service and environmental standards also play an important role.

  1. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei; Zhao, Jijun; Qiu, Ruifeng

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  2. ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY OF MEDIUM-SIZED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CARRIERS OF THE 2175 A UV BUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jaeger, C.; Rouille, G.; Huisken, F.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, Th. E-mail: Cornelia.Jaeger@uni-jena.de

    2010-03-20

    Mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs was primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50-60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  3. Pay-for-performance and public reporting program participation and administrative challenges among small- and medium-sized physician practices.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shi, Yunfeng; Casalino, Lawrence P

    2014-06-01

    A key component of efforts to improve the quality of care in the United States is the use of public reporting and pay-for-performance programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which small- and medium-sized physician practices are participating in these programs. This study examined the participation of small- and medium-sized physician practices in pay-for-performance and public reporting programs and the characteristics of the participating practices. Using cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,734 small- and medium-sized physician practices throughout the United States, we found that many practices (61.2%) were participating in at least one program, while far fewer (19.2%) were participating in multiple programs. Among practices participating in multiple programs, relatively few (21.9%) reported high levels of administrative problems due to a lack of standardization on performance measures. The study also suggests that some structural features are associated with participation and may provide leverage points for fostering participation. PMID:24263052

  4. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly.

  5. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Olga V; Godymchuk, Anna Yu; Gusev, Alexander A; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I; Vasyukova, Inna A; Kuznetsov, Denis V

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu(2+) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed. PMID:26339611

  6. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Olga V.; Godymchuk, Anna Yu.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I.; Vasyukova, Inna A.; Kuznetsov, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu2+ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed. PMID:26339611

  7. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Olga V; Godymchuk, Anna Yu; Gusev, Alexander A; Gulchenko, Svyatoslav I; Vasyukova, Inna A; Kuznetsov, Denis V

    2015-01-01

    Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50) and 100 nm (Cu 100). The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu(2+) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L). It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed.

  8. The role of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the phase behavior of medium sized Lennard-Jones clusters.

    PubMed

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Poon, Louis; Bowles, Richard K

    2010-08-21

    The free energy of a 600-atom Lennard-Jones cluster is calculated as a function of surface and bulk crystallinity in order to study the structural transformations that occur in the core of medium sized clusters. Within the order parameter range studied, we find the existence of two free energy minima at temperatures near freezing. One minimum, at low values of both bulk and surface order, belongs to the liquid phase. The second minimum exhibits a highly ordered core with a disordered surface and is related to structures containing a single fcc-tetrahedral subunit, with an edge length of seven atoms (l=7), located in the particle core. At lower temperatures, a third minimum appears at intermediate values of the bulk order parameter which is shown to be related to the formation of multiple l=6 tetrahedra in the core of the cluster. We also use molecular dynamics simulations to follow a series of nucleation events and find that the clusters freeze to structures containing l=5, 6, 7, and 8 sized tetrahedra as well as those containing no tetrahedral units. The structural correlations between bulk and surface order with the size of the tetrahedral units in the cluster core are examined. Finally, the relationships between the formation of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the core, the phase behavior of medium sized clusters and the nucleation of noncrystalline global structures such as icosahedra and decahedra are discussed.

  9. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  10. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    PubMed

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors.

  11. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size–extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size–extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

  12. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  13. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  14. Seasonally different reproductive investment in a medium-sized rodent (Cavia aperea).

    PubMed

    Rübensam, K; Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Guenther, A

    2015-09-01

    Pronounced seasonal variations in day length, temperature, and resource availability characterize the temperate regions and strongly influence the animals living in these environments. To survive and reproduce successfully, animals must allocate resources among competing physiological systems, and they usually adjust their time of breeding to the most adequate season. Here, we examined whether reproductive investment in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) differs across seasons. We kept animals in combined indoor-outdoor enclosures under natural light and temperature year-round. We measured littering probability, litter size, and birth weight, as well as maternal weight loss during lactation. In addition, we measured ovulation rate as a parameter to adjust reproductive investment prenatally. Our data reveal strong seasonal variations in reproductive traits despite the fact that the animals reproduced year-round. The results show a reduced reproductive investment in winter, indicated by a lower litter size and birth weight of pups, whereas investment was highest in warm seasons (summer and autumn) with higher litter size and birth weight. Maternal weight loss in lactation was highest in cold seasons even if the litter size was lower. Furthermore, we found the regulation on the proximate level of the reproductive investment, the ovulation rate, to differ significantly between the seasons.

  15. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  16. Discriminating between Medium-Sized Tridactyl Trackmakers: Tracking Ornithopod Tracks in the Base of the Cretaceous (Berriasian, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Diego; Pascual, Carlos; Razzolini, Novella L.; Vila, Bernat; Barco, José L.; Canudo, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work on the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition of the Iberian Range (Spain) has opened a new window onto the interpretation of the trackmakers of some medium-sized tridactyl tracks. The ichnotaxon Therangospodus oncalensis has been described in the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) and is one of the classical tracks from the area assigned to medium-sized theropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A review of the type locality of Therangospodus oncalensis (Fuentesalvo tracksite) and other tracksites from the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian) has yielded new information on the morphology, gait and trackmaker identity of the aforementioned ichnospecies. The new data suggest that the trackmaker is an ornithopod rather than a theropod on the basis of the length/width ratio, the anterior triangle length-width ratio, the short steps, the round to quadrangular heel pad impression and the probable manus impressions. Conclusions/Significance T. oncalensis shows similarities with various tracks from the Berriasian of Europe assigned to Iguanodontipus. The ichnotaxonomical status of this ichnospecies is here considered as Iguanodontipus? oncalensis due to the current state of knowledge of the ichnotaxonomy of medium-sized ornithopod tracks. This reassessment of I? oncalensis also has two significant implications for the palaeoecology of the faunas during the deposition of the Huérteles Formation: 1- the high number and percentage of theropod tracks would be lower than previous papers have suggested. 2- the gregarious behaviour described in the type locality (Fuentesalvo) would be among ornithopods instead of theropods. PMID:24303075

  17. The Alignment System for a Medium-Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope Prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Deivid; Humensky, Brian; Nieto, Daniel; V Vassiliev Group in UCLA division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P Kaaret Group at Iowa University Department of Physics and Astronomy, CTA Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder design is a candidate 9-m diameter medium-sized telescope featuring a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of a wide field of view with significantly improved imaging resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. Achieving this imaging resolution imposes strict mirror alignment requirements that necessitate a sophisticated alignment system. This system uses a collection of position sensors between panels to determine the relative position of adjacent panels; each panel is mounted on a Stewart platform to allow motion control with six degrees of freedom, facilitating the alignment of the optical surface for the segmented primary and secondary mirrors. Alignments of the primary and secondary mirrors and the camera focal plane with respect to each other are performed utilizing a set of CCD cameras which image LEDs placed on the mirror panels to measure relative translation, and custom-built auto-collimators to measure relative tilt between the primary and secondary mirrors along the optical axis of the telescope. In this contribution we present the status of the development of the SC optical alignment system, soon to be materialized in a full-scale prototype SC medium-size telescope (pSCT) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona.

  18. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ˜103 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  19. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i. PMID:25592711

  20. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dongamanti, Ashok; Aamate, Vikas Kumar; Devulapally, Mohan Gandhi; Gundu, Srinivas; Kotni, Meena Kumari; Manga, Vijjulatha; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Ernala, Prasad

    2015-02-15

    A convenient approach for the synthesis of novel tetracyclic scaffolds incorporating a flavonoid framework with medium sized heterocyclic rings (eight-, nine-, ten- and eleven-membered rings) containing two oxygen atoms from flavonols through alkylation using different dibromoalkanes was described. The synthesized compounds were established based on the spectral data and X-ray crystal structure for 6c. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Docking studies were carried out for most active two compounds 6f and 6i.

  1. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  2. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ~10(3) atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  3. The ubiquity of micrometer-sized dust grains in the dense interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jürgen; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas

    2010-09-24

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves.

  4. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  5. Adiabatic compressibility of AOT [sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate] reverse micelles: Analysis of a simple model based on micellar size and volumetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amararene, A.; Gindre, M.; Le Huérou, J.-Y.; Urbach, W.; Valdez, D.; Waks, M.

    2000-01-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules into supramolecular aggregates involves a number of complex phenomena and forces. Recent developments of highly sensitive, densimetric and acoustic methods on small volume samples have provided novel sensitive probes to explore the physical properties of these complex fluids. We have investigated, by high precision densimetry and ultrasound velocimetry, reverse micelles of [sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate] in oil (isooctane and decane), at increasing water concentration and at variable micellar volume fractions. The size of these spherical micelles has been determined by small angle x-ray scattering. Using these results, in the framework of the effective medium theory, we have developed a simple model of micellar compressibility, allowing the calculation of physical parameters (aggregation number, volume, and compressibility) of the surfactant monomolecular film as well as that of the micellar waters. In particular, we show that the central aqueous core designated as ``free'' water, located at a distance from the oil-water interacting interface, is twice as compressible as ``bulk'' water. One notable feature of this work is the influence of the nature of the oil on the above parameters.

  6. Effect of Sodium Fluorescein and Plating Medium on Recovery of Irradiated Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens from Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Emerson L.; Berendt, Richard F.; Neff, Everett L.

    1970-01-01

    Irradiation of aerosols of either Escherichia coli or Serratia marcescens with simulated solar (xenon) radiation caused a significant decrease in viability. When sodium fluorescein was employed to determine the physical loss of organisms from the aerosol, an additional adverse effect upon survival was noted. The decay curves indicated that at least two mechanisms of inactivation were operative, one due to aerosolization, the other to irradiation. After collection from aerosols, both species of microorganisms grew better on blood agar base than on Casitone agar, but this finding did not appear to be related to the effect of irradiation. PMID:4922085

  7. Effects of preferred orientation and crystal size on thermoelectric properties of sodium cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yin; Wang, Jun; Yaer, Xinba; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Boyu; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of crystal size and orientation effect on ZT, polycrystalline NaxCo2O4 materials were prepared by pressing layered crystals obtained in sol-gel (SG) synthesis, molten salt synthesis (MSS) with and without additional ball milling (BM) treatment and 1:1 molar ratio mixture (Mixture) of BM powder and MSS powders. We found that the orientation effect and crystal size for four samples follow Mixture < SG < BM < MSS and BM < Mixture < SG < MSS, respectively. Electrical conductivity was obviously enhanced in the highly orientated BM and MSS samples when compared with SG and Mixture. It appears that the crystal size plays a dominant role in thermal conductivity rather than Seebeck coefficient by controlling the phonon scattering at grain boundaries. Thermal conductivity for BM was significantly decreased in comparison to MSS, although both BM and MSS show comparable orientation effect. The maximum ZT value is developed to near 0.51 at 814K upon increasing the electrical resistivity and decreasing the thermal conductivity, which are mainly governed by the condition of crystal size and orientation effect.

  8. Determination of the overlap factor and its enhancement for medium-size tropospheric lidar systems: a ray-tracing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    The problem of overlap factor (OVF) computation and its near-range sensitivity for medium-size aperture (f/10, f/11) bi-axial tropospheric lidar systems using ray-tracing simulation software is presented. The method revisits both detector and fiber optics coupling alternatives at the telescope focal-plane along with the insertion of a field lens. A sensitivity analysis is carried out as a function of laser divergence, field lens, and detector/fiber positions, detector size, and the fiber's core diameter and numerical aperture. The ray-tracing approach presented here is straightforward and a comparatively much simpler solution than analytical-based methods. Parametric simulations are carried out to show that both approaches are coincident. Insertion of a field lens proves to be an elegant and low sensitivity solution for OVF enhancement, particularly, in the near-range of the lidar.

  9. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  10. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parametersmore » including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.« less

  11. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. D.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies–Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild–Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30–40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. Finally, we attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  12. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  13. Medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for xylanase induction in Prevotella bryantii B14.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kohji; Hirase, Tatsuaki; Kojima, Yoichi; Flint, Harry James

    2005-12-01

    Experiments were done to define the nature of the xylan-derived induction signal for xylanase activity, and evaluate which xylanase genes among the three known ones (xynA, xynB and xynC) are induced by the presence of xylan in Prevotella bryantii B(1)4. During the later stages of exponential growth on glucose, addition of 0.05 % water-soluble xylan (WS-X) stimulated xylanase formation within 30 min. Xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose, arabinose and glucuronic acid all failed to induce the xylanase activity. An acid-ethanol-soluble fraction of WS-X (approximate degree of polymerization 30) enhanced the activity significantly, whereas the acid-ethanol-insoluble fraction had no effect, unless first digested by the cloned P. bryantii XynC xylanase. These results indicate that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction. The transcription of all three known xylanase genes from P. bryantii was upregulated coordinately by addition of WS-X. There have been relatively few investigations into the regulation of xylanase activity in bacteria, and it appears to be unique that medium- to large-sized xylo-oligosaccharides are responsible for induction. PMID:16339957

  14. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  15. Deformation Behavior in Medium Mn Steel of Nanometer-Sized α' + γ Lamellar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dong Hwi; Heo, Nam Hoe; Hong, Chang Wan; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Yielding and work-hardening phenomena in an Fe-10.62Mn-2.84Al-0.17C-0.5Mo steel, which is composed of nanometer-sized lamellae of α' and γ, are described on the basis of the Hall-Petch relations. Unlike the general expectation, yielding in the steel, which consists of lamellae of α' and mechanically stable γ, occurs through the propagation of pileup dislocations from α' to γ. However, when γ is mechanically unstable, yielding occurs through the stress-assisted martensitic transformation (SAMT) within the unstable γ region, resulting in a low YS of about 500 MPa. The overall prominent work-hardening behavior of this steel after yielding is due to the active SAMT, which does not accompany the increase in mobile dislocation density and so causes the high elastic strain rate. The carbon partitioning treatment increases the SAMT starting strength to about 980 MPa, which is caused by the mechanical stabilization of γ. The overall low work-hardening behavior of this case is mainly attributed to the active propagation of pile-up dislocation from α' to γ which causes the high plastic strain rate through the abrupt increase of mobile dislocation density.

  16. Use of recycling through medium size granular filters to treat small food processing industry effluents.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, C; Boutin, C; Liénard, A; Brissaud, F

    2002-01-01

    Currently there are no suitable wastewater treatment systems for effluents from small food processing industries (dairy, cheese, wine production). Such raw sewages are characterized by high organic matter concentrations (about 10 g COD L-1) and relatively low daily volumes (about 2 m3). An adaptation of attached-growth cultures on fine media processes, known to be easy and inexpensive to use, could fit both the technical and economical context of those industries. Coarser filter particle size distributions than those normally used allow a better aeration and reduce clogging risk. The transit time of the effluent through the porous filter materials is shortened and requires recycling to increase the contact time between the biomass and the substrate. A pilot plant was built to compare the efficiency of two kinds of filter materials, gravel (2-5 mm) and pozzolana (3-7 mm). Two measurement campaigns were undertaken on a full-scale unit dealing with cheese dairy effluents. Both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show high COD removal rates (> 95%). Pilot-scale experiments show that accumulation of organic matter leads to the clogging of the recycling filter. To prevent early clogging, a better definition of feeding cycles is needed. PMID:12201106

  17. Electrocardiogram on a chip: overview and first experiences of an electrocardiogram manufacturer of medium size.

    PubMed

    Abächerli, Roger; Braun, Francis; Zhou, Lingchuan; Kraemer, Michel; Felblinger, Jacques; Schmid, Hans-Jakob

    2006-10-01

    The integration of an electrocardiogram (ECG) device into a chip is already well known in the field of implanted devices, such as pacemakers. For noninvasive electrocardiology, this approach has not been used on a broad scale commercially. The extension of electrocardiology to telemetry, home care, and special applications as in magnetic resonance imaging has spawned a new interest in highly miniaturized ECG devices. In our company, we are aiming for using highly integrated devices exactly in these fields. On one hand, the home monitoring market ("eHealth," "pHealth") requires small and lightweight devices ("ECG in an electrode"); on the other hand, the use of an ECG device within a hostile environment as in an magnetic resonance imaging machine with strong electromagnetic fields requires small dimensions of the device. Of these 2 fields, the one of home monitoring is the most promising. There is a large population in need of such monitoring (eg, patients with congestive heart failure), and the cost issue in medical care drives the market in this direction. Projects in both fields will be presented as well as the first experiences as a middle-sized manufacturer in trying to produce an integrated ECG "device."

  18. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    PubMed

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 μm were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 μm) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA).

  19. Lumbar vertebral body bone microstructural scaling in small to medium-sized strepsirhines.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Desilva, Jeremy M; Manoharan, Rajaram K; Schmitz, James E; Maclatchy, Laura M; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-02-01

    Bone mass, architecture, and tissue mineral density contribute to bone strength. As body mass (BM) increases any one or combination of these properties could change to maintain structural integrity. To better understand the structural origins of vertebral fragility and gain insight into the mechanisms that govern bone adaptation, we conducted an integrative analysis of bone mass and microarchitecture in the last lumbar vertebral body from nine strepsirhine species, ranging in size from 42 g (Microcebus rufus) to 2,440 g (Eulemur macaco). Bone mass and architecture were assessed via µCT for the whole body and spherical volumes of interest (VOI). Allometric equations were estimated and compared with predictions for geometric scaling, assuming axial compression as the dominant loading regime. Bone mass, microarchitectural, and vertebral body geometric variables predominantly scaled isometrically. Among structural variables, the degree of anisotropy (Tb.DA) was the only parameter independent of BM and other trabecular architectural variables. Tb.DA was related to positional behavior. Orthograde primates had higher average Tb.DA (1.60) and more craniocaudally oriented trabeculae while lorisines had the lowest Tb.DA (1.25), as well as variably oriented trabeculae. Finally, lorisines had the highest ratio of trabecular bone volume to cortical shell volume (∼3x) and while there appears to be flexibility in this ratio, the total bone volume (trabecular + cortical) scales isometrically (BM(1.23) , r(2) = 0.93) and appears tightly constrained. The common pattern of isometry in our measurements leaves open the question of how vertebral bodies in strepsirhine species compensate for increased BM. PMID:23355518

  20. Effect of berry size and sodium hydroxide pretreatment on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation heating.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Pan, Z; McHugh, T H; Wood, D; Zhu, Y; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Hirschberg, E

    2008-08-01

    This research studied the effect of berry size and dipping pretreatment in hot sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution on the drying characteristics of blueberries under infrared radiation (IR) heating. Changes in the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of the berries after the NaOH pretreatment were also determined using scanning electronic microscopy and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), respectively. To quantify the effect of berry size, non-pretreated bulk blueberries were sorted into 6 groups based on their diameters and dried at 70 degrees C. To determine the effectiveness of NaOH pretreatment in improving drying characteristics, bulk blueberries of different sizes, both nonpretreated and NaOH pretreated, were dried at constant temperatures of 80 and 90 degrees C, and variable temperatures of 70 degrees C for 50 min followed by 90 degrees C for 50 min. The NaOH pretreatment dipped blueberries in 0.1% NaOH solution with fruit to solution ratio 1:1 (w/v) at initial temperature of 93 degrees C for 5 s. Results showed that the drying rate increased with decreased berry size. Average moisture diffusivity was in the range of 5.89 to 8.13 m2/s at 70 degrees C. The NaOH pretreatment increased drying rate and moisture diffusivity and reduced the number of broken berries, especially at high drying temperatures. Results from SEM observation and DVS showed that the increase in diffusivity coefficients of berry coat and loss of intact microstructure in coat and tissue cells might contribute to the effect of NaOH pretreatment on the IR drying of blueberries.

  1. Graben on the Floors of Mercury's Medium-Sized Impact Basins: Extension from Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. M.; Freed, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Prockter, L. M.; Watters, T. R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    Images taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft reveal a variety of faulting styles on the floors of major impact basins on Mercury. Two of the best-preserved peak-ring basins, Raditladi and Rachmaninoff (diameter D ~ 265 and 290 km) display predominantly circumferentially oriented graben on the floors within their peak rings. Similar graben are seen in Schrödinger basin on the Moon (D ~ 312 km), though the distribution and orientation of graben differ. This faulting style is not observed within much larger (D > 1000 km) impact basins on the Moon, where faulting is likely related to lithospheric flexure caused by subsidence of volcanic loads within the basin. In the Caloris basin on Mercury (D ~ 1500 km), extensional faulting is generally inferred to be related to uplift in response to different phases of exterior volcanic loading or lateral crustal flow. The smaller sizes of the Raditladi and Rachmaninoff basins combined with the absence of graben outside their peak rings make these mechanism unlikely to explain the observed faulting. Moreover, whereas the smooth plains inside the peak ring of Rachmaninoff basin appear to be volcanic in nature, the plains within Raditladi basin are not resolvably younger than the basin and may consist of solidified impact melt. Thus, any mechanism proposed to explain the origin of graben in these basins must apply to either floor material. Here we use thermo-mechanical finite element models to calculate the stress states resulting from several candidate mechanisms for graben formation. Models of subsidence associated with the emplacement of interior fill as well as those of uplift associated with undercompensated basin topography do not lead to the required stress state. We also explore the idea that porous breccias beneath the smooth plains are heated by impact melt or volcanic fill and undergo viscous compaction, causing subsidence of the fill material. In combination with interior filling by plains that thin outward, this mechanism

  2. Sodium N-Chlorobenzenesulfonamide as a Selective Oxidant for Hexosamines in Alkaline Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Raghavendra, Manikanahally P.; Mahadevappa, Dandinasivara S.; Channegowda, Doddegowda

    1998-02-01

    Oxidation of D-mannosamine (1), D-glucosamine (2), and D-galctosamine (3) by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide or chloramine-B (CAB) at 313 K is followed by a shortening of carbon chain and obeys the rate law, rate = k[CAB][sugar][HO(-)](x)(), where x is less than unity. The products are arabinonic acid, ribonic acid, and erythronic acid for 1 and 2 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids, while lyxonic and threonic acids are predominant in the oxidation of 3 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids. Proton inventory studies made in a H(2)O-D(2)O mixture point toward a single transition state. In the proposed mechanism the alkoxy anion (S(-)) of the hexosamine formed in a base-catalyzed reaction at C-1 carbon is subjected to an electrophilic rate-limiting attack by Cl(+) of the oxidant. The hexonic acid formed is decarboxylated with loss of ammonia to form the respective pentose, which is further converted into the corresponding pentonic acid. The breaking of the bond between C-1 and C-2 carbons in pentose yields tetronic acids. The thermodynamic parameters for sugar alkoxy anion formation and activation parameters for the rate-limiting step have been evaluated.

  3. Photolysis of the herbicide bispyribac sodium in aqueous medium under the influence of UV and sunlight in presence or absence of sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Kanrar, Bappaditya; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2009-11-01

    The photolysis of a rice herbicide Bispyribac sodium (Sodium 2, 6-bis [(4, 6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl) oxy] benzoate) has been studied in different aqueous medium (distilled water, pond water and Irrigation water) under the influence of UV (lambda max > or = 250 nm) and sunlight in presence or absence of sensitizers (TiO(2) and KNO(3)). The study was conducted under laboratory simulated condition which made it possible to evaluate the contribution of different factors viz. source of irradiation, solvent and sensitizers towards the photolysis of bispyribac sodium. The photodegradation proceeds via first order reaction Kinetics in all the cases. Five photo metabolites (M(1)-M(5)) were isolated in pure form by column chromatographic method from the irradiation system under UV influenced and TiO(2) as sensitizer. From the different spectral data (IR, NMR, UV-VIS, Mass) the structure of these five metabolites were assigned as M(1) (Phenol), M(2) [2, 6-Dihydroxy benzoic acid], M(3) [2, 6-bis [(4, 6 dimethoxypyrimidin-2yl) oxy] benzoic acid], M(4) [2-(3-Hydroxy-phenoxy)-pyrimidine-4, 6-diol] and M(5) as [2,4-Dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxy-6-(4-methoxy pyrimidine-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid]. Moreover, another six photometabolites (M(6)-M(11)) were identified from the different irradiation system on the basis of Micromass analysis. On the basis of MS/MS data analysis, the structure of these six photometabolites were assigned as M(6) [2-(4, 6-Dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-6-hydroxy-benzoic acid], M(7) [2-Hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid], M(8) [4, 6-Dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-ol], M(9) [6-Methoxy-pyrimidine-2, 4-diol], M(10) [2-Hydroxy-6-(pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-benzoic acid] and M(11) [2, 4, 6-Trimethoxy-pyrimidine]. The plausible Photodegradation pathways of bispyribac sodium in the present investigation were portrayed which proceeds via hydrolysis, hydrolytic cleavage, O-dealkylation, decarboxylation, dehydroxylation, O-alkylation and hydroxylation. PMID:20183091

  4. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  5. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  6. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  7. Quantum chemical study of the electronic properties of an Iridium-based photosensitizer bound to medium-sized silver clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokareva, Olga S.; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    The equilibrium structures and electronic excitation spectra of the Ir(III) photosensitizer [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]+ bound to medium-sized silver clusters Agn (n = 19, 20) are investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The long-range corrected LC-BLYP approach is used with a system-specific range separation parameter. The weak physisorption of the hybrid complexes yields only small changes in the broadened absorption spectra of the hybrid system as compared with its constituents. However, the density of states as well as the fine structure of the spectra is strongly modified upon complexation. It is shown that the standard range separation parameter (0.47 bohr-1) cannot predict these properties correctly and the optimized value of 0.16 bohr-1 should be used instead.

  8. Social participation among older adults living in medium-sized cities in Belgium: the role of neighbourhood perceptions.

    PubMed

    Buffel, Tine; De Donder, Liesbeth; Phillipson, Chris; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Verté, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the associations between neighbourhood perceptions and social participation in a sample of older adults living in medium-sized cities in Flanders, Belgium. Strong evidence of the influence of place on older people's physical and mental health exists. However, the question of how neighbourhoods promote or hinder social participation remains under-explored in social gerontology. Using data generated from the Belgian Ageing Studies, a multivariate regression model (n = 1877) is tested, with personal characteristics, subjective neighbourhood assessments and objective city-level measures as independent variables, and two indicators of social participation as dependent variables: social activity and formal participation. Positive predictors included neighbourhood involvement, frequent contact with neighbours and availability of activities for older people. However, the predictive role of neighbourhood perceptions is stronger for formal participation than for social activity, which is explained more by individual characteristics. The article concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for research and practice pertaining to health promotion interventions.

  9. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  10. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  11. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  12. Comparison of the reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals and Peromyscus leucopus for Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Nicholson, William L; Massung, Robert F; Sumner, John W; Fish, Durland

    2002-01-01

    In the northeastern United States, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. The white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus is a competent reservoir for this agent, but the reservoir competence of non-Peromyscus hosts of I. scapularis has not been studied. Here, we report data confirming reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals for A. phagocytophilum. Raccoons, Virginia opossums, gray squirrels, and striped skunks were live-trapped in June-August of 1998-1999 at two locations in Connecticut. Captured animals were kept for several days at the laboratory in wire-mesh cages over water to allow naturally attached ticks to drop off. Samples of blood and serum were taken from each animal prior to its release at the site of capture. Engorged ticks collected from each animal were allowed to molt. Resulting I. scapularis nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by polymerase chain reaction, as were the blood samples from the animals. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in the blood of >10% of the raccoons tested. Raccoons, opossums, squirrels, and skunks produced adult I. scapularis infected with the agent of HGE. Prevalence of infection was the highest in adult ticks fed as nymphs upon raccoons (23%) and the lowest in those fed upon skunks and opossums (5-7%). The agent was present in nymphal I. scapularis fed as larvae upon raccoons and squirrels, but not in ticks fed upon skunks or opossums. We also tested the ability of I. scapularis to transmit A. phagocytophilum to laboratory-reared white-footed mice after acquiring it from medium-sized mammals. Ticks that acquired the agent from raccoons and squirrels successfully transmitted it to mice. Thus, raccoons and gray squirrels are reservoir-competent for the agent of HGE-they become naturally infected, and are capable of transmitting the infection to feeding ticks.

  13. Aggregation behavior of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate in aqueous ethylene glycol medium. A case of hydrogen bonding between surfactant and solvent and its manifestation in the surface tension isotherm.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Dey, J; Chandra, A K; Thapa, U; Ismail, K

    2012-11-13

    The dependence of critical micelle concentration (cmc) of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) on the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in water + EG medium was reported to be unusual and different from that of other surfactants to the extent that the cmc of AOT in EG is lower than in water. It is yet to be understood why AOT behaves so in water + EG medium, although AOT is known to have some special properties. Hence in the present study cmc of AOT in water + EG medium in the range from 0 to 100% (by weight) EG is measured by using surface tension and fluorescence emission methods. In contrast to what was reported, this study revealed that with respect to EG amount the cmc of AOT follows the general trend and AOT has higher cmc in EG than in water. On the other hand, it was surprisingly found that a break in the surface tension isotherm occurs in the premicellar region when the amount of EG exceeds 50% rendering a bisigmoidal shape to the surface tension isotherm. UV spectral study showed that AOT and EG undergo hydrogen bonding in the premicellar region when the EG amount is ≥50% and this hydrogen bonding becomes less on adding NaCl. The density functional theory calculations also showed formation of hydrogen bonds between EG and AOT through the sulfonate group of AOT providing thereby support to the experimental findings. The calculations predicted a highly stable AOT-EG-H(2)O trimer complex with a binding energy of -37.93 kcal mol(-1). The present system is an example, which is first of its kind, of a case where hydrogen bonding with surfactant and solvent molecules results in a surface tension break.

  14. Increased excitability of medium-sized dorsal root ganglion neurons by prolonged interleukin-1β exposure is K+ channel dependent and reversible

    PubMed Central

    Stemkowski, Patrick L; Noh, Myung-chul; Chen, Yishen; Smith, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic constriction injury of rat sciatic nerve promotes signs of neuropathic pain. This is associated with an increase in the level of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in primary afferents that peaks at 7 days. This initial cytokine exposure has been proposed to trigger an enduring alteration in neuronal phenotype that underlies chronic hyper-excitability in sensory nerves, which initiates and maintains chronic neuropathic pain. We have shown previously that 5–6 days of exposure of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) to 100 pm IL-1β increases the excitability of medium-sized neurons. We have now found using whole-cell recording that this increased excitability reverts to control levels within 3–4 days of cytokine removal. The effects of IL-1β were dominated by changes in K+ currents. Thus, the amplitudes of A-current, delayed rectifier and Ca2+-sensitive K+ currents were reduced by ∼68%, ∼64% and ∼36%, respectively. Effects of IL-1β on other cation currents were modest by comparison. There was thus a slight decrease in availability of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channel current, a small increase in rates of activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current (IH), and a shift in the voltage dependence of activation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S INa) to more negative potentials. It is unlikely, therefore, that direct interaction of IL-1β with DRG neurons initiates an enduring phenotypic shift in their electrophysiological properties following sciatic nerve injury. Persistent increases in primary afferent excitability following nerve injury may instead depend on altered K+ channel function and on the continued presence of slightly elevated levels IL-1β and other cytokines. PMID:26110238

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. IX. The interstellar medium seen through diffuse interstellar bands and neutral sodium&

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.; Bailey, M.; Tatton, B. L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I. D.; Richter, P.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.; Walborn, N. R.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), seen through gas in the Galactic disc and halo. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. Aims: The aim is to use DIBs as diagnostics of the local interstellar conditions, whilst at the same time deriving properties of the yet-unknown carriers of these enigmatic spectral features. Methods: Spectra of over 800 early-type stars from the Very Large Telescope Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) were analysed. Maps were created, separately, for the Galactic and LMC absorption in the DIBs at 4428 and 6614 Å and - in a smaller region near the central cluster R 136 - neutral sodium (the Na i D doublet); we also measured the DIBs at 5780 and 5797 Å. Results: The maps show strong 4428 and 6614 Å DIBs in the quiescent cloud complex to the south of 30 Dor but weak absorption in the harsher environments to the north (bubbles) and near the OB associations. The Na maps show at least five kinematic components in the LMC and a shell-like structure surrounding R 136, and small-scale structure in the Milky Way. The strengths of the 4428, 5780, 5797 and 6614 Å DIBs are correlated, also with Na absorption and visual extinction. The strong 4428 Å DIB is present already at low Na column density but the 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs start to be detectable at subsequently larger Na column densities. Conclusions: The carriers of the 4428, 6614, 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs are increasingly prone to removal from irradiated gas. The relative strength of the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs clearly confirm the Tarantula Nebula as well as Galactic high-latitude gas to represent a harsh radiation environment. The resilience of the 4428 Å DIB suggests its carrier is large, compact and neutral. Structure is detected in the distribution of cool-warm gas on scales between one and >100 pc in the LMC and as little as 0.01 pc in the Sun

  16. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  17. On the variational computation of a large number of vibrational energy levels and wave functions for medium-sized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Šimunek, Ján; Császár, Attila G.

    2009-08-01

    In a recent publication [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 084102 (2007)], the nearly variational DEWE approach (DEWE denotes Discrete variable representation of the Watson Hamiltonian using the Eckart frame and an Exact inclusion of a potential energy surface expressed in arbitrarily chosen coordinates) was developed to compute a large number of (ro)vibrational eigenpairs for medium-sized semirigid molecules having a single well-defined minimum. In this publication, memory, CPU, and hard disk usage requirements of DEWE, and thus of any DEWE-type approach, are carefully considered, analyzed, and optimized. Particular attention is paid to the sparse matrix-vector multiplication, the most expensive part of the computation, and to rate-determining steps in the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, including spectral transformation, reorthogonalization, and restart of the iteration. Algorithmic improvements are discussed in considerable detail. Numerical results are presented for the vibrational band origins of the C12H4 and C12H2D2 isotopologues of the methane molecule. The largest matrix handled on a personal computer during these computations is of the size of (4•108)×(4•108). The best strategy for determining vibrational eigenpairs depends largely on the actual details of the required computation. Nevertheless, for a usual scenario requiring a large number of the lowest eigenpairs of the Hamiltonian matrix the combination of the thick-restart Lanczos method, shift-fold filtering, and periodic reorthogonalization appears to result in the computationally most feasible approach.

  18. Feeding a medium size PAFC generator with hydrogen obtained by the fermentation of biomasses: A preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ascoli, A.; Palumbo, P.; Sorlini, C.; Fancellu, G.

    1997-07-01

    The largest (1.3 MW nominal power) fuel cell generator in Europe is now under test at the Bicocca plant of Aem, the Milan Municipality Energy Utility. It is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) generator, fed by pipeline methane through a reformer, and grid connected through an inverter. PAFC generators in general can also be fed, through a reformer, by a methane-rich biogas, obtained by the anaerobic digestion of a biomass. The yields of the microbiological treatment of cheese whey utilizing lactose-fermenting bacteria, capable to produce molecular hydrogen, have been tested in different conditions. The effective operation parameter of the Bicocca generator, experimentally observed during its initial test, have been used as the input data to analyze the possibility to feed medium-size PAFC generators by molecular H{sub 2} directly produced by the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey. On the basis of this data, the actual size of the fermentor that would produce enough H{sub 2} to feed the Bicocca generator has been calculated. It has been also checked, on the basis of the same experimental data, that the entire cheese whey production of Lombardy and Emily regions could be fermented to produce the amount of H{sub 2} necessary to feed the Bicocca generator, leaving low-COD, easily disposable grey waters. This would also solve the problem of conditioning cheese whey for disposal, allowing substantial economies.

  19. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  20. Examinations on the Meteorologic Factors of Urban Heat Island Development in Small and Medium-sized Towns of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegedi, S.; Gyarmati, R.; Kapocska, L.; Toth, T.

    2010-09-01

    EXAMINATIONS ON THE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS OF HUNGARY Sandor Szegedi, Renata Gyarmati, Laszlo Kapocska and Tamas Toth University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are mainly determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements. Meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. International and Hungarian studies usually deal with metropolises and big cities; much less attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns. Consequently this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such Hungarian urbanized areas as mentioned above. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (ca. 220,000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Car-mounted digital thermometers with data loggers were used. Twenty four measurements were carried out during a one-year-long campaign in 2003-2004. Synoptic conditions, especially cloudiness, wind direction and wind speed were taken to consideration as determinant factors. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. The non-heating season proved to be more advantageous for the development of UHI due to stronger irradiance and frequent anticyclonic synoptic conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. St type clouds have proved to be most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. A 90-100% St cover could completely eliminate the thermal differences between natural and artificial surfaces. Ci type clouds had the weakest impact, they could prevent the formation of the heat island only in the smallest

  1. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C.; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S.; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Results: Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty

  2. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C.; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S.; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Results: Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty

  3. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S. Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-04-15

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  4. Development of potential ecological niches in impact-induced hydrothermal systems: The small-to-medium size impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versh, Evelin; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Jõeleht, Argo

    2006-12-01

    Effect of meteorite impact on the biological evolution is usually considered by its catastrophic consequences. However, the impacts can create opportunity for other organisms and the structures themselves can serve as suitable ecological niches (oases) for life. In this contribution we present results of modeling of an impact-induced hydrothermal (IHT) system in a small-to-medium sized impact crater, where the development of zones habitable for primitive hydrothermal thermophilic and hypethermophilic microorganisms was studied. The impact and geothermal modeling was verified against the 4-km diameter Kärdla complex structure, Hiiumaa Island, Estonia. If there is an sufficient amount of water present in the target (e.g., sea cover, groundwater or permafrost resources) then the differential temperature fields created by the impact initiate a hydrothermal circulation system within the crater. The results of transient fluid flow and heat transfer simulations in Kärdla suggest that immediately after impact the temperatures in the central area, which contains the most hydrothermal alteration, were well above the boiling point. However, due to efficient heat loss at the groundwater vaporization front, the vapor-dominated area disappears within a few decades. In the central uplift area, the conditions favorable for thermophilic microorganisms (temperatures <100 °C) were reached in 500-1000 years after the impact. The overall cooling to ambient temperatures in the deeper parts of the central uplift lasted for thousands of years. In the crater depression and rim area the initial temperatures, suggested by the impact modeling, were much lower - from 150 °C to ambient temperatures, except locally in fracture zones and suevite pockets. Our data suggest that in small-to-medium size impact craters with insignificant melting, the suitable conditions for hydrothermal microbial communities are established shortly (tens to few hundreds of years as maximum) after the impact in

  5. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statements are required for the safe use of any OTC laxative drug product containing sodium phosphates. (b) Any OTC drug product for laxative or bowel cleansing use containing sodium phosphates as an active....” (3) Directions—(i) The labeling of all orally or rectally administered OTC drug products...

  6. Size reduction of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in Nelson's syndrome by sodium valproate: effect of withdrawal and re-institution of treatment.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Berselli, M E; Vignati, F; De Grandi, C; Tagliaferri, M

    1988-11-01

    We describe herein the reduction in the size of an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma in a patient with Nelson's syndrome during chronic administration of sodium valproate, and the changes in tumour volume after withdrawal and re-institution of treatment. The patient had elevated plasma ACTH levels (1123-1255 pmol/l), which increased markedly after CRH stimulation. A first 4-month course of sodium valproate administration (600 mg/day, orally) was started. Plasma ACTH fell to 550-726 pmol/l with persistence of responsiveness to CRH; brain computed tomography showed a clearcut reduction of tumour size. One month after drug withdrawal, the tumour volume appeared unchanged and plasma ACTH values ranged between 374 and 440 pmol/l. One and a half year after drug withdrawal, a brain computed tomography showed re-expansion of the pituitary adenoma with evidence of suprasellar extension, which had never been seen previously. Plasma ACTH ranged between 113 and 199 pmol/l. A second course of sodium valproate was started; after three months, a brain computed tomography documented clearcut reduction of tumour volume from a suprasellar extension to a partially empty pituitary fossa. Plasma ACTH ranged from 396 to 542 pmol/l with persistence of responsiveness to CRH. The present report documents for the first time the reduction of tumour size in a patient with an ACTH-secreting macroadenoma by chronic administration of sodium valproate.

  7. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriyanti, Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair, Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study a fesibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850° C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticallity was obtained for this reactor.

  8. Small-scale capture, transport and tank adaptation of live, medium-sized Scombrids using "Tuna Tubes".

    PubMed

    Bar, Ido; Dutney, Luke; Lee, Peter; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Yoshizaki, Goro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Cummins, Scott; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The transport of live fish is a crucial step to establish fish culture in captivity, and is especially challenging for species that have not been commonly cultured before, therefore transport and handling methods need to be optimized and tailored. This study describes the use of tuna tubes for small-scale transport of medium-sized pelagic fish from the Scombridae family. Tuna tubes are an array of vertical tubes that hold the fish, while fresh seawater is pumped up the tubes and through the fish mouth and gills, providing oxygen and removing wastes. In this study, 19 fish were captured using rod and line and 42 % of the captured fish were transported alive in the custom-designed tuna tubes to an on-shore holding tank: five mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and three leaping bonito (Cybiosarda elegans). Out of these, just three (15.8 % of total fish) acclimatized to the tank's condition. Based on these results, we discuss an improved design of the tuna tubes that has the potential to increase survival rates and enable a simple and low cost method of transporting of live pelagic fish. PMID:26543739

  9. Uncertainties of Completeness Measures in Openstreetmap - a Case Study for Buildings in a Medium-Sized German City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Dorn, H.; Hahmann, S.; Zipf, A.

    2015-08-01

    The completeness of buildings in OpenStreetMap (OSM) is estimated for a medium-sized German city and its surroundings by comparing the OSM data with data from an official building cadastre. As completeness measures we apply two unit-based methods that are frequently applied in similar studies. It is found that the estimation of OSM building completeness strongly differ between the methods. A count ratio (number of OSM buildings / number of reference buildings) tends to underestimate the actual building completeness and an area ratio (total OSM building area / total reference building area) instead tends to overestimate the completeness within the study area. It is argued that a simple pre-processing of the building footprint polygons leads to a more accurate completeness estimation when applying the count ratio. It is also suggested to more carefully examine the areas that have been mapped in OSM but not in the reference data set (false positives). In the present study region, these values are mainly due to simplified OSM polygons and they contribute to an overestimation of the OSM building completeness when applying the area ratio.

  10. L-Phosphinothricin modulation of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels increased excitability in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Laetitia; Desrus, Agnès; Même, Sandra; Même, William

    2016-07-01

    Phosphinotricin (L-PPT) is the active compound of a broad-spectrum herbicide. Acute poisoning with L-PPT has various clinical manifestations, including seizures and convulsions. However, the exact mechanism of L-PPT toxicity remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of L-PPT, in the excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). In whole-cell current-clamp experiments, L-PPT increased the input resistance (Ri), decreased the rheobase and increased the firing frequency of action potentials. In voltage-clamp experiments, L-PPT inhibited the inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) currents. Finally, the effects of L-PPT mimicked the inhibition of Kir channels with Ba(2+) on neuronal excitability. Altogether, these results suggest that the herbicide L-PPT is a modulator of Kir channels in MSNs. Thereby, Kir channels are potent regulators of the excitability of MSNs and reduced open probability of these channels would generate a powerful upregulation of neuronal output. This effect may represent a possible mechanism for L-PPT dependent neuronal toxicity. PMID:27136897

  11. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control.

  12. Ultrafine particle deposition to vegetation branches: wind tunnel investigation of the effect of canopy medium and particle size and charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystov, A.; Lin, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their influence on atmospheric concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the consequent effect on cloud albedo and global climate. To understand UFP lifetime in the atmosphere, both sources and sinks need to be known. One important sink for UFP is removal by vegetation. The main collection mechanism by vegetation is Brownian diffusion with a possible contribution of electrostatic forces. Here we report measurements of collection efficiency of UFP by pine and juniper branches in a wind tunnel at different wind speeds, branch orientations, and packing densities. The effect of particle charge is also investigated. Two modeling approached have been developed to describe UFP deposition to vegetation branches. One treats vegetation as a fibrous filter with a characteristic fiber size; the other treats it as a random porous medium. The experiments agreed well with predictions from both models within 20%. Upon bridging these two modeling approaches, estimates of the effective fiber diameter can now be derived from conventional canopy attributes, such as the leaf area index. These results can benefit future air quality and climate models incorporating UFP.

  13. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  14. Preliminary Design Study of Medium Sized Gas Cooled Fast Reactor with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input

    SciTech Connect

    Meriyanti; Su'ud, Zaki; Rijal, K.; Zuhair; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    In this study a feasibility design study of medium sized (1000 MWt) gas cooled fast reactors which can utilize natural uranium as fuel cycle input has been conducted. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is among six types of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants. GFR with its hard neuron spectrum is superior for closed fuel cycle, and its ability to be operated in high temperature (850 deg. C) makes various options of utilizations become possible. To obtain the capability of consuming natural uranium as fuel cycle input, modified CANDLE burn-up scheme[1-6] is adopted this GFR system by dividing the core into 10 parts of equal volume axially. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. As an optimization results, a design of 1000 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input is discussed. The average discharge burn-up is about 280 GWd/ton HM. Enough margin for criticality was obtained for this reactor.

  15. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  16. Risk determinants of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) - an exploratory study in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Ariful; Tedford, Des

    2012-08-01

    The smooth running of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) presents a significant challenge irrespective of the technological and human resources they may have at their disposal. SMEs continuously encounter daily internal and external undesirable events and unwanted setbacks to their operations that detract from their business performance. These are referred to as `disturbances' in our research study. Among the disturbances, some are likely to create risks to the enterprises in terms of loss of production, manufacturing capability, human resource, market share, and, of course, economic losses. These are finally referred to as `risk determinant' on the basis of their correlation with some risk indicators, which are linked to operational, occupational, and economic risks. To deal with these risk determinants effectively, SMEs need a systematic method of approach to identify and treat their potential effects along with an appropriate set of tools. However, initially, a strategic approach is required to identify typical risk determinants and their linkage with potential business risks. In this connection, we conducted this study to explore the answer to the research question: what are the typical risk determinants encountered by SMEs? We carried out an empirical investigation with a multi-method research approach (a combination of a questionnaire-based mail survey involving 212 SMEs and five in-depth case studies) in New Zealand. This paper presents a set of typical internal and external risk determinants, which need special attention to be dealt with to minimize operational risks of an SME.

  17. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties.

  18. Deriving default dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Warren, N; Goede, H A; Tijssen, S C H A; Oppl, R; Schipper, H J; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalized' dermal exposure data sets. These data sets are grouped according to task and then further subdivided by making a distinction between processes involving solid and liquid products. For each of the resulting 12 groups, two default exposure rates are required: potential exposure rate to the hands and potential exposure rate to the body. Default values for risk assessment are then derived by taking a weighted average of the 75th percentiles of these normalized exposure distributions. In addition, a measure of peak surface concentration is required to take into account the risk of local skin effects. The higher of the (modified) hand and body exposure rates after applying the relevant penetration factors for clothing and gloves is used. Usually this will be the hand exposure rate. These default values serve as robust initial exposure estimates in a risk assessment toolkit for SMEs.

  19. Inferred Variable FeO Content in Medium-sized Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits from LRO Diviner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. A.; Horgan, B.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) are low albedo features that mantle underlying terrain (Gaddis et al. 1985). They are high priority targets for science and exploration as they are believed to originate from and therefore reflect the composition of the deep lunar interior (NRC, 2011). They are also the best potential resource of oxygen out of any Apollo samples (Allen et al. 1996). Historically, LPDs have been divided into regional versus local categories (Gaddis et al. 2003). The large (>1000 km2 area) regional deposits are deeply sourced (>400 km deep) and result from fire fountaining. Small (<1000 km2) local deposits are thought to result from Vulcanian eruptions in which magma is slowly emplaced beneath the surface until enough volatiles exsolve and the high pressure causes an explosion. Bennett et al. (2013) identified a local deposit (674 km2 area) that may have resulted from both Vulcanian activity and fire fountaining. This deposit potentially represents a new intermediate class of LPDs that straddles the interface between the two formation mechanisms. The deposit also exhibits the highest inferred FeO wt.% of any known lunar glass. In this work we investigate the inferred FeO abundances of other medium-sized deposits to characterize this potential new class of deposits and understand the magnitude of variations in inferred FeO among pyroclastic deposits. We use the method of Greenhagen et al. (2010) to calculate the wavelength of the Christiansen Feature (CF) from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument thermal-infrared observations for four medium-sized deposits. From the CF values, we estimate each deposit's FeO abundance using the method of Allen et al. (2012). The four LPDs that we examined (Oppenheimer South, Beer, Cleomedes, and J. Herschel) all have average CF values from 8.22-8.28 microns, corresponding to FeO abundances of approx. 10-15 wt.%. All of these values are within the range and uncertainties of FeO abundances

  20. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  1. Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.

    PubMed

    Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

  2. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  3. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  4. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Bibliographic Guide to Recommended Books for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries and School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.

    Intended to aid librarians in small- and medium-sized libraries and media centers, this annotated bibliography lists 1,555 books focusing on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The book is divided into four parts: (1) "General and Interrelated Themes--Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics and Eastern European Countries"; (2) "Russian Empire…

  5. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  6. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  7. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  8. Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.

  9. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  10. Use of High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing for Hydro-Geomorphologic Analysis of Medium-sized Arid Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, Yuval; Blumberg, Dan G.; Cohen, Hai; Morin, Efrat; Maman, Shimrit

    2016-04-01

    Arid environments are often remote, expansive, difficult to access and especially vulnerable to flash flood hazards due to the poor understanding of the phenomenon and the lack of meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrological data. For many years, catchment characteristics have been observed using point-based measurements such as rain gauges and soil sample analysis; on the other hand, use of remote sensing technologies can provide spatially continuous hydrological parameters and variables. The advances in remote sensing technologies can provide new geo-spatial data using high spatial and temporal resolution for basin-scale geomorphological analysis and hydrological models. This study used high spatial resolution remote sensing for hydro-geomorphologic analysis of the arid medium size Rahaf watershed (76 km2), located in the Judean Desert, Israel. During the research a high resolution geomorphological map of Rahaf basin was created using WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imageries; surface roughness was estimated using SIR-C and COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) spaceborne sensors; and rainstorm characteristics were extracted using ground-based meteorological radar. The geomorphological mapping of Rahaf into 17 classes with good accuracy. The surface roughness extraction using SAR over the basin showed that the correlation between the COSMO-SkyMed backscatter coefficient and the surface roughness was very strong with an R2 of 0.97. This study showed that using x-band spaceborne sensors with high spatial resolution, such as COSMO-SkyMed, are more suitable for surface roughness evaluation in flat arid environments and should be in favor with longer wavelength operating sensors such as the SIR-C. The current study presents an innovative method to evaluate Manning's hydraulic roughness coefficient (n) in arid environments using radar backscattering. The weather radar rainfall data was calibrated using rain gauges located in the watershed. The

  11. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed

  12. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Romero, R.; Vich, M.; Alonso, S.

    2009-06-01

    The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood - known as the "Montserrat" event - which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the

  13. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Romero, R.; Vich, M.; Alonso, S.

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood - known as the "Montserrat" event - which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the

  14. Short- and medium-range order in sodium aluminophosphate glasses: new insights from high-resolution dipolar solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Eckert, Hellmut

    2006-05-11

    The structures of sodium aluminophosphate glasses prepared by both sol-gel as well as melt-cooling routes have been extensively characterized by high-resolution solid-state 23Na, 27Al, and 31P single and double-resonance NMR techniques, including quantitative connectivity studies by 27Al <--> 31P and 23Na <--> 31P rotational echo double-resonance (REDOR) methods. Studies along four compositional lines, I: (AlPO4)x -(NaPO3)1-x, II: (Na2O)x -(AlPO4)1-x, III: (NaAlO2)x -(NaPO3)1-x, and IV: (Al2O3)x (NaPO3)1-x, reveal that the network structures of those glasses that are accessible by either preparation method are essentially identical. However, the significantly extended glass-forming ranges available by the sol-gel route facilitate exploration of the structure/composition relationships in more detail, revealing a number of interesting universal features throughout the whole glass system. Both short- and medium-range order appear to be controlled strongly by the O/P ratio of the glasses studied: Up to an O/P ratio of 3.5 (pyrophosphate composition), aluminum is predominantly six-coordinated and fully connected to phosphorus (Al(OP)6 sites). In the region 3.5 < or = O/P < or = 4.0, a dramatic structural transformation takes place, leading to the appearance of additional four- and five-coordinated aluminum species whose second coordination spheres are also entirely dominated by phosphorus. The structure of glasses with an O/P ratio of precisely 4.0 (orthophosphate) is dominated by Al(OP)4 units. As the O/P ratio increases beyond 4.0, the average extent of Al-O-P connectivity is decreased significantly. Here, new types of five- and six-coordinated aluminum units, which are only weakly connected to phosphorus, are formed, while the network modifier is attracted mainly by the phosphate units.

  15. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to

  16. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed

  17. Competition among fcc-like, double-layered flat, tubular cage, and close-packed structural motifs for medium-sized Au n (n = 21-28) clusters.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dongxu; Zhao, Jijun

    2008-04-10

    Using density functional theory calculations, we compared four kinds of possible structural motifs of the medium-sized Aun (n = 21-28) clusters, i.e., fcc-like, double-layered flat, tubular cage, and close-packed. Our results show strong competition between those structural motifs in the medium-sized gold clusters. Aun (n = 21-23) adopt fcc-like structure owing to the high stability of tetrahedral Au20. A structural transition from fcc-like to tubular occurs at Au24, and the tubular motif continues at Au27 and Au28. Meanwhile, a double-layered flat structure was found at Au25, and a pyramid-based structure at Au26. The relationship between electronic properties and cluster geometry was also discussed.

  18. Medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of arthoscopic-subacromial decompression versus mini-open repair for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Ann; Temperley, David; Odak, Saurabh; Walton, Michael J; Haines, John F; Trail, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background We report on the medium- to long-term results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to determine whether rotator cuff repair confers any advantage over arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression (ASAD) alone in the management of medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Methods Ethical approval was sought to follow-up patients previously enrolled in a completed and previously published RCT comparing the outcome of ASAD with mini-open cuff repair for the treatment of rotator cuff tear. Forty-two patients were enrolled in the original study, with a mean of 64 years (range 54 years to 77 years). Results Fifteen of the original 17 patients randomized to ASAD alone and 18 of the original 25 patients randomized to cuff repair were available for follow-up. Each patient underwent American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Constant scoring, and clinical and ultrasound examination. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range 5 years to 11 years). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores at follow-up between the two groups. Some 33% of patients in the cuff-repair group had a proven re-rupture on ultrasound. This patient subgroup had significantly worse Constant scores compared to patients where the repair remained intact. None of the patients from either group developed cuff-tear arthropathy requiring arthroplasty surgery. Conclusions In this medium- to longer-term study, there is no demonstrable significant benefit of cuff repair over decompression alone for the treatment of medium-sized rotator cuff tears, in terms of ASES, DASH and Constant scores for pain, function and strength modules. The presence of cuff tear does not necessitate surgical repair. This conclusion should drive surgical strategies and shared decision-making between patients and surgeons. PMID:27583006

  19. Kagomé lattices as cathode: Effect of particle size and fluoride substitution on electrochemical lithium insertion in sodium- and ammonium Jarosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandineni, Prashanth; Yaghoobnejad Asl, Hooman; Choudhury, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    Highly crystalline sodium and ammonium Jarosites, NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and NH4Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, have been synthesized employing hydrothermal synthesis routes. The structures consist of anionic layers of vertex-sharing FeO6 octahedra and SO4 tetrahedral units with interlayer space occupied by Na and ammonium ions, respectively. The corner-sharing FeO6 octahedral units form six and three rings similar to hexagonal tungsten bronze sheets also known as kagomé lattice. These sodium and ammonium Jarosites are thermally stable up to 400 °C and undergo facile electrochemical lithium insertion through the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. Galvanostatic charge-discharge indicates that up to 2.25 and 2 lithium ions per formula unit can be inserted at an average voltage of 2.49 and 2.26 V to the sodium and the ammonium Jarosites, respectively, under slow discharge rate of C/50. The cycle-life and experimental achievable capacity show strong dependence on particle sizes and synthesis conditions. A small amount of fluoride substitution improves both achievable capacity and average voltage.

  20. Quantitative Characterization of the Growth of Deinococcus geothermalis DSM-11302: Effect of Inoculum Size, Growth Medium and Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bornot, Julie; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Gorret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Due to their remarkable resistance to extreme conditions, Deinococcaceae strains are of great interest to biotechnological prospects. However, the physiology of the extremophile strain Deinococcus geothermalis has scarcely been studied and is not well understood. The physiological behaviour was then studied in well-controlled conditions in flask and bioreactor cultures. The growth of D. geothermalis type strains was compared. Among the strains tested, the strain from the German Collection of Microorganisms (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen DSM) DSM-11302 was found to give the highest biomass concentration and growth rate: in a complex medium with glucose, the growth rate reached 0.75 h−1 at 45 °C. Yeast extract concentration in the medium had significant constitutive and catalytic effects. Furthermore, the results showed that the physiological descriptors were not affected by the inoculum preparation steps. A batch culture of D. geothermalis DSM-11302 on defined medium was carried out: cells grew exponentially with a maximal growth rate of 0.28 h−1 and D. geothermalis DSM-11302 biomass reached 1.4 g·L−1 in 20 h. Then, 1.4 gDryCellWeight of biomass (X) was obtained from 5.6 g glucose (Glc) consumed as carbon source, corresponding to a yield of 0.3 CmolX·CmolGlc−1; cell specific oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production rates reached 216 and 226 mmol.CmolX−1·h−1, respectively, and the respiratory quotient (QR) value varied from 1.1 to 1.7. This is the first time that kinetic parameters and yields are reported for D. geothermalis DSM-11302 grown on a mineral medium in well-controlled batch culture.

  1. Integrated hydrological modelling of small- and medium-sized water storages with application to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Peng, Y.; Chu, J.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrological simulation in regions with a large number of water storages is difficult due to the inaccurate water storage data, including both topologic parameters and operational rules. To address this issue, this paper presents an improved version of SWAT2005 (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, version 2005) using the satellite-based dataset Landsat, an empirical storage classification method, and some empirical relationships to estimate water storage and release from the various levels of flow regulation facilities. The improved SWAT2005 is characterised by three features: (1) a realistic representation of the relationships between the water surface area and volume of each type of water storage, ranging from small-sized ponds for water flow regulation to large-sized and medium-sized reservoirs for water supply and hydropower generation; (2) water balance and transport through a network combining both sequential and parallel streams and storage links; and (3) calibrations for the physical parameters and the human interference parameters. Both the original and improved SWAT2005 are applied to the upper Fengman Reservoir Basin, and the results of these applications are compared. The improved SWAT2005 accurately models small- and medium-sized storages, indicating a significantly improved performance from that of the original model in reproducing streamflows.

  2. Effects of acidity on the size of polyaniline-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) composite particles and the stability of corresponding colloids in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ligui; Ferng, Linhui; Wei, Yen; Yang, Catherine; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2012-09-01

    The practical application of polyaniline-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) composite particles has been held back by the low stability of their dispersed state in water. In this work, we present a general oxidation approach to prepare PANI-PSS composite nanoparticles that can form highly stable colloids in water or buffer over a wide range of pH from 1 to 11. We demonstrate that the size of the PANI-PSS composite particles can be controlled by the acidity of precursor solutions. It is hypothesized that the number of negatively charged sites on PSS, which can be affected by the acidity of the precursor solutions, plays an important role in determining the size of the PANI-PSS composite particles and the stability of corresponding colloids in water. PMID:22647343

  3. Effects of acidity on the size of polyaniline-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) composite particles and the stability of corresponding colloids in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ligui; Ferng, Linhui; Wei, Yen; Yang, Catherine; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2012-09-01

    The practical application of polyaniline-poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) composite particles has been held back by the low stability of their dispersed state in water. In this work, we present a general oxidation approach to prepare PANI-PSS composite nanoparticles that can form highly stable colloids in water or buffer over a wide range of pH from 1 to 11. We demonstrate that the size of the PANI-PSS composite particles can be controlled by the acidity of precursor solutions. It is hypothesized that the number of negatively charged sites on PSS, which can be affected by the acidity of the precursor solutions, plays an important role in determining the size of the PANI-PSS composite particles and the stability of corresponding colloids in water.

  4. Cluster size dependence of double ionization energy spectra of spin-polarized aluminum and sodium clusters: All-electron spin-polarized GW+T -matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Yoshifumi; Ohno, Kaoru; Solovyev, Igor; Sasaki, Taizo

    2010-04-01

    The double ionization energy (DIE) spectra are calculated for the spin-polarized aluminum and sodium clusters by means of the all-electron spin-polarized GW+T -matrix method based on the many-body perturbation theory. Our method using the one- and two-particle Green’s functions enables us to determine the whole spectra at once in a single calculation. The smaller is the size of the cluster, the larger the difference between the minimal double ionization energy and the twice of the ionization potential. This is because the strong Coulomb repulsion between two holes becomes dominant in small confined geometry. Due to Pauli’s exclusion principle, the parallel spin DIE is close to or smaller than the antiparallel spin DIE except for Na4 that has well-separated highest and second highest occupied molecular-orbital levels calculated by the spin-dependent GW calculation. In this paper, we compare the results calculated for aluminum and sodium clusters and discuss the spin-polarized effect and the cluster size dependence of the resulting spectra in detail.

  5. Size-selective DNA separation: recovery spectra help determine the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations required.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangyong; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Min; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    In the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), DNA fragments can be size-selectively separated by varying the final concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This separation strategy in combination with the use of paramagnetic particles provides a valuable platform for achieving the desired DNA size interval, which is important in automated library preparation for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Here, we report the establishment of recovery spectra of DNA fragments that enable the determination of suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective separation. Firstly, at a given NaCl concentration, the recovery equation was obtained by fitting the DNA recovery ratios versus the PEG concentrations using the logistic function to determine the required parameters. Secondly, the slope function of the recovery equation was achieved by deducing its first derivative. Therefore, the recovery spectrum can be generated using the slope function based on those parameters. According to the recovery spectra of different length DNA fragments, suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations can be determined, respectively, by calculating their resolution values and recovery ratios. The strategy was effectively applied to the size-selective separation of 532-, 400-, and 307-bp fragments at the selected reagent concentrations with recoveries of 96.9, 64.7, and 85.9%, respectively. Our method enables good predictions of NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective DNA separation.

  6. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  7. Stability, interaction, size, and microenvironmental properties of mixed micelles of decanoyl-N-methylglucamide and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hierrezuelo, J M; Aguiar, J; Ruiz, C Carnero

    2004-11-23

    The mixed micellization between the nonionic surfactant decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and the common sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaCl was investigated by the fluorescence probe method. The critical micelle concentrations were determined by the pyrene 1:3 ratio method. The experimental data are discussed in light of two mixing thermodynamic models within the framework of the pseudophase separation model, including the conventional regular solution theory and a recent treatment proposed by Maeda (J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 6043). This last approach provides a more appropriate description of the mixed system, particularly in two aspects: the nature of the interactions responsible for the stability of the mixed micelle and the behavior of the excess free energy per monomer of the system. By using the static quenching method, the mean micellar aggregation numbers of mixed micelles in the whole range of compositions were obtained. It was found that the micellar aggregation number initially increases with the content of the ionic component, then remains roughly constant, and, finally, decreases slightly for high content of this component. This behavior was analyzed taking into account the effects produced by the presence of the charged headgroups of sodium dodecyl sulfate, as this component increases its participation in the mixed micelle. The micropolarity of the mixed micelles was studied by the pyrene 1:3 ratio index. It was observed that the increasing participation of the ionic component induces the formation of micelles with a more dehydrated structure. Data of micellar microviscosity were obtained by using different methods, including fluorescence intensity measurements of Auramine O and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine B and diphenylbutadiene. The results obtained from these experiments are in good agreement and suggest the formation of mixed micelles with a less ordered structure as the content of SDS

  8. Competition between supercluster and stuffed cage structures in medium-sized Gen (n=30-39) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Zhao, Jijun

    2008-01-01

    We have performed an unbiased global search for the geometries of low-lying Gen clusters in the size range of 30⩽n⩽39 using genetic algorithm incorporated with a tight-binding model. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to further optimize the isomer structures. Gen (n=30-39) clusters prefer the motif of supercluster structures stacked by several stable subunits such as Ge10 and Ge6, connecting via a few bridging atoms. Size-dependent cluster properties such as binding energy, HOMO-LUMO gaps, and ionization potentials were discussed and compared with experiments.

  9. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M-D.

    2000-08-23

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10

  10. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  11. Structural evolution and electronic properties of medium-sized gallium clusters from ab initio genetic algorithm search.

    PubMed

    Sai, Linwei; Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Using genetic algorithm incorporated with density functional theory, we have explored the size evolution of structural and electronic properties of neutral gallium clusters of 20-40 atoms in terms of their ground state structures, binding energies, second differences of energy, HOMO-LUMO gaps, distributions of bond length and bond angle, and electron density of states. In the size range studied, the Ga(n) clusters exhibit several growth patterns, and the core-shell structures become dominant from Ga31. With high point group symmetries, Ga23 and Ga36 show particularly high stability and Ga36 owns a large HOMO-LUMO gap. The atomic structures and electronic states of Ga(n) clusters significantly differ from the a solid but resemble beta solid and liquid to certain extent.

  12. Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus.

    PubMed

    Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo

    2003-07-01

    The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus.

  13. Submicron-sized boron carbide particles encapsulated in turbostratic graphite prepared by laser fragmentation in liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshie; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2010-08-01

    Submicron-sized B4C spherical particles were obtained by laser fragmentation of large B4C particles dispersed in ethyl acetate. The irradiated surface of large B4C raw particles was heated and melted by laser energy absorption. B4C droplets were then cooled down, and finally B4C spherical particles were obtained. Moreover, each B4C particle obtained was encapsulated in a graphitic layer that is useful for medical functionalization of particles. Thus, obtained B4C particles encapsulated in graphitic layer may have potential uses in boron neutron capture therapy.

  14. Constraining the size of the Comptonizing medium by modelling the energy-dependent time lags of kHz QPOs of neutron star system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nagendra; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-09-01

    We study the dependence of the estimated size and geometry of the medium on the time-averaged spectral model assumed and on the frequency of the kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the framework of a thermal Comptonization model. We use the high-quality time lag and rms obtained during 1996 March 3 observation of 4U 1608-52 by RXTE as well as other observations of the source at different QPO frequencies where a single time lag between two broad energy bands has been reported. We compare the results obtained when assuming that the time-averaged spectra are represented by the spectrally degenerate `hot (kTb ≥ 1 keV)' and `cold (kTb ≤ 0.5 keV)' seed spectral models where Tb is seed source temperature. We find that for the `hot-seed' model the medium size is in the range of 0.3-2.0 km and the size decreases with increasing QPO frequency. On the other hand, for the `cold-seed' model, the range for the sizes is much larger 0.5-20 km and hence perhaps show no variation with QPO frequency. Our results emphasize the need for broad-band spectral information combined with high-frequency timing to lift this degeneracy. We further compare the rms as a function of energy for the upper kHz QPO, and indeed we find that the driver for this QPO should be temperature variations of the corona identical to the lower kHz QPO. However, the time lag reported for the upper kHz QPO is hard, which if confirmed would challenge the simple Comptonization model presented here.

  15. Particle size distribution of nicotine in mainstream smoke from 2R4F, Marlboro Medium, and Quest1 cigarettes under different puffing regimens.

    PubMed

    Gowadia, Neha; Oldham, Michael J; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2009-04-01

    Nicotine's dose and rate of delivery to the brain play an important role in its addiction and cardiovascular effects. Nicotine is mainly present in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke, and since particle size distribution controls the deposition behavior of particles in the respiratory tract, changes in the particle size distribution can produce variations in its regional and total dose to the lung. These variations can change its absorption rate and delivery to the brain. The particle size distribution of mainstream smoke (MS) varies with changes in puffing regimen and cigarette design and composition. This study examined nicotine in different particle size fractions of MS generated from 2R4F, Marlboro Medium, and Quest1 cigarettes using 3 puffing regimens: (1) FTC-like puff, 35 ml over 2 s; (2) short puff, 50 ml over 2 s; and (3) long puff, 100 ml over 10 s. MS was generated in a chamber at 37 degrees C and >95% relative humidity (RH), and size-segregated particles were collected using RJR cascade impactors. Particle size distribution was determined by spectrophotometry. Nicotine was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed that nicotine speciates in larger particles (1.1-1.9 microm diameter) under the long puffing regimen and in smaller particles (0.4-1.1 microm diameter) under the short puffing regimen, while mass median aerodynamic diameter of mainstream smoke particles was found to be approximately constant (0.9-1.0 microm) for the three puffing regimens. Overall, changes in puffing regimen have a significant effect on particle size distribution of nicotine and its deposited dose. PMID:19496699

  16. Study of the Surface Heterogeneity of icy dwarf?planets and other medium size Kuiper Belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Emery, Josh P.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a comprehensive analysis of the surface heterogeneity of a selected sample of dwarf-planets and candidates to be considered as dwarf-planets. The sample has been carefully selected to reach the scientific goals with a relative low cost in observing time. The research proposed here will be based on the analysis of the light-curve of these objects obtained using IRAC/Spitzer photometry. KBOs likely retain some of the most primitive material in the Solar System. Models of the retention of volatiles by small-bodies in the Solar System show that dwarf-planets can retain most of the original inventory of volatiles. A good example is Pluto. The surface of this body is formed by patches of CH4, N2 and CO and exhibits a large degree of surface heterogeneity. Our preliminary results of the IRAC/Spitzer light curves of Pluto, obtained by this group in 2004 and 2014, show the potential of these data to map the surface distribution of the different species of ices on the surface of KBOs. For this project we have selected six objects (out of a list of 15) that are ideal for this study using Spitzer photometry. Our sample covers two classes of bodies: Eris, Makemake and Haumea, all large enough to retain volatiles and so how signs of sublimation and condensation cycles on their surfaces; and Quaoar, Varuna and Ixion (D<1000 km) that may not have retained volatiles. If signs of heterogeneity are detected on IRAC data from these medium bodies (as suggested by previous studies) this could be due to a combination of collisions and irradiation. By addressing the compositional heterogeneity of this sample of KBOs the proposed work will address gaps in the scientific knowledge of the chemical and dynamical history of the outer Solar System as well as other planetary systems.}

  17. Mental health, suicidal ideation, and related factors among workers from medium-sized business establishments in northern Japan: comparative study of sex differences.

    PubMed

    Takusari, Eri; Suzuki, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Hikaru; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among 3,233 workers (2,442 males and 791 females) from 17 medium-sized business establishments in northern Japan with respect to GHQ-12 score, suicidal ideation, sociodemographic characteristics, work-associated factors, and attitude toward mental health resources. Sex differences were assessed for each questionnaire item, and logistic regression analyses were performed separately for males and females. Significant correlations between common mental disorder (CMD: GHQ-12 score≥3) and the following factors were found for both sexes: short sleep, irregular working schedule, working in specific businesses, and attitude toward mental health resources. Associations between CMD and excess workload were significant only in male workers. While correlations between suicidal ideation and demand for mental health resources were observed in both sexes, significant correlations were observed between suicidal ideation and use of mental health resources for female workers alone. These results suggest that screening of a high-risk population and provision of mental health resources contribute to suicide prevention as a part of mental health promotion measures in medium-sized business establishments. They also suggest the need for identification of business/job type-specific stressors while considering sex differences in lifestyle factors, working environment, and help-seeking behavior. PMID:21697623

  18. Post-operative complications associated with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System in small- to medium-sized dogs: A retrospective analysis (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Rappa, Nick S; Radasch, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    This study classified and determined the post-operative complication rate associated with stabilization of cranial (CCL) ligament deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair Anchor System (CCLRAS). Eighty-five medical records from 2009 to 2012 from 1 institution were evaluated. Complications were classified according to previously proposed definitions for orthopedic studies in veterinary medicine. Fifty-two owners were contacted by telephone at least 6 months after surgery and given a questionnaire to classify complications related to the implant. A visual analog scale was used to assess functionality and degree of pain. The overall complication rate was 30.3% with an inflammation-infection rate of 5.4% and a documented infection rate requiring implant removal of 1.8%. Owners reported full or acceptable function in 96% of cases with an average functional score of 86.5. Stabilization of CCL-deficient stifles in small- to medium-sized dogs with the Arthrex Canine CCLRAS is reliable with acceptable complication rates.

  19. Using MUSIC and CC(CO)NH for backbone assignment of two medium-sized proteins not fully accessible to standard 3D NMR.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Annette K; Frøystein, Nils Åge

    2014-01-01

    The backbone assignment of medium-sized proteins is rarely as straightforward as that of small proteins, and thus often requires creative solutions. Here, we describe the application of a combination of standard 3D heteronuclear methods with CC(CO)NH and a variety of MUltiplicity Selective In-phase Coherence transfer (MUSIC) experiments. Both CC(CO)NH and MUSIC are, in theory, very powerful methods for the backbone assignment of proteins. Due to low sensitivity, their use has usually been linked to small proteins only. However, we found that combining CC(CO)NH and MUSIC experiments simplified the assignment of two challenging medium-sized proteins of 13 and 19.5 kDa, respectively. These methods are to some extent complementary to each other: CC(CO)NH acquired with a long isotropic mixing time can identify amino acids with large aliphatic side chains. Whereas the most sensitive MUSIC experiments identify amino acid types that cannot be detected by CC(CO)NH, comprising the residues with acid and amide groups, and aromatic rings in their side chains. Together these methods provide a means of identifying the majority of peaks in the 2D 15N HSQC spectrum which simplifies the backbone assignment work even for proteins, e.g., small kinases, whose standard spectra resulted in little spectral resolution and low signal intensities.

  20. A signet-ring cell melanoma arising from a medium-sized congenital melanocytic nevus in an adult: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Patients with congenital nevus, especially giant congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) measuring >20 cm, are known to be at elevated risk of developing melanomas, especially during the first and second decades of life. Melanomas rarely develop in patients with small and medium-sized CMNs, but if they do, they occur during the fourth and fifth decades of life. We present a case of a rapidly enlarging signet-ring cell melanoma (over 3 months) that arose from a medium-sized CMN in a 57-year-old Japanese man. Only 11 other cases of signet-ring cell melanomas at the primary site have been reported. On the basis of morphology alone, it is difficult to diagnose a nodule appearing in a CMN as a signet-ring cell melanoma, because even a benign melanocytic nevus can appear as signet-ring cell morphology. Moreover, a rapidly growing proliferative nodule (PN) more often develops in a CMN than melanoma; PNs may at times exhibit enough atypia to be comparable to melanomas. In our case, loss of p16 expression in the melanoma distinguished it from the nevus cells and was helpful in making the correct diagnosis. Clinical information, such as the patient's age, was also useful in establishing the diagnosis.

  1. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  2. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  3. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-06-15

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  4. Influence of store dimensions and auxiliary volume configuration on the performance of medium-sized solar combisystems

    SciTech Connect

    Lundh, Magdalena; Zass, Katrin; Wilhelms, Claudius; Vajen, Klaus; Jordan, Ulrike

    2010-07-15

    To increase the fractional energy savings achieved with solar thermal combisystems the store volume may be increased. Installation of large stores in single-family houses is, however, often limited by space constraints. In this article the influence of the store dimensions, as well as internal and external auxiliary volume configurations, are investigated for large solar water stores by annual dynamic TRNSYS simulations. The results show that store sizes up to 4 m{sup 3} may be used in solar heating systems with 30 m{sup 2} collector area. It is further shown that well-insulated stores are rather insensitive to the geometry. Stores deviating from the conventional dimensions still yield high fractional energy savings. Furthermore, the simulations show that the performance of an internal auxiliary volume configuration in most cases exceeds that of a solution with an external auxiliary unit. The practical limitations of very thin auxiliary volumes must, however, be further investigated. (author)

  5. Search for global-minimum geometries of medium-sized germanium clusters. II. Motif-based low-lying clusters Ge21-Ge29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2006-05-01

    We performed a constrained search for the geometries of low-lying neutral germanium clusters GeN in the size range of 21⩽N⩽29. The basin-hopping global optimization method is employed for the search. The potential-energy surface is computed based on the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory. A new series of low-lying clusters is found on the basis of several generic structural motifs identified previously for silicon clusters [S. Yoo and X. C. Zeng, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054304 (2006)] as well as for smaller-sized germanium clusters [S. Bulusu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 164305 (2005)]. Among the generic motifs examined, we found that two motifs stand out in producing most low-lying clusters, namely, the six/nine motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a tricapped trigonal prism Ge9, and the six/ten motif, a puckered-hexagonal-ring Ge6 unit attached to a bicapped antiprism Ge10. The low-lying clusters obtained are all prolate in shape and their energies are appreciably lower than the near-spherical low-energy clusters. This result is consistent with the ion-mobility measurement in that medium-sized germanium clusters detected are all prolate in shape until the size N ˜65.

  6. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical study of medium-sized explosive eruptions at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Antonio; Michieli Vitturi, Mattia de'; Barsotti, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1970s, multiple reconstruction techniques have been proposed and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled tephra fall deposit datasets. Atmospheric transport and deposition processes strongly control the spatial distribution of tephra deposit; therefore, a large uncertainty affects mass derived estimations especially for fall layer that are not well exposed. This paper has two main aims: the first is to analyse the sensitivity to the deposit sampling strategy of reconstruction techniques. The second is to assess whether there are differences between the modelled values for emitted mass and grainsize, versus values estimated from the deposits. We find significant differences and propose a new correction strategy. A numerical approach is demonstrated by simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna on 24 November 2006. Eruptive parameters are reconstructed by an inversion information collected after the eruption. A full synthetic deposit is created by integrating the deposited mass computed by the model over the computational domain (i.e., an area of 7.5 × 104 km 2). A statistical analysis based on 2000 sampling tests of 50 sampling points shows a large variability, up to 50 % for all the reconstruction techniques. Moreover, for some test examples Power Law errors are larger than estimated uncertainty. A similar analysis, on simulated grain-size classes, shows how spatial sampling limitations strongly reduce the utility of available information on the total grain size distribution. For example, information on particles coarser than ϕ(-4) is completely lost when sampling at 1.5 km from the vent for all columns with heights less than 2000 m above the vent. To correct for this effect an optimal sampling strategy and a new reconstruction method are presented. A sensitivity study shows that our method can be extended to a wide range of eruptive scenarios including those in which

  7. Equilibrium and dynamical properties of polymer chains in random medium filled with randomly distributed nano-sized fillers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Yang; Luo, Meng-Bo; Huang, Jian-Hua; Li, Hong

    2015-12-21

    The effect of randomly distributed nano-sized fillers on the equilibrium and dynamical properties of linear polymers is studied by using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulation. Lennard-Jones interactions between polymers and fillers are considered. Results show that the statistical dimensions and dynamical diffusion of polymer are dependent on the polymer-filler interaction strength εpf. The mean square radius of gyration 〈RG(2)〉 shows a minimum at a critical polymer-filler interaction εpf*. The value of εpf* decreases with the increase in the polymer length or the concentration of fillers. The exponent ν in 〈RG(2)〉 ∼ N(2ν) is a typical value of self-avoiding walking chain at small εpf but it increases sharply to a bigger value at εpf > εpf*. The mean square displacement decreases with the increase in εpf. Moreover, the normal diffusion of the polymer at weak interactions changes to subnormal diffusion at moderate and strong attractions. We find that polymers diffuse in dilute filler regions at weak attraction and diffuse in dense filler regions at strong attraction. PMID:26568204

  8. Characterization of the origin of fine particulate matter in a medium size urban area in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikridas, Michael; Tasoglou, Antonios; Florou, Kalliopi; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2013-12-01

    A multi-stage methodology for investigating particulate pollution is developed and implemented for the case study area of Patras, Greece. Initially a low cost particulate matter mass monitor was used to assess aerosol mass concentrations indicating that the city, despite its small size (population around 200,000) and lack of heavy industry, violates both the daily and annual European Union PM standards. Increased PM10 concentrations were observed during the winter but local vehicular traffic was estimated to account for only 12 ± 4% of the PM10 concentration on an annual basis. In the second stage, PM2.5 chemical composition was measured at the urban center and biomass burning was identified as a major PM source during the colder months. In the third stage, PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition was also followed at a mostly upwind rural site around 40 km from the city. The transported pollution was found to account for 50% of the PM2.5 during winter and for more than 70% during the rest of the year. Almost all of the sulfates and 40-90%, depending on the season, of the organic aerosol are transported to the city from other areas. In the last stage, an intensive campaign took place during winter in order to quantify PM sources during the most polluted period. Nighttime sharp increases of the aerosol levels were observed with organic aerosol levels exceeding 80 μg m-3. Local biomass combustion and fossil fuel emissions for domestic heating were responsible for these levels.

  9. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  10. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion.

  11. Sustained release characteristics of tablets prepared with mixed matrix of sodium carrageenan and chitosan: effect of polymer weight ratio, dissolution medium, and drug type.

    PubMed

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Al-Ghazawi, Mutasim

    2005-03-01

    The interpolymeric complexation of carrageenan and chitosan was investigated for its effect on drug release from polymeric matrices in comparison to single polymers. For this purpose, matrices with carrageenan: chitosan (CG:CS) ratios of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% were prepared at 1:1 drug to polymer ratio. The effect of dissolution medium and drug type on drug release from the formulations was addressed. Two model drugs were utilized: diltiazem HCl (DZ) as a salt of a basic drug and diclofenac Na (DS) as a salt of an acidic drug. Three dissolution media were used: water, simulated gastric fluid (SGF), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Some combinations of the two polymers showed remarkable sustained release effect on DZ in comparison to the single polymers in water and SGF. However, no apparent effect for the combination on DZ release was shown in SIF. The medium effect was explained by the necessity of chitosan ionization, which could be attained by the acidic SGF or microacidic environment created by the used acidic salt of DZ in water, but not in SIF. An interaction between the medium type and CG:CS ratio was also found. With DS, the polymer combinations had similar dissolution profiles to those of the single polymers in water and SIF, which was explained by the lack of chitosan ionization by the medium or the drug basic salt. The dissolution profiles could not be obtained in SGF, which was attributed to the conversion of DS into diclofenac free acid. The importance of chitosan ionization for its interaction with CG to have an effect on the release of DS was demonstrated by performing dissolution of SGF presoaked tablets of DS in SIF, which showed an effect of combining the two polymers on sustaining the drug release.

  12. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs.

  13. Medium-sized Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters with distinct gold-kernel structures and spectroscopic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs of two other prevailing Au-kernels identified from previous experiments, namely the Ino-decahedral kernel and icosahedral kernel. The distinct X-ray diffraction patterns of RS-AuNPs with the three different types of Au-kernels can be utilized as signature features for future studies of structures of RS-AuNPs. Moreover, the simulated UV/Vis absorption spectra and Kohn-Sham orbital energy-level diagrams are obtained for the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32, on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory computation. The extrapolated optical band-edges of Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are 1.1 eV and 1.25 eV, respectively. The feature peaks in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of the two clusters can be attributed to the d --> sp electronic transition. Lastly, the catalytic activities of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 are examined using CO oxidation as a probe. Both medium-sized thiolate-protected gold clusters can serve as effective stand-alone nanocatalysts.We have analyzed the structures of two medium-sized thiolate-protected gold nanoparticles (RS-AuNPs) Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 and identified the distinct structural features in their Au kernels [Sci. Adv., 2015, 1, e1500425]. We find that both Au kernels of the Au40(SR)24 and Au52(SR)32 nanoclusters can be classified as interpenetrating cuboctahedra. Simulated X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS-AuNPs with the cuboctahedral kernel are collected and then compared with the X-ray diffraction patterns of the RS

  14. Interaction between amphiphilic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulfate and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, Z.; Saini, M.; Amdouni, N.; Pal, A.

    2016-09-01

    The micellization of an aqueous solution of the surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsufate (C4mim)(C8OSO3) and its interaction with an anionic polymer sodium polystyrene sulfonate, (NaPSS) were studied using conductimetry, tensiometry and fluorimetry. Surface tension profile shows a more dramatic increase in the value of surface tension of aqueous (C4mim)(C8OSO3) before the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of IL. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) value of this surfactant was found out from conductance measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, i.e., Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization of the IL in aqueous solution have been calculated. Behavior of fluorescence probe confirms the binding interactions between SAIL and the polyelectrolyte.

  15. Development of medium-size half-mask facepiece for male workers at a shipyard and its fit performance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Kim, David

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, three differently sized half-mask facepiece prototypes were constructed from silicon using computer graphics and statistical analysis to fit them according to Korean facial dimensions. The purpose of this study was to complete the medium-size half-mask respirator based on the prototype, which would provide an adequate fit performance for male workers at a shipyard, Hyundai Samho Heavy Industry Co., in Korea. The complete respirator--the hardness 55--was manufactured with existing accessories such as a filter, exhalation valve, and strap attached. The fit performance test was conducted by performing a quantitative fit-test on 48 male subjects: workers who usually wear half-mask respirators (Dobulife Tech Co., Model DM-911, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The results showed that the hardness 55 provided male subject workers with much better fit performance than the existing mask constructed by the same company. Because softness of the material of the facepiece, in particular the inner part, influenced faceseal leakage, further research on developing better-fit respirator facepieces should consider carefully the fine control of material softness.

  16. Development of medium-size half-mask facepiece for male workers at a shipyard and its fit performance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Kim, David

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, three differently sized half-mask facepiece prototypes were constructed from silicon using computer graphics and statistical analysis to fit them according to Korean facial dimensions. The purpose of this study was to complete the medium-size half-mask respirator based on the prototype, which would provide an adequate fit performance for male workers at a shipyard, Hyundai Samho Heavy Industry Co., in Korea. The complete respirator--the hardness 55--was manufactured with existing accessories such as a filter, exhalation valve, and strap attached. The fit performance test was conducted by performing a quantitative fit-test on 48 male subjects: workers who usually wear half-mask respirators (Dobulife Tech Co., Model DM-911, Gwangju, Gyeonggi-do, Korea). The results showed that the hardness 55 provided male subject workers with much better fit performance than the existing mask constructed by the same company. Because softness of the material of the facepiece, in particular the inner part, influenced faceseal leakage, further research on developing better-fit respirator facepieces should consider carefully the fine control of material softness. PMID:24467771

  17. Medium-sized FLT3 internal tandem duplications confer worse prognosis than short and long duplications in a non-elderly acute myeloid leukemia cohort.

    PubMed

    Koszarska, Magdalena; Meggyesi, Nora; Bors, Andras; Batai, Arpad; Csacsovszki, Otto; Lehoczky, Eniko; Adam, Emma; Kozma, Andras; Lovas, Nora; Sipos, Andrea; Krahling, Tunde; Dolgos, Janos; Remenyi, Peter; Fekete, Sandor; Masszi, Tamas; Tordai, Attila; Andrikovics, Hajnalka

    2014-07-01

    Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene occur in about 25% of patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of FLT3-ITD mutations followed by a detailed analysis of the mutational load and size of ITD insertions in a cohort consisting of 324 patients younger than 60 years old and treated with curative intention. FLT3-ITD alone did not influence overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS). We observed worse OS and DFS for patients with high mutational load indicative for loss of the FLT3 wild type allele (p = 0.010, p = 0.038, respectively). In multivariate analyses, patients with FLT3-ITD(48-60bp) showed worse OS and DFS compared to other groups (FLT3-ITD(neg), FLT3-ITD (< 48b), FLT3-ITD (> 60bp); p = 0.014, p = 0.019, respectively). Our novel observation suggested that not only high FLT3-ITD load, but also medium-sized ITD insertions (48-60 bp) represented an adverse prognostic subgroup of patients with AML.

  18. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  19. The control system of the 12-m medium-size telescope prototype: a test-ground for the CTA array control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, E. A.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Lindemann, R.; Melkumyan, D.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation ground-based very-high energy -ray observatory. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different sizes and types and in addition numerous auxiliary devices. In order to provide a test-ground for the CTA array control, the steering software of the 12-m medium size telescope (MST) prototype deployed in Berlin has been implemented using the tools and design concepts under consideration to be used for the control of the CTA array. The prototype control system is implemented based on the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) control middleware, with components implemented in Java, C++ and Python. The interfacing to the hardware is standardized via the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control Unified Architecture (OPC UA). In order to access the OPC UA servers from the ACS framework in a common way, a library has been developed that allows to tie the OPC UA server nodes, methods and events to the equivalents in ACS components. The front-end of the archive system is able to identify the deployed components and to perform the sampling of the monitoring points of each component following time and value change triggers according to the selected configurations. The back-end of the archive system of the prototype is composed by two different databases: MySQL and MongoDB. MySQL has been selected as storage of the system configurations, while MongoDB is used to have an efficient storage of device monitoring data, CCD images, logging and alarm information. In this contribution, the details and conclusions on the implementation of the control software of the MST prototype are presented.

  20. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Size-controllable synthesis of trimetallic RhPdPt island-shaped nanoalloys with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Bing; He, Pei-Lei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Size-controllable, high-yield, island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanocrystals with sub-2.0 nm islands have been successfully synthesized through a facile aqueous solution approach. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) line scanning and elemental mapping analysis showed the as-synthesized RhPdPt nanocrystals are alloy structures. These island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanoalloys showed a composition-dependent electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. Due to the special structure and intermetallic synergies, the Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity and durability relative to island-shaped Pd50Pt50 bimetallic nanoalloys and commercial Pt black. The peak current density for Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys was 1.81 and 1.38 times that for commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys, respectively. In addition, the peak potential on Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys decreased 42 mV relative to commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Correlates among Chinese Migrants in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Two Cities of Guangdong

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liming; Zou, Guanyang; Zeng, Zhi; Han, Lu; Guo, Yan; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) status and associated factors among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 856 rural-to-urban migrants working at small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Shenzhen and Zhongshan City in 2012. Andersen's behavioral model was used as a theoretical framework to exam the relationships among factors affecting HRQOL. Analysis was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results Workers with statutory working hours, higher wages and less migrant experience had higher HRQOL scores. Need (contracting a disease in the past two weeks and perception of needing health service) had the greatest total effect on HRQOL (β = −0.78), followed by enabling (labor contract, insurance purchase, income, physical examination during work and training) (β = 0.40), predisposing (age, family separation, education) (β = 0.22) and health practices and use of health service (physical exercise weekly, health check-up and use of protective equipments) (β = −0.20). Conclusions Priority should be given to satisfy the needs of migrant workers, and improve the enabling resources. PMID:24392084

  3. Analysis of Socio-demographics, Self-rated Health, Social Capital, and Happiness in a Medium-Sized Healthy City, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heui Sug; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Bong Gi; Nam, Eun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationships between social capital, self-rated health, and happiness and suggests ways to improve the happiness level of a community. Methods The survey was conducted with 445 people using stratified random sampling in a medium-sized city in Korea. Collected information included socio-demographic characteristics, social capital, self-rated health, and happiness. Results Among the demographic characteristics, age had a statistically significant association with happiness level. People in their 40s (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13–0.88) and 50s (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57) were less happy than people of other ages. Married people (OR = 4.58, CI = 1.99–10.53) were more likely to have a high happiness level compared to unmarried people. Cognitive social capital (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.19–1.51) and self-rated health (OR = 2.22, CI = 1.59–3.09) were positively associated with happiness. Conclusion The results suggest that social capital and level of health are determinants of subjective happiness. Public policies and programs for improving social capital are needed to support happiness among community residents. PMID:26770893

  4. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26878434

  5. The effect of an electronic medicine dispenser on diversion of buprenorphine-naloxone-experience from a medium-sized Finnish city.

    PubMed

    Uosukainen, Hanna; Pentikäinen, Hannu; Tacke, Ulrich

    2013-07-01

    Providing unobserved opioid substitution treatment (OST) safely is a major challenge. This study examined whether electronic medicine dispensers (EMDs) can reduce diversion of take-home buprenorphine-naloxone (BNX) in a medium-sized Finnish city. All BNX treated OST patients in Kuopio received their take-home BNX in EMDs for 4months. EMDs' effect on diversion was investigated using questionnaires completed by patients (n=37) and treatment staff (n=19), by survey at the local needle exchange service and by systematic review of drug screen data from the Kuopio University Hospital. The majority of patients (n=21, 68%) and treatment staff (n=11, 58%) preferred to use EMDs for the safe storage of tablets. Five patients (16%) declared that EMDs had prevented them from diverting BNX. However, EMDs had no detectable effect on the availability or origin of illegal BNX or on the hospital-treated buprenorphine-related health problems. EMDs may improve the safety of storage of take-home BNX, but their ability to prevent diversion needs further research. PMID:23433750

  6. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo☆

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Veridiana de Paula; de Medeiros, Andréa Paula Peneluppi; de Lima, Thaiza Agostini Córdoba; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56). Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively) for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy. PMID:25510993

  7. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO2 samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO(2) were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 microg m(-3) respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO2 occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO2 exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  8. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  9. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  10. Efficiency of perturbation-selection and its orbital dependence in the SAC-CI calculations for valence excitations of medium-size molecules.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro

    2014-11-15

    The efficiency and accuracy of the perturbation-selection used in the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) calculations are investigated for several low-lying valence excited states of 21 medium-size molecules, including typical chromophores with heterocyclic macrocycles (free-base porphine, coumarin, indole, and BODIPY), nucleobases, amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organometallics (ferrocene and Re(bpy)(CO)4+1). Benchmark SAC-CI calculations with up to 110 million operators are performed. The efficiency of the perturbation-selection depends on the molecular orbitals (MOs); therefore, the canonical MO and localized MO (LMO) obtained by Pipek-Mezey's method are examined. Except for the highly symmetric molecules, using LMOs improves the efficiency and accuracy of the perturbation-selection. With using LMOs and perturbation-selection, sufficiently reliable results can be obtained in less than 10% of the computational costs required for the full-dimensional calculations. The perturbation-selection with LMOs is suggested to be a promising method for excited states in larger molecular systems.

  11. VerdEE: a new tool for the adoption of life-cycle assessment in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoni, Paolo; Scimia, Emanuela; Sara, Balazs

    2001-02-01

    Data and time requirements and complex methodological problems of a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are well-known and discussed. Its application has specific difficulties in Italian Small- and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs) where environmental information is generally dispersed, a short-term problem-oriented environmental management approach is common and dedicated human resources are usually missing. As a consequence, a new procedure specifically designed for SMEs, VerdEE (Verifica dell'Eco-Efficienza - Verification of Eco-Efficiency), was developed and implemented on an interactive CD-ROM. It is based on the following criteria: relying on a life cycle approach; aimed at evaluating the environmental profile of a product and at identifying improvement opportunities; sufficiently simple to be applied in a limited time; containing as much quantitative information as possible to make it usable by a non-expert user. The VerdEE procedure includes four main steps: "Goal and Scope definition" semi-quantitative "Inventory" "Check-list" visualisation of results in "Matrix" and "Target-plot" form. The procedure is supported by an interconnected informative part about advantages of the life cycle approach for SMEs, principles of eco-design and environmental concerns.

  12. Reactivity of a sodium atom in vibrationally excited water clusters: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwiklik, Lukasz; Kubisiak, Piotr; Kulig, Waldemar; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the reaction between a sodium atom and water molecules in both small and medium-size vibrationally excited water clusters using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Formation of NaOH was observed in small ( n = 4, 5) clusters, while water dissociation and subsequent geminate recombination accompanied by a transient formation of a Na +-OH - pair occurred in a 34 water cluster. Our results show that the initial step of the vibrationally excited reaction between a single sodium atom and water does not shut off in larger clusters and that it can also occur in the bulk water, however, more sodium atoms are likely required to stabilize the product.

  13. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  14. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Jason M; Sabol, Jonathan P; Rastogi, Vipin K

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm), resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2) panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT) lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  15. Predictors of a Desire to be Helpful to Professional Nurses Among Japanese Nursing Assistants in Small- to Medium-Sized Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kono, Keiko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Sugisaki, Hitomi; Matsuhashi, Ayako; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2016-06-01

    Registered nurses and licensed practical nurses have been educated as professional nurses. Professional nurses can concentrate on their jobs requiring a high degree of expertise with help they get from nursing assistants.If professional nurses have improper attitudes toward nursing assistants, it is most likely that the nursing assistants will not help them to the best of their ability. We investigated nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes, and what effects nursing assistants' impressions have on their "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." The study design was a cross sectional study. Twenty-five small- to medium-sized hospitals with 55 to 458 beds were included in this study. The analyzed subjects were 642 nursing assistants (96 males, 546 females). Factor analyses were conducted to extract the factors of nursing assistants' impressions regarding professional nurses' attitudes. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the predictors of "desire to be helpful to professional nurses." We discovered 5 factors: 1. professional nurses' model behavior, 2. manner dealing with nursing assistants, 3. respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work, 4. respect for nursing assistants' work, and 5. enhancing the ability of nursing assistants to do their work. The "desire to be helpful to professional nurses" was significantly associated with "professional nurses' model behavior," "manner dealing with nursing assistants" and "respect for nursing assistants' passion for their work." Factors 1 to 3 are fundamental principles when people establish appropriate relationships. Professional nurses must consider these fundamentals in their daily work in order to get complete cooperation from nursing assistants. PMID:27302725

  16. eVerdEE: a web-based screening life-cycle assessment tool for European small and medium-sized enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naldesi, Luciano; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Misceo, Monica; Sára, Balázs

    2004-12-01

    "eLCA" is a European Commission financed project aimed at realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)". Knowledge and use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by SMEs are strategic to introduce the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in Europe, but methodology simplification is needed. LCA requires a large amount of validated general and sector specific data. Since their availability and cost can be insuperable barriers for SMEs, pre-elaborated data/meta-data, use of standards and low cost solutions are required. Within the framework of the eLCA project an LCA software - eVerdEE - based on a simplified methodology and specialised for SMEs has been developed. eVerdEE is a web-based tool with some innovative features. Its main feature is the adaptation of ISO 14040 requirements to offer easy-to-handle functions with solid scientific bases. Complex methodological problems, such as the system boundaries definition, the data quality estimation and documentation, the choice of impact categories, are simplified according to the SMEs" needs. Predefined "Goal and Scope definition" and "Inventory" forms, a user-friendly and well structured procedure are time and cost-effective. The tool is supported by a database containing pre-elaborated environmental indicators of substances and processes for different impact categories. The impact assessment is calculated automatically by using the user"s input and the database values. The results have different levels of interpretation in order to identify the life cycle critical points and the improvement options. The use of a target plot allows the direct comparison of different design alternatives.

  17. Regional and cell-type-specific effects of DAMGO on striatal D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Cepeda, Carlos; Chatta, Payush; Franklin, Lana; Evans, Christopher J; Levine, Michael S

    2012-03-08

    The striatum can be divided into the DLS (dorsolateral striatum) and the VMS (ventromedial striatum), which includes NAcC (nucleus accumbens core) and NAcS (nucleus accumbens shell). Here, we examined differences in electrophysiological properties of MSSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) based on their location, expression of DA (dopamine) D1/D2 receptors and responses to the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO {[D-Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(ol)(5)]enkephalin}. The main differences in morphological and biophysical membrane properties occurred among striatal sub-regions. MSSNs in the DLS were larger, had higher membrane capacitances and lower Rin (input resistances) compared with cells in the VMS. RMPs (resting membrane potentials) were similar among regions except for D2 cells in the NAcC, which displayed a significantly more depolarized RMP. In contrast, differences in frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic inputs were more prominent between cell types, with D2 cells receiving significantly more excitatory inputs than D1 cells, particularly in the VMS. Inhibitory inputs were not different between D1 and D2 cells. However, MSSNs in the VMS received more inhibitory inputs than those in the DLS. Acute application of DAMGO reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents, but the effect was greater in the VMS, in particular in the NAcS, where excitatory currents from D2 cells and inhibitory currents from D1 cells were inhibited by the largest amount. DAMGO also increased cellular excitability in the VMS, as shown by reduced threshold for evoking APs (action potentials). Together the present findings help elucidate the regional and cell-type-specific substrate of opioid actions in the striatum and point to the VMS as a critical mediator of DAMGO effects.

  18. Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in mice: increased excitability of medium-sized spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Henley, Sandy M.; Toll, Jeff; Jentsch, James D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Levine, Michael S.; Cepeda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration) in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in the NAc (nucleus accumbens) before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever) pressings followed by IV (intravenous) cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential)-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold) for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction. PMID:24000958

  19. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    PubMed

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  20. The Potential of Distance Education and Training for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Community. A Report for the Commission of the European Communities--Task Force Human Resources, Education, Training, and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintino, Luisa

    An evaluation was made of the training needs of the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy and the potential of open, distance, flexible, and multimedia learning to meet those needs. The methodology included contacts with training providers, governmental institutions, and SMEs and circulation of…

  1. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  2. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  3. Assessing hydrological regime sensitivity to climate change in a convective rainfall environment: a case study of medium-sized eastern Mediterranean catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Nadav; Shamir, Eylon; Georgakakos, Konstantine; Morin, Efrat

    2015-04-01

    A modeling framework is formulated and applied to assess the sensitivity of the hydrological regime of catchments with respect to projected climate change. The study uses likely rainfall scenarios with high spatiotemporal resolution that are dependent on projected changes in the driving regional meteorological synoptic systems. The framework was applied to a case study in two medium-sized Mediterranean catchments in Israel, affected by convective rainfall, by combining the HiReS-WG rainfall generator and the SACSMA hydrological model. The projected climate change impact on the hydrological regime was examined for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios, comparing the beginning of the 21st century and the mid-21st-century periods from General Circulation Models simulations available from CMIP5. Focusing on changes in the occurrence frequency of regional synoptic systems and their impact on rainfall and streamflow patterns, we find that the mean annual rainfall over the catchments is projected to be reduced by 15% (outer range 2-23%) and 18% (7-25%) for the RCP4.5 sand RCP8.5 emission scenarios, respectively. The mean annual streamflow volumes are projected to be reduced by 45% (10-60%) and 47% (16-66%). Moreover, the streamflow season in these ephemeral streams is projected to be shorter by 22% and 26-28% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The amplification in reduction of streamflow volumes relative to rainfall amounts is related to the projected reduction in soil moisture, as a result of fewer rainfall events and longer dry spells between rainfall events during the wet season. The dominant factors for the projected reduction in rainfall amount were the reduction in occurrence of wet synoptic systems and the shortening of the wet synoptic systems durations. Changes in the occurrence frequency of the two dominant types of the regional wet synoptic systems (Active Red Sea Trough and Mediterranean low) were found to have a minor impact on the total rainfall.

  4. Association between intention to stay on the job and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses in small and medium-sized private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Hosoi, Kaori; Miki, Takeo; Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Kido, Shigeri; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2006-11-01

    In order to examine the relationship between the intention to stay on the job and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses, and to obtain clues for preventing turnover, we conducted a questionnaire survey. The subjects involved in the survey included 625 female nurses (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and assistant nurses) working in 4 small and medium-sized private hospitals, excluding directors of nursing. Of the 625 questionnaires distributed, 556 (89.0%) were returned. After excluding the questionnaires with missing values, 480 questionnaires were analyzed (effective response rate, 76.8%). The average age of the respondents was 32.8 yr (range: 20-65). The content of the questionnaire was nurse attributes, job satisfaction (30 items) and intention to stay on the job. For job satisfaction, factor analysis (principal factor method and promax rotation) was performed, and factors with an eigenvalue of > or =1 were extracted. Six factors were extracted by factor analysis. These factors were interpreted as "Work as specialists" (1st factor), "Relationship with superiors" (2nd factor), "Comfortable life" (3rd factor), "Relationship among nurses" (4th factor), "Communication with physicians" (5th factor) and "Working conditions" (6th factor). The factor scores were calculated and used as a scale for the evaluation of job satisfaction. To investigate the factors associated with intention to stay on the job among nurses, the standard partial regression coefficient was computed by multiple linear regression analysis, with intention to stay on the job as the dependent variable, and nurse attributes and job satisfaction (factor scores) as independent variables. Various factors including the organizational culture of each hospital may affect the relationship between job satisfaction and the intention to stay on the job. In order to adjust for these factors, differences among hospitals were included in the statistical model as independent variables. The result of the

  5. Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

    1999-11-01

    Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and

  6. Salt tolerant green crop species for sodium management in space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Nose, Akihiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Ecological system and materials recycling loop of space agriculture are quite tight compared to natural ecological system on Earth. Sodium management will be a keen issue for space agricul-ture. Human nutritional requirements include sodium salt. Since sodium at high concentration is toxic for most of plant growth, excreted sodium of human waste should be removed from compost fertilizer. Use of marine algae is promising for harvesting potassium and other min-erals required for plant growth and returning remained sodium to satisfy human need of its intake. Farming salt tolerant green crop species is another approach to manage sodium problem in both space and terrestrial agriculture. We chose ice plant and New Zealand spinach. These two plant species are widely accepted green vegetable with many recipe. Ice plant can grow at the salinity level of sea water, and contain sodium salt up to 30% of its dry mass. Sodium distributes mainly in its bladder cells. New Zealand spinach is a plant species found in the front zone of sea shore, and tolerant against high salinity as well. Plant body size of both species at harvest is quite large, and easy to farm. Capability of bio-remediation of high saline soil is examined with ice plant and New Zealand spinach. Incubation medium was chosen to contain high concentration of sodium and potassium at the Na/K ratio of human excreta. In case Na/K ratio of plant body grown by this medium is greatly higher than that of incubation medium or soil, these halophytes are effective to remediate soil for farming less tolerant plant crop. Experimental results was less positive in this context.

  7. Inhibition of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cation Current in Medium-Sized DRG Neurons Contributed to the Antiallodynic Effect of Methylcobalamin in the Rat of a Chronic Compression of the DRG.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Han, Wenjuan; Zheng, Jianyong; Meng, Fancheng; Jiao, Xiying; Hu, Sanjue; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Recently several lines of evidence demonstrated that methylcobalamin (MeCbl) might have potential analgesic effect in experimental and clinical studies. However, it was reported that MeCbl had no effect on treating lumbar spinal stenosis induced pain. Thus, the effects of short-term and long-term administration of MeCbl were examined in the chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) model. We found that mechanical allodynia was significantly inhibited by a continuous application of high dose and a single treatment of a super high dose of MeCbl. Little is known about mechanisms underlying the analgesia of MeCbl. We examined the effect of MeCbl on the spontaneous activity (SA), the excitability, and hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation ion current in compressed medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using extracellular single fiber recording in vivo and whole-cell patch clamp in vitro. We found that MeCbl significantly inhibited the SA of A-type sensory neurons in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the excitability of medium-sized DRG neurons. In addition, MeCbl also decreased I h current density in injured medium-sized DRG neurons. Our results proved that MeCbl might exert an analgesic effect through the inhibition I h current and then might inhibit the hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons under neuropathic pain state.

  8. Modeling of DFT quality neural network potential for sodium clusters: Application to melting of sodium clusters (Na20 to Na40)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriki, Siva; Bulusu, Satya S.

    2016-05-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of computationally inexpensive neural network (NN) potential for studying global optimizations and phase transitions in small to medium sized sodium clusters with DFT accuracy. Accuracy of NN potential has been tested by performing global optimizations in the size range of 16-40 atoms. We performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using NN potential to study the melting behaviour. Melting study in the size range of 20-40 atoms shows a characteristic premelting peak and a main melting peak. Our results using NN potentials support the idea of stepwise melting in small Na clusters (Aguado, 2011).

  9. Thermo-electro-mechanical vibration analysis of size-dependent nanobeam resting on elastic medium under axial preload in presence of surface effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Boreiry, Mahya; Shaghaghi, Gholam Reza

    2016-07-01

    In the present manuscript, a nonclassical beam theory is developed to analyze free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeam by considering surface effects resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic medium and thermal loading with axial preload. The nonclassical Eringen theory is utilized to incorporate the length-scale parameter to account for the small-scale effect, while the Gurtin-Murdoch model is employed to inject the surface effects including surface elasticity, surface stress and surface density. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton's principle in the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The governing partial differential equations of motions of system are reduced to a set of algebraic equations with the help of differential transformation method as a semi-analytical-numerical. The mathematical derivations and numerical results are presented in detail for various boundary conditions. Some numerical examples are illustrated in order to investigate the effect of several parameters such as the nonlocal parameter, piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, temperature change, axial preload and elastic medium parameters. Moreover, it is also indicated that the numerical results have good agreement with previous studies.

  10. Sodium affects the sperm motility in the European eel.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, M Carmen; Morini, Marina; Peñaranda, David S; Gallego, Víctor; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz

    2016-08-01

    The role of seminal plasma sodium and activation media sodium on sperm motility was examined by selectively removing the element from these two media, in European eel sperm. Sperm size (sperm head area) was also measured using an ASMA (Automated Sperm Morphometry Analyses) system, in the different conditions. Intracellular sodium [Na(+)]i was quantitatively analyzed by first time in the spermatozoa from a marine fish species. Measurement of [Na(+)]i was done before and after motility activation, by Flow Cytometry, using CoroNa Green AM as a dye. Sperm motility activation induced an increase in [Na(+)]i, from 96.72mM in quiescent stage to 152.21mM post-activation in seawater. A significant decrease in sperm head area was observed post-activation in seawater. There was a notable reduction in sperm motility when sodium was removed from the seminal plasma, but not when it was removed from the activation media. Sodium removal was also linked to a significant reduction in sperm head area in comparison to the controls. Our results indicate that the presence of the ion Na(+) in the seminal plasma (or in the extender medium) is necessary for the preservation of sperm motility in European eel, probably because it plays a role in maintaining an appropriate sperm cell volume in the quiescent stage of the spermatozoa. PMID:27085371

  11. Eagle-Picher Industries Sodium Sulfur Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvey, Ronald L.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the sodium sulfur program are presented. Sodium sulfur low earth orbit (LEO) cells are described. Topics covered include cell sizes, areas of improvement, and NaS cell testing. Sodium sulfur cell and battery designs continue to evolve with significant improvement demonstrated in resistance, rechargeability, cycle life, energy density, and electrolyte characterization.

  12. Polymorphism of Metallic Sodium under Nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Uskov, A V; Nefedov, D Yu; Charnaya, E V; Haase, J; Michel, D; Kumzerov, Yu A; Fokin, A V; Bugaev, A S

    2016-01-13

    (23)Na NMR studies of sodium nanoparticles confined to porous glass with the 3.5 nm mean pore size were carried out. The emergence of the second component of the NMR line was observed below 240 K that evidences the occurrence of another modification of metallic sodium. The phase transition temperature is much higher than the martensite transformation temperature in bulk sodium.

  13. The stoicheiometry of the sodium pump

    PubMed Central

    Garrahan, P. J.; Glynn, I. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. When resealed ghosts containing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), magnesium and sodium were incubated in a medium containing potassium, ATP was hydrolysed vigorously by a ouabain-sensitive mechanism. If the ghosts contained potassium instead of or in addition to sodium, and the external solution contained sodium but no potassium, there was little ouabain-sensitive hydrolysis of ATP. As it is known that the ouabain-sensitive ATPase in fragmented ghosts requires both sodium and potassium ions, these results show that the ATPase is activated by potassium externally and by sodium internally, and suggest that the ions activating the ATPase are the ions that are transported. 2. Resealed ghosts containing ATP, magnesium and sodium were incubated in sodium-free media containing potassium, with and without ouabain, and the rate of loss of sodium and rate of hydrolysis of ATP were measured. The hydrolysis of 1 molecule of ATP by the ouabain-sensitive mechanism was accompanied by the ouabain-sensitive loss of about 3 sodium ions. 3. 24Na and 42K were used to measure sodium efflux and potassium influx in identical batches of fresh red cells under the same conditions and at the same time. Each flux was measured in the presence and absence of ouabain. The ratio (ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux)/(ouabain-sensitive potassium influx) was significantly greater than 1 (1·20 ± 0·01 and 1·35 ± 0·01 in two experiments). If a small fraction of the potassium influx represented a ouabain-sensitive potassium: potassium exchange, the ratio of the numbers of ions moved in the sodium: potassium exchange catalysed by the pump must have been even further from unity. 4. Resealed ghosts containing [γ-32P]ATP, magnesium, 24Na and orthophosphate were incubated in balanced salt solutions with and without potassium and with and without ouabain. A comparison of sodium efflux, estimated from 24Na loss, with ATP hydrolysis, estimated from the formation of [32P]orthophosphate, showed that the sodium:sodium

  14. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  15. Equal Opportunities and Vocational Training. Qualifications and Educational Needs of Co-Working Spouses of Owners of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riis-Jorgensen, Karin

    A study examined the training needs of women working in moderate-sized enterprises owned by their husbands. Information collected from interviews with spouses of business owners in Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and Italy confirmed the original hypothesis that in the kind of enterprise studied it is the man who owns the…

  16. Diode-pumped medium-aperture-size square Nd,Y:CaF2 rod amplifier for Inertial Confinement Fusion laser drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiongxin; Qiu, Jisi; Fan, Zhongwei; Su, Liangbi; Wang, Haocheng

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, an 12 mm × 12 mm 0.5%Nd,5% Y:CaF2 crystal rod having a uniformly-distributed fluorescence spectrum and capable of operating as an amplifying medium at high repetition frequencies. A small gain of 2.7 is experimentally achieved at repetition frequency of 10 Hz for a pump center wavelength of 802 nm, power and absorption efficiency, 61.2 kW and 63.7%, respectively. Spatial-uniformity degradation of the output near-field beam distribution is observed, which should be attributed to the inhomogeneity of Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal. For a pump power of 61.2 kW, the stored energy of Nd,Y:CaF2 amplifier is 3.73 J. When the input energy is 50 mJ, the output laser energy is 1.4 J of extraction efficiency up to 37.53% after four-pass amplification.

  17. Development of nanocomposites based on hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate: Synthesis and characterisation

    SciTech Connect

    Rajkumar, M.; Meenakshisundaram, N.; Rajendran, V.

    2011-05-15

    In this study, a novel method was used to produce a nanostructured composite consisting of hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate by varying the composition of sodium alginate. The structure, morphology, simulated body fluid response and mechanical properties of the synthesised nanocomposites were characterised. From X-ray diffraction analysis, an increase in crystallite size and degree of crystallinity with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate up to 1.5 wt.% was observed. Further, it was found to decrease with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate. A notable peak shift from 1635 to 1607 cm{sup -1} and 1456 to 1418 cm{sup -1} in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the nanocomposite was observed towards the lower wave number side when compared with pure hydroxyapatite. It reveals a strong interaction between the positively charged calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) and the negatively charged carboxyl group (COO{sup -}) in sodium alginate. Transmission electron microscopy images of pure hydroxyapatite showed a short nanorod-like morphology with an average particle size of 13 nm. Bioresorbability of the samples was observed by immersing them in simulated body fluid medium for 14 days to evaluate the changes in pH and Ca{sup 2+} ion strength. Microhardness shows an increasing trend with an increase in the composition of sodium alginate from 1.5 to 3.0 wt.%, which is similar to that in the density. - Research Highlights: {yields} We have prepared nanohydroxyapatite/sodium alginate as a composite. {yields} Effect of sodium alginate on the properties of nanohydrroxyapatite has been studied. {yields} The sodium alginate ranges from 0 to 3.75 wt.% has been used. {yields} Composites show improved biological and mechanical properties.

  18. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  19. Cage and tube structures of medium-sized zinc oxide clusters (ZnO)n (n=24, 28, 36, and 48).

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolin; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Guibin; Nagase, Shigeru; Zhao, Jijun

    2008-04-14

    Following our recent work which revealed that the lowest-energy structures of (ZnO)n (n=9-18) follow cage and tube structural growth patterns with stacks of small subunits of (ZnO)2 and (ZnO)3 [Wang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4956 (2007)], we have extended the search for the most stable structures to some larger clusters, i.e., (ZnO)n (n=24, 28, 36, and 48) by using gradient-corrected density-functional theory (DFT). A number of starting configurations belonging to different structural motifs were generated from handmade constructions with chemical intuition and then optimized via DFT calculations. Within the size range studied, cage and tube structures were found to be the most preferred structural motifs for the (ZnO)n clusters. PMID:18412474

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  1. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  2. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  5. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  6. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  7. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  8. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-01

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  9. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    PubMed

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-01

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  10. Size resolved infrared spectroscopy of Na(CH3OH)n (n = 4-7) clusters in the OH stretching region: unravelling the interaction of methanol clusters with a sodium atom and the emergence of the solvated electron.

    PubMed

    Forck, Richard M; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Wolff, Sabine; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Size resolved IR action spectra of neutral sodium doped methanol clusters have been measured using IR excitation modulated photoionisation mass spectroscopy. The Na(CH(3)OH)(n) clusters were generated in a supersonic He seeded expansion of methanol by subsequent Na doping in a pick-up cell. A combined analysis of IR action spectra, IP evolutions and harmonic predictions of IR spectra (using density functional theory) of the most stable structures revealed that for n = 4, 5 structures with an exterior Na atom showing high ionisation potentials (IPs) of ~4 eV dominate, while for n = 6, 7 clusters with lower IPs (~3.2 eV) featuring fully solvated Na atoms and solvated electrons emerge and dominate the IR action spectra. For n = 4 simulations of photoionisation spectra using an ab initio MD approach confirm the dominance of exterior structures and explain the previously reported appearance IP of 3.48 eV by small fractions of clusters with partly solvated Na atoms. Only for this cluster size a shift in the isomer composition with cluster temperature has been observed, which may be related to kinetic stabilisation of less Na solvated clusters at low temperatures. Features of slow fragmentation dynamics of cationic Na(+)(CH(3)OH)(6) clusters have been observed for the photoionisation near the adiabatic limit. This finding points to the relevance of previously proposed non-vertical photoionisation dynamics of this system.

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  12. Assessing the potential of Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for monitoring total suspended matter in small and intermediate sized lakes and reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrant, P. E.; Amacher, J. A.; Neuer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used extensively for many years to monitor the open oceans and coastal waters. These methods have been extended more recently to the study of inland waters. In this study we consider the potential application of data from two ocean color sensors, Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), for monitoring the levels of suspended solids in small and intermediate sized lakes and reservoirs. We measured total suspended matter (TSM) in four southwestern United States lakes, Roosevelt Lake, Saguaro Lake, Bartlett Lake, and Lake Pleasant, and compared these field data with images obtained from these medium resolution satellite sensors. Our regression analysis of the complete data set identified a linear relationship between the field TSM values and both MODIS 250 m data (r2 = 0.461) and MERIS 290 m data (r2 = 0.521). This relationship improved substantially when data from the smallest lake in the study (Saguaro Lake) were excluded from the analysis (r2 = 0.819 and r2 = 0.888, respectively). The resultant linear models produced estimates with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from 3.14 mg/L (MODIS) and 2.04 mg/L (MERIS) for all four lakes combined, improving to 1.32 mg/L (MODIS) and 0.47 mg/L (MERIS) for a lake-specific regression. These results suggest that these satellite sensors have the potential to effectively monitor TSM in lakes and reservoirs, although a minimum practical lake size does appear to exist.

  13. Predictions of particle size and lattice diffusion pathway requirements for sodium-ion anodes using eta-Cu6Sn5 thin films as a model system

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude; Gorka, Joanna; Bridges, Craig A; Veith, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    Geometrically well-defined Cu6Sn5 thin films were used as model systems to estimate the diffusion depth and diffusion pathway requirements of Li and Na ions in alloy anodes. eta-Cu6Sn5 anodes have an initial reversible capacity towards Li of 545 mAh g-1 (Li3.96Sn or 19.8 Li/Cu6Sn5) and a very low initial irreversible capacity of 1.6 Li/Cu6Sn5. In contrast, the reaction with Na is limited with a reversible capacity of 160 mAh g-1 compared to the expected 516 mAh g-1. The potential profile is analogous to that of pure Sn with an average potential of 0.3 V. X-ray diffraction and 119Sn-M ssbauer measurements show that this limited capacity is likely resulting from the limited diffusion of Na into the anode particles not the formation of a low Na-content phase. This is substantiated by the analysis of the structure of eta-Cu6Sn5 which revealed zig-zag and tunnel diffusion pathways with spherical voids with a diameter very close to that of Na+. Moreover, our results also indicate that an alloy of eta-Cu6Sn5 should have optimized particle sizes of about 10 nm in diameter to increase the Na-capacity significantly. An alternative system consisting of a mixture of Cu6Sn5 and Sn of nominal composition Cu6Sn10 has been studied as possible Na-ion anode material possessing higher storage capacity than pure Cu6Sn5. Indeed this mixture of phase delivers a larger initial reversible storage capacity up to 400 mAh g-1. Finally, we have evidenced that the presence of Cu in Cu6Sn5 and in Cu6Sn10 suppresses the anomalous electrolyte decomposition normally measured for pure Sn at 1.2 V during discharge.

  14. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  15. Development and process evaluation of the participatory and action-oriented empowerment model facilitated by occupational health nurses for workplace health promotion in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nishikido, Noriko; Matsuda, Kazumi; Fukuda, Eiko; Motoki, Chiharu; Tsutaki, Miho; Kawakami, Yuko; Yuasa, Akiko; Iijima, Miyoko; Tanaka, Mika; Hirata, Mamoru; Hojoh, Minoru; Ikeda, Tomoko; Maeda, Kazutoshi; Miyoshi, Yukari; Arai, Sumiko; Mitsuhashi, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an available empowerment model for workplace health promotion (WHP) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and to evaluate its applicability and feasibility. Semi-structured interviews with employers and workers in SMEs were conducted to assess their actual requirements for support. The structure of our new empowerment model was discussed and established through several rounds of focus group meetings with occupational safety and health researchers and practitioners on the basis of results of our interviews. We developed a new participatory and action-oriented empowerment model based on needs for support of employers and workers in SMEs. This new model consists of three originally developed tools: an action checklist, an information guidebook, and a book of good practices. As the facilitators, occupational health nurses (OHNs) from health insurance associations were trained to empower employers and workers using these tools. Approximately 80 SMEs (with less than 300 employees) were invited to participate in the model project. With these tools and continued empowerment by OHNs, employers and workers were able to smoothly work on WHP. This newly developed participatory and action-oriented empowerment model that was facilitated by trained OHNs appears to be both applicable and feasible for WHP in SMEs in Japan.

  16. Crystallographic X-ray analyses of Yb@C(2v)(3)-C80 reveal a feasible rule that governs the location of a rare earth metal inside a medium-sized fullerene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Lian, Yongfu; Beavers, Christine M; Mizorogi, Naomi; Slanina, Zdenek; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2011-07-20

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Yb@C(2v)(3)-C(80)·Ni(II)(OEP)·CS(2)·1.5C(6)H(6) (OEP = octaethylporphinate) reveal that a relatively flat region of the fullerene interacts with the Ni(II)(OEP) molecule, featuring shape-matching interactions. Surprisingly, it is found that the internal metal is located under a hexagonal carbon ring apart from the 2-fold axis of the C(2v)(3)-C(80) cage, presenting the first example of metallofullerenes with an asymmetrically positioned metal. Such an anomalous location of Yb(2+) is associated with its strong ability to pursue a large coordination number and the lack of hexagon along the C(2) axis of C(2v)(3)-C(80). It is accordingly assumed that a suitable cage hexagon is most likely to be preferred by the single rare earth metal to stay behind inside a medium-sized fullerene, such as C(80) and C(82).

  17. Some aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and dynamic instabilities in medium and high pressure steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H. C.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental data for void fraction, incipient point of boiling, initial point of net vapor generation, bubble dynamics, dryout, two-phase flow pressure drop and density-wave oscillations were obtained in long, sodium heated steam generator tubes of different geometries for a wide range of operating conditions and at medium and high pressures. These data and data from literature taken in sodium and electrically heated steam generator tubes were correlated. Aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and density-wave oscillations in these steam generators disclosed include the distribution factor in small- and medium-size diameter steam generator tubes, the characteristic of the transitions at the incipient point of boiling and initial point of net vapor generation, bubble growth during subcooled nucleate flow boiling, the importance of the equivalent length for dryout in non-uniformly heated steam generator tubes and the mechanisms of density-wave oscillations in once-through steam generator tubes.

  18. A 23Na Multiple-Quantum-Filtered NMR Study of the Effect of the Cytoskeleton Conformation on the Anisotropic Motion of Sodium Ions in Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knubovets, Tatyana; Shinar, Hadassah; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil

    1996-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that23Na double-quantum-filtered NMR spectroscopy can be used to detect anisotropic motion of bound sodium ions in biological systems. The technique is based on the formation of the second-rank tensor when the quadrupolar interaction is not averaged to zero. Using this method, anisotropic motion of bound sodium in human and dog red blood cells was detected, and the effect was shown to depend on the integrity of the membrane cytoskeleton. In the present study, multiple-quantum-filtered techniques were applied in combination with a quadrupolar echo to measure the transverse-relaxation times,T2fandT2s. Line fitting was performed to obtain the values of the residual quadrupolar interaction, which was measured for sodium in a variety of mammalian erythrocytes of different size, shape, rheological properties, and sodium concentrations. Human unsealed white ghosts were used to study sodium bound at the anisotropic sites on the inner side of the RBC membrane. Modulations of the conformation of the cytoskeleton by the variation of either the ionic strength or pH of the suspending medium caused drastic changes in both the residual quadrupolar interaction andT2fdue to changes in the fraction of bound sodium ions as well as changes in the structure of the binding sites. By combining the two spectroscopic parameters, structural change can be followed. The changes in the structure of the sodium anisotropic binding sites deduced by this method were found to correlate with known conformational changes of the membrane cytoskeleton. Variations of the medium pH affected both the fraction of bound sodium ions and the structure of the anisotropic binding sites. Sodium and potassium were shown to bind to the anisotropic binding sites with the same affinity.

  19. Effects of the presence of the curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, on bacteriocin production by Weissella paramesenteroides DX grown in meat simulation medium.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, M; Sergelidis, D

    2013-06-10

    Weissellin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by the sausage-isolated strain of Weissella paramesenteroides DX. The response of the strain to various concentrations of the added curing agent NaNO2 (0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01g/L) was evaluated in bioreactor fermentations using a meat simulation medium. The presence of nitrite suppressed bacteriocin production - the effect being more pronounced with increasing concentrations. Weissellin A was produced as a growth-associated metabolite in the absence of nitrite or its presence in the low concentration of 0.005g/L under aerobic conditions. The suppressive effect of nitrite was apparent under conditions supporting increased specific production rates, e.g. 50% and 100% dissolved oxygen tension, but no effect was observed under anaerobic conditions. As the latter prevail in the microenvironment of fermented meat products, the absence of any influence of nitrite on bacteriocin production is an important finding that enlightens the role of this species of lactic acid bacteria in its common substrates.

  20. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  1. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  2. Sodium efflux from perfused giant algal cells.

    PubMed

    Clint, G M; Macrobbie, E A

    1987-06-01

    Internodal cells of the giant alga Chara corallina were perfused internally to replace the native cytoplasm, tonoplast and vacuole with artificial cytoplasm. Sodium efflux from perfused cells, measured by including (22)Na in the perfusion media, was increased by increasing the internal sodium concentration and by decreasing the external pH, and was inhibited by external application of the renal diuretic amiloride. The sodium efflux was markedly ATP-dependent, with a 50-fold decrease in efflux observed after perfusion with media lacking ATP. Efflux in the presence of ATP was reduced by 33% by inclusion of 10 μM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in the perfusion medium. The membrane potential of the perfused cells approximated that of intact cells from the same culture. It is suggested that sodium efflux in perfused Chara cells proceeds via a secondary antiporter with protons, regulated by ATP in a catalytic role and with the proton motive force acting as the energy source.

  3. Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope.

  4. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  8. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  9. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder.

    PubMed

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A

    1976-12-25

    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  10. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  11. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products.

  12. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period.

  13. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. PMID:21816168

  14. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  15. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  16. Ionic Blockage of Sodium Channels in Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Woodhull, Ann M.

    1973-01-01

    Increasing the hydrogen ion concentration of the bathing medium reversibly depresses the sodium permeability of voltage-clamped frog nerves. The depression depends on membrane voltage: changing from pH 7 to pH 5 causes a 60% reduction in sodium permeability at +20 mV, but only a 20% reduction at +180 mV. This voltage-dependent block of sodium channels by hydrogen ions is explained by assuming that hydrogen ions enter the open sodium channel and bind there, preventing sodium ion passage. The voltage dependence arises because the binding site is assumed to lie far enough across the membrane for bound ions to be affected by part of the potential difference across the membrane. Equations are derived for the general case where the blocking ion enters the channel from either side of the membrane. For H+ ion blockage, a simpler model, in which H+ enters the channel only from the bathing medium, is found to be sufficient. The dissociation constant of H+ ions from the channel site, 3.9 x 10-6 M (pKa 5.4), is like that of a carboxylic acid. From the voltage dependence of the block, this acid site is about one-quarter of the way across the membrane potential from the outside. In addition to blocking as described by the model, hydrogen ions also shift the responses of sodium channel "gates" to voltage, probably by altering the surface potential of the nerve. Evidence for voltage-dependent blockage by calcium ions is also presented. PMID:4541078

  17. [Rappaport--Vassiliadis medium--a new liquid selectively-multiplying medium for detection of Salmonella in food].

    PubMed

    Pogorzelska, E; Kafel, S

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the available literature, the history of development of the Rappaport--Vassiliadis (RV) medium, its preparation and applicability in food control methods were described. Results of comparative studies on the effectiveness of Salmonella isolation upon use of different specifically-multiplying media: MK, medium containing sodium acid selenite, R25/37 degrees C, RV, were presented. The number of Salmonella isolations in samples multiplied in RV medium was found to exceed that obtained upon use of the remaining media. Moreover, RV medium was easy to prepare; it proved to be economical and was stable for up to 7 months when refrigerated. PMID:1803450

  18. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam. PMID:27227418

  19. Sodium in Store and Restaurant Food Environments - Guam, 2015.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sandra L; VanFrank, Brenna K; Lundeen, Elizabeth; Uncangco, Alyssa; Alam, Lawrence; King, Sallyann M Coleman; Cogswell, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the United States overall, Guam has higher mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and stroke (1). Excess sodium intake can increase blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease (2,3). To determine the availability and promotion of lower-sodium options in the nutrition environment, the Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services (DPHSS) conducted an assessment in September 2015 using previously validated tools adapted to include sodium measures. Stores (N = 114) and restaurants (N = 63) were randomly sampled by region (north, central, and south). Data from 100 stores and 62 restaurants were analyzed and weighted to account for the sampling design. Across the nine product types assessed, lower-sodium products were offered less frequently than regular-sodium products (p<0.001) with <50% of stores offering lower-sodium canned vegetables, tuna, salad dressing, soy sauce, and hot dogs. Lower-sodium products were also less frequently offered in small stores than large (two or more cash registers) stores. Reduced-sodium soy sauce cost more than regular soy sauce (p<0.001) in stores offering both options in the same size bottle. Few restaurants engaged in promotion practices such as posting sodium information (3%) or identifying lower-sodium entrées (1%). Improving the availability and promotion of lower-sodium foods in stores and restaurants could help support healthier eating in Guam.

  20. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients, except that: (a) Salt is not used. Any safe and suitable ingredient or combination of ingredients that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate is... same size and style of type as the letters in the words “colby cheese”, wherever such words appear...

  1. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients, except that: (a) Salt is not used. Any safe and suitable ingredient or combination of ingredients that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate is... same size and style of type as the letters in the words “colby cheese”, wherever such words appear...

  2. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  3. Water hardness and sodium trends in Texas aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hudak, P F

    2001-05-01

    Median hardness and sodium levels in groundwater were calculated for 244 Texas counties from measurements at 7728 water wells. The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic information system (GIS). County median hardness levels varied widely, from 4-2304 mg L-1. More than 60% of the counties had hardness medians above 180 mg L-1. County medium sodium concentrations ranged from 6-1170 mg L-1, with more than 90% of those values exceeding 20 mg L-1. There was a significant positive correlation between hardness and sodium concentrations in six of Texas' nine major aquifers. A significant negative correlation between hardness and sodium was observed in two aquifers. Several factors control hardness and sodium variations in Texas aquifers including rock/sediment composition, groundwater chemical evolution, and seepage from nearby formations. Probable human controls include agricultural return flow and pumping-induced saltwater intrusion. PMID:11411143

  4. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  5. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  6. Sodium regulation in the larvae of Chironomus dorsalis (Meig.) and Camptochironomus tentans (Fabr.): the effect of slat depletion and some observations on temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Wright, D A

    1975-02-01

    Sodium regulation was studied in fourth instar larvae of Chironomus dorsalis and Camptochironomus tentans. Both maintain a body sodium level well above that of the surrounding medium. The haemolymph contains approximately 90% of total body sodium and approximates to a single compartment freely exchanging sodium with the external medium. The anal papillae play a primary role in sodium regulation, the gut being in secondary importance. Sodium regulation in both species is comparatively insensitive to alterations in acclimatization temperature. C. dorsalis and C. tentans are capable of maintaining sodium balance in media containing 10 mumole Na and 25 mumole Na respectively. When exposed to several changes of distilled water, C. tentansis capable of reducing sodium loss by elaboration of a more dilute urine. This is apparently,supplemented by a reduction in the permeability of the body surface. Activation of sodium uptake in both species is comparatively sluggish, with influx reaching a maximum only after the loss of greater than 30% body sodium.

  7. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  8. Separation and identification of the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction in sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, Judith A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Commeau, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The separation of silt-sized minerals by specific gravity is made possible by using a nontoxic, heavy liquid medium of sodium polytungstate and water. Once separated, the silt-sized heavy-mineral fraction is prepared for analysis with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an automatic image analyzer and energy-dispersive spectrometer. Particles within each sample are sized and sorted according to their chemistry, and the data are tabulated in histograms and tables. Where possible, the user can define the chemical categories to simulate distinct mineral groups. Polymorphs and minerals that have overlapping compositions are combined into a group and differentiated by X-ray diffraction. Hundreds of particles can be rapidly sized and classified by chemistry. The technique can be employed on sediments from any environment.

  9. Calculating body frame size (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  10. Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.

    2002-01-01

    A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Small and medium-size joints (carpal, fetlock)—20 milligrams; larger joint (hock)—40 milligrams. (ii...-size joints (carpal, fetlock)—10 milligrams; larger joint (hock)—20 milligrams. (ii) Indications for... (carpal, fetlock)—20 milligrams. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of carpal or fetlock...

  12. Ground state structures, electronic and optical properties of medium-sized Nan + (n = 9, 15, 21, 26, 31, 36, 41, 50 and 59) clusters from ab initio genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Sai, Linwei; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun

    2013-02-01

    Employing genetic algorithm incorporated with density functional theory calculations we determined the lowest-energy structures of cationic Na n + clusters ( n = 9, 15, 21, 26, 31, 36, 41, 50 and 59). We revealed a transition of growth pattern from "polyicosahedral" sequence to the Mackay icosahedral motif at around n = 40. Based on the ground-state structures the size dependent electronic properties of Na n + clusters including the binding energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps, electron density of states and photoabsorption spectra were discussed. As cluster size increases, the HOMO-LUMO gap of Na n + cluster gradually reduces and converges to metallic behavior of bulk crystal rapidly. The photoabsorption spectra of Na n + clusters from our calculations agree with experimental data rather well, confirming the reliability of our theoretical approaches.

  13. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  14. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  15. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  16. Effect of sodium chloride on the binding of polyaromatic hydrocarbon guests with sodium cholate aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Denis; Thurber, Katie; Bovero, Enrico; Pace, Tamara C S; Bohne, Cornelia

    2011-09-01

    Sodium cholate aggregates are adaptable host systems. The effect of changing the ionic strength with the addition of NaCl on the properties for guest binding to sodium cholate aggregates was investigated by using pyrene, perylene and 1-ethylnaphthalene as guests. Fluorescence, anisotropy and laser flash photolysis studies provided information on the protection efficiency of the aggregate bound guest, and provided information on the dynamics and correlation times for the host-guest system. Different trends for the protection efficiency of the bound guests were observed when the NaCl concentration was raised depending on the charge of the aqueous solubilized quencher. The increase in ionic strength was also shown to lengthen the correlation time of the aggregate bound guest and led to faster dynamics for the host-guest complex. These results show that the properties of sodium cholate aggregates as a supramolecular host system are significantly altered with changes in the ionic strength of the medium. PMID:21472184

  17. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  18. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  19. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  20. Electrochemical insertion of sodium into carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Yanping Ma; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1993-12-01

    Electrochemical insertion of sodium ions into carbon using solid polymer electrolytes or organic liquid electrolytes is described. Cells with the configuration Na/P(EO){sub 8}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}/C where P(EO) = polyethylene oxide or Na/liquid electrolyte/C were galvanostatically discharged, charged, and cycled. The extent of insertion into C (i.e., x in Na{sup +}C{sub x{minus}}) was found to be a strong function of the type and particle size of the carbon used, and the reversibility of the process was highly dependent upon the type of electrolyte used. The possibility of designing a sodium ion rocking chair cell is discussed, and a first-generation example, using a petroleum coke anode, polymer electrolyte, and sodium cobalt bronze cathode is described.

  1. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  2. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  3. Remote Observations of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    We have designed, built and installed a small robotic coronagraph at the Winer Observatory in Sonoita, Arizona, in order to observe the sodium exosphere out to one-half degree around the Moon. We have observed every available clear night from our home base at Goddard Space Flight Center for several lunations in 2015, and thus have a long baseline of sodium exospheric calibrated images. We employ an Andover temperature-controlled 1.5 Å wide narrow-band filter centered on the sodium D2 line, and a similar 1.5 Å filter centered blueward of the D2 line by 5 Å. This filter would yield a sodium signal at least 24% of the scattered lunar light at first quarter. Exposures of 10 minutes are required to image the sodium corona at good signal to noise. Following each exposure pair, taking a 0.1 sec exposure with the open filter collects on- and off-band images of the lunar surface. An example of our resulting image of the sodium corona is shown in Figure 1, with the image of the moon's disk (taken subsequently to the occulted coronal image) superimposed on the occulting disk, thus showing the position and phase of the moon under the disk. We will compare our lunar model derived from these observations with the data from the UV spectrograph onboard the LADEE spacecraft. Figure 1. An image of the lunar sodium corona obtained on March 26, 2015 is shown with the lunar surface superimposed on the coronagraphic image. Using various sized occulting disks, depending on lunar phase, we observe the corona very close to the lunar surface with no scattered light.

  4. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  5. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26501983

  7. Structures and relative stability of medium- and large-sized silicon clusters. VI. Fullerene cage motifs for low-lying clusters Si39, Si40, Si50, Si60, Si70, and Si80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Shao, N.; Zeng, X. C.

    2008-03-01

    We performed a constrained search, combined with density-functional theory optimization, of low-energy geometric structures of silicon clusters Si39, Si40, Si50, Si60, Si70, and Si80. We used fullerene cages as structural motifs to construct initial configurations of endohedral fullerene structures. For Si39, we examined six endohedral fullerene structures using all six homolog C34 fullerene isomers as cage motifs. We found that the Si39 constructed based on the C34(Cs:2) cage motif results in a new leading candidate for the lowest-energy structure whose energy is appreciably lower than that of the previously reported leading candidate obtained based on unbiased searches (combined with tight-binding optimization). The C34(Cs:2) cage motif also leads to a new candidate for the lowest-energy structure of Si40 whose energy is notably lower than that of the previously reported leading candidate with outer cage homolog to the C34(C1:1). Low-lying structures of larger silicon clusters Si50 and Si60 are also obtained on the basis of preconstructed endohedral fullerene structures. For Si50, Si60, and Si80, the obtained low-energy structures are all notably lower in energy than the lowest-energy silicon structures obtained based on an unbiased search with the empirical Stillinger-Weber potential of silicon. Additionally, we found that the binding energy per atom (or cohesive energy) increases typically >10meV with addition of every ten Si atoms. This result may be used as an empirical criterion (or the minimal requirement) to identify low-lying silicon clusters with size larger than Si50.

  8. Structures and relative stability of medium- and large-sized silicon clusters. VI. Fullerene cage motifs for low-lying clusters Si(39), Si(40), Si(50), Si(60), Si(70), and Si(80).

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Shao, N; Zeng, X C

    2008-03-14

    We performed a constrained search, combined with density-functional theory optimization, of low-energy geometric structures of silicon clusters Si(39), Si(40), Si(50), Si(60), Si(70), and Si(80). We used fullerene cages as structural motifs to construct initial configurations of endohedral fullerene structures. For Si(39), we examined six endohedral fullerene structures using all six homolog C(34) fullerene isomers as cage motifs. We found that the Si(39) constructed based on the C(34)(C(s):2) cage motif results in a new leading candidate for the lowest-energy structure whose energy is appreciably lower than that of the previously reported leading candidate obtained based on unbiased searches (combined with tight-binding optimization). The C(34)(C(s):2) cage motif also leads to a new candidate for the lowest-energy structure of Si(40) whose energy is notably lower than that of the previously reported leading candidate with outer cage homolog to the C(34)(C(1):1). Low-lying structures of larger silicon clusters Si(50) and Si(60) are also obtained on the basis of preconstructed endohedral fullerene structures. For Si(50), Si(60), and Si(80), the obtained low-energy structures are all notably lower in energy than the lowest-energy silicon structures obtained based on an unbiased search with the empirical Stillinger-Weber potential of silicon. Additionally, we found that the binding energy per atom (or cohesive energy) increases typically >10 meV with addition of every ten Si atoms. This result may be used as an empirical criterion (or the minimal requirement) to identify low-lying silicon clusters with size larger than Si(50).

  9. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  10. Activation of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel NaV1.9 in rat primary sensory neurons contributes to melittin-induced pain behavior.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao-Qing; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Xue-Feng; Xie, Fang; Yang, Yan; Chen, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channels NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play important roles in pathological pain. We recently reported that melittin, the major toxin of whole bee venom, induced action potential firings in DRG neurons even in the presence of a high concentration (500 nM) of TTX, indicating the contribution of TTX-R sodium channels. This hypothesis is fully investigated in the present study. After subcutaneous injection of melittin, NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 significantly upregulate mRNA and protein expressions, and related sodium currents also increase. Double immunohistochemical results show that NaV1.8-positive neurons are mainly medium- and small-sized, whereas NaV1.9-positive ones are only small-sized. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS ODNs) targeting NaV1.8 and NaV1.9 are used to evaluate functional significance of the increased expressions of TTX-R sodium channels. Behavioral tests demonstrate that AS ODN targeting NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8, reverses melittin-induced heat hypersensitivity. Neither NaV1.8 AS ODN nor NaV1.9 AS ODN affects melittin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results provide previously unknown evidence that upregulation of NaV1.9, but not NaV1.8, in small-sized DRG neurons contributes to melittin-induced heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, melittin-induced biological effect indicates a potential strategy to study properties of TTX-R sodium channels. PMID:23264124

  11. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  12. Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Sánchez, I

    1999-12-01

    The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed.

  13. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2952 - Size specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... diameter; except that for walnuts of the Eureka variety and type, such limiting dimension as to diameter shall be 76/64 inches; (d) Medium size. Medium size means walnuts of which at least 88 percent, by count... maximum diameter. Variety or Type Specifications...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2952 - Size specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... round opening 77/64 inches in diameter; except that for walnuts of the Eureka variety and type, such limiting dimension as to diameter shall be 76/64 inches; (d) Medium size. Medium size means walnuts of... round hole of any specified maximum diameter. Variety or Type Specifications...

  16. Sodium-dependent magnesium uptake by ferret red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, P W; Smith, L M

    1991-01-01

    1. Magnesium uptake can be measured in ferret red cells incubated in media containing more than 1 mM-magnesium. Uptake is substantially increased if the sodium concentration in the medium is reduced. 2. Magnesium uptake is half-maximally activated by 0.37 mM-external magnesium when the external sodium concentration is 5 mM. Increasing the external sodium concentration increases the magnesium concentration needed to activate the system. 3. Magnesium uptake is increased by reducing the external sodium concentration. Uptake is half-maximum at sodium concentrations of 17, 22 and 62 nM when the external magnesium concentrations are 2, 5 and 10 mM respectively. 4. Replacement of external sodium with choline does not affect the membrane potential of ferret red cells over a 45 min period. 5. Magnesium uptake from media containing 5 mM-sodium is inhibited by amiloride, quinidine and imipramine. It is not affected by ouabain or bumetanide. Vanadate stimulates magnesium uptake but has no effect on magnesium efflux. 6. When cell ATP content is reduced to 19 mumol (1 cell)-1 by incubating cells for 3 h with 2-deoxyglucose, magnesium uptake falls by 50% in the presence of 5 mM-sodium and is completely abolished in the presence of 145 mM-sodium. Some of the inhibition may be due to the increase in intracellular ionized magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i) from 0.7 to 1.0 mM which occurs under these conditions. 7. Magnesium uptake can be driven against a substantial electrochemical gradient if the external sodium concentration is reduced sufficiently. 8. These findings are discussed in terms of several possible models for magnesium transport. It is concluded that the majority of magnesium uptake observed in low-sodium media is via sodium-magnesium antiport. A small portion of uptake is through a parallel leak pathway. It is believed that the antiport is responsible for maintaining [Mg2+]i below electrochemical equilibrium in these cells at physiological external sodium concentration

  17. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  18. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  19. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  20. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  1. Portion size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a woman's fist or a baseball One medium apple or orange is a tennis ball One-quarter ... you more satisfied. Some examples are having an apple with string cheese, whole-wheat crackers with peanut ...

  2. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  3. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium by medium-chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Goris, Johan; Dierick, Noël; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2010-02-24

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the porcine cecum, was developed for investigating the effect of MCFAs (sodium caproate, sodium caprylate and sodium caprinate) on the pig intestinal microbial community. The system was monitored by plating on selective media, PCR-DGGE and HPLC analysis of fermentation products. An inoculated S. typhimurium strain could be maintained by the system at a population size of about 5 log(10)cfu/mL. By the addition of 15 mM caprylate, significant reductions of coliforms and Salmonella counts by 4.69 log(10) units (95% confidence interval: 4.19-5.18) could be achieved, while other bacterial populations were clearly less affected. This concentration seems economically feasible in pig feed, provided that the substance can reach the cecum without being absorbed. Thus, caprylate, for example in the form of encapsulated beads or as triacylglycerol oil, might have potential as a Salmonella-reducing additive in pig feed. PMID:19709819

  4. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium by medium-chain fatty acids in an in vitro simulation of the porcine cecum.

    PubMed

    Messens, Winy; Goris, Johan; Dierick, Noël; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2010-02-24

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for more than half of the reported cases of human salmonellosis in Belgium in 2007 and was the predominant serovar isolated from slaughter pig carcasses. To lower the Salmonella contamination of pork meat, measures can be taken at the primary production level, e.g. by reducing the shedding of Salmonella through the use of feed additives such as medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). An in vitro continuous culture system, simulating the porcine cecum, was developed for investigating the effect of MCFAs (sodium caproate, sodium caprylate and sodium caprinate) on the pig intestinal microbial community. The system was monitored by plating on selective media, PCR-DGGE and HPLC analysis of fermentation products. An inoculated S. typhimurium strain could be maintained by the system at a population size of about 5 log(10)cfu/mL. By the addition of 15 mM caprylate, significant reductions of coliforms and Salmonella counts by 4.69 log(10) units (95% confidence interval: 4.19-5.18) could be achieved, while other bacterial populations were clearly less affected. This concentration seems economically feasible in pig feed, provided that the substance can reach the cecum without being absorbed. Thus, caprylate, for example in the form of encapsulated beads or as triacylglycerol oil, might have potential as a Salmonella-reducing additive in pig feed.

  5. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  6. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  7. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  8. Knowledge Production in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Meer, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's (2010) article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" When the author tries to characterise Ghassib's (2010) world, three words come into mind: University, Scientific Knowledge, and Marx. The author's world on the other…

  9. An Educational Multimedia Presentation Framework for Medium-Sized Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styliaras, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a framework that supports an educational presentation of a museum on fixed information and pure educational stations through multimedia. Museum curators are offered a wizard-like procedure through which they can structure and populate the content to be presented, associate the content to predefined application types that…

  10. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  11. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  12. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  19. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  20. Stimulation of calcium-sodium exchange in dog red blood cells by hemolysis and resealing.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C

    1988-09-01

    Osmotic hemolysis and resealing greatly increase calcium influx in dog red blood cells. The resealed ghosts show a saturable calcium entry pathway with complex kinetics. As expected for a calcium-sodium exchanger, calcium uptake is stimulated by internal sodium and inhibited by external sodium. Compared to fresh, intact red cells the resealed ghost calcium-sodium exchanger is less responsive to quinidine and to alterations in medium tonicity. The differences in calcium uptake rate among cells from different donors are minimized in the ghost preparation. There are several ways to stimulate sodium-dependent calcium movements in these cells, of which hemolysis-resealing is the most potent. The results of these and previous studies suggest that dog red blood cells have a latent capacity for calcium-sodium exchange. PMID:3415988

  1. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J. Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2014-05-28

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  2. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2014-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  3. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  4. Subcellular Size

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.

    2016-01-01

    All of the same conceptual questions about size in organisms apply equally at the level of single cells. What determines the size, not only of the whole cell, but of all its parts? What ensures that subcellular components are properly proportioned relative to the whole cell? How does alteration in organelle size affect biochemical function? Answering such fundamental questions requires us to understand how the size of individual organelles and other cellular structures is determined. Knowledge of organelle biogenesis and dynamics has advanced rapidly in recent years. Does this knowledge give us enough information to formulate reasonable models for organelle size control, or are we still missing something? PMID:25957302

  5. Sodium Intake Recommendations: A Subject that Needs to be Reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Lopez-Lopez, Jose; Lopez-Lopez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension affects 1 billion people worldwide and is considered the leading cause of death, stroke, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Sodium intake is reported to be a modifiable determinant of hypertension and reductions in its consumption have been widely recommended. Various strategies have been proposed to address the observed epidemic of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in medium and low-income countries. Among these strategies, reducing dietary sodium intake and increasing dietary potassium intake are commonly included in guidelines for the treatment of hypertension and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the present article, we review the results of recent studies that have raised questions about potential adverse effects associated with low sodium intake on important health outcomes, including cardiovascular diseases and death. It is clear from these studies, that there are contradictory and irreconcilable positions in the interpretation of the evidence, a situation that indicates that there is an urgent need for international randomized controlled trials that consistently demonstrate that the low levels of sodium intake recommended in the guidelines are safe and beneficial for different populations around the world. In the interim, and in accordance with a number of experts, we agree that the current evidence argues against the reduction of dietary sodium as an isolated public health recommendation and that an alternative approach of recommending high quality, potassium rich diets, might achieve greater health benefits, including blood-pressure reduction, than aggressive sodium reduction alone.

  6. The Industrial Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel E. Bays; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-04-01

    This paper investigates the use of enrichment and moderator zoning methods for optimizing the r-z power distribution within sodium cooled fast reactors. These methods allow overall greater fuel utilization in the core resulting in more fuel being irradiated near the maximum allowed thermal power. The peak-to-average power density was held to 1.18. This core design, in conjunction with a multiple-reheat Brayton power conversion system, has merit for producing an industrial level of electrical output (2400MWth, 1000MWe) from a relatively compact core size. The total core radius, including reflectors and shields, was held to 1.78m. Preliminary safety analysis suggests that positive reactivity insertion resulting from a leak between the sodium primary loop and helium power conversion system can be mitigated using simple gas-liquid centripetal separation strategies in the plant’s primary loop.

  7. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  9. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  10. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  11. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  14. Size Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the immense size of Unity Junior High School in Cicero, Illinois and the opinions of various people regarding its size. The school has more than 2,700 students, seventeen acres, eighty-eight faculty lounges, and ninety-six security cameras. Administrators hope the school--"Cicero's crown jewel," as the school district's Web…

  15. Europa Sodium Cloud: orbital variability and Sodium recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, F.; Leblanc, F.; Witasse, O.

    2007-08-01

    Discovery and further observations of Europa's thin atmosphere of sodium have been carried out by M.E. Brown (Brown and Hill 1996, Brown 2001, Brown 2004) and A.E. Potter and co-workers (Leblanc et al, 2005). The resonant scattering emission of sodium around Europa has been successfully modelled and compared to the compilation of such observations by Leblanc at al 2002; Leblanc et al 2005). Such an analysis confirmed that the cloud morphology is dominated by the production of Na from the trailing hemisphere. The influence of Europa's centrifugal latitude as well as the contribution of Io's sodium source at Europa orbit were also estimated. These studies concluded that the observed sodium atmosphere should be largely endogenic to Europa. However, significant variations of the total emission intensity along Europa's orbit around Jupiter were reported that were difficult to explain without adhoc assumptions on the variability of the sodium ejecta rate with respect to Europa position in Jupiter magnetosphere. In the present study, we investigate the redistribution of the ejected sodium atoms on the surface of the moon during its orbit around Jupiter following the suggestion by Leblanc et al (2005). In our model, the redistribution of sodium atoms at Europa's surface occurs from a set of ejection and absorption of the sodium atoms. Ejection processes are sputtering induced by energetic jovian particles, as well as photo-stimulated and thermal desorptions from the surface. Absorption mainly depends on the surface temperature and porosity. We will present comparisons of the newly calculated sodium emission with the observations, as well as density distributions of sodium at Europa's surface. Consequences of those calculations on the sodium cloud morphology will also be discussed.

  16. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  17. Evidence for size and charge permselectivity of rat ascending colon. Effects of ricinoleate and bile salts on oxalic acid and neutral sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Kathpalia, S C; Favus, M J; Coe, F L

    1984-01-01

    We have measured unidirectional transmural fluxes of oxalate and neutral sugars across rat ascending colon in vitro, under short-circuit conditions, to characterize permeability barriers selective for size and charge. Ionic oxalate appears to be transported preferentially to sodium oxalate. Mucosal addition of taurocholate (1 mM), deoxycholate (1 mM), or ricinoleate (1 mM) increased bidirectional oxalate fluxes, and the ricinoleate effects were independent of medium calcium. Bidirectional fluxes of uncharged sugar molecules fell sharply at molecular weights above 76 (molecular radius above 3 A), and oxalate transport was retarded relative to that of uncharged molecules of similar size, suggesting that there is both size and charge permselectivity. Ricinoleate increased fluxes of all neutral molecules tested but changed neither the exclusion limits nor the cation selectivity of the epithelium. Bile salts and ricinoleate increase oxalate transport, probably by making more channels available, but do not alter size and charge selectivity. PMID:6432849

  18. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2836 - Size classifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Size Classifications § 51.2836 Size classifications. The size of onions... 13/4 44.5 3 76.2 Medium 2 50.8 31/4 82.6 Large or Jumbo 3 76.2 (2) Colossal 33/4 95.3 (2) 1...

  20. The Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlet, Roger

    Substantial progress in the field of the Local Interstellar Medium has been largely due to recent launches of space missions, mostly in the UV and X-ray domains, but also to ground-based observations, mainly in high resolution spectroscopy. However, a clear gap seems to remain between the wealth of new data and the theoretical understanding. This paper gives an overview of some observational aspects, with no attempt of completeness or doing justice to all the people involved in the field. As progress rarely evolves in straight paths, we can expect that our present picture of the solar system surroundings is not definitive.

  1. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  2. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  3. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food...

  7. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  11. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  17. Montmorillonite-Alginate Composites as a Drug delivery System: Intercalation and In vitro Release of Diclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Kevadiya, B. D.; Patel, H. A.; Joshi, G. V.; Abdi, S. H. R.; Bajaj, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium and alginate was intercalated into montmorillonite to form uniform sized beads by gelation method. The structure and surface morphology of the synthesized composite beads were characterized by powdered X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Diclofenac release kinetics of the composite in simulated intestinal fluid medium (pH 7.4) and effect of montmorillonite content on the in vitro release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites bead was investigated by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. Diclofenac encapsulation efficiency in the montmorillonite-alginate composites bead increases with an increase in the montmorillonite content. The control release of diclofenac from diclofenac-montmorillonite-alginate composites beads was observed to be better as compared to diclofenac-alginate beads. PMID:21969745

  18. Thermodynamics of Micellization of n-Alkyl Sulfates in an Alkaline Medium at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ruso; Taboada; Mosquera; Sarmiento

    1999-06-15

    Critical micelle concentrations (cmc) have been calculated from conductivity measurements at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for sodium n-decyl sulfate (SDES), sodium n-undecyl sulfate (SUNDS), and sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a medium of pH 10.0 and ionic strength 0.0312. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization, standard Gibbs energies (), standard enthalpies (), and standard entropies (), have been obtained by application of the model of Evans and Ninham in terms of hydrophobic and surface contributions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Medium optimization for enhanced co-production of two bioactive metabolites in the same fermentation by a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Song, Yong-Chun; Xu, Hao; Guo, Ye; Li, Jing; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes improved optimization method that combines the one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), Plackett-Burman design, and the response surface method (RSM), which were used to optimize the medium for the production of fumigaclavine C (FC) and helvolic acid (HA) from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 simultaneously. The ideal carbon and nitrogen sources for the two compounds were assessed initially via the one-factor-at-a-time method. Three key cultivation factors (pH, phosphate, and inoculum size) were chosen based on the results of Plackett-Burman design, and subsequently optimized by the central composite design. The two metabolites were amply afforded when the cultivation was carried out with the inoculum size of 2.45% at pH 4.2 and 28°C for 19 days in the medium containing (g/l): mannitol 50, sodium succinate 5.4, NaNO₃ 2, MgSO₄·7H₂O 0.3, FeSO₄·7H₂O 0.01, and KH₂PO₄ 0.67. The highest yields of FC and HA achieved herein were 17.26 and 16.88 mg/l. This work might be the first endeavor leading to the improved simultaneous production of two complex active metabolites with a single strain. PMID:22115035

  20. Medium optimization for enhanced co-production of two bioactive metabolites in the same fermentation by a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Song, Yong-Chun; Xu, Hao; Guo, Ye; Li, Jing; Tan, Ren-Xiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes improved optimization method that combines the one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), Plackett-Burman design, and the response surface method (RSM), which were used to optimize the medium for the production of fumigaclavine C (FC) and helvolic acid (HA) from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 simultaneously. The ideal carbon and nitrogen sources for the two compounds were assessed initially via the one-factor-at-a-time method. Three key cultivation factors (pH, phosphate, and inoculum size) were chosen based on the results of Plackett-Burman design, and subsequently optimized by the central composite design. The two metabolites were amply afforded when the cultivation was carried out with the inoculum size of 2.45% at pH 4.2 and 28°C for 19 days in the medium containing (g/l): mannitol 50, sodium succinate 5.4, NaNO₃ 2, MgSO₄·7H₂O 0.3, FeSO₄·7H₂O 0.01, and KH₂PO₄ 0.67. The highest yields of FC and HA achieved herein were 17.26 and 16.88 mg/l. This work might be the first endeavor leading to the improved simultaneous production of two complex active metabolites with a single strain.

  1. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  2. 9 CFR 317.361 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... labeled serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  3. 9 CFR 381.461 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serving size; (ii) The product contains no ingredient that is sodium chloride or is generally understood... refers to sodium chloride. However, references to salt content such as “unsalted,” “no salt,” “no salt... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for the...

  4. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  5. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  6. [Transient UV absorption spectra of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Jun; Ping, Li; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Xue, Jun-Peng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-03-01

    UV absorption spectrum of artemisinin and transient absorption spectra of various concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide were measured by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The exposure time of each spectrum was 0.1 ms. Results indicate that artemisinin has an obvious UV absorption band centered at 212.52 nm and can react with sodium hydroxide easily. All absorption spectra of different concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide have the similar changes, but the moment at which the changes happened is different. After adding sodium hydroxide into artemisinin in ethanol solution, there was a new absorption band centered at 288 nm appearing firstly. As reaction went on, the intensity of another absorption band centered at 260 nm increased gradually. At the end of the reaction, a continuous absorption band from 200 to 350 nm with the peak at 245 nm formed finally. No other transient absorption spectral data are available on the reaction of artemisinin with sodium hydroxide currently. The new spectral information obtained in this experiment provides very important experimental basis for understanding the properties of artemisinin reacting with alkaline medium and is useful for correctly using of artemisinin as a potential anticancer drug.

  7. Immunopharmacologic profile of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S I

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a pyranoquinolone, was specifically designed as an agent to suppress allergic inflammation. Nedocromil sodium significantly affects not only the early-phase of allergen-induced responses, but also expression of late-phase inflammation, even when administered after the onset of early-phase responses. Nedocromil sodium also limits bronchoconstriction induced by nonallergic factors, including cold air and sulfur dioxide at dosages lower than required with cromolyn sodium. Nedocromil sodium is more potent than cromolyn sodium in preventing mast cell degranulation in selective animal models. In addition, nedocromil sodium limits leukotriene C4 production by calcium ionophore-stimulated eosinophils and also limits the activity of platelet activating factor to induce neutrophil generation of superoxides. Diurnal variation of peak flow rates in asthmatics and requirement for both beta 2-agonists and inhaled beclomethasone have been noted to be reduced in several trials employing nedocromil sodium, suggesting that its in vivo activity parallels its in vitro activity as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Uptake and Distribution of Sodium and Potassium by Corn Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, Julie G.; Cheeseman, John M.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of sodium and potassium throughout corn (Zea mays L. [A632 × Crows 3640] × Oh 43) plants is not simply a matter of uptake by cortical cells and irreversible delivery to the xylem for upward transport. We show that sodium, but not potassium, accumulates in the mesocotyl of corn seedlings grown on NaCl medium. Upon transfer to NaCl-free medium, total sodium is reduced by export through the roots but remains at high levels within the mesocotyl. We report experiments which consider uptake from the xylem. Shoots excised at the seed were allowed to transpire solutions containing 22Na and 42K. Potassium uptake within the mesocotyl was very sensitive to concentration, increasing 27-fold between 1 and 10 millimolar. Sodium uptake was dependent upon the square root of the concentration suggesting active accumulation. At sodium concentrations below 1 millimolar, more than 80% of the sodium in the plant was retained in the mesocotyl. Both the uptake by and retention within the mesocotyl were dependent upon transpiration rate as well as concentration. We discuss the limitations of measuring uptake from a finite, depletable medium. The mesocotyl is a modified root with a cuticularized epidermis. We discuss the feasibility of using this `plastic-coated root' as a model for root transport studies. PMID:16663165

  9. [Characteristics and mechanism of sodium removal by the synergistic action of flue gas and waste solid].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-Rong; Han, Min-Fang

    2012-07-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) in flue gas was used to remove the sodium in the red mud (RM) , a kind of alkaline solid waste generated during alumina production. The reaction characteristics and mechanism of sodium removal by the synergistic action of CO2 and RM were studied with different medium pH, reaction time and temperature. It was demonstrated that the remove of sodium by RM was actually the result of the synergistic action of sodium-based solid waste in RM with the CO2-H2O and OH(-)-CO2 systems. The sodium removal efficiency was correlated with pH, reaction temperature and time. The characteristics of RM before and after sodium removal were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results showed that the alkaline materials in the red mud reacted with CO2 and the sodium content in solid phases decreased significantly after reaction. The sodium removal efficiency could reach up to 70% with scientific procedure. The results of this research will offer an efficient way for low-cost sodium removal.

  10. Broth medium for enrichment of Vibrio fluvialis from the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, M; Roberts, N C; Bradford, H B; Seidler, R J

    1983-01-01

    A medium was designed for the enrichment and enumeration of Vibrio fluvialis from environmental samples. The medium contains 1% peptone plus 4% sodium chloride and 5 micrograms of novobiocin per ml, pH 8.5. This V. fluvialis enrichment medium (FEM) was tested, in comparison with alkaline peptone (AP), in field samplings. A total of 177 samples (estuarine waters and sediment, sewage, and crabs) collected over a 14-month period were examined with FEM and with AP broth. Results showed that FEM was more effective than AP in detecting V. fluvialis, particularly from water and sewage samples with low salinities (less than 6%). The best recovery of V. fluvialis occurred when both enrichment media were used simultaneously. PMID:6625569

  11. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  12. Nutrient agar with sodium chloride supplementation for presumptive detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Chida, Toshio; Sano, Kazumitsu; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Okamura, Noboru

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that Nissui nutrient agar (N medium) promoted the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but not commensal Neisseria spp. In the present study, we examined which constituent of N medium was responsible for the selective growth of M. catarrhalis using 209 M. catarrhalis and 100 commensal Neisseria spp. clinical strains. We found that peptone, but not meat extract or agar of N medium, had growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting ability with respect to M. catarrhalis and commensal Neisseria spp. Thus, we investigated the amino acid content of N peptone and found it had higher concentrations of amino acids than other commercial peptone products. On varying the sodium chloride concentration of reconstituted N medium, we noted that the concentration was an important factor in bacterial growth differences. Varying the sodium chloride concentration of other commercial nutrient agars achieved similar results to those for N medium. This is, to our knowledge, the first study observing that sodium chloride concentration is responsible for difference in growth between the two organisms. We also successfully isolated colonies of M. catarrhalis from respiratory specimens on N medium, whereas the growth of commensal Neisseria spp. was inhibited, and by adding bovine hematin and β-NAD we were able to isolate Haemophilus influenzae colonies as efficiently as with a chocolate agar. In conclusion, nutrient agar can be used as a medium for the preferential isolation of M. catarrhalis from upper respiratory tract specimens.

  13. The turbulent interstellar medium and pressure-bounded molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The existence of turbulence throughout the interstellar medium suggests that an appropriate value for the average pressure may be P/K larger than about 10,000. Negative-index polytropic models of interstellar clouds in equilibrium with an external medium at these pressures are predicted to have sizes, line widths, masses, and size-line width and size-density relations in good agreement with those observed and inferred for dark clouds. Thus these observed features of interstellar clouds do not require that they be completely self-gravitating or 'virialized' in the commonly used sense.

  14. Slow convergence to effective medium in finite discrete metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapine, M.; McPhedran, R. C.; Poulton, C. G.

    2016-06-01

    It is known that metamaterial properties may differ significantly from the predictions of effective-medium theory. In many cases this is due to the finite size and discrete structure, which cannot be neglected in practical samples with a relatively small amount of elements. We analyze the response of finite discrete metamaterial objects of a spherical shape and demonstrate the role of boundary effects in these structures, pointing out an interplay between the size of the structure and the dissipation. We conclude that the discrepancy between the actual resonance frequency of a sphere and the effective-medium prediction is inversely proportional to the size of the sphere.

  15. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  16. Potential Energy Surfaces and Charge Transfer of PAH-Sodium-PAH Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hjertenaes, Eirik; Andersson, Stefan; Koch, Henrik

    2016-09-19

    To further understanding of the role of sodium in carbon cathode degradation in Hall-Héroult cells, potential-energy surfaces and charge-transfer curves are presented for finite-size complexes of sodium intercalated between various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Calculations for lithium and potassium are included to highlight the disparate intercalation behaviour of the alkali metals in graphite intercalation compounds. Static energy barriers from DFT are used to compute macroscopic diffusion coefficients according to transition-state theory. Comparing the calculated diffusion coefficient to experimental values from the literature sheds light on the role of lattice diffusion of sodium-graphite intercalation compounds in sodium intrusion in graphitic carbon cathodes.

  17. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer. PMID:16919325

  18. Synthesis and characterization of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, V.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B. K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    In Sodium cooled Fast breeder Reactors (SFRs), accidental leakage of liquid sodium leads to sodium fire. Carbon microsphere is a promising and novel extinguishant for sodium fire since it possesses high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and excellent flow characteristics. Low density Carbon microsphere (CMS) with high thermal stability was successfully synthesized from functionalized styrene divinyl benzene copolymer by carbonization under inert atmosphere. Protocol for stepwise carbonization was developed by optimizing heating rate and time of heating. The synthesized CMS was characterized by Densimeter, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transfer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and RAMAN spectroscopy. CMS thus obtained was spherical in shape having diameters ranging between 60 to 80μm with narrow size distribution. The smooth surface of CMS ensures its free flow characteristics. The yield of carbonization process was about 38%. The performance of CMS was tested on small scale sodium. This paper describes the development of carbon microsphere for extinguishing sodium fire and its characteristics.

  19. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  20. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.