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Sample records for medium temperature application

  1. Design principle and calculations of a Scheffler fixed focus concentrator for medium temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O.; Scheffler, W.

    2010-08-15

    Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents a complete description about the design principle and construction details of an 8 m{sup 2} surface area Scheffler concentrator. The first part of the paper presents the mathematical calculations to design the reflector parabola curve and reflector elliptical frame with respect to equinox (solar declination = 0) by selecting a specific lateral part of a paraboloid. Crossbar equations and their ellipses, arc lengths and their radii are also calculated to form the required lateral section of the paraboloid. Thereafter, the seasonal parabola equations are calculated for two extreme positions of summer and winter in the northern hemisphere (standing reflectors). The slopes of the parabola equations for equinox (solar declination = 0), summer (solar declination = +23.5) and winter (solar declination = -23.5) for the Scheffler reflector (8 m{sup 2} surface area) are calculated to be 0.17, 0.28, and 0.13 respectively. The y-intercepts of the parabola equations for equinox, summer and winter are calculated as 0, 0.54, and -0.53 respectively. By comparing with the equinox parabola curve, the summer parabola is found to be smaller in size and uses the top part of the parabola curve while the winter parabola is bigger in size and uses the lower part of the parabola curve to give the fixed focus. For this purpose, the reflector assembly is composed of flexible crossbars and a frame to induce the required change of the parabola curves with the changing solar declination. The paper also presents the calculation procedure of seasonal parabola equations for standing reflectors in the southern hemisphere as well as for laying reflectors in the northern and southern hemispheres. Highly

  2. Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

    1996-07-12

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

  3. Kinetic studies of dry sorbents for medium temperature application. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Khang, Soon-Jai; Keener, T.C.; Wang, Zhenwei

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the fundamental nature of the sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F to 1200{degrees}F available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focus is on the fundamental mechanisms of sorbent-flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first three years of research. During the fourth year, the interference of carbonation reaction to sulfation reaction was studied as well as the concentration dependency of the sulfation reaction. The data to date showed that the carbonation did not interfere the sulfation reaction rate for reactions taking place less than 1 second. However, there was significant decrease in carbonation conversion when the sulfation reaction took place simultaneously. The levels of SO{sub 2} concentration had negligible effects on reaction rates when the concentration was maintained above 3000 ppM. An n-th order deactivation kinetic model was also developed during the fourth year to model the kinetics of various reactions. This model is particularly useful for the dry sorbent reactions, since the apparent rate constants rapidly decrease during the first 1 second of exposure to various gaseous reactants.

  4. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 °C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  5. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  6. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  7. Longitudinal temperature distribution in an end-pumped solid-state amplifier medium: application to a high average power diode pumped Yb:YAG thin disk amplifier.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Gilbert L; Yu, Haiwu

    2007-08-10

    We propose a simple analytical derivation making it possible to compute a one-dimensional temperature variation in an end-pumped solid-state laser. This derivation takes into account the pump intensity variation along the crystal, the doping concentration, and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We then compare this simulation with the one usually used, which does not take into account any of these dependences. The results show that, at room temperature, the two methods are in good agreement, but at a cryogenic temperature where the thermal conductivity varies fast with temperature, a large discrepancy is found, and the conventional computations underestimate both the average temperature and the longitudinal gradient.

  8. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  9. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  10. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics (a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant) and engineered safety features (core auxiliary cooling, relief valve, and steam generator dump systems).

  11. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medium plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  12. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medium plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  13. Conversion of medium and low temperature heat to power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Johann; Wendland, Martin; Lai, Ngoc Anh

    2013-04-01

    Presently most electricity is produced in power plants which use high temperature heat supplied by coal, oil, gas or nuclear fission and Clausius-Rankine cycles (CRC) with water as working fluid (WF). On the other hand, geo-, solar-, ocean-, and biogenic-heat have medium and low temperatures. At these temperatures, however, the use of other WF and/or other cycles can yield higher efficiencies than those of the water-CRC. For an assessment of the efficiency we model systems which include the heat transfer to and from the WF and the cycle. Optimization criterion is the exergy efficiency defined as the ratio of the net power output to the incoming exergy flow of the heat carrier. First, for a better understanding we discuss some thermodynamic properties of the WFs: 1) the critical point parameters, 2) the shape of the vapour- liquid coexistence curve in the temperature vs entropy (T,s)-diagram which may be either bell-shaped or overhanging [1,2], and 3) the shape of sub- and supercritical isobars for pure fluids and fluid mixtures. Second, we show that the problems of a CRC with water at lower temperatures are 1) the shape of the T,s-diagram and 2) the exergy loss during heat transfer to the WF. The first problem can be overcome by using an organic working fluid in the CRC which then is called organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second problem is reduced by supercritical organic Rankine cycles (sORC) [1,2], trilateral cycles (TLC) and the more general power-flash cycles (PFC) [2], and organic flash cycles (OFC) [3]. Next, selected results for systems with the above mentioned cycles will be presented. The heat carrier inlet temperatures THC range from 120°C to 350°C.The pure working fluids are water, refrigerants, alkanes, aromates and siloxanes and have to be selected to match with THC. It is found that TLC with water have the highest efficiencies but show very large volume flows at lower temperatures. Moreover, expansion machines for TLC and PFC are still under

  14. Room temperature molten salt as medium for lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. S.; Zhou, R. Q.

    Due to the wide electrochemical window and high ionic conductivity, the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MeEtImCl) room temperature molten salt (RTMS) was investigated as the medium for lithium battery in the present work. The addition of C 6H 5SO 2Cl to the RTMS was shown to improve its chemical stability and the reversibility of the lithium electrode because of the removal of Al 2Cl 7- from the melt. Electrochemical reaction which occurred at the LiCoO 2 was studied and the carbon current collector was found to interact with the melt. Out of the various carbon materials studied, graphite was found to be the best material. A LiAl/LiCoO 2 battery using RTMS as the electrolyte was assembled for battery test. Satisfactory results were obtained in preliminary cycling, showing a cell voltage of 3.45 V with better than 90% coulombic efficiency and a discharging capacity of 112 mA h/g LiCoO 2 at current density of 1 mA/cm 2.

  15. Transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium during fluid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Nilson, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium which is subjected to a constant-rate injection of an incompressible fluid from a wellbore. The formulation includes energy transfer by conduction and convection, and the Danckwerts boundary condition is applied at the finite-radius wellbore. At late times, the numerical solutions approach a self-similar form which can be described in terms of the incomplete Gamma function. In typical petroleum and geothermal applications, convergence to the asymptotic similarity solutions occurs on a time scale of roughly one hour. The results are generally applicable to a broad range of convection-diffusion phenomena which are best described in radial coordinates.

  16. Critical enhancement of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, T.; Roepke, G. ); Schmidt, M. )

    1994-07-01

    The in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section is calculated starting from the thermodynamic [ital T] matrix at finite temperatures. The corresponding Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved using a separable representation of the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential. The energy-dependent in-medium [ital N]-[ital N] cross section at a given density shows a strong temperature dependence. Especially at low temperatures and low total momenta, the in-medium cross section is strongly modified by in-medium effects. In particular, with decreasing temperature an enhancement near the Fermi energy is observed. This enhancement can be discussed as a precursor of the superfluid phase transition in nuclear matter.

  17. Medium temperature epoxy resin for immunocytochemistry: Quetol 651 with water.

    PubMed

    Abad, A R

    1992-02-01

    The addition of 1% water to the epoxy resin Quetol increased the labeling intensity of the sample. The significant decrease of the curing temperature of the epoxy resin may assist in preservation of antigens. Water may also reduce the cross-linkage of the resin allowing more antigen to be available to the antibodies. The modified Quetol resin is an option for use in immunocytochemistry studies.

  18. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  19. Energy cost based design optimization method for medium temperature CPC collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Pedro; Osório, Tiago; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    CPC collectors, approaching the ideal concentration limits established by non-imaging optics, can be designed to have such acceptance angles enabling fully stationary designs, useful for applications in the low temperature range (T < 100°C). Their use in the medium temperature range (100°C < T < 250°C) typically requires higher concentration factors in turn requiring seasonal tracking strategies. Considering the CPC design options in terms of effective concentration factor, truncation, concentrator height, mirror perimeter, seasonal tracking, trough spacing, etc., an energy cost function based design optimization method is presented in this article. Accounting for the impact of the design on its optical (optical efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, diffuse acceptance) and thermal performances (dependent on the concentration factor), the optimization function integrates design (e.g. mirror area, frame length, trough spacing/shading), concept (e.g. rotating/stationary components, materials) and operation (e.g. O&M, tilt shifts and tracking strategy) costs into a collector specific energy cost function, in €/(kWh.m2). The use of such function stands for a location and operating temperature dependent design optimization procedure, aiming at the lowest solar energy cost. Illustrating this approach, optimization results will be presented for a (tubular) evacuated absorber CPC design operating in Morocco.

  20. Formation of bubbly horizon in liquid-saturated porous medium by surface temperature oscillation.

    PubMed

    Goldobin, Denis S; Krauzin, Pavel V

    2015-12-01

    We study nonisothermal diffusion transport of a weakly soluble substance in a liquid-saturated porous medium in contact with a reservoir of this substance. The surface temperature of the porous medium half-space oscillates in time, which results in a decaying solubility wave propagating deep into the porous medium. In this system, zones of saturated solution and nondissolved phase coexist with ones of undersaturated solution. The effect is first considered for the case of annual oscillation of the surface temperature of water-saturated ground in contact with the atmosphere. We reveal the phenomenon of formation of a near-surface bubbly horizon due to temperature oscillation. An analytical theory of the phenomenon is developed. Further, the treatment is extended to the case of higher frequency oscillations and the case of weakly soluble solids and liquids.

  1. Raman spectroscopy to monitor the effects of temperature regime and medium composition on micro-organism growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Haroniková, A.; Ježek, J.; Bernatová, S.; Márová, I.; Breierová, E.; Šerý, M.; Šiler, M.; Zemánek, P.

    2016-12-01

    A biomass of yeast strains has been studied using Raman spectroscopy due to their potential applications in the field of biofuel generation, food industry and biotechnological applications. In order to utilize biomass for efficient industrial/biotechnological production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determined which in turn lead to high production of desired substances such as oil, carotenoids, and pigments in the selected cell line of yeast. Therefore, we focused on different cultivation conditions (the effects of temperature regime and medium composition) and their influence on microorganisms growth and metabolic changes.

  2. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C.B.; Rote, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. This report documents an experimental examination of commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 +- 0.003/sup 0/C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead- and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be +-4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for the purpose of thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  3. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C. B.; Rote, D. M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30 C range. Commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors were examined. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 + or - 0.003 C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30 C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be + or -4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  4. Biophotonic applications of eigenchannels in a scattering medium (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Youngwoon; Yoon, Changhyeong; Choi, Wonshik

    2016-03-01

    When waves travel through disordered media such as ground glass and skin tissues, they are scattered multiple times. Most of the incoming energy bounces back at the superficial layers and only a small fraction can penetrate deep inside. This has been a limiting factor for the working depth of various optical techniques. We present a systematic method to enhance wave penetration to the scattering media. Specifically, we measured the reflection matrix of a disordered medium with wide angular coverage for each orthogonal polarization states. From the reflection matrix, we identified reflection eigenchannels of the medium, and shaped the incident wave into the reflection eigenchannel with smallest eigenvalue, which we call anti-reflection mode. This makes reflectance reduced and wave penetration increased as a result of the energy conservation. We demonstrated transmission enhancement by more than a factor of 3 by the coupling of the incident waves to the anti-reflection modes. Based on the uneven distribution of eigenvalues of reflection eigenchannels, we further developed an iterative feedback control method for finding and coupling light to anti-reflection modes. Since this adaptive control method can keep up with sample perturbation, it promotes the applicability of exploiting reflection eigenchannels. Our approach of delivering light deep into the scattering media will contribute to enhancing the sensitivity of detecting objects hidden under scattering layers, which is universal problem ranging from geology to life science.

  5. Medium Range Ensembles Flood Forecasts for Community Level Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, S.; Kawasaki, A.; Babel, M. S.; AIT

    2013-05-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, there has been a major advancement in medium range and seasonal forecasting. These could provide a great opportunity to improve early warning systems and advisories for early action for strategic and long term planning. This could result in increasing emphasis on proactive rather than reactive management of adverse consequences of flood events. This can be also very helpful for the agricultural sector by providing a diversity of options to farmers (e.g. changing cropping pattern, planting timing, etc.). An experimental medium range (1-10 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Bangladesh which provides 51 set of discharge ensembles forecasts of one to ten days with significant persistence and high certainty. This could help communities (i.e. farmer) for gain/lost estimation as well as crop savings. This paper describe the application of ensembles probabilistic flood forecast at the community level for differential decision making focused on agriculture. The framework allows users to interactively specify the objectives and criteria that are germane to a particular situation, and obtain the management options that are possible, and the exogenous influences that should be taken into account before planning and decision making. risk and vulnerability assessment was conducted through community consultation. The forecast lead time requirement, users' needs, impact and management options for crops, livestock and fisheries sectors were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and questionnaire survey.

  6. Organic transistors making use of room temperature ionic liquids as gating medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Jonathan Javier Sayago

    The ability to couple ionic and electronic transport in organic transistors, based on pi conjugated organic materials for the transistor channel, can be particularly interesting to achieve low voltage transistor operation, i.e. below 1 V. The operation voltage in typical organic transistors based on conventional dielectrics (200 nm thick SiO2) is commonly higher than 10 V. Electrolyte-gated (EG) transistors, i.e. employing an electrolyte as the gating medium, permit current modulations of several orders of magnitude at relatively low gate voltages thanks to the exceptionally high capacitance at the electrolyte/transistor channel interface, in turn due to the low thickness (ca. 3 nm) of the electrical double layers forming at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface. Electrolytes based on room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are promising in EG transistor applications for their high electrochemical stability and good ionic conductivity. The main motivation behind this work is to achieve low voltage operation in organic transistors by making use of RTILs as gating medium. First we demonstrate the importance of the gate electrode material in the EG transistor performance. The use of high surface area carbon gate electrodes limits undesirable electrochemical processes and renders unnecessary the presence of a reference electrode to monitor the channel potential. This was demonstrated using activated carbon as gate electrode, the electronic conducting polymer MEH-PPV, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] channel material, and the ionic liquid [EMIM][TFSI] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), as gating medium. Using high surface area gate electrodes resulted in sub-1 V operation and charge carrier mobilities of (1.0 +/- 0.5) x 10-2 cm2V -1s-1. A challenge in the field of EG transistors is to decrease their response time, a consequence of the slow ion redistribution in the transistor channel upon application of electric

  7. Power port contrast medium flushing and trapping: impact of temperature, an in vitro experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Guiffant, Gérard; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Flaud, Patrice; Royon, Laurent; Marcy, Pierre Yves; Merckx, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The use of totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs) certified as “high pressure resistant” or “power port” has begun to spread worldwide as a safe procedure for power contrast injection. Owing to the thermo-rheological properties of the contrast media, the primary aim of this work is to present an in vitro experimental impact study concerning the impact of the temperature level on flushing efficiency after contrast medium injection. Moreover, we report experimental data that confirms the role of needle bevel orientation. The secondary aim is to answer the following questions: Is there significant device contrast medium trapping after contrast medium injection? Is saline flushing efficient? And, finally, is it safe to inject contrast medium through an indwelled port catheter? Results The experimental results show that in addition to hydrodynamics, temperature is a key parameter for the efficiency of device flushing after contrast medium injection. It appears that this is the case when the cavity is incompletely rinsed after three calibrated flushing volumes of 10 mL saline solution, even by using the Huber needle bevel opposite to the port exit. This leads to a potentially important trapped volume of contrast medium in the port, and consequently to the possibility of subsequent salt precipitates and long term trisubstituted benzene nuclei delivery that might impair the solute properties, which may be further injected via the power port later on. Conclusion We thus suggest, in TIVADS patients, the use of a temporary supplementary intravenous line rather than the port to perform contrast medium injections in daily radiology routine practice. PMID:24043959

  8. Auroral origin of medium scale gravity waves in neutral composition and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N. W.; Krankowsky, D.; Laemmerzahl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetic temperature and neutral composition data obtained from the Aeros B neutral atmosphere temperature experiment and the neutral and ion mass spectrometer show spatial structures characteristic of medium scale gravity waves with a wavelength in the range of several hundred kilometers. These waves are associated with auroral activity, and their spatial structure reflects the time history of the auroral electrojet. The medium scale gravity waves tend to propagate to mid-latitudes on the nightside. On the dayside their range is limited to high latitudes. Gravity waves are carriers of auroral energy to middle and low latitudes where they may cause irreversible changes in temperature via viscous dissipation. Since auroral activity occurs frequently, it is suggested that this energy reaches the mid-latitude region of the thermosphere much more frequently than is indicated by planetary magnetic indices.

  9. Analysis of shape of porous cooled medium for an imposed surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1973-01-01

    The surface of a porous cooled medium is to be maintained at a specified design temperature while being subjected to uniform heating by an external source. An analytical method is given for determining the shape of the medium surface that will satisfy these boundary conditions. The analysis accounts for temperature dependent variations of fluid density and viscosity and for temperature dependent matrix thermal conductivity. The energy equation is combined with Darcy's law in such a way that a potential can be defined that satisfies Laplace's equation. All of the heat-transfer and flow quantities are expressed in terms of this potential. The determination of the shape of the porous cooled region is thereby reduced to a free-boundary problem such as in inviscid free jet theory. Two illustrative examples are carried out: a porous leading edge with coolant supplied through a slot and a porous cooled duct with a rectangular outer boundary.

  10. D* and B* mesons in strange hadronic medium at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Rahul; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the effect of density and temperature of isospin symmetric strange medium on the shift in masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons using chiral SU(3) model and QCD sum rule approach. In the present investigation the values of quark and gluon condensates are calculated from the chiral SU(3) model and these condensatesare further used as input in the QCD Sum rule framework to calculate the in-medium masses and decay constants of vector D and B mesons. These in medium properties of vector D and B mesons may be helpful to understand the experimental observables of the experiments like CBM and PANDA under FAIR project at GSI, Germany. The results which are observed in present work are also compared with the previous predictions.

  11. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    PubMed

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.

  12. Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid in a Porous Medium with Ramped Wall Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown. PMID:24785147

  13. On the Prediction of α-Martensite Temperatures in Medium Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Daniel M.; Baker, Daniel S.; Van Aken, David C.

    2017-02-01

    A new composition-based method for calculating the α-martensite start temperature in medium manganese steel is presented and uses a regular solution model to accurately calculate the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation, Δ G_{Chem}^{γ to α } . In addition, a compositional relationship for the strain energy contribution during martensitic transformation was developed using measured Young's moduli (E) reported in literature and measured values for steels produced during this investigation. An empirical relationship was developed to calculate Young's modulus using alloy composition and was used where dilatometry literature did not report Young's moduli. A comparison of the Δ G_{Chem}^{γ to α } normalized by dividing by the product of Young's modulus, unconstrained lattice misfit squared (δ 2), and molar volume (Ω) with respect to the measured α-martensite start temperatures, M_{S}^{α } , produced a single linear relationship for 42 alloys exhibiting either lath or plate martensite. A temperature-dependent strain energy term was then formulated as Δ G_{str}^{γ to α } ( {{J}/{mol}} ) = EΩ δ2 (14.8 - 0.013T) , which opposed the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation. M_{S}^{α } was determined at a temperature where Δ G_{Chem}^{γ to α } + Δ G_{str}^{γ to α } = 0 . The proposed M_{S}^{α } model shows an extended temperature range of prediction from 170 K to 820 K (-103 °C to 547 °C). The model is then shown to corroborate alloy chemistries that exhibit two-stage athermal martensitic transformations and two-stage TRIP behavior in three previously reported medium manganese steels. In addition, the model can be used to predict the retained γ-austenite in twelve alloys, containing ɛ-martensite, using the difference between the calculated M_{S}^{ɛ} and M_{S}^{α }.

  14. Sensors for low temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for low temperature sensing which uses gas filled micro-size hollow glass spheres that are exposed in a confined observation area to a low temperature range (Kelvin) and observed microscopically to determine change of state, i.e., change from gaseous state of the contained gas to condensed state. By suitable indicia and classification of the spheres in the observation area, the temperature can be determined very accurately.

  15. Effects of temperature and medium composition on inhibitory activities of gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of temperature and medium composition on growth/aflatoxin inhibitory activities of gossypol, gossypolone and apogossypolone against Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were investigated. The compounds were tested in a Czapek agar medium at 25 C, 31 C and 37 C at a concentration of 100 µg ...

  16. Evaporation of Water Droplets in a High-Temperature Gaseous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysokomornaya, O. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical solution of the problem of heat and mass transfer in evaporation of a droplet of water moving in a stream of high-temperature (up to 1200 K) gases is done on the basis of a system of nonlinear nonstationary partial differential equations describing conductive and radiative heat transfer in the droplet, as well as composite heat transfer at the ″liquid-gas″ interface. The values of the water evaporation rate have been determined. It is shown that the dependence of the evaporation rate on the droplet surface temperature has a nonlinear character. Characteristic relationships between the convective and radiative heat fluxes on the droplet surface (the radiative flux substantially exceeds the convective one; on decrease in the difference between the gas and droplet surface temperatures the difference between the radiative and convective heat fluxes decreases), the lifetimes (total evaporation) of droplets, as well as of the temperature and concentration of steam and gases in the vicinity of droplets have been determined. The calculated characteristics of the water droplet evaporation under conditions of high temperatures of the gas medium differ considerably from those obtained within the framework of the "diffusional" model of evaporation. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation with the experimental data obtained with the use of high-velocity panoramic optical methods of visualization by ″tracing particles″ is carried out.

  17. On Modeling and Measuring the Temperature of the z ~ 5 Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Lyα) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z >~ 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Lyα forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Lyα forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z >~ 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ~ 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ~ 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

  18. Water activity and temperature effects on growth of Alternaria arborescens on tomato medium.

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2014-08-18

    Alternaria arborescens is the causal agent of tomato stem canker, a disease frequently responsible of substantial economic losses. A. arborescens can produce several mycotoxins, such as alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and tenuazonic acid and phytotoxins such as the AAL toxins. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.950, 0.975, 0.995) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the germination and radial growth rate of A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. Germination followed by growth was observed at all temperatures and aw levels analyzed. The shortest germination time (0.5 days) was observed at 0.995 aw, both at 25°C and at 30°C. The germination time increased with a reduction of aw and temperature. The highest growth rate was registered at 0.995 aw and 30°C (7.21 mm/day) while the lowest occurred at 0.950 aw and 6°C (0.52 mm/day), conditions at which the longest lag phase was observed (8 days). Growth rates increased with aw and temperature. Knowledge of the ecophysiology of the fungus in this substrate is necessary to formulate future strategies to prevent its development and evaluate the consumer health risk posed by potential exposure to the toxins.

  19. Fractography of the high temperature hydrogen attack of a medium carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melson, H. G.; Moorhead, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Microscopic fracture processes were studied which are associated with hydrogen attack of a medium carbon steel in a well-controlled, high-temperature, high-purity hydrogen environment. Exposure to a hydrogen pressure and temperature of 3.5 MN/m2 and 575 C was found to degrade room temperature tensile properties with increasing exposure time. After 408 hr, yield and ultimate strengths were reduced by more than 40 percent and elongation was reduced to less than 2 percent. Initial fissure formation was found to be associated with manganese rich particles, most probably manganese oxide, aligned in the microstructure during the rolling operation. Fissure growth was found to be associated with a reduction in carbide content of the microstructure and was inhibited by the depletion of carbon. The interior surfaces of sectioned fissures or bubbles exhibit both primary and secondary cracking by intergranular separation. The grain surfaces were rough and rounded, suggesting a diffusion-associated separation process. Specimens that failed at room temperature after exposure to hydrogen were found to exhibit mixed mode fracture having varying amounts of intergranular separation, dimple formation, and cleavage, depending on exposure time.

  20. Bi-phasic growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chemically defined medium at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tyrovouzis, Nikolaos A; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Stoforos, Nikolaos G

    2014-09-01

    The present work reports a novel observation regarding the growth of L. monocytogenes in modified Welshimer's broth (MWB) at low temperatures. Specifically, the direct monitoring of the growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A using plate count data revealed that the pathogen displays a bi-phasic growth pattern in MWB at 7 °C. This bi-phasic growth pattern is masked (not observed) when optical density (OD) measurements are used to monitor growth due to the inability of OD readings to detect L. monocytogenes population density increases up to 10(7) CFU/mL. This bi-phasic growth phenomenon was further investigated as a function of growth temperature (4 °C, 7 °C, 10 °C, 14 °C and 18 °C), medium composition (by altering the MWB composition by ten-fold increases in different sets of medium constituents), inoculum level (10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/mL) and L. monocytogenes strain (10 strains). The growth of L. monocytogenes Scott A in MWB at 7 °C, 10 °C and 14 °C was consistently bi-phasic and independent of growth rate; at 18 °C, growth was consistently mono-phasic (single-phase, typical sigmoid growth curves), whereas no growth was observed at 4 °C. The tested modifications in the composition of MWB did not influence the bi-phasic nature of L. monocytogenes Scott A growth at 7 °C, and, overall, we could not point out any strain-, or serotype-specific effects. On the other hand, the initial inoculum level appears to affect the form of the growth curve, as there was a shift towards mono-phasic growth in trials with increasing initial inocula. A mathematical model, based on a stepwise response and described through two sequential sigmoid curves, was used to describe bi-phasic growth and estimate the kinetic parameters of L. monocytogenes growth. An alternative hypothesis, based on the assumption of the existence of two subpopulations, possessing different growth kinetics, materialized under the stress imposed on L. monocytogenes cells due to the

  1. Medium-temperature solid oxide fuel cells prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the deposition, structure, interfacial impedances, and characteristics of medium temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s) with thin-film electrolytes. Three main areas have been investigated. First, the structure, chemistry, and properties of materials designed specifically for medium temperature SOFC`s have been studied. The authors have developed techniques for sputter deposition of cubic 10 mol percent Y2O3-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and 30 mol percent Y2O3-doped bismuth oxide (YSB) thin film oxygen ion conductors. The electrical properties of the films were characterized using the complex impedance spectroscopy method. Studies of AgYSZ cermet and Ag-perovskite (perovskite = La(1-x)Sr(x)Co(Mn)O3), used as high conductivity, low overpotential air electrodes, have also been carried out. Second, interfacial impedances for various electrode-electrolyte combinations and for multilayer electrolytes have been studied. In particular, the authors have found that a layer of Y-stabilized Bi2O3 (YSB) as thin as 60 nm between the YSZ electrolyte and the electrode significantly reduces the interfacial resistance. For example, inserting YSB between YSZ and a Ag-YSZ electrode reduces the resistance from 1.5 to 0.45 Omega cm(exp 2) at 750 deg C in air. Ag-(La,Sr)CoO3 on YSB electrolytes had interfacial resistances as low as 0.3 Omega cm2, compared with 0.4 and 1.5 Omega cm(exp 2) for (La,Sr)CoO3 and Ag on YSB at 750 deg C, respectively. The Ag cermet materials thus exhibited lower interfacial resistances than their component materials. Third, thin film medium temperature SOFC`s have been fabricated and characterized. SOFC`s were deposited onto porous alumina supports. The resulting cell open-circuit voltages (OCV) were approximately equal to 0.8 V, 0.3 V less than expected, due to gas cross-over.

  2. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John

    1989-01-01

    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  3. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John

    1989-01-01

    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 K) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  4. Self lubricating composites for medium temperatures in space based on polyimide SINTIMID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merstallinger, A.; Bieringer, H.; Kubinger, E.; Gaillard, L.; Brenner, J.; Mozdzen, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper is surveying the results of an ESA-project on a polyimide composite named "SINTIMID". The main target was to find a self lubricating composite (SLC) which is suitable for missions to the inner solar system, where operating temperatures up to 300°C in vacuum are expected. The paper comprises a short introduction into the requirements derived from ECSS for SLC material intended for use in journal bearings working in space. It covers a brief description of new equipments for medium temperatures "vacuum tribometer" and "Journal Bearing Test rig". The presented results will cover mainly the friction and wear behaviour and component test performance. The influences of parameters like load, speed, atmosphere and temperature are discussed and compared to other already known materials, e.g. Vespel SP3. The verification procedure included three phases: a screening on several compositions with different fillers and combinations, a detailed friction test campaign on two best compositions (15M and 30M) and a final bush testing on only the best (15M=15w% MoS2). All material properties in relation to ECSS E30 were verified. No objections to the requirements were identified. Finally, a recommendation for design of bushes was set up on the results.

  5. Estimating Interstellar Medium Dust Temperature And Spectral Index In The Far-infrared And Submillimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziani, Marcella; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Piacentini, F.; Paladini, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dust temperature and spectral index are evidenced to be anti-correlated from observations in the far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths and from laboratory experiments. However, uncertainties in flux measurements combined with calibration errors and other source of systematic errors, affect the results of the spectral energy distribution (SED) fit. An inverse correlation between dust temperature and spectral index naturally arises from the spectral model assumed for the fit combined with data noise and systematic uncertainties. When the spectral coverage do not sample the whole SED but only a limited range of it, it is even more difficult to get reliable results on dust physical properties. We developed a method to fit the inverse relationship between the temperature and spectral index with Bayesian statistics taking properly into account both the statistics and the systematic errors. We simulate observations of one-component Interstellar Medium (15 K < T < 25 K), and of two-components sources both warm (HII regions) and cold (cold cores) in the Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectral bands (70-500 um). We also include some ancillary simulated data from Planck-HFI, IRAS and MIPS to better sample the SEDs.

  6. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przenzak, Estera; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30%) is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  7. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  8. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Cheng, Carina; Liu, Adrian; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E.; Kohn, Saul A.; Bernardi, Gianni; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Maree, Matthys; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; and others

    2015-08-10

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK{sup 2} can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z = 8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ≈5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ≈7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ≈10 K for neutral fractions between 30% and 70%. We also calculate the heating of the IGM that would be provided by the observed high redshift galaxy population, and find that for most models, these galaxies are sufficient to bring the IGM temperature above our lower limits. However, there are significant ranges of parameter space that could produce a signal ruled out by the PAPER measurements; models with a steep drop-off in the star formation rate density at high redshifts or with relatively low values for the X-ray to star formation rate efficiency of high redshift galaxies are generally disfavored. The PAPER measurements are consistent with (but do not constrain) a hydrogen spin temperature above the CMB temperature, a situation which we find to be generally predicted if galaxies fainter than the current detection limits of optical/NIR surveys are included in calculations of X-ray heating.

  9. Joining of ceramics for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilpas, Martti

    1987-01-01

    Summarized is a literature survey of the methods for joining ceramics to ceramics or ceramics to metals for high temperature applications. Also mechanical properties and potential applications of the joints are considered. The joining of ceramics is usually carried out by brazing or diffusion bonding. Especially the latter has been found useful, increasing the application of bonded ceramics. The possibility of using electron beam and laser beam welding for joining ceramics has also recently been investigated. The bonding of ceramics has found numerous applications typical for high operating temperatures, i.e., sensors and thermocouples.

  10. Is strategic asset management applicable to small and medium utilities?

    PubMed

    Alegre, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Urban water infrastructures provide essential services to modern societies and represent a major portion of the value of municipal physical assets. Managing these assets rationally is therefore fundamental for the sustainability of the services and to the economy of societies. "Asset Management" (AM) is a modern term for an old practice--assets have always been managed. In recent years, significant evolution occurred in terms of the AM formal approaches, of the monitoring and decision support tools and of the implementation success cases. However, most tools developed are too sophisticated and data seek for small utilities. The European R&D network COST Action C18 ( E-mail: www.costc18.org) identified key research problems related to the management of urban water infrastructures, currently not covered by on-going projects of the European Framework Program. The top 1 topic is "Efficient management of small community". This paper addresses challenges and opportunities for small and medium utilities with regard to infrastructure AM (IAM). To put this into context, the first sections discuss the need for IAM, highlight key recent developments, and present IAM drivers, as well as research and development gaps, priorities and products needed.

  11. Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.

    The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTS's to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTS's cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTS's are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTS's includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

  12. Supercritical Water Reactor Cycle for Medium Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    BD Middleton; J Buongiorno

    2007-04-25

    Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a direct-cycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. The electric power range of interest is 5-30 MWe with a design point of 20 MWe. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs satisfactorily over a broad range of operating conditions. The design constraints are as follows: Net cycle thermal efficiency {ge}20%; Steam turbine outlet quality {ge}90%; and Pumping power {le}2500 kW (at nominal conditions). Three basic cycle configurations were analyzed. Listed in order of increased plant complexity, they are: (1) Simple supercritical Rankine cycle; (2) All-supercritical Brayton cycle; and (3) Supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating. The sensitivity of these three configurations to various parameters, such as reactor exit temperature, reactor pressure, condenser pressure, etc., was assessed. The Thermoflex software package was used for this task. The results are as follows: (a) The simple supercritical Rankine cycle offers the greatest hardware simplification, but its high reactor temperature rise and reactor outlet temperature may pose serious problems from the viewpoint of thermal stresses, stability and materials in the core. (b) The all-supercritical Brayton cycle is not a contender, due to its poor thermal efficiency. (c) The supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating affords acceptable thermal efficiency with lower reactor temperature rise and outlet temperature. (d) The use of a moisture separator improves the performance of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and allows for a further reduction of the reactor outlet temperature, thus it was selected for the next step. Preliminary engineering design of the supercritical Rankine cycle with feedwater preheating and moisture separation was performed. All major components including the turbine, feedwater heater, feedwater pump, condenser, condenser pump

  13. Alloys developed for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basuki, Eddy Agus; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Muhammad, Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Alloys used for high temperatures applications require combinations of mechanical strength, microstructural stability and corrosion/oxidation resistance. Nickel base superalloys have been traditionally the prime materials utilized for hot section components of aircraft turbine engines. Nevertheless, due to their limited melting temperatures, alloys based on intermetallic compounds, such as TiAl base alloys, have emerged as high temperature materials and intensively developed with the main aim to replace nickel based superalloys. For applications in steam power plants operated at lower temperatures, ferritic high temperature alloys still attract high attention, and therefore, development of these alloys is in progress. This paper highlights the important metallurgical parameters of high temperature alloys and describes few efforts in the development of Fe-Ni-Al based alloys containing B2-(Fe,Ni)Al precipitates, oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic steels and titanium aluminide based alloys include important protection system of aluminide coatings.

  14. High temperature superconductor materials and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III.; Banks, Curtis; Golben, John

    1990-01-01

    Research on processing methods leading to a significant enhancement in the critical current densities (Jc) and the critical temperature (Tc) of high temperature superconducting in thin bulk and thin film forms. The fabrication of important devices for NASA unique applications (sensors) is investigated.

  15. Supporting data intensive applications with medium grained parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaltz, J.L.; French, J.C.; Grimshaw, A.S.; Son, S.H.

    1992-04-01

    ADAMS is an ambitious effort to provide new database access paradigms for the kinds of scientific applications that require massively parallel access to very large data sets in order to be effective. Many of the Grand Challenge Problems fall into this category, as well as those kinds of scientific research which depend on widely distributed shared sets of disparate data. The essence of the ADAMS approach is to view data purely in functional terms, rather than the more traditional structural view in which multiple data items are aggregated into records or tuples of flat files. Further, ADAMS has been implemented as an embedded interface so that scientists can develop applications in the host programming language of their choice, often Fortran, Pascal, or C, and still access shared data generated in other environments. The syntax and semantics of ADAMS is essentially complete. The functional nature of the ADAMS data interface paradigm simplifies its implementation in a distributed environment, e.g., the Mentat run-time system, because one must only distribute functional servers, not pieces of data structures. However, this only opens up the possibility of effective parallel database processing; to realize this potential far more work must be done in the areas of data dependence, intra-statement parallelism, parallel query optimization, and maintaining consistency and reliability in concurrent systems. Discovering how to make effective parallel data access an actually in real scientific applications is the point of this research.

  16. Layering from anticyclonic vortices in a rotating stratified medium with combined salinity and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommeria, Joel; Burin, Michael; Viboud, Samuel

    2015-11-01

    We generate anticyclonic vortices by a fluid source in a rotating and uniformly stratified medium, a laboratory model of long lived vortex lenses in the ocean. Experiments are performed in the large `Coriolis' rotating platform at Grenoble, 13 m in diameter, providing previously unaccessible turbulent regimes. The other novelty is to combine temperature and salinity effects, like in `meddies', vortices formed by intrusion in the Atlantic ocean of warm and salty water from the Mediterranean Sea. For both heated an unheated cases, we observe shear driven instability at the vortex periphery, leading to the emission of material filament from a large-scale m=2 instability. Heated vortices behave much the same way but with two key additions. One, prominent at early times, is that the vortex edge appears serrated around most of its circumference in the upper part of the lens. Two, clearer for later times, a staircase density profile develops above the eddy. We explain this small scale turbulence as thermal convection in the statically unstable density profile resulting from selective vertical diffusion of temperature (while salinity is less diffusive). The resulting turbulent mixing generates horizontal intrusions at the upper part of the vortex, unlike the double-diffusive instability. This work has been funded by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), project `OLA'.

  17. Calculation of pressure and temperature in medium-voltage electrical installations due to fault arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, J.; Gockenbach, E.

    2008-05-01

    In order to determine the pressure rise due to arc faults in electrical installations, the portion of energy heating the surrounding gas of fault arcs has to be known. The ratio of the portion of energy to the electric energy, the thermal transfer coefficient, is adopted as the kp factor. This paper presents a theoretical approach for the determination of the thermal transfer coefficient and the pressure rise in electrical installations. It is based on the fundamental hydro- and thermodynamic conservation equations and the equation of gas state taking into account melting and evaporation of metals as well as chemical reactions with the surrounding gas. In order to consider the dependence of the arc energy on the gas density, the radiative effect of fault arcs on the energy balance is introduced into the arc model by using the net emission coefficient as a function of gas density, arc temperature and arc radius. The results for a test container show that factors such as the kinds of insulating gases and of electrode materials, the size of test vessels and the gas density considerably influence the thermal transfer coefficient and thus the pressure rise. Furthermore, it is demonstrated, for an example of the arc fault in a compact medium-voltage station with pressure relief openings and a pressure relief channel, that the arc energy and the arc temperature can be simulated based on the changing gas density.

  18. Space applications of high temperature superconductivity technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Aron, P. R.; Leonard, R. F.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the present status of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) technology and related areas of potential space application. Attention is given to areas of application that include microwave communications, cryogenic systems, remote sensing, and space propulsion and power. Consideration is given to HTS phase shifters, miniaturization of microwave filters, far-IR bolometers, and magnetic refrigeration using flux compression.

  19. Industrial Applications of Low Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J N

    2001-03-15

    The use of low temperature plasmas in industry is illustrated by the discussion of four applications, to lighting, displays, semiconductor manufacturing and pollution control. The type of plasma required for each application is described and typical materials are identified. The need to understand radical formation, ionization and metastable excitation within the discharge and the importance of surface reactions are stressed.

  20. A CHANDRA STUDY OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM IN 50 GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhenghao; Xu, Haiguang; Li, Weitian; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Chenhao; Liu, Chengze; Wang, Jingying; Gu, Junhua; Wu, Xiang-Ping; Gu, Liyi; An, Tao; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Jie E-mail: hgxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-10

    To investigate the spatial distribution of the intracluster medium temperature in galaxy clusters in a quantitative way and probe the physics behind it, we analyze the X-ray spectra from a sample of 50 clusters that were observed with the Chandra ACIS instrument over the past 15 years and measure the radial temperature profiles out to 0.45r{sub 500}. We construct a physical model that takes into consideration the effects of gravitational heating, thermal history (such as radiative cooling, active galactic nucleus feedback, and thermal conduction), and work done via gas compression, and use it to fit the observed temperature profiles by running Bayesian regressions. The results show that in all cases our model provides an acceptable fit at the 68% confidence level. For further validation, we select nine clusters that have been observed with both Chandra (out to ≳0.3r{sub 500}) and Suzaku (out to ≳1.5r{sub 500}) and fit their Chandra spectra with our model. We then compare the extrapolation of the best fits with the Suzaku measurements and find that the model profiles agree with the Suzaku results very well in seven clusters. In the remaining two clusters the difference between the model and the observation is possibly caused by local thermal substructures. Our study also implies that for most of the clusters the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium is safe out to at least 0.5r{sub 500} and the non-gravitational interactions between dark matter and its luminous counterparts is consistent with zero.

  1. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  2. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  3. Temperature and stress fields produced by ultrasound-induced cavitation in a viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancia, Lauren; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents can act as cavitation nuclei that mechanically damage surrounding tissue when they oscillate in diagnostic ultrasound. Encapsulated microbubbles have also been proposed as a means to improve the efficiency and efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound by increasing the rate of tissue heating. However, the thermal and mechanical effects of cavitation are difficult to distinguish from each other and to quantify experimentally as they often occur simultaneously. To address this challenge, we study the cavitation-induced temperature and stress fields produced by a spherical bubble oscillating in a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic medium with nonlinear elasticity using a model that also accounts for energy transport inside and outside the bubble. We find that the primary contribution to heating is viscous dissipation, which itself depends on both the material (viscosity) and the bubble dynamics. We examine the rate of viscous heating and the magnitude of stresses over a relevant range of tissue properties and waveform parameters to determine regimes where heating is expected to be dominant. A means of estimating the expected significance of viscous dissipation from given tissue properties and waveform parameters is proposed.

  4. High temperature dissolution of chromium substituted nickel ferrite in nitrilotriacetic acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyaseelan, V. S.; Chandramohan, P.; Velmurugan, S.

    2016-12-01

    High temperature (HT) dissolution of chromium substituted nickel ferrite was carried out with relevance to the decontamination of nuclear reactors by way of chemical dissolution of contaminated corrosion product oxides present on stainless steel coolant circuit surfaces. Chromium substituted nickel ferrites of composition, NiFe(2-x)CrxO4 (x ≤ 1), was synthetically prepared and characterized. HT dissolution of these oxides was carried out in nitrilotriacetic acid medium at 160 °C. Dissolution was remarkably increased at 160 °C when compared to at 85 °C in a reducing decontamination formulation. Complete dissolution could be achieved for the oxides with chromium content 0 and 0.2. Increasing the chromium content brought about a marked reduction in the dissolution rate. About 40 fold decrease in rate of dissolution was observed when chromium was increased from 0 to 1. The rate of dissolution was not very significantly reduced in the presence of N2H4. Dissolution of oxide was found to be stoichiometric.

  5. Strain sensing technology for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan

    1993-01-01

    This review discusses the status of strain sensing technology for high temperature applications. Technologies covered are those supported by NASA such as required for applications in hypersonic vehicles and engines, advanced subsonic engines, as well as material and structure development. The applications may be at temperatures of 540 C (1000 F) to temperatures in excess of 1400 C (2500 F). The most promising technologies at present are the resistance strain gage and remote sensing schemes. Resistance strain gages discussed include the BCL gage, the LaRC compensated gage, and the PdCr gage. Remote sensing schemes such as laser based speckle strain measurement, phase-shifling interferometry, and x-ray extensometry are discussed. Present status and limitations of these technologies are presented.

  6. Solar Selective Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Shumway, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    Solar selective coatings are envisioned for use on minisatellites, for applications where solar energy is to be used to power heat engines or to provide thermal energy for remote regions in the interior of the spacecraft. These coatings are designed to have the combined properties of high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance. The coatings must be durable at elevated temperatures. For thermal bus applications, the temperature during operation is likely to be near 100 C. For heat engine applications. the temperature is expected to be much greater. The objective of this work was to screen candidate solar selective coatings for their high temperature durability. Candidate solar selective coatings were composed of molecular mixtures of metal and dielectric, including: nickel and aluminum oxide, titanium and aluminum oxide, and platinum and aluminum oxide. To identify high temperature durability, the solar absorptance and infrared emittance of the candidate coatings were evaluated initially, and after heating to temperatures in the range of 400 C to 700 C. The titanium and aluminum oxide molecular mixture was found to be the most durable.

  7. High temperature superconductors for magnetic suspension applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Cooley, R. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.; Chu, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) hold the promise for applications in magnetic levitation bearings, vibration damping, and torque coupling. Traditional magnetic suspension systems require active feedback and vibration controls in which power consumption and low frequency vibration are among the major engineering concerns. HTS materials have been demonstrated to be an enabling approach towards such problems due to their flux trapping properties. In our laboratory at TCSUH, we have been conducting a series of experiments to explore various mechanical applications using HTS. We have constructed a 30 lb. model flywheel levitated by a hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB). We are also developing a levitated and vibration-dampled platform for high precision instrumentation. These applications would be ideal for space usages where ambient temperature is adequate for HTS to operate properly under greatly reduced cryogenic requirements. We will give a general overview of these potential applications and discuss the operating principles of the HTS devices we have developed.

  8. EXCITATION TEMPERATURE OF THE WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM AS A NEW PROBE OF THE Lyα RADIATION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Claire E.; Lindner, Robert R.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Pingel, Nickolas M.; Lawrence, Allen; Babler, Brian L.; Goss, W. M.; Jencson, Jacob; Heiles, Carl; Dickey, John; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    We use the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to conduct a high-sensitivity survey of neutral hydrogen (H I) absorption in the Milky Way. In combination with corresponding H I emission spectra obtained mostly with the Arecibo Observatory, we detect a widespread warm neutral medium component with excitation temperature 〈T{sub s}〉=7200{sub −1200}{sup +1800} K (68% confidence). This temperature lies above theoretical predictions based on collisional excitation alone, implying that Lyα scattering, the most probable additional source of excitation, is more important in the interstellar medium (ISM) than previously assumed. Our results demonstrate that H I absorption can be used to constrain the Lyα radiation field, a critical quantity for studying the energy balance in the ISM and intergalactic medium yet notoriously difficult to model because of its complicated radiative transfer, in and around galaxies nearby and at high redshift.

  9. WRF-simulated sensitivity to land surface schemes in short and medium ranges for a high-temperature event in East China: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xin-Min; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yang; Zheng, Yiqun; Zhou, Zugang; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chaohui; Liu, Huaqiang

    2015-09-01

    We designed simulations for the high-temperature event that occurred on 23 July 2003 in East China using a series of forecast lead times, from short-range to medium-range, and four land surface schemes (LSSs) (i.e., SLAB, NOAH, RUC, and PX) in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), Version 3. The sensitivities of short and medium-range simulations to the LSSs systematically varied with the lead times. In general, the model reproduced short-range, high-temperature distributions. The simulated weather was sensitive to the LSSs, and the LSS-induced sensitivity was higher in the medium range than in the short-range. Furthermore, the LSS performances were complex, i.e., the PX errors apparently increased in the medium range (longer than 6 days), RUC produced the maximum errors, and SLAB and NOAH had approximately equivalent errors that slightly increased. Additional sensitivity simulations revealed that the WRF modeling system assigns relatively low initial soil moisture for RUC and that soil moisture initialization plays an important role that is comparable to the LSS choice in the simulations. LSS-induced negative feedback between surface air temperature (SAT) and atmospheric circulation in the lower atmosphere was found in the medium range. These sensitivities were mainly caused by the LSS-induced differences in surface sensible heat flux and by errors associated with the lead times. Using the SAT equation, further diagnostic analyses revealed LSS deficiencies in simulating surface fluxes and physical processes that modify the SAT and indicated the main reasons for these deficiencies. These results have implications for model improvement and application.

  10. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Heinen, V. O.; Aron, P. R.; Lazar, J.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of all the applications that are part of the NASA program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of high temperature superconducting materials. The applications in three major areas are being pursued: sensors and cryogenic systems, space communications, and propulsion and power systems. This review places emphasis on space communications applications and the propulsion and power applications. It is concluded that the power and propulsion applications will eventually be limited by structural considerations rather than by the availability of suitable superconductors. A cursory examination of structural limitations implied by the virial theorem suggested that there is an upper limit to the size of high field magnetic systems that are feasible in space.

  11. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded,...

  12. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  13. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  14. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general...

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  16. Application of thermal model for pan evaporation to the hydrology of a defined medium, the sponge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H.; Artley, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is presented which estimates pan evaporation from the commonly observed values of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. These two variables are transformed to saturation vapor pressure equivalents which are used in a simple linear regression model. The model provides reasonably accurate estimates of pan evaporation rates over a large geographic area. The derived evaporation algorithm is combined with precipitation to obtain a simple moisture variable. A hypothetical medium with a capacity of 8 inches of water is initialized at 4 inches. The medium behaves like a sponge: it absorbs all incident precipitation, with runoff or drainage occurring only after it is saturated. Water is lost from this simple system through evaporation just as from a Class A pan, but at a rate proportional to its degree of saturation. The contents of the sponge is a moisture index calculated from only the maximum and minium temperatures and precipitation.

  17. Aluminum nanocomposites for elevated temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgonovo, C.; Apelian, D.; Makhlouf, M. M.

    2011-02-01

    Aluminum casting alloys conventionally used in the automotive and aerospace industries (i.e., Al-Zn-Mg, and Al-Cu-Mg systems) are able to achieve excellent tensile strength at room temperature. At high temperatures, such alloys lose dimensional stability and their mechanical properties rapidly degrade. Aluminum-based nanocomposites show the potential for enhanced performance at high temperatures. The manufacturing process, however, is difficult; a viable and effective method for large-scale applications has not been developed. In the current study, an innovative and cost-effective approach has been adopted to manufacture Al/AlN composites. A nitrogen-bearing gas is injected into the melt and AlN particles synthesize in-situ via chemical reaction. In a preliminary stage, a model able to predict the amount of reinforcement formed has been developed. AlN dispersoids have been succesfully synthesized in the matrix and the model has been experimentally validated.

  18. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications.

  19. Application of a medium-range global hydrologic probabilistic forecast scheme to the Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Nathalie; Pappenberger, Florian; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Buizza, Roberto; Schaake, John

    2011-08-15

    A 10-day globally applicable flood prediction scheme was evaluated using the Ohio River basin as a test site for the period 2003-2007. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model was initialized with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis temperatures and wind, and Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission Multi Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation up to the day of forecast. In forecast mode, the VIC model was then forced with a calibrated and statistically downscaled ECMWF ensemble prediction system (EPS) 10-day ensemble forecast. A parallel set up was used where ECMWF EPS forecasts were interpolated to the spatial scale of the hydrology model. Each set of forecasts was extended by 5 days using monthly mean climatological variables and zero precipitation in order to account for the effect of initial conditions. The 15-day spatially distributed ensemble runoff forecasts were then routed to four locations in the basin, each with different drainage areas. Surrogates for observed daily runoff and flow were provided by the reference run, specifically VIC simulation forced with ECMWF analysis fields and TMPA precipitation fields. The flood prediction scheme using the calibrated and downscaled ECMWF EPS forecasts was shown to be more accurate and reliable than interpolated forecasts for both daily distributed runoff forecasts and daily flow forecasts. Initial and antecedent conditions dominated the flow forecasts for lead times shorter than the time of concentration depending on the flow forecast amounts and the drainage area sizes. The flood prediction scheme had useful skill for the 10 following days at all sites.

  20. Aerospace Applications Of High Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.

    1988-05-01

    The existence of superconductors with TcOOK (which implies device operating temper-atures the order of Top ≍45K) opens up a variety of potential applications within the aerospace/defense industry. This is partly due to the existence of well developed cooler technologies to reach this temperature regime and partly due to the present operation of some specialized components at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, LWIR focal planes may operate at 10K with some of the signal processing electronics at an intermediate temperature of 40K. Addition of high Tc superconducting components in the latter system may be "free" in the sense of additional system complexity required. The established techniques for cooling in the 20K to 50K temperature regime are either open cycle, expendable material (stored gas with Joule-Thomson expansion, liquid cryogen or solid cryogen) or mechanical refrigerators (Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle or closed cycle Joule-Thomson). The high Tc materials may also contribute to the development of coolers through magnetically levitated bearings or providing the field for a stage of magnetic refrigeration. The discovery of materials with Tc, 90K has generated a veritable shopping list of applications. The superconductor properties which are of interest for applications are (1) zero resistance, (2) Meissner effect, (3) phase coherence and (4) existence of an energy gap. The zero resistance property is significant in the development of high field magnets requiring neglible power to maintain the field. In addition to the publicized applications to rail guns and electromagnetic launcher, we can think of space born magnets for charged particle shielding or whistler mode propagation through a plasma sheath. Conductor losses dominate attenuation and dispersion in microstrip transmission lines. While the surface impedance of a superconductor is non vanishing, significant improvements in signal transmission may be obtained. The Meissner effect may be utilized

  1. Evaporation of a water drop with a solid opaque inclusion moving through a high-temperature gaseous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, D. V.; Volkov, R. S.; Piskunov, M. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    The process of evaporation of an inhomogeneous (containing a graphite particle) water drop moving through a high-temperature (about 1100 K) gas medium has been experimentally studied using highspeed (no less than 105 fps) video recording tools, the PIV scanning optical method, and Tema Automotive software. The influences of the ratio of water and inclusion masses, shape of inclusion (by the example of cylindrical disk, cube, and parallelepiped), and its surface area on the integral characteristics of liquid evaporation when heterogeneous drops are passed through a channel (length 1 m, inner diameter 0.2 m) with high-temperature gases are established.

  2. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A. Anil; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Ming Fang

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and (2) to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices - obvious advantages versus practical difficulties - needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models - a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B) - shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance - conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant - will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T

  3. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  4. Comparison of synthetic medium and wastewater used as dilution medium to design scalable microbial anodes: Application to food waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Elise; Desmond, Elie; Erable, Benjamin; Bridier, Arnaud; Bouchez, Théodore; Bergel, Alain

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to replace synthetic medium by wastewater as a strategy to design low-cost scalable bioanodes. The addition of activated sludge was necessary to form primary bioanodes that were then used as the inoculum to form the secondary bioanodes. Bioanodes formed in synthetic medium with acetate 10mM provided current densities of 21.9±2.1A/m(2), while bioanodes formed in wastewater gave 10.3±0.1A/m(2). The difference was explained in terms of biofilm structure, electrochemical kinetics and redox charge content of the biofilms. In both media, current densities were straightforwardly correlated with the biofilm enrichment in Geobacteraceae but, inside this family, Geobacter sulfurreducens and an uncultured Geobacter sp. were dominant in the synthetic medium, while growth of another Geobacter sp. was favoured in wastewater. Finally, the primary/secondary procedure succeeded in designing bioanodes to treat food wastes by using wastewater as dilution medium, with current densities of 7±1.1A/m(2).

  5. High order mode beam waveguide for technological medium power millimeter wave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, C. del; Gonzalo, R.; Marin, M.; Sorolla, M.; Moebius, A.; Thumm, M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of medium power millimeter CW gyrotrons (10-30 kW and 30-100 GHz) has several potential applications in advanced materials processing. Since a stochastic field distribution in the applicator is desirable no pencil beam is necessary. Then the possibility to couple the circular symmetric gyrotron output to a higher order free space mode can be considered. Beam waveguides based on iterative reflection of such high order beams on properly disigned mirrors opens the possibility to increase the efficiency and to reduce costs of present compact transmission lines in gyrotron technological systems.

  6. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Josip Caja

    2009-12-31

    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  7. Clinical applications of targeted temperature management.

    PubMed

    Perman, Sarah M; Goyal, Munish; Neumar, Robert W; Topjian, Alexis A; Gaieski, David F

    2014-02-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) has been investigated experimentally and used clinically for over 100 years. The initial rationale for the clinical application of TTM, historically referred to as therapeutic hypothermia, was to decrease the metabolic rate, allowing the injured brain time to heal. Subsequent research demonstrated the temperature dependence of diverse cellular mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction, production of reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis. Consequently, modern use of TTM centers on neuroprotection following focal or global neurologic injury. Despite a solid basic science rationale for applying TTM in a variety of disease processes, including cardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, neonatal ischemic encephalopathy, sepsis-induced encephalopathy, and hepatic encephalopathy, human efficacy data are limited and vary greatly from disease to disease. Ten years ago, two landmark investigations yielded high-quality data supporting the application of TTM in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Additionally, TTM has been demonstrated to improve outcomes for neonatal patients with anoxic brain injury secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Trials are currently under way, or have yielded conflicting results in, examining the utility of TTM for the treatment of ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we place TTM in historic context, discuss the pathophysiologic rationale for its use, review the general concept of a TTM protocol for the management of brain injury, address some of the common side effects encountered when lowering human body temperature, and examine the data for its use in diverse disease conditions with in-depth examination of TTM for postarrest care and pediatric applications.

  8. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  9. Application of Medium and Seasonal Flood Forecasts for Agriculture Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhruddin, Shamsul; Ballio, Francesco; Menoni, Scira

    2015-04-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, major advancements have been made in medium range and seasonal flood forecasting. This progress provides a great opportunity to reduce agriculture damage and improve advisories for early action and planning for flood hazards. This approach can facilitate proactive rather than reactive management of the adverse consequences of floods. In the agricultural sector, for instance, farmers can take a diversity of options such as changing cropping patterns, applying fertilizer, irrigating and changing planting timing. An experimental medium range (1-10 day) and seasonal (20-25 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Thailand and Bangladesh. It provides 51 sets of discharge ensemble forecasts of 1-10 days with significant persistence and high certainty and qualitative outlooks for 20-25 days. This type of forecast could assist farmers and other stakeholders for differential preparedness activities. These ensembles probabilistic flood forecasts have been customized based on user-needs for community-level application focused on agriculture system. The vulnerabilities of agriculture system were calculated based on exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Indicators for risk and vulnerability assessment were conducted through community consultations. The forecast lead time requirement, user-needs, impacts and management options for crops were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and community surveys. This paper illustrates potential applications of such ensembles for probabilistic medium range and seasonal flood forecasts in a way that is not commonly practiced globally today.

  10. Temperature insensitive prediction of glucose concentration in turbid medium using multivariable calibration based on external parameter orthogonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tongshuai; Zhang, Ziyang; Sun, Cuiying; Guo, Chao; Sun, Di; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The measurement accuracy of non-invasive blood glucose concentration (BGC) sensing with near-infrared spectroscopy is easily affected by the temperature variation in tissue because it would induce an unacceptable spectrum variation and the consequent prediction deviation. We use a multivariable correction method based on external parameter orthogonalization (EPO) to calibrate the spectral data recorded at different temperature values to reduce the spectral variation. The tested medium is a kind of tissue phantom, the Intralipid aqueous solution. The calibration uses a projection matrix to get the orthogonal spectral space to the variable of external parameter, i.e. temperature, and then the useful spectral information relative to glucose concentration has been reserved. Even more, training the projection matrix can be separated to building the calibration matrix for the prediction of glucose concentration as it only uses the representative samples' data with temperature variation. The method presents a lower complexity than modeling a robust prediction matrix, which can be built from comprehensive spectral data involved the all variables both of BGC and temperature. In our test, the calibrated spectra with the same glucose concentration but different temperature values show a significantly improved repeatability. And then the glucose concentration prediction results show a lower root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) than that using the robust calibration model, which has considered the two variables. We also discuss the rationality of the representative samples chosen by EPO. This research may be referenced to the temperature calibration for in vivo BGC sensing.

  11. Generalized Thermoelastic Medium with Temperature-Dependent Properties for Different Theories under the Effect of Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Mohamed I. A.; Elmaklizi, Yassmin D.; Said, Samia M.

    2013-03-01

    The problem of the generalized thermoelastic medium for three different theories under the effect of a gravity field is investigated. The Lord-Shulman (L-S), Green-Lindsay (G-L), and classical-coupled (CD) theories are discussed. The modulus of the elasticity is given as a linear function of the reference temperature. The exact expressions for the displacement components, temperature, and stress components are obtained by using normal mode analysis. Numerical results for the field quantities are given in the physical domain and illustrated graphically in the absence and presence of gravity. A comparison also is made between the three theories for the results with and without a temperature dependence.

  12. 46 CFR 57.05-5 - Low temperature application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Low temperature application. 57.05-5 Section 57.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Performance Qualifications § 57.05-5 Low temperature application. For low temperature application, each...

  13. 46 CFR 57.05-5 - Low temperature application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Low temperature application. 57.05-5 Section 57.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Performance Qualifications § 57.05-5 Low temperature application. For low temperature application, each...

  14. 46 CFR 57.05-5 - Low temperature application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Low temperature application. 57.05-5 Section 57.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Performance Qualifications § 57.05-5 Low temperature application. For low temperature application, each...

  15. 46 CFR 57.05-5 - Low temperature application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Low temperature application. 57.05-5 Section 57.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Performance Qualifications § 57.05-5 Low temperature application. For low temperature application, each...

  16. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOEpatents

    Beller, L.S.

    1993-01-26

    A method and apparatus are described for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  17. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOEpatents

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  18. Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Y. Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Landera, Alexander; Kislov, Vadim V.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as key molecules in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest prototype—naphthalene (C10H8)—has remained an open question. Here, we show in a combined crossed beam and theoretical study that naphthalene can be formed in the gas phase via a barrierless and exoergic reaction between the phenyl radical (C6H5) and vinylacetylene (CH2 = CH-C ≡ CH) involving a van-der-Waals complex and submerged barrier in the entrance channel. Our finding challenges conventional wisdom that PAH-formation only occurs at high temperatures such as in combustion systems and implies that low temperature chemistry can initiate the synthesis of the very first PAH in the interstellar medium. In cold molecular clouds, barrierless phenyl-type radical reactions could propagate the vinylacetylene-mediated formation of PAHs leading to more complex structures like phenanthrene and anthracene at temperatures down to 10 K. PMID:22198769

  19. Influence of Temperature and Grain Size on Austenite Stability in Medium Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Li; Findley, Kip O.; Speer, John G.

    2017-02-01

    With an aim to elucidate the influence of temperature and grain size on austenite stability, a commercial cold-rolled 7Mn steel was annealed at 893 K (620 °C) for times varying between 3 minutes and 96 hours to develop different grain sizes. The austenite fraction after 3 minutes was 34.7 vol pct, and at longer times was around 40 pct. An elongated microstructure was retained after shorter annealing times while other conditions exhibited equiaxed ferrite and austenite grains. All conditions exhibit similar temperature dependence of mechanical properties. With increasing test temperature, the yield and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the uniform and total elongation increase, followed by an abrupt drop in strength and ductility at 393 K (120 °C). The Olson-Cohen model was applied to fit the transformed austenite fractions for strained tensile samples, measured by means of XRD. The fit results indicate that the parameters α and β decrease with increasing test temperature, consistent with increased austenite stability. The 7Mn steels exhibit a distinct temperature dependence of the work hardening rate. Optimized austenite stability provides continuous work hardening in the temperature range of 298 K to 353 K (25 °C to 80 °C). The yield and tensile strengths have a strong dependence on grain size, although grain size variations have less effect on uniform and total elongation.

  20. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. Temperature structure of the intracluster medium from smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and adaptive-mesh refinement simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rasia, Elena; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Avestruz, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Dolag, Klaus; Granato, Gian Luigi; Murante, Giuseppe; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Nelson, Kaylea

    2014-08-20

    Analyses of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters suggest that X-ray masses can be underestimated by 10%-30%. The largest bias originates from both violation of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) and an additional temperature bias caused by inhomogeneities in the X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM). To elucidate this large dispersion among theoretical predictions, we evaluate the degree of temperature structures in cluster sets simulated either with smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) or adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) codes. We find that the SPH simulations produce larger temperature variations connected to the persistence of both substructures and their stripped cold gas. This difference is more evident in nonradiative simulations, whereas it is reduced in the presence of radiative cooling. We also find that the temperature variation in radiative cluster simulations is generally in agreement with that observed in the central regions of clusters. Around R {sub 500} the temperature inhomogeneities of the SPH simulations can generate twice the typical HE mass bias of the AMR sample. We emphasize that a detailed understanding of the physical processes responsible for the complex thermal structure in ICM requires improved resolution and high-sensitivity observations in order to extend the analysis to higher temperature systems and larger cluster-centric radii.

  2. The magnetic flux linkage of a moving medium - A theorem and geophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hide, R.

    1981-12-01

    A survey is provided of recent theoretical work on the electrodynamics of a moving medium and its application to various geophysical problems, taking into account a theorem reported by Hide (1979). A definition of self-exciting dynamo action in a connected body of fluid is presented and the feasibility of an occurrence of dynamo action in a perfectly conducting fluid is investigated. Attention is given to the decay of axisymmetric magnetic fields, a conjecture regarding the topology of C lines in case of an occurrence of dynamo action, thermoelectric effects, and a method for finding the size of the core of a planet.

  3. Applicability of the Effective-Medium Approximation to Heterogeneous Aerosol Particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation (EMA) is based on the assumption that a heterogeneous particle can have a homogeneous counterpart possessing similar scattering and absorption properties. We analyze the numerical accuracy of the EMA by comparing superposition T-matrix computations for spherical aerosol particles filled with numerous randomly distributed small inclusions and Lorenz-Mie computations based on the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. We verify numerically that the EMA can indeed be realized for inclusion size parameters smaller than a threshold value. The threshold size parameter depends on the refractive-index contrast between the host and inclusion materials and quite often does not exceed several tenths, especially in calculations of the scattering matrix and the absorption cross section. As the inclusion size parameter approaches the threshold value, the scattering-matrix errors of the EMA start to grow with increasing the host size parameter and or the number of inclusions. We confirm, in particular, the existence of the effective-medium regime in the important case of dust aerosols with hematite or air-bubble inclusions, but then the large refractive-index contrast necessitates inclusion size parameters of the order of a few tenths. Irrespective of the highly restricted conditions of applicability of the EMA, our results provide further evidence that the effective-medium regime must be a direct corollary of the macroscopic Maxwell equations under specific assumptions.

  4. Applicability of the effective-medium approximation to heterogeneous aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-07-01

    The effective-medium approximation (EMA) is based on the assumption that a heterogeneous particle can have a homogeneous counterpart possessing similar scattering and absorption properties. We analyze the numerical accuracy of the EMA by comparing superposition T-matrix computations for spherical aerosol particles filled with numerous randomly distributed small inclusions and Lorenz-Mie computations based on the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. We verify numerically that the EMA can indeed be realized for inclusion size parameters smaller than a threshold value. The threshold size parameter depends on the refractive-index contrast between the host and inclusion materials and quite often does not exceed several tenths, especially in calculations of the scattering matrix and the absorption cross section. As the inclusion size parameter approaches the threshold value, the scattering-matrix errors of the EMA start to grow with increasing the host size parameter and/or the number of inclusions. We confirm, in particular, the existence of the effective-medium regime in the important case of dust aerosols with hematite or air-bubble inclusions, but then the large refractive-index contrast necessitates inclusion size parameters of the order of a few tenths. Irrespective of the highly restricted conditions of applicability of the EMA, our results provide further evidence that the effective-medium regime must be a direct corollary of the macroscopic Maxwell equations under specific assumptions.

  5. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  6. Magnetic refrigeration for low-temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The application of refrigeration at low temperatures ranging from production of liquid helium for medical imaging systems to cooling of infrared sensors on surveillance satellites is discussed. Cooling below about 15 K with regenerative refrigerators is difficult because of the decreasing thermal mass of the regenerator compared to that of the working material. In order to overcome this difficulty with helium gas as the working material, a heat exchanger plus a Joule-Thomson or other exponder is used. Regenerative magnetic refrigerators with magnetic solids as the working material have the same regenerator problem as gas refrigerators. This problem provides motivation for the development of nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators that span approximately 1 K to approximately 0 K. Particular emphasis is placed on high reliability and high efficiency. Calculations indicate considerable promise in this area. The principles, the potential, the problems, and the progress towards development of successful 4 to 20 K magnetic refrigerators are discussed.

  7. Behavior of a hammerhead ribozyme in aqueous solution at medium to high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Murr, Nizar; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Rihova, Martina; Vergne, Jacques; Hervé, Guy; Kato, Mikio; Kawamura, Kunio

    2012-09-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis proposes that—early in the evolution of life—RNA molecules played important roles both in information storage and in enzymatic functions. However, this hypothesis seems to be inconsistent with the concept that life may have emerged under hydrothermal conditions since RNA molecules are considered to be labile under such extreme conditions. Presently, the possibility that the last common ancestor of the present organisms was a hyperthermophilic organism which is important to support the hypothesis of the hydrothermal origin of life has been subject of strong discussions. Consequently, it is of importance to study the behavior of RNA molecules under hydrothermal conditions from the viewpoints of stability, catalytic functions, and storage of genetic information of RNA molecules and determination of the upper limit of temperature where life could have emerged. In the present work, self-cleavage of a natural hammerhead ribozyme was examined at temperatures 10-200 °C. Self-cleavage was investigated in the presence of Mg2+, which facilitates and accelerates this reaction. Self-cleavage of the hammerhead ribozyme was clearly observed at temperatures up to 60 °C, but at higher temperatures self-cleavage occurs together with hydrolysis and with increasing temperature hydrolysis becomes dominant. The influence of the amount of Mg2+ on the reaction rate was also investigated. In addition, we discovered that the reaction proceeds in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations (Na+ or K+), although very slowly. Furthermore, at high temperatures (above 60 °C), monovalent cations protect the ribozyme against degradation.

  8. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  9. Gentamicin-Based Medium for the Isolation of Group D Streptococci and Application of the Medium to Water Analysis †

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L. Scott; Hartman, Paul A.

    1978-01-01

    Gentamicin-thallous-carbonate (GTC) medium contained (per liter): 40.0 g of Trypticase soy agar, 5.0 g of KH2PO4, 2.0 g of NaHCO2, 1.0 g of glucose, 1.0 g of esculin, 0.5 g of thallous acetate (TA), 0.5 g of ferric citrate, 0.75 ml of Tween 80, and 2.5 mg of gentamicin sulfate. The NaHCO3 (20 ml of a 10% solution that had been heated to boiling) was added after sterilization of the basal medium. The spread plate technique was used to compare GTC agar with Pfizer selective enterococcus, TA, and KF agars by using sewage as well as bovine and swine fecal samples. Significantly greater numbers of group D streptococci were recovered on GTC agar than on Pfizer selective enterococcus or KF agars, within and over all samples. Higher counts also were obtained on GTC than on TA agar, but the differences were not statistically significant. The percentage of false positives was about the same for all four media. Samples of riverwater also were plated on GTC, TA, and KF agars, and significantly higher recoveries were obtained with GTC agar. GTC agar was superior to the other media examined primarily because of increased recoveries of Streptococcus bovis and S. equinus; other advantages of GTC agar were large colony size and short (24-h) incubation period. The percentage of false positives from riverwater was 13% for GTC agar and 0% for TA and KF agars; therefore, confirmation would be necessary when GTC agar is used with some types of environmental samples. PMID:416754

  10. A morphological-approach for two-phase porous medium-transport and optimum design applications in energy engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Travkin, V.S.; Gratton, L.; Catton, I.

    1994-12-31

    Design optimization procedures for transport in porous structures that can be used in different engineering fields are developed for applications ranging from heat and mass exchangers and reactors in mechanical engineering design to environmental engineering usage. Using second order turbulent models, equation sets are obtained for turbulent filtration and two-temperature or two-concentration diffusion in non-isotropic porous media and interphase exchange and micro-roughness. The basis for transforming the integral-differential transport equations into differential equations with probability density functions governing their coefficients and source terms is accomplished by prescribing the statistical structure of the capillary or globular porous medium morphology. Though several different closure models for the source terms for uniform, non-uniform, non-isotropic and specifically random non-isotropic highly porous layers have been successfully developed, quite different situations arise when attempting to describe processes occurring in irregular or random morphologies. Results, obtained with the help of exact closure modeling for canonical morphologies, open a new field of possibilities for searching for optimal designs of spatial heterogeneous transport structures. A way to find and govern momentum transport through a capillary nonintersecting medium by altering its morphometric characteristics is given as validation of the process.

  11. On the motion of a solid sphere through a viscous medium with a vertical temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, G.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Koukan, E.

    In this paper, we report experiments conducted on the temperature distribution around a solid sphere that settles slowly in a thermally stratified viscous fluid. The temperature field has been obtained using interferometry. In some cases thermochromic liquid crystal tracers have been used to simultaneously obtain the velocity and the temperature fields. We also describe a theoretical analysis of the problem and compare experimental and theoretical findings and discuss the results. we find that natural convection has a significant influence in determining the nature of the temperature field away from the sphere. Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Arbeit berichten wir über Experimente mit festen Kugeln, welche sich in einem thermisch geschichteten viskosen Fluid langsam nach unten bewegen. Das Temperaturfeld wurde mit Hilfe der Interferometrie bestimmt, in einigen Fällen auch mit thermochromen Flüssigkristall-Teilchen. Auch eine theoretische Analyse wird beschrieben. Experimentelle Resultate werden den theoretischen Daten gegenüber gestellt und die Ergebnisse diskutiert. Es zeigt sich, daß natürliche Konvektion einen erheblichen Einfluß bei der Bestimmung des Temperaturfeldcharakters außerhalb der Kugel hat.

  12. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture.

  13. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of corrosion control... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable...

  15. Influence of temperature, medium, and storage duration on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen, Laura; Wolffs, Petra F G; van Tiel, Frank H; Dukers, Nicole; Herngreen, Selma B; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2013-03-01

    We validated the use of stored samples for Chlamydia trachomatis research. C. trachomatis DNA was detected by real-time PCR in clinical (urine and self-taken vaginal swabs) and spiked samples using six different media, five different time points (up to 2 years), and four different temperature conditions. C. trachomatis was detected in all 423 samples, and no clinically relevant degradation impact was detected.

  16. Efficiency of a novel forensic room-temperature DNA storage medium.

    PubMed

    Frippiat, Christophe; Noel, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    The success of forensic genetics has led to considerable numbers of DNA samples that must be stored. Thus, the ability to preserve the integrity of forensic samples is essential. The possibility of retesting these samples after many years should be guaranteed. DNA storage typically requires the use of freezers. Recently, a new method that enables DNA to be stored at room temperature was developed. This technology is based on the principles of anhydrobiosis and thus permits room-temperature storage of DNA. This study evaluates the ability of this technology to preserve DNA samples mimicking true mixture casework samples for long periods of time. Mixed human DNA from 2 or 3 persons and at low concentrations was dried and stored for a period ranging from 6 months to 2 years in the presence of a desiccant. The quality of the stored DNA was evaluated based on quantitative peak height results from Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping and the number of observed alleles. Furthermore, we determined whether this matrix has a potential inhibitory or enhancing effect on the PCR genotyping reactions. In our previous work, we demonstrated the considerable potential of this new technology. The present study complements our previous work. Our results show that after 2 years of aging at room temperature, there is a decrease in the number of observed alleles and in the peak height of these alleles.

  17. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic evidences of curcumin in aqueous medium: a mechanistic study of its solubility and stability.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Ramya; Abraham, Priya Mary; Poddar, Pankaj

    2012-12-20

    In curcumin, keto-enol-enolate equilibrium of the heptadiene-dione moiety determines its physiochemical and antioxidant properties. However, its poor solubility in water at neutral pH and room temperature decreases its bioavailability. Potential therapeutic applications have triggered an interest in manipulating the solubility of curcumin in water as its stability and solubility in water remains poorly understood. Here, the mechanism behind its solubility at various temperatures and the influence of interplay of temperature, intramolecular H-bonding, and intermolecular forces is reported, which leads to aggregation-disaggregation at various temperatures. Remarkable change is observed in temperature-dependent electronic transition behavior of curcumin, however, the absorption spectra after cooling and heating cycles remain unchanged, hinting much better thermal stability of curcumin in water than previously thought. This study indicates that it is perhaps the breaking of intramolecular hydrogen bonding which leads to exposure of polar groups and hence responsible for the dissolution of curcumin at higher temperature. The formation of intermolecular aggregates might be responsible behind a better room temperature stability of the molecules after cooling its aqueous suspension from 90 to 25 °C. These curcumin solubility studies have great application in biological research with reference to bioavailability and to understand target oriented mode of action of curcumin.

  18. Fuzzy Logic Controller for Low Temperature Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Gonzalez, A.; Barmatz, M.

    1996-01-01

    The most common temperature controller used in low temperature experiments is the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller due to its simplicity and robustness. However, the performance of temperature regulation using the PID controller depends on initial parameter setup, which often requires operator's expert knowledge on the system. In this paper, we present a computer-assisted temperature controller based on the well known.

  19. Effect of Storage Temperature on Cultured Epidermal Cell Sheets Stored in Xenobiotic-Free Medium

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Catherine; Aabel, Peder; Eidet, Jon R.; Messelt, Edward B.; Lyberg, Torstein; von Unge, Magnus; Utheim, Tor P.

    2014-01-01

    Cultured epidermal cell sheets (CECS) are used in regenerative medicine in patients with burns, and have potential to treat limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), as demonstrated in animal models. Despite widespread use, short-term storage options for CECS are limited. Advantages of storage include: flexibility in scheduling surgery, reserve sheets for repeat operations, more opportunity for quality control, and improved transportation to allow wider distribution. Studies on storage of CECS have thus far focused on cryopreservation, whereas refrigeration is a convenient method commonly used for whole skin graft storage in burns clinics. It has been shown that preservation of viable cells using these methods is variable. This study evaluated the effect of different temperatures spanning 4°C to 37°C, on the cell viability, morphology, proliferation and metabolic status of CECS stored over a two week period in a xenobiotic–free system. Compared to non-stored control, best cell viability was obtained at 24°C (95.2±9.9%); reduced cell viability, at approximately 60%, was demonstrated at several of the temperatures (12°C, 28°C, 32°C and 37°C). Metabolic activity was significantly higher between 24°C and 37°C, where glucose, lactate, lactate/glucose ratios, and oxygen tension indicated increased activation of the glycolytic pathway under aerobic conditions. Preservation of morphology as shown by phase contrast and scanning electron micrographs was best at 12°C and 16°C. PCNA immunocytochemistry indicated that only 12°C and 20°C allowed maintenance of proliferative function at a similar level to non-stored control. In conclusion, results indicate that 12°C and 24°C merit further investigation as the prospective optimum temperature for short-term storage of cultured epidermal cell sheets. PMID:25170754

  20. LCOE reduction for parabolic trough CSP: Innovative solar receiver with improved performance at medium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollo, A.; Chiarappa, T.; D'Angelo, A.; Maccari, A.; Matino, F.

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) applications represent an effective possibility to gain energy from the Sun; however, the lasting CSP market crisis compels continuous improvements in terms of cost reduction and performance increase. Focused on parabolic trough technology, this paper describes the innovation studied and realized on solar receivers to gain optimized optical performance while increasing the production versatility, hence boosting the solar plant efficiency and finally reducing the estimated LCOE.

  1. An easy-to-use simulation program demonstrates variations in bacterial cell cycle parameters depending on medium and temperature.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Caroline; Flåtten, Ingvild; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Many studies are performed on chromosome replication and segregation in Escherichia coli and other bacteria capable of complex replication with C phases spanning several generations. For such investigations an understanding of the replication patterns, including copy numbers of origins and replication forks, is crucial for correct interpretation of the results.Flow cytometry is an important tool for generation of experimental DNA distributions of cell populations. Here, a Visual Basic based simulation program was written for the computation of theoretical DNA distributions for different choices of cell cycle parameters (C and D phase durations, doubling time etc). These cell cycle parameters can be iterated until the best fit between the experimental and theoretical DNA histograms is obtained. The Excel file containing the simulation software is attached as supporting information.Cultures of Escherichia coli were grown at twelve different media and temperature conditions, with following measurements by flow cytometry and simulation of the DNA distributions. A good fit was found for each growth condition by use of our simulation program. The resulting cell cycle parameters displayed clear inter-media differences in replication patterns, but indicated a high degree of temperature independence for each medium. The exception was the poorest medium (acetate), where the cells grew with overlapping replication cycles at 42 °C, but without at the lower temperatures.We have developed an easy-to-use tool for determination of bacteria's cell cycle parameters, and consequently the cells' chromosome configurations. The procedure only requires DNA distribution measurements by flow cytometry. Use of this simulation program for E. coli cultures shows that even cells growing quite slowly can have overlapping replication cycles. It is therefore always important not only to assume cells' replication patterns, but to actually determine the cell cycle parameters when changing growth

  2. Memory-dependent derivatives for photothermal semiconducting medium in generalized thermoelasticity with two-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, K.; Sarkar, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a novel generalized model of photothermal theory with two-temperature thermoelasticity theory based on memory-dependent derivative (MDD) theory is performed. A one-dimensional problem for an elastic semiconductor material with isotropic and homogeneous properties has been considered. The problem is solved with a new model (MDD) under the influence of a mechanical force with a photothermal excitation. The Laplace transform technique is used to remove the time-dependent terms in the governing equations. Moreover, the general solutions of some physical fields are obtained. The surface taken into consideration is free of traction and subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The numerical Laplace inversion is used to obtain the numerical results of the physical quantities of the problem. Finally, the obtained results are presented and discussed graphically.

  3. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  4. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    PubMed Central

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure. PMID:24958293

  5. Proton content and nature in perovskite ceramic membranes for medium temperature fuel cells and electrolysers.

    PubMed

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-07-25

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1-5 × 10-3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  6. Effect of medium dependent binding energies on inferring the temperatures and freeze-out density of disassembling hot nuclear matter from cluster yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomo, S.; Röpke, G.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Bonasera, A.

    2009-03-01

    We explore the abundance of light clusters in asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation density. With increasing density, binding energies and wave functions are modified due to medium effects. The method of Albergo, Costa, Costanzo, and Rubbino (ACCR) for determining the temperature and free nucleon density of a disassembling hot nuclear source from fragment yields is modified to include, in addition to Coulomb effects and flow, also effects of medium modifications of cluster properties, which become of importance when the nuclear matter density is above 10-3fm-3. We show how the analysis of cluster yields, to infer temperature and nucleon densities, is modified if the shifts in binding energies of in medium clusters are included. Although, at low densities, the temperature calculated from given yields changes only modestly if medium effects are taken into account, larger discrepancies are observed when the nucleon densities are determined from measured yields.

  7. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  8. NASA space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of attaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limits mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures (T sub c) above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Potential applications of high-temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers and remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  9. NASA Space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Connolly, Denis J.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of obtaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limit mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Here, potential applications of high temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers, remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of microstructure anisotropy on room and medium temperature ECAP deformed F138 steel

    SciTech Connect

    De Vincentis, N.S.; Kliauga, A.; Ferrante, M.; Avalos, M.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Bolmaro, R.E.

    2015-09-15

    The microstructure developed during severe plastic deformation results in improved mechanical properties because of the decrease in domain sizes and accumulation of defects, mainly dislocation arrays. The characteristic deformation stages observed in low stacking fault energy (SFE) face centered cubic (FCC) materials are highly influenced by the development of the primary and secondary twinning that compete with dislocation glide. In this paper, a low SFE F138 stainless steel is deformed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to 4 passes at room temperature (RT) and at 300 °C to compare the grain refinement and twin boundary development with increasing deformation. Tensile tests were performed to determine the deformation stages reached by the material before and after ECAP deformation, and the resulting microstructure was observed by TEM. X-ray diffraction and EBSD, average technique the first and local the second one, were used to quantify the microstructural changes, allowing the determination of diffraction domain sizes, dislocation and stacking fault densities and misorientation indices, which lead to a complete analysis of the deformation introduced in the material, with comparative correlations between various microstructural parameters. - Highlights: • The microstructure of ECAP pressed F138 steel was studied using TEM, EBSD and XRD. • Increasing deformation reduced domain sizes and increased dislocation densities. • Dislocation array compactness and misorientation increased with higher deformation. • Largest dislocation densities, mostly screw, match with simultaneous activation of twins. • Several correlations among microstructural features and parameters have been disclosed.

  11. Influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and temperature on hyperproduction of a thermotolerant beta-glucosidase from synthetic medium by Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Rajoka, M I; Khan, Samia; Latif, Farooq; Shahid, Riaz

    2004-05-01

    The effect of carbon source and its concentration, inoculum size, yeast extract concentration, nitrogen source, pH of the fermentation medium, and fermentation temperature on beta-glucosidase production by Kluyveromyces marxianus in shake-flask culture was investigated. These were the independent variables that directly regulated the specific growth and beta-glucosidase production rate. The highest product yield, specific product yield, and productivity of beta-glucosidase occurred in the medium (pH 5.5) inoculated with 10% (v/v) inoculum of the culture. Cellobiose (20 g/L) significantly improved beta-glucosidase production measured as product yield (YP/S) and volumetric productivity (QP) followed by sucrose, lactose, and xylose. The highest levels of productivity (144 IU/[L.h]) of beta-glucosidase occurred on cellobiose in the presence of CSL at 35 degrees C and are significantly higher than the values reported by other researchers on almost all other organisms. The thermodynamics and kinetics of beta-glucosidase production and its deactivation are also reported. The enzyme was substantially stable at 60 degrees C and may find application in some industrial processes.

  12. Elevated Temperature Enhances Short to Medium Chain Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Black Band Disease Associated Vibrios.

    PubMed

    Bhedi, Chinmayee D; Prevatte, Carson W; Lookadoo, Maggie S; Waikel, Patricia A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Campagna, Shawn R; Richardson, Laurie L

    2017-01-29

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a horizontally migrating, pathogenic, polymicrobial mat community which is active above a temperature threshold of 27.5°C on the reef. Bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of healthy corals, and SML of healthy areas of BBD infected corals were tested for production of short to medium chain acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) using the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter strain. Of 110 bacterial isolates tested, 19 produced AHLs and 15 of these were from BBD. Eight AHLs were identified using LC-MS/MS, with 3OHC4 the most commonly produced, followed by C6. AHL-producing isolates exposed to three temperatures (24°, 27°, 30°C) revealed that production of three AHLs (3OHC4, 3OHC5, and 3OHC6) significantly increased at 30°C when compared to 24°C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that all of the AHL producing BBD isolates were vibrios. Metagenomic data of BBD communities showed the presence of AHL (and autoinducer-2) genes, many of which are known to be associated with vibrios. These findings suggest that quorum sensing may be involved in BBD pathobiology and community structure due to enhanced production of quorum sensing signal molecules (AHLs) above the temperature threshold of this globally distributed coral disease.

  13. Rayleigh-Benard convection subject to time dependent wall temperature/gravity in a fluid-saturated anisotropic porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashetty, M. S.; Basavaraja, D.

    The effect of time-periodic temperature/gravity modulation at the onset of convection in a Boussinesq fluid-saturated anisotropic porous medium is investigated by making a linear stability analysis. Brinkman flow model with effective viscosity larger than the viscosity of the fluid is considered to give a more general theoretical result. The perturbation method is applied for computing the critical Rayleigh and wave numbers for small amplitude temperature/gravity modulation. The shift in the critical Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of frequency of the modulation, viscosity ratio, anisotropy parameter and porous parameter. We have shown that it is possible to advance or delay the onset of convection by time-periodic modulation of the wall temperature and to advance convection by gravity modulation. It is also shown that the small anisotropy parameter has a strong influence on the stability of the system. The effect of viscosity ratio, anisotropy parameter, the porous parameter and the Prandtl number is discussed.

  14. Bilateral Renal Fornix Rupture Following Intraarterial Contrast Medium Application for Infrarenal Aortic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Niggemann, Pascal Brehmer, Bernhard; Schuermann, Karl

    2006-02-15

    A 74-year-old male claudicant who had a significant abdominal aortic stenosis was hydrated before aortic stent placement because of an elevated creatinine level. During the intervention the patient experienced acute abdominal pain with vomiting. No vascular cause was detected. Due to persistant pain, plain radiography and an abdominal CT scan were performed a few hours after the procedure. Images revealed a bilateral renal fornix rupture with a large retroperitoneal fluid collection. The patient was treated conservatively with ureteral double-J placement and percutaneous nephrostomy. The further course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 2 weeks later free of symptoms. Renal fornix rupture is a very rare complication after contrast medium application that can be treated without surgery.

  15. High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1992-02-01

    Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

  16. High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-09

    Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

  17. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  18. Ligninolytic peroxidase gene expression by Pleurotus ostreatus: differential regulation in lignocellulose medium and effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Castanera, Raul; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; López-Lucendo, María F; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Martínez, Angel T

    2014-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an important edible mushroom and a model lignin degrading organism, whose genome contains nine genes of ligninolytic peroxidases, characteristic of white-rot fungi. These genes encode six manganese peroxidase (MnP) and three versatile peroxidase (VP) isoenzymes. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, secretion of four of these peroxidase isoenzymes (VP1, VP2, MnP2 and MnP6) was confirmed when P. ostreatus grows in a lignocellulose medium at 25°C (three more isoenzymes were identified by only one unique peptide). Then, the effect of environmental parameters on the expression of the above nine genes was studied by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR by changing the incubation temperature and medium pH of P. ostreatus cultures pre-grown under the above conditions (using specific primers and two reference genes for result normalization). The cultures maintained at 25°C (without pH adjustment) provided the highest levels of peroxidase transcripts and the highest total activity on Mn(2+) (a substrate of both MnP and VP) and Reactive Black 5 (a VP specific substrate). The global analysis of the expression patterns divides peroxidase genes into three main groups according to the level of expression at optimal conditions (vp1/mnp3>vp2/vp3/mnp1/mnp2/mnp6>mnp4/mnp5). Decreasing or increasing the incubation temperature (to 10°C or 37°C) and adjusting the culture pH to acidic or alkaline conditions (pH 3 and 8) generally led to downregulation of most of the peroxidase genes (and decrease of the enzymatic activity), as shown when the transcription levels were referred to those found in the cultures maintained at the initial conditions. Temperature modification produced less dramatic effects than pH modification, with most genes being downregulated during the whole 10°C treatment, while many of them were alternatively upregulated (often 6h after the thermal shock) and downregulated (12h) at 37°C. Interestingly, mnp4 and

  19. Ultrasonic Sensors for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittmann, Bernhard; Aslan, Mustafa

    1999-05-01

    Many processes take place under conditions other than ambient, and chief among these is high temperature. Examples of high temperature industrial processes are resin transfer molding, molten metal infiltration and rheocasting of composite metals alloys. The interaction of waves with viscous fluids is an additional complication adding to an already complicated problem of operating a sensor at high temperature for extended periods of time. This report attempts to provide an insight into the current state of the art of sensor techniques for in-situ high temperature monitoring.

  20. Method of dispensing droplets to penetration-resistive mediums. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, V.L.; Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1982-06-10

    Uniform, monosized microspheroids are produced in a gelation medium characterized by a high resistance to surface penetration by reducing the effect of impact on entry of the droplets into the medium by contacting the droplet with a stream of medium and by introducing the resulting stream into a gelation column.

  1. Exceptional damage-tolerance of a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Thurston, Keli V S; Bei, Hongbin; Wu, Zhenggang; George, Easo P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-02-02

    High-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties from being multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Here we examine an equiatomic medium-entropy alloy containing only three elements, CrCoNi, as a single-phase face-centred cubic solid solution, which displays strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys and most multi-phase alloys. At room temperature, the alloy shows tensile strengths of almost 1 GPa, failure strains of ∼70% and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200 MPa  m(1/2); at cryogenic temperatures strength, ductility and toughness of the CrCoNi alloy improve to strength levels above 1.3 GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275 MPa  m(1/2). Such properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning.

  2. Exceptional damage-tolerance of a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Thurston, Keli V. S.; Bei, Hongbin; Wu, Zhenggang; George, Easo P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-02-01

    High-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties from being multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Here we examine an equiatomic medium-entropy alloy containing only three elements, CrCoNi, as a single-phase face-centred cubic solid solution, which displays strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys and most multi-phase alloys. At room temperature, the alloy shows tensile strengths of almost 1 GPa, failure strains of ~70% and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200 MPa m1/2 at cryogenic temperatures strength, ductility and toughness of the CrCoNi alloy improve to strength levels above 1.3 GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275 MPa m1/2. Such properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning.

  3. Exceptional damage-tolerance of a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi at cryogenic temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Thurston, Keli V. S.; Bei, Hongbin; Wu, Zhenggang; George, Easo P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    High-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties from being multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Here we examine an equiatomic medium-entropy alloy containing only three elements, CrCoNi, as a single-phase face-centred cubic solid solution, which displays strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys and most multi-phase alloys. At room temperature, the alloy shows tensile strengths of almost 1 GPa, failure strains of ∼70% and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200 MPa  m1/2; at cryogenic temperatures strength, ductility and toughness of the CrCoNi alloy improve to strength levels above 1.3 GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275 MPa  m1/2. Such properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning. PMID:26830651

  4. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  5. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  6. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  7. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  8. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  9. Nonlinear Constitutive Relations for High Temperature Application, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications were discussed. The state of the art in nonlinear constitutive modeling of high temperature materials was reviewed and the need for future research and development efforts in this area was identified. Considerable research efforts are urgently needed in the development of nonlinear constitutive relations for high temperature applications prompted by recent advances in high temperature materials technology and new demands on material and component performance. Topics discussed include: constitutive modeling, numerical methods, material testing, and structural applications.

  10. Conditional stability for thermal convection in a rotating couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Mahajan, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear stability threshold for rotation in a couple-stress fluid heated from below saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. The effects of couple-stress parameter, variable dependent viscosity, medium permeability, Taylor number and Darcy-Brinkman number on the onset of convection are also analysed.

  11. Heat pumps in low temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. G.

    1980-08-01

    Methods of efficiency using the lower temperature geothermal resources for space conditioning are presented. Water to air and water to water heat pumps for use with domestic or thermally marginal geothermal water in the 50 to 90 F (10 to 32 C) range are examined. Developments in geothermal resource utilization are presented. A diaphragm type heat pump for use with source temperatures as low as 40 C is discussed.

  12. Low temperature plasma applications in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; Metelmann, H.-R.; von Woedtke, Th.

    2016-11-01

    The main field of plasma medicine is the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. CAP is effective both to inactivate a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multiple drug resistant ones and to stimulate proliferation of mammalian cells. Clinical application has started in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases.

  13. Analysis of enterococci using portable testing equipment for developing countries--variance of Azide NutriDisk medium under variable time and temperature.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, S; Watkins, J; Toop, K; Francis, C

    2006-01-01

    This report compares the enterococci count on samples obtained with Azide NutriDisk (AND) (sterile, dehydrated culture medium) and Slanetz and Bartley (SB) medium when exposed to a variable in incubation time and temperature. Three experiments were performed to examine the recovery of enterococci on AND and SB media using membrane filtration with respect to: (a) incubation time; (b) incubation temperature; and (c) a combination of the two. Presumptive counts were observed at 37, 41, 46 and 47 degrees C and at 20, 24, 28 and 48 h. These were compared to AWWA standard method 9230 C (44 degrees C, 44 h). Samples were confirmed using Kanamycin Aesculin Azide (KAA) agar. Friedman's ANOVA and Students t-test analysis indicated higher enumeration of enterococci when grown on AND (p = 0.45) than SB (p = < 0.001) at all temperatures with a survival threshold at 47 degrees C. Significant results for AND medium were noted at 20 h (p = 0.021), 24 h (p = 0.278) and 28 h (p = 0.543). The study concluded that the accuracy of the AND medium at a greater time and temperature range provided flexibility in incubator technology making it an appropriate alternative to SB medium for monitoring drinking water using field testing kits in developing countries.

  14. Electrical transport anisotropy of uniaxial polycrystalline samples and the effective medium approximation: An application to HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-García, A.; Muné, P.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we have applied the effective medium approximation (EMA) to a polycrystalline sample made up of uniaxial crystallites with similar behavior to the high critical temperature superconductors (HTS) at the normal state (σab ≫ σc). As a result the dependence of the anisotropy parameter at the level of the sample, μ =σx /σz , on orientation probability of the grains' a-axes along a certain preferential direction, γxa is obtained. The intrinsic and shape anisotropy parameters of the crystallites constitute input data. In addition, the dependence of the orientation factor, f, which has been introduced in current models on the transport properties of HTS, is calculated as a function of γxa. These results offer a tool to interpret electrical transport measurements at normal state in granular uniaxial superconducting materials with certain texture degree, by means of the correlation between microstructure and electrical transport properties. Moreover, the comparison between the model and some experimental data suggests the presence of intragranular planar defects in the polycrystalline superconductors. They may affect the measurement of paracoherent resistivity and consequently the determination of f mainly in Bi based samples.

  15. Medium decoupling of dynamics at temperatures ~100 K above glass-transition temperature: a case study with (acetamide + lithium bromide/nitrate) melts.

    PubMed

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

    2012-05-07

    Time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy measurements using a solvation probe in [0.78CH(3)CONH(2) + 0.22{f LiBr + (1-f) LiNO(3)}] melts reveal a strong decoupling of medium dynamics from viscosity. Interestingly, this decoupling has been found to occur at temperatures ∼50-100 K above the glass transition temperatures of the above melt at various anion concentrations (f(LiBr)). The decoupling is reflected via the following fractional viscosity dependence (η) of the measured average solvation and rotation times (<τ(s)> and <τ(r)>, respectively): <τ(x)> ∝ (η∕T)(p) (x being solvation or rotation), with p covering the range, 0.20 < p < 0.70. Although this is very similar to what is known for deeply supercooled liquids, it is very surprising because of the temperature range at which the above decoupling occurs for these molten mixtures. The kinship to the supercooled liquids is further exhibited via p which is always larger for <τ(r)> than for <τ(s)>, indicating a sort of translation-rotation decoupling. Multiple probes have been used in steady state fluorescence measurements to explore the extent of static heterogeneity. Estimated experimental dynamic Stokes shift for coumarin 153 in these mixtures lies in the range, 1000 < Δν(t)/cm(-1) < 1700, and is in semi-quantitative agreement with predictions from our semi-molecular theory. The participation of the fluctuating density modes at various length-scales to the observed solvation times has also been investigated.

  16. Medium decoupling of dynamics at temperatures ˜100 K above glass-transition temperature: A case study with (acetamide + lithium bromide/nitrate) melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Biswas, Ranjit

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy measurements using a solvation probe in [0.78CH3CONH2 + 0.22{f LiBr + (1-f) LiNO3}] melts reveal a strong decoupling of medium dynamics from viscosity. Interestingly, this decoupling has been found to occur at temperatures ˜50-100 K above the glass transition temperatures of the above melt at various anion concentrations (fLiBr). The decoupling is reflected via the following fractional viscosity dependence (η) of the measured average solvation and rotation times (⟨τs⟩ and ⟨τr⟩, respectively): ⟨τx⟩ ∝ (η/T)p (x being solvation or rotation), with p covering the range, 0.20 < p < 0.70. Although this is very similar to what is known for deeply supercooled liquids, it is very surprising because of the temperature range at which the above decoupling occurs for these molten mixtures. The kinship to the supercooled liquids is further exhibited via p which is always larger for ⟨τr⟩ than for ⟨τs⟩, indicating a sort of translation-rotation decoupling. Multiple probes have been used in steady state fluorescence measurements to explore the extent of static heterogeneity. Estimated experimental dynamic Stokes shift for coumarin 153 in these mixtures lies in the range, 1000 < Δνt/cm-1 < 1700, and is in semi-quantitative agreement with predictions from our semi-molecular theory. The participation of the fluctuating density modes at various length-scales to the observed solvation times has also been investigated.

  17. Improved Seals for High Temperature Airframe Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J.; Dunlap, Patrick H.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2006-01-01

    Current thermal barrier seals, such as those used on the Space Shuttle, are insufficient to fully meet the demands of future hypersonic vehicles and reentry spacecraft. Previous investigations have demonstrated limited usage temperatures, as evidenced by a decreased ability to maintain sealing effectiveness at high temperatures (i.e., inadequate resiliency). In order to improve resiliency at elevated temperatures, Rene 41 (Allvac) was substituted for Inconel X-750 (Special Metals Corp.) as the spring tube material in the existing seal design. A seal construction incorporating the Rene 41 spring tube was fabricated and tested against the baseline Inconel X-750 spring tube seal. Although resiliency improvements were not as dramatic as in previous tests with the spring tubes alone, seals incorporating the Rene 41 spring tube exhibited an average 20 percent resiliency enhancement up to 1750 F when compared to seals containing the Inconel spring tube. In addition, the seals with the Rene 41 spring tubes showed less reduction in resiliency as temperatures increased above 1200 F. Results also indicated the Saffil (Saffil Ltd.) insulation in the core of the seal contributed more to resiliency than previously thought. Leakage data did not demonstrate an improvement with the seal containing the Rene 41 spring tube. However, based upon resiliency results, one could reasonably expect the Rene 41 version of the seal to track gap openings over a wider range. Therefore it would exhibit lower leakage than the Inconel X-750 version as the seal gap opens during a typical mission.

  18. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  19. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    PubMed

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese.

  20. Modeling relative permeability of water in soil: Application of effective-medium approximation and percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Sahimi, Muhammad; Daigle, Hugh

    2016-07-01

    Accurate prediction of the relative permeability to water under partially saturated condition has broad applications and has been studied intensively since the 1940s by petroleum, chemical, and civil engineers, as well as hydrologists and soil scientists. Many models have been developed for this purpose, ranging from those that represent the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes, to those that utilize complex networks of interconnected pore bodies and pore throats with various cross-section shapes. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the effective-medium approximation (EMA) and percolation theory in order to predict the water relative permeability. The approach is general and applicable to any type of porous media. We use the method to compute the water relative permeability in porous media whose pore-size distribution follows a power law. The EMA is invoked to predict the relative permeability from the fully saturated pore space to some intermediate water saturation that represents a crossover from the EMA to what we refer to as the "critical region." In the critical region below the crossover water saturation Swx, but still above the critical water saturation Swc (the residual saturation or the percolation threshold of the water phase), the universal power law predicted by percolation theory is used to compute the relative permeability. To evaluate the accuracy of the approach, data for 21 sets of undisturbed laboratory samples were selected from the UNSODA database. For 14 cases, the predicted relative permeabilities are in good agreement with the data. For the remaining seven samples, however, the theory underestimates the relative permeabilities. Some plausible sources of the discrepancy are discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  2. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  3. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  4. Comparison of Local Scale Measured and Modeled Brightness Temperatures and Snow Parameters from the CLPX 2003 by Means of a Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Theory Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedescol, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary J.; Hardy, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing offers distinct advantages for observing the cryosphere. Solar illumination is not required, and spatial and temporal coverage are excellent from polar-orbiting satellites. Passive microwave measurements are sensitive to the two most useful physical quantities for many hydrological applications: physical temperature and water content/state. Sensitivity to the latter is a direct result of the microwave sensitivity to the dielectric properties of natural media, including snow, ice, soil (frozen or thawed), and vegetation. These considerations are factors motivating the development of future cryospheric satellite remote sensing missions, continuing and improving on a 26-year microwave measurement legacy. Perhaps the biggest issues regarding the use of such satellite measurements involve how to relate parameter values at spatial scales as small as a hectare to observations with sensor footprints that may be up to 25 x 25 km. The NASA Cold-land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) generated a dataset designed to enhance understanding of such scaling issues. CLPX observations were made in February (dry snow) and March (wet snow), 2003 in Colorado, USA, at scales ranging from plot scale to 25 x 25 km satellite footprints. Of interest here are passive microwave observations from ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors, as well as meteorological and snowpack measurements that will enable studies of the effects of spatial heterogeneity of surface conditions on the observations. Prior to performing such scaling studies, an evaluation of snowpack forward modelling at the plot scale (least heterogeneous scale) is in order. This is the focus of this paper. Many forward models of snow signatures (brightness temperatures) have been developed over the years. It is now recognized that a dense medium radiative transfer (DMRT) treatment represents a high degree of physical fidelity for snow modeling, yet dense medium models are particularly sensitive to

  5. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  6. Low Temperature SQUID for NDE Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz (Technical Monitor); Selim, Raouf

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature SuperConducting Quantum Interference Device - SQUID measurement system for detection of defects deep under the surface of aluminum structures using eddy current techniques. The system uses a two dimensional planar inducer with two different excitation frequencies to induce a current in the sample. We have developed a data analysis software program that enabled us to distinguish between round defects (holes), straight defects (slots) and slots close to holes simulating cracks starting from rivets in aluminum structures. We were able to detect defects that are 8mm below the surface. We have also measured the change in phase of the detected signal as a function of depth of the defect. This relationship can be used to determine the depth of hidden flaws. Using this analysis software with the high temperature SQUID system at NASA Langley we were able to detect slots close to holes in layered aluminum sample.

  7. High temperature superconductor materials and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III. (Editor); Banks, Curtis; Golben, John

    1991-01-01

    One of the areas concerned itself with the investigation of the phenomena involved in formulating and making in the laboratory new and better superconductor material with enhanced values of critical current and temperature. Of special interest were the chemistry, physical processes, and environment required to attain these enhanced desirable characteristics. The other area concerned itself with producing high temperature superconducting thin films by pulsed laser deposition techniques. Such films are potentially very useful in the detection of very low power signals. To perform this research high vacuum is required. In the course of this effort, older vacuum chambers were maintained and used. In addition, a new facility is being brought on line. This latter activity has been replete with the usual problems of bringing a new facility into service. Some of the problems are covered in the main body of this report.

  8. Estimation of Random Medium Parameters from 2D Post-Stack Seismic Data and Its Application in Seismic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhu, P.; Gu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Small scale heterogeneities of subsurface medium can be characterized conveniently and effectively using a few simple random medium parameters (RMP), such as autocorrelation length, angle and roughness factor, etc. The estimation of these parameters is significant in both oil reservoir prediction and metallic mine exploration. Poor accuracy and low stability existed in current estimation approaches limit the application of random medium theory in seismic exploration. This study focuses on improving the accuracy and stability of RMP estimation from post-stacked seismic data and its application in the seismic inversion. Experiment and theory analysis indicate that, although the autocorrelation of random medium is related to those of corresponding post-stacked seismic data, the relationship is obviously affected by the seismic dominant frequency, the autocorrelation length, roughness factor and so on. Also the error of calculation of autocorrelation in the case of finite and discrete model decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the precision of estimation of RMP, we design two improved approaches. Firstly, we apply region growing algorithm, which often used in image processing, to reduce the influence of noise in the autocorrelation calculated by the power spectrum method. Secondly, the orientation of autocorrelation is used as a new constraint in the estimation algorithm. The numerical experiments proved that it is feasible. In addition, in post-stack seismic inversion of random medium, the estimated RMP may be used to constrain inverse procedure and to construct the initial model. The experiment results indicate that taking inversed model as random medium and using relatively accurate estimated RMP to construct initial model can get better inversion result, which contained more details conformed to the actual underground medium.

  9. High Temperature Epoxy Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-10

    weak molecular interaction between non-polar alkyl chain of ammonium modified clay and polar group of epoxy resin. This was confirmed by the X- ray...polymer matrix. Several functionalized imidazolium clays , functionalized anionic clays , and silylated apophylites were synthesized and characterized by...XRD and TGA. Thermal studies of functionalized clay have shown that the onset decomposition temperature of imidazolium functionalized clay (>325oC

  10. Simulations on shifting medium and its application in wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwen; Zhang, Yingyi; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2016-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of an anisotropic but homogeneous metamaterial designed by transformation optics. An object or free space enclosed by the shifting medium could be moved to a certain distance away from the original position. In this paper, we propose a cone-shaped shifting medium shell to move an internal coil to the given position. In this way, the two coils in a wireless power transfer system could be equivalently moved closer; thus, their magnetic coupling is enhanced. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are presented and analyzed to validate the effects of the shifting medium shell. Both ohmic loss and magnetic loss are also considered for practical concerns. Finally, we discuss the simplification of such a shifting medium to facilitate its fabrication.

  11. Effect of temperature and water activity on gene expression and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus on almond medium.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonia; Solfrizzo, Michele; Epifani, Filomena; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2016-01-18

    Almonds are among the commodities at risk of aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Temperature and water activity are the two key determinants in pre and post-harvest environments influencing both the rate of fungal spoilage and aflatoxin production. Varying the combination of these parameters can completely inhibit or fully activate the biosynthesis of aflatoxin, so it is fundamental to know which combinations can control or be conducive to aflatoxin contamination. Little information is available about the influence of these parameters on aflatoxin production on almonds. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different combinations of temperature (20 °C, 28 °C, and 37 °C) and water activity (0.90, 0.93, 0.96, 0.99 aw) on growth, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production and expression of the two regulatory genes, aflR and aflS, and two structural genes, aflD and aflO, of the aflatoxin biosynthetic cluster in A. flavus grown on an almond medium solidified with agar. Maximum accumulation of fungal biomass and AFB1 production was obtained at 28 °C and 0.96 aw; no fungal growth and AFB1 production were observed at 20 °C at the driest tested conditions (0.90 and 0.93 aw). At 20° and 37 °C AFB1 production was 70-90% lower or completely suppressed, depending on aw. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR showed that the two regulatory genes (aflR and aflS) were highly expressed at maximum (28 °C) and minimum (20 °C and 37 °C) AFB1 production. Conversely the two structural genes (aflD and aflO) were highly expressed only at maximum AFB1 production (28 °C and 0.96-0.99 aw). It seems that temperature acts as a key factor influencing aflatoxin production which is strictly correlated to the induction of expression of structural biosynthesis genes (aflD and aflO), but not to that of aflatoxin regulatory genes (aflR and aflS), whose functional products are most likely subordinated to other regulatory processes acting at post-translational level

  12. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  13. Possibility of Abnormal Formation of Pearlite in Medium-Carbon Steel After Short-Term Heating to a Temperature Above Ac 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaev, D. A.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Urtsev, V. N.

    2017-03-01

    The kinetics of phase recrystallization and formation of structure in medium-carbon steels under short-term heating at a temperature exceeding Ac 1 and accelerated cooling is studied. The conditions of implementation of two mechanisms of abnormal formation of pearlite differing in the lengths of the diffusion paths of carbon are determined, and the morphology of the pearlite is described.

  14. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  15. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  16. Aggravation of Pre-Existing Atrioventricular Block, Wenckebach Type, Provoked by Application of X-Ray Contrast Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Seinost, Gerald; Stark, Gerhard; Pilger, Ernst

    2006-12-15

    Background. Significant bradycardia followed by cardiac arrest related to single bolus administration of X-ray contrast medium into a peripheral artery has not, to our knowledge, been described in the literature. Methods and Results. While performing a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the left superficial femoral artery in a 68-year old patient with a pre-existing atrioventricular (AV) block, Wenckebach type, he developed an AV block III after a single bolus injection of intra-arterial X-ray contrast medium. Conclusion. We believe that application of contrast medium causes a transitory ischemia in the obstructed vessel and therefore elevation of endogenous adenosine. In the case of a previously damaged AV node this elevation of endogenous adenosine may be responsible for the development of a short period of third-degree AV block.

  17. Pulse Applications and Parameter Identification for U.S. Navy Medium- Weight Shock Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    power unit and controls, and provide pulse-train profiles and mandrels; and Perform an exploratory parametric identification study of U.S. Navy medium- weight shock machine, test article, and impact loads using NRL-furnished data.

  18. Using high-temperature superconductors for levitation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    1999-07-01

    Melt-textured, bulk high-temperature superconductors are finding increasing uses in superconducting bearings, flywheel energy storage, and other levitational applications. This article reviews the use of these materials in magnetic-levitation applications. The behavior of levitational force, stiffness, damping, and rotational losses is discussed.

  19. Using high-temperature superconductors for levitation applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.; Energy Technology

    1999-07-01

    Melt-textured, bulk high-temperature superconductors are finding increasing uses in superconducting bearings, flywheel energy storage, and other levitational applications. This article reviews the use of these materials in magnetic-levitation applications. The behavior of levitational force, stiffness, damping, and rotational losses is discussed.

  20. Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gerald D.; Powell, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

  1. Engineered carbon foam for temperature control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almajali, Mohammad Rajab

    pressure within the foam matrix were investigated. These factors lowered the heat transfer rate considerably and the melting area was reduced by more than 23%. Two samples, coated and uncoated carbon foam, were infiltrated with PCM and subjected to a uniform heat load test in a vacuum. The coated foam showed excellent performance compared to the uncoated foam. (iii) Finally, the new engineered carbon foam was used as a heat sink and heat exchanger in a thermoelectric cooler for a cooling vest application. Using carbon foam as the core material for this application, the effective transfer of heat was significantly increased while reducing the size and weight of the heat exchanger.

  2. A fiber optic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Tilstra, Shelle D.; Barnabo, Geoffrey A.; Thomas, David C.; Phillips, Richard W.

    1991-02-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor has been developed for aerospace applications on the basis of the time rate of decay (TRD) principle, with a view to an operational temperature range of -60 to 350 C. This TRD system has completed qualification testing and will then undergo flight tests. Attention is presently given to the design and performance of four low temperature sensors that are subelements of the larger sensor system; in order to convert analog signals into over/under temperature indications, simple comparators are implemented in software.

  3. Applications of Bruggeman effective medium theory in mixture using terahertz spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leiwei; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used to research the intermolecular or intramolecular interactions and some optical properties, such as refractive index, dielectric constant and absorption coefficient. As the dopant in terahertz band, non-absorbing particles, such as polyethylene or others, are usually mixed with pure biological samples by compressing tablets. Due to inhomogeneity and different particle sizes in the tablets, the unobvious absorption from pure sample was affected by doped particle in mixtures. In order to extract the permittivity of pure sample from mixture, Bruggeman effective medium approximation (EMA) theory can be applied. The optical constants and the permittivity of the pure sample can be obtained by using EMA from a composite medium of biological sample and polyethylene. EMA is employed in this work and the relationships between the calculation results and particle sizes are to be explored. It shows that the practicability of Bruggeman effective medium theory in the identification of terahertz spectrum of mixture.

  4. Optical current sensing element with single medium layers for high voltage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. P.; Huang, Z. J.; Kang, C.; Sun, W. M.; Ruan, S. L.; Luo, Y. H.; Palmer, A. W.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    1999-09-01

    The performance of a Faraday current sensing element with single medium layer coatings with potential for use at high voltage is reported, and the principle and the design parameters of the polarization-preserving, totally reflecting, single medium layer are given. The performance of the sensing element is demonstrated, showing a sensitivity of approximately 90% of the theoretically achievable maximum for an ideal case, a ratio error of 0.33% over a 7 h stability period and a 21 dB EMI immunity. Some of the advantages of this design are considered and discussed.

  5. A standardized diode cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2016-03-01

    The model DT-670-SD cryogenic diode temperature sensor, manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has been used on numerous aerospace space missions since its introduction nearly 15 years ago. While the sensing element is a diode, it is operated in a non-standard manner when used as a temperature sensor over the 1.4-500 K temperature range. For this reason, the NASA and MIL-type test and performance standards designed to ensure high reliability of diode aerospace parts don't properly define the inspection and test protocol for the DT-670-SD temperature sensor as written. This requires each aerospace application to develop unique test and inspection protocols for the project, typically for a small number of sensors, resulting in expensive sensors with a long lead time. With over 30 years of experience in supplying cryogenic temperature sensors for aerospace applications, Lake Shore has developed screening and qualification inspection and test protocols to provide "commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)" DT-670-SD temperature sensors that should meet the requirements of most high-reliability applications including aerospace. Parts from acceptance and qualified lots will be available at a base sensor level with the ability to specify an interchangeability tolerance, calibration range, mounting adaptor, and/or lead extension for final configuration. This work presents details of this acceptance and qualification inspection and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of the DT-670-SD cryogenic temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  6. The Effects of Damping and Temperature of Medium on the Soliton Excited in α-HELIX Protein Molecules with Three Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Mei-Jie

    We studied numerically the influences of damping and temperature of medium on the properties of the soliton transported bio-energy in the α-helix protein molecules with three channels by using the dynamic equations in the improved Davydov theory and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. From the simulation experiments, we see that the new solitons can move along the molecular chains without dispersion at a constant speed, in which the shape and energy of the soliton can remain in the cases of motion, whether short-time at T=0 or long time at T=300 K. In these motions, the soliton can travel over about 700 amino acid residues, thus its lifetime is, at least, 120 ps at 300 K. When the two solitons undergo a collision, they can also retain themselves forms to transport towards. These results are consistent with the analytic result obtained by quantum perturbed theory in this model. However, the amplitudes of the solitons depress along with increase of temperature of the medium, and it begins to disperse at 320 K. In the meanwhile, the damping of the medium can influence the states and properties of the soliton excited in α-helix protein molecules. The investigation indicates that the amplitude and propagated velocity of the soliton decrease, when the damping of medium increases. The soliton is dispersed at the large damping coefficient Γ=4 Γ0 at 300 K. The results show that the soliton excited in the α-helix protein molecules with three channels is very robust against the damping and thermal perturbation of medium at biological temperature of 300 K. Thus we can conclude that the soliton can play important part in the bio-energy transport and the improved model is possibly a candidate for the mechanism of the energy transport in the α-helix proteins.

  7. Application for temperature and humidity monitoring of data center environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ş.; Truşcǎ, M. R. C.; Soran, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The technology and computer science registered a large development in the last years. Most systems that use high technologies require special working conditions. The monitoring and the controlling are very important. The temperature and the humidity are important parameters in the operation of computer systems, industrial and research, maintaining it between certain values to ensure their proper functioning being important. Usually, the temperature is maintained in the established range using an air conditioning system, but the humidity is affected. In the present work we developed an application based on a board with own firmware called "AVR_NET_IO" using a microcontroller ATmega32 type for temperature and humidity monitoring in Data Center of INCDTIM. On this board, temperature sensors were connected to measure the temperature in different points of the Data Center and outside of this. Humidity monitoring is performed using data from integrated sensors of the air conditioning system, thus achieving a correlation between humidity and temperature variation. It was developed a software application (CM-1) together with the hardware, which allows temperature monitoring and register inside Data Center and trigger an alarm when variations are greater with 3°C than established limits of the temperature.

  8. Effect of pH, temperature and culture medium composition on the production of an extracellular cysteine proteinase by Micrococcus sp. INIA 528.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, A F; Fernández, J; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1997-01-01

    Growth and proteinase production by Micrococcus sp. INIA 528 in a batch-operated laboratory fermentor were investigated, with trypticase soy broth as the basal medium for studies on optimum temperature, pH and medium composition. Maximum growth was recorded at 34 degrees C and pH 7.5, whereas optimum temperature and pH for proteinase production were 31 degrees C and pH 6.25. Maximum rate of enzyme production occurred during the late log and early stationary phases of growth. Addition of 5.0 g l-1 yeast extract, 1.0 g l-1 glucose, 1.0 g l-1 MgSO4 or 1.0 g l-1 K2HPO4 to basal medium resulted in a lower enzyme yield, but supplementation of basal medium with 2.5 g l-1 (NH4)2SO4 increased enzyme production by 45%. A high initial biomass added to fresh both supplemented with 2.5 g l-1 (NH4)2SO4 only increased enzyme activity by 19%, compared to the maximum enzyme activity achieved with the standard inoculum.

  9. Development of silicon carbide semiconductor devices for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony; Petit, Jeremy B.

    1991-01-01

    The semiconducting properties of electronic grade silicon carbide crystals, such as wide energy bandgap, make it particularly attractive for high temperature applications. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include instrumentation for engines under development, engine control and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Discrete prototype SiC devices were fabricated and tested at elevated temperatures. Grown p-n junction diodes demonstrated very good rectification characteristics at 870 K. A depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor was also successfully fabricated and tested at 770 K. While optimization of SiC fabrication processes remain, it is believed that SiC is an enabling high temperature electronic technology.

  10. A theory of wave scatter from an inhomogeneous medium with a slightly rough boundary and its application to sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parashar, S. K.; Fung, A. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical theory of electromagnetic wave scattering from an inhomogeneous medium with a slightly rough boundary surface is formulated. The inhomogeneity in the medium is assumed to vary continuously in the vertical direction and to have a small random variation in the horizontal direction. The medium is assumed to consist of two layers. Maxwell's equations are solved by using the small perturbation method together with Fourier transform technique. The resulting differential equations are solved by using WKB and variation of parameter methods. Field amplitudes in each medium are determined by taking boundary conditions into account. The expressions for first order polarized radar backscatter cross-section are obtained. An attempt is made to apply the developed theory to compute sea ice scatter. Numerical calculations are performed for polarized radar backscatter cross-section at two frequencies, 13.3 GHz and 400 MHz. It is shown that WKB method is applicable at both of these frequencies. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental results obtained from NASA Earth Resources Program mission 126. Theoretical results and experimental results are in good agreement.

  11. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-05-22

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping.

  12. Alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K. M.; Pathare, V.; Aslanidis, I.; Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The NiAl alloys for potential high temperature applications were studied. Alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy techniques. Flow stress values at slow strain rates and high temperatures were measured. Some ternary alloying additions (Hf, Ta and Nb) were identified. The mechanism of strengthening in alloys containing these additions appears to be a form of particle dislocation interaction. The effects of grain size and stoichiometry in binary alloys are also presented.

  13. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  14. Emerging applications of high temperature superconductors for space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed space missions require longevity of communications system components, high input power levels, and high speed digital logic devices. The complexity of these missions calls for a high data bandwidth capacity. Incorporation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films into some of these communications system components may provide a means of meeting these requirements. Space applications of superconducting technology has previously been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. Development of HTS materials with transition temperatures above 77 K along with the natural cooling ability of space suggest that space applications may lead the way in the applications of high temperature superconductivity. In order for HTS materials to be incorporated into microwave and millimeter wave devices, the material properties such as electrical conductivity, current density, surface resistivity and others as a function of temperature and frequency must be well characterized and understood. The millimeter wave conductivity and surface resistivity were well characterized, and at 77 K are better than copper. Basic microwave circuits such as ring resonators were used to determine transmission line losses. Higher Q values than those of gold resonator circuits were observed below the transition temperature. Several key HTS circuits including filters, oscillators, phase shifters and phased array antenna feeds are feasible in the near future. For technology to improve further, good quality, large area films must be reproducibly grown on low dielectric constant, low loss microwave substrates.

  15. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    This poster will highlight on-going research at the Virginia Tech Fiber & Electro-Optics Research Center (FEORC) in the area of thin films on optical fibers. Topics will include the sputter deposition of metals and metal; alloys onto optical fiber and fiber optic sensors for innovative applications. Specific information will be available on thin film fiber optic hydrogen sensors, corrosion sensors, and metal-coated optical fiber for high temperature aerospace applications.

  16. Space applications for high temperature superconductivity - Brief review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of materials and devices based on high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) that could have useful space-oriented applications. Of specific interest are applications of HTS technologies to mm and microwave systems, spaceborne and planet-surface sensors, and to magnetic subsystems for robotic, rescue, and docking maneuvers. HTS technologies can be used in optoelectronics, magnetic-field detectors, antennae, transmission/delay lines, and launch/payload coils.

  17. Fiber Bragg Grating Temperature Sensor for Defence and Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebru, Haftay Abadi; Padhy, B. B.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the design and development of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor suitable for naval applications like temperature monitoring of onboard ships. The Bragg gratings used here have a reflection Bragg wavelength of 1550 nm and are inscribed by phase mask technique using ultraviolet (UV) laser beam at 255.3 nm. The high-resolution temperature sensor has been designed and developed based on the principle of converting the strain to temperature. This is achieved by using bimetallic configuration. Here lead and tungsten metals are used. The expansion of lead is concentrated on the Bragg grating, thus imparting strain on it. The wavelength shift with change of temperature is recorded with optical spectrum analyzer. The minimum temperature that could be measured accurately by the sensor with repeatability is of the order of 10-2. We have achieved thermal sensitivity of 46 pm/°C and 72 pm/°C for sensor lengths (length of the metallic strips) of 60 mm and 100 mm respectively. The thermal sensitivity achieved is approximately 3.5 times and 5.5 times that of bare FBG with thermal sensitivity of 13 pm/°C for the respective sensor lengths. This type of sensor can play vital role in defence and industrial applications like monitoring fresh water/lubricating oil temperatures of machinery in onboard ships, temperature monitoring of airframe of the aircraft, aircraft engine control system sensors, temperature measurement of hot gases from propellant combustion to protect the rocket motor casing, monitoring and control of temperature of copper bars of the power generators etc.

  18. Analysis of dense-medium light scattering with applications to corneal tissue: experiments and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Kim, K B; Shanyfelt, L M; Hahn, D W

    2006-01-01

    Dense-medium scattering is explored in the context of providing a quantitative measurement of turbidity, with specific application to corneal haze. A multiple-wavelength scattering technique is proposed to make use of two-color scattering response ratios, thereby providing a means for data normalization. A combination of measurements and simulations are reported to assess this technique, including light-scattering experiments for a range of polystyrene suspensions. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed using a multiple-scattering algorithm based on full Mie scattering theory. The simulations were in excellent agreement with the polystyrene suspension experiments, thereby validating the MC model. The MC model was then used to simulate multiwavelength scattering in a corneal tissue model. Overall, the proposed multiwavelength scattering technique appears to be a feasible approach to quantify dense-medium scattering such as the manifestation of corneal haze, although more complex modeling of keratocyte scattering, and animal studies, are necessary.

  19. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed, two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 13percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 13 percent thick low speed airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle of attack frange from about -8 deg to 10 deg. The objective of retaining good high-lift low speed characteristics for an airfoil designed to have good medium speed cruise performance was achieved.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beaseley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0317) designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 17 percent thick low speed airfoil (LS(1)-0417) and the 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0313). Theoretical predictions of the drag rise characteristics of this airfoil are also provided. The tests were conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2 million to 12 million, and an angle of attack range from about -8 to 20 deg.

  1. Health benefits, enzymatic production, and application of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) in food industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee-Ying; Tang, Teck-Kim; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2012-08-01

    Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) is a modified lipid containing medium- chain (C6-C12) and long-chain fatty acids (C14-C24) in the same triacylglycerol (TAG) molecule. It can be produced either through enzymatic (with 1,3 specific or nonspecific enzyme) or chemical methods. The specialty of this structured lipid is that it is metabolized differently compared to conventional fats and oils, which can lead to a reduction of fat accumulation in the body. Therefore, it can be used for obesity management. It also contains nutritional properties that can be used to treat metabolic problems. This review will discuss on the health benefits of MLCT, its production methods especially via enzymatic processes and its applications in food industries.

  2. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  3. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1984-08-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance (kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of light weight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  4. 46 CFR 57.05-5 - Low temperature application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low temperature application. 57.05-5 Section 57.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING... accordance with § 57.03-1(b). Manual welding shall be qualified in the position prescribed by the procedure....

  5. Optical fiber temperature sensors: applications in heat treatments for foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Morales, María Elena; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-10-01

    Heat treatments are important methods to provide safe foods. Conventional heat treatments involve the application of steam and recently microwave treatments have been studied and applied as they are considered as fast, clean and efficient. Optical fiber sensing is an excellent tool to measure the temperature during microwave treatments. This paper shows the application of optical fiber temperature sensing during the heat treatment of different foods such as vegetables (jalapeño pepper and cilantro), cheese and ostrich meat. Reaching the target temperature, important bacteria were inactivated: Salmonella, Listeria and Escherichia coli. Thus, the use of optical fiber sensors has resulted be a useful way to develop protocols to inactivate microorganisms and to propose new methods for food processing.

  6. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-04-01

    Accomplishments during the first six months of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers.

  7. Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    2003-11-01

    Since the discovery of the first high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in the late 1980s, many materials and families of materials have been discovered that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures well above 20 K. Of these, several families of HTSs have been developed for use in electrical power applications. Demonstration of devices such as motors, generators, transmission lines, transformers, fault-current limiters, and flywheels in which HTSs and bulk HTSs have been used has proceeded to ever larger scales. First-generation wire, made from bismuth-based copper oxides, was used in many demonstrations. The rapid development of second-generation wire, made by depositing thin films of yttrium-based copper oxide on metallic substrates, is expected to further accelerate commercial applications. Bulk HTSs, in which large single-grain crystals are used as basic magnetic components, have also been developed and have potential for electrical power applications.

  8. Evaluation of Capacitors at Cryogenic Temperatures for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced electronic systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions must operate efficiently and reliably under the extreme cold temperatures of deep space environment. In addition, spacecraft power electronics capable of cold temperature operation will greatly simplify the thermal management system by eliminating the need for heating units and associated equipment and thereby reduce the size and weight of the overall power system. In this study, film, mica, solid tantalum and electric double layer capacitors were evaluated as a function of temperature from room to liquid nitrogen in terms of their dielectric properties. These properties included capacitance stability and dielectric loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed on the capacitors. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors investigated for low temperature applications.

  9. Applicability of iron phosphate glass medium for loading NaCl originated from seawater used for cooling the stricken power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi; Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya

    2013-07-01

    As the part of investigation for immobilization of the sludge as one of the radioactive wastes arising from the treatment of contaminated water at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, applicability of vitrification method has been evaluated as a candidate technique. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of NaCl as one of the main constituents of sludge, on glass formation and glass properties. Two kinds of iron phosphate glass (IPG) media in the xFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(100-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, with x=30 and 35 (mol%) were chosen and the glass formation, structure and properties including density, coefficient of thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, onset crystallization temperature and chemical durability of NaCl-loaded IPG were studied. The results are summarized as follows. Sodium chloride, NaCl could be loaded into IPG medium as Na{sub 2}O and Cl contents and their loading ratio could be up to 19 and 15 mol%, respectively. Majority of Cl content of raw material NaCl was thought to be volatilized during glass melting. Loading NaCl into IPG induces to de-polymerize glass network of phosphate chains, leads to decrease both glass transition and onset crystallization temperatures, and to increase coefficient of thermal expansion. NaCl-loaded IPG indicated good chemical durability in case of using 35Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- 65P{sub 2}O{sub 5} medium. (authors)

  10. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  11. InfraRed Standards Used for Spectrophotometric Calibration - Application to the Medium Resolution Spectrometer of {MIRI}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decin, L.; Bauwens, E.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.

    2007-04-01

    One of the main ingredients in establishing the relation between input signal and output flux from a spectrometer, is the accurate determination of the {spectrophotometric calibration}. In case of spectrometers onboard satellites, the accuracy of this part of the calibration pedigree is ultimately linked to the reliability of the candidate calibrators as being fiducial. In this contribution, we deal with the spectrophotometric calibration of {infrared} spectrometers in the 2-200 μm wavelength range. We outline a general selection procedure to arrive at a set of fiducial IR calibrators, and apply the method to the Medium Resolution Spectrometer of MIRI which will be onboard the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Differential effects of sporulation temperature on the high pressure resistance of Clostridium botulinum type E spores and the interconnection with sporulation medium cation contents.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing can be used to improve traditional preservation methods and increase food safety and durability, whereas quality related characteristics can be largely maintained. Clostridium (C.) botulinum type E is a non-proteolytic, psychrotrophic, toxin-producing spore former, commonly associated with aquatic environments in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Sporulation in nature is likely to occur under varying conditions including temperature and nutrient availability, which might affect resistance properties of resulting spores. In our study, we determined the effect of sporulation temperature (13-38 °C) on the resistance of three Clostridium botulinum type E strains to differently intense HPT treatments (200 MPa at 40 and 80 °C, and 800 MPa at 40 and 80 °C). Furthermore, the effect of cations on sporulation temperature-mediated alterations in HHP resistance was investigated. Results indicate that low and high sporulation temperatures can increase and decrease sporal HPT resistance, respectively, in a treatment-dependent (pressure level, treatment temperature) manner, whereas the trends observed are largely unaffected by pressure dwells (1 s-10 min). Furthermore, results show that the cation content of the sporulation medium (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+)) marginally influences and partially counteracts effects on the HPT resistance of spores grown at low and elevated temperatures, respectively. This suggests that sporulation temperature and medium cations provoke changes in some common spore resistance structures. Sporulation conditions can markedly affect spore resistance properties and, thus, should be considered for the experimental setup of worst case studies aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of food processes in terms of the inactivation of C. botulinum type E spores.

  13. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  14. Application of the general Jacobi diagonalization method to the optical properties of a medium perturbed by an external field.

    PubMed

    Izdebski, Marek

    2006-11-10

    An analytical approach is presented for studying the convergence of the general Jacobi method applied to diagonalizing the second-rank tensors that describe the optical properties of a medium subjected to an external field. This approach utilizes the fact that the components of such tensors are usually given in field-free principal axes as power series in the field strength, neglecting terms beyond a chosen power of the field. It is shown that for a biaxial or uniaxial medium, the finite number of iterations, which guarantees exact reduction of all the initial terms up to the required power in the series expansions of all off-diagonal elements, can always be found. Moreover, a fixed sequence of rotations in the Jacobi algorithm can be predicted. These findings allow one to derive analytical formulas in noniterative form for a given highest order of the effects being considered and also to optimize numerical iterative diagonalization procedures. Formulas for eigenvalues and eigenvectors applicable to biaxial and uniaxial mediums perturbed by the linear and quadratic effects are presented. Illustrations are given of the electro-optic and piezo-optic effects for the point group 3m. Conditions for biaxial and uniaxial perturbation of a uniaxial crystal are discussed.

  15. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  16. Analysis of Low Temperature Organic Rankine Cycles for Solar Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfei

    The present work focuses on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems and their application to low temperature waste heat recovery, combined heat and power as well as off-grid solar power generation applications. As CO_2 issues come to the fore front and fossil fuels become more expensive, interest in low grade heat recovery has grown dramatically in the past few years. Solar energy, as a clean, renewable, pollution-free and sustainable energy has great potential for the use of ORC systems. Several ORC solutions have been proposed to generate electricity from low temperature sources. The ORC systems discussed here can be applied to fields such as solar thermal, biological waste heat, engine exhaust gases, small-scale cogeneration, domestic boilers, etc. The current work presents a thermodynamic and economic analysis for the use of ORC systems to convert solar energy or low exergy energy to generate electrical power. The organic working fluids investigated here were selected to investigate the effect of the fluid saturation temperature on the performance of ORCs. The working fluids under investigation are R113, R245fa, R123, with boiling points between 40°C and 200°C at pressures from 10 kPa to 10 MPa. Ambient temperature air at 20oC to 30oC is utilized as cooling resource, and allowing for a temperature difference 10°C for effective heat transfer. Consequently, the working fluids are condensed at 40°C. A combined first- and second-law analysis is performed by varying some system independent parameters at various reference temperatures. The present work shows that ORC systems can be viable and economical for the applications such as waste heat use and off-grid power generation even though they are likely to be more expensive than grid power.

  17. Effect of mechanical force, rotation and moving internal heat source on a two-temperature fiber-reinforced thermoelastic medium with two theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Samia M.; Othman, Mohamed I. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, the three-phase-lag model and Green-Naghdi theory without energy dissipation are used to study the effect of a mechanical force and a rotation on the wave propagation in a two-temperature fiber-reinforced thermoelastic problem for a medium with an internal heat source that is moving with a constant speed. The methodology applied here is the use of the normal mode analysis to solve the problem of a thermal shock problem to obtain the exact expressions of the displacement components, force stresses, thermal temperature, and conductivity temperature. Numerical results for the considered variables are given and illustrated graphically in the absence and presence of a rotation as well as a mechanical force. A comparison is made with the results in the context of the two theories in the absence and presence of a moving internal heat source.

  18. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-12-01

    Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also

  19. Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)—about 30%—have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to ‘ectopic fat’ metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response. Hence, studies in animals and humans indicate that MCT ingestion is less obesogenic than comparable intakes of longer chain oils. Although LA tends to raise serum cholesterol, it has a more substantial impact on high density lipoprotein (HDL) than low density lipoprotein (LDL) in this regard, such that the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreases. LA constitutes about 50% of the fatty acid content of coconut oil; south Asian and Oceanic societies which use coconut oil as their primary source of dietary fat tend to be at low cardiovascular risk. Since ketone bodies can exert neuroprotective effects, the moderate ketosis induced by regular MCT ingestion may have neuroprotective potential. As compared to traditional MCTs featuring C6–C10, laurate-rich MCTs are more feasible for use in moderate-temperature frying and tend to produce a lower but more sustained pattern of blood ketone elevation owing to the more gradual hepatic oxidation of ingested laurate. PMID:27547436

  20. Application of UV based advanced oxidation to treat sulfolane in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linlong; Mehrabani-Zeinabad, Mitra; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H

    2016-10-01

    Several oxidative methods were studied to degrade sulfolane in an aqueous medium. These include UVA and UVC irradiation with suitable photoactive oxidants, including ozone, H2O2, and TiO2 based photocatalysis and their combinations. Since sulfolane lacks absorption bands in the UV range beyond 200 nm, initiation of reactions depends on the spectra and photochemistry of the oxidants. Among all the advanced oxidation processes investigated, combinations of (a) UVC with H2O2 and O3 (b) UVC with H2O2 and (c) UVC with O3 led to the highest rate of sulfolane loss in synthetic water samples. Experiments on sulfolane contaminated groundwater samples also indicated that these three combinations can efficiently degrade sulfolane. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed in the combination of H2O2 and O3 photolysis.

  1. Application of MSOR iteration with Newton scheme for solutions of 1D nonlinear porous medium equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, J. V. L.; Sulaiman, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers Newton-MSOR iterative method for solving 1D nonlinear porous medium equation (PME). The basic concept of proposed iterative method is derived from a combination of one step nonlinear iterative method which known as Newton method with Modified Successive Over Relaxation (MSOR) method. The reliability of Newton-MSOR to obtain approximate solution for several PME problems is compared with Newton-Gauss-Seidel (Newton-GS) and Newton-Successive Over Relaxation (Newton-SOR). In this paper, the formulation and implementation of these three iterative methods have also been presented. From four examples of PME problems, numerical results showed that Newton-MSOR method requires lesser number of iterations and computational time as compared with Newton-GS and Newton-SOR methods.

  2. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  3. Application of Effective Medium Theory to the Three-Dimensional Heterogeneity of Mantle Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    A self-consistent theory for the effective elastic parameters of stochastic media with small-scale 3D heterogeneities has been developed using a 2nd-order Born approximation to the scattered wavefield (T. H. Jordan, GJI, in press). Here we apply the theory to assess how small-scale variations in the local anisotropy of the upper mantle affect seismic wave propagation. We formulate a anisotropic model in which the local elastic properties are specified by a constant stiffness tensor with hexagonal symmetry of arbitrary orientation. This orientation is guided by a Gaussian random vector field with transversely isotropic (TI) statistics. If the outer scale of the statistical variability is small compared to a wavelength, then the effective seismic velocities are TI and depend on two parameters, a horizontal-to-vertical orientation ratio ξ and a horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio, η. If ξ = 1, the symmetry axis is isotropically distributed; if ξ < 1, it is vertical biased (bipolar distribution), and if ξ > 1, it is horizontally biased (girdle distribution). If η = 1, the heterogeneity is geometrically isotropic; as η à∞, the medium becomes a horizontal stochastic laminate; as η à0, the medium becomes a vertical stochastic bundle. Using stiffness tensors constrained by laboratory measurements of mantle xenoliths, we explore the dependence of the effective P and S velocities on ξ and η. The effective velocities are strongly controlled by the orientation ratio ξ; e.g., if the hexagonal symmetry axis of the local anisotropy is the fast direction of propagation, then vPH > vPV and vSH > vSV for ξ > 1. A more surprising result is the 2nd-order insensitivity of the velocities to the heterogeneity aspect ratio η. Consequently, the geometrical anisotropy of upper-mantle heterogeneity significantly enhances seismic-wave anisotropy only through local variations in the Voigt-averaged velocities, which depend primarily on rock composition and not deformation

  4. Evaluation of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Propulsion Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Halbig, Michael C.; Kiser, James D.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials consisting of zirconium diboride or hafnium diboride plus silicon carbide offer a combination of properties that make them candidates for airframe leading edges on sharp-bodied reentry vehicles. These UHTC perform well in the environment for such applications, i.e. low pressure air. The purpose of this study was to examine three of these materials under conditions more representative of a propulsion environment, i.e. higher oxygen and total pressure. Results of stren$h and fracture toughness measurements, furnace oxidation, and thermal shock exposures are presented. The poor oxidation resistance of UHTCs is the predominant factor limiting their applicability to propulsion.

  5. High temperature braided rope seals for static sealing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael L.; Olsen, Andrew; Darolia, Ram; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Achieving efficiency and performance goals of advanced aircraft and industrial systems are leading designers to implement high temperature materials such as ceramics and intermetallics. Generally these advanced materials are applied selectively in the highest temperature sections of the engine system including the combustor and high pressure turbine, amongst others. Thermal strains that result in attaching the low expansion-rate components to high expansion rate superalloy structures can cause significant life reduction in the components. Seals are being designed to both seal and to serve as compliant mounts allowing for relative thermal growths between high temperature but brittle primary structures and the surrounding support structures. Designers require high temperature, low-leakage, compliant seals to mitigate thermal stresses and control parasitic and cooling airflow between structures. NASA is developing high temperature braided rope seals in a variety of configurations to help solve these problems. This paper will describe the types of seals being developed, describe unique test techniques used to assess seal performance, and present leakage flow data under representative pressure, temperature and scrubbing conditions. Feasibility of the braided rope seals for both an industrial tube seal and a turbine vane seal application is also demonstrated.

  6. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1996-01-09

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. The multi-piece crucible is contained in a thermal can assembly of a high temperature induction furnace during a high temperature melt-casting operation. One embodiment of the multi-piece crucible comprises a tubular member having a vertical slot filled with a ceramic sealing material to provide expansion of the tubular member without cracking during the high temperature melt-casting operation. 9 figs.

  7. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. The multi-piece crucible is contained in a thermal can assembly of a high temperature induction furnace during a high temperature melt-casting operation. One embodiment of the multi-piece crucible comprises a tubular member having a vertical slot filled with a ceramic sealing material to provide expansion of the tubular member without cracking during the high temperature melt-casting operation.

  8. Laser Induced Temperature Field on Surfaces: Application to SAM Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadnam, Mohammad Reza; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2004-03-01

    Laser is used to thermally desorb a self assembeled monolayer (SAM) from a gold substrate. This process is a key step in making patterned surfaces. In many applications making curvilinear features is useful. Heating of a surface by a CW laser along a nonlinear trajectory is considered using Green's functions. Temperature profiles are calculated for heating along circular-arc trajectories of different curvatures. The effect of heating trajectory's radius of curvature and heating spot's velocity (Laser scanning rate) on resulting surface temperature is studied. It is shown that within the range of parameters considered, the induced surface temperature profiles are symmetric. It is also shown that change of heating trajectory's radius of curvature by one order of magnitude at heating velocity of 0.1 mm/s changes the induced surface temperatures by 12 K; this temperature increase will be 36 K at 1 mm/s. The effect of such temperature increases are discussed in terms of laser processing of SAM coated surfaces. For a case of heating along straight line, the kinetics of SAM desorption is coupled with heat diffusion equation to predict the percentage of SAM desorped and determine the feature size. The resulting surface chemical composition profiles are compared with experimental measurements and good agreement is reported.

  9. Development of high temperature superconductors for electric power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, N.

    1995-09-01

    The Nobel Prize-winning discovery in 1986 of a new family of superconductors that exhibited the property of no resistance at temperatures more than ten times greater than the traditional low temperature superconductors (LTS) currently used in MRI and high field magnets, made it possible to foresee a new era for the production, transmission and distribution of electrical power. Smaller, more efficient motors, generators, power cables, transformers, inductors, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for power quality were applications immediately envisioned for these high temperature superconductors (HTS), promising enhanced capabilities and lower costs. Work also began on new product concepts, such as more effective fault current limiters for both transmission and distribution systems that could protect expensive hardware and avoid the cost of upgrading circuit breakers as system capacity is increased. The interest of industry and utilities has been increased by successful demonstrations of small-scale prototypes. Recent demonstrations include a one meter conductor for an underground transmission cable produced by American Superconductor which carried over 4,200 amps, a 5 hp synchronous motor produced by Reliance Electric Company, magnet systems which generated over 2 Tesla at temperatures over 20 Kelvin (K) by both American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) and Sumitomo Electric Industries. The Department of Energy, under the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative Program (SPI), recently funded four application development projects: a 100 hp HTS motor demonstration, design of a generator rotor, a fault current limiter for distribution systems, and a 30 meter HTS power transmission cable. This paper will review the progress in application development of HTS products. The specific benefits and costs associated with this technology in power applications will be examined.

  10. Silicide-matrix materials for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meschter, P.J.; Schwartz, D.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Intermetallic-matrix composites are attractive alternatives to carbon/carbon and ceramic/ceramic composities for applications up to 1,600 C. Recent work on the intermetallic compounds MoSi2 and Ti5Si3 has included determination of their mechanical properties and deformation behavior, selection of thermodynamically compatible high-strength and ductile reinforcements, and strengthening and toughening mechanisms in silicide-matrix composites for high-temperature service. 11 refs.

  11. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  12. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  13. Applications of Silicon Carbide for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap material that shows great promise in high-power and high temperature electronics applications because of its high thermal conductivity and high breakdown electrical field. The excellent physical and electronic properties of SiC allows the fabrication of devices that can operate at higher temperatures and power levels than devices produced from either silicon or GaAs. Although modern electronics depends primarily upon silicon based devices, this material is not capable of handling may special requirements. Devices which operate at high speeds, at high power levels and are to be used in extreme environments at high temperatures and high radiation levels need other materials with wider bandgaps than that of silicon. Many space and terrestrial applications also have a requirement for wide bandgap materials. SiC also has great potential for high power and frequency operation due to a high saturated drift velocity. The wide bandgap allows for unique optoelectronic applications, that include blue light emitting diodes and ultraviolet photodetectors. New areas involving gas sensing and telecommunications offer significant promise. Overall, the properties of SiC make it one of the best prospects for extending the capabilities and operational regimes of the current semiconductor device technology.

  14. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  15. Microstructure Evolution and Corrosion Property of Medium-Carbon Alloy Steel after High-Temperature Carburization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewei, Deng; Tingting, Niu; Haiying, Liu; Lin, Zhang; Qi, Sun

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of carburization treatment on the microstructure and corrosion property of medium-carbon steels (40Cr) were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electrochemical corrosion, respectively. It was found that the microstructures beneath the surface were refined and a smooth transition microstructure from the surface to the core was observed in carburized samples. The fine plate-like but not granular carbide precipitation (Cr7C3) was observed in carburized sample by heat-treatment. The carburized specimens exhibited some effectiveness in the improvement of hardness and a smooth transition hardness profile. Corrosion resistance of 40Cr was improved by carburization treatment, resulting in the higher self-corrosion potential and the lower self-corrosion current density.

  16. Ultrasonic thermometry simulation in a random fluctuating medium: Evidence of the acoustic signature of a one-percent temperature difference.

    PubMed

    Nagaso, M; Moysan, J; Benjeddou, S; Massacret, N; Ploix, M A; Komatitsch, D; Lhuillier, C

    2016-05-01

    We study the development potential of ultrasonic thermometry in a liquid fluctuating sodium environment similar to that present in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, and thus investigate if and how ultrasonic thermometry could be used to monitor the sodium flow at the outlet of the reactor core. In particular we study if small temperature variations in the sodium flow of e.g. about 1% of the sodium temperature, i.e., about 5°C, can have a reliably-measurable acoustic signature. Since to our knowledge no experimental setups are available for such a study, and considering the practical difficulties of experimentation in sodium, we resort to a numerical technique for full wave propagation called the spectral-element method, which is a highly accurate finite-element method owing to the high-degree basis functions it uses. We obtain clear time-of-flight variations in the case of a small temperature difference of one percent in the case of a static temperature gradient as well as in the presence of a random fluctuation of the temperature field in the turbulent flow. The numerical simulations underline the potential of ultrasonic thermometry in such a context.

  17. Apparent solubility of hydroxyapatite in aqueous medium and its influence on the morphology of nanocrystallites with precipitation temperature.

    PubMed

    Prakash, K H; Kumar, R; Ooi, C P; Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    2006-12-19

    Two differing wet-chemical synthesis routes, Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 and CaCl2 + Na3PO4/NaOH, were used to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 95 degrees C. The electrical conductivity of the solution was measured at regular intervals of time during H3PO4 and Na3PO4 addition to the suspension/solution containing Ca2+ ions. The rate of change of conductivity is used to note the end point of the reaction. X-ray diffraction of the dried, precipitated particles revealed HA as the predominant phase, and the FTIR spectroscopy studies indicated the presence of CO3(2-) groups which substituted PO4(3-) groups in the HA lattice (B-type). FESEM observations revealed that the aspect ratio of the particles decreased with increasing precipitation reaction temperature in one system [Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4] and in the other system it increased with increasing temperature. The changes in the morphology with temperature were analyzed through conductivity measurements and the thermochemical properties of the reaction systems. Conductivity measurements showed that the concentration of dissolved ions at the end point of the reaction between Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 increased, indicating an increased apparent solubility of HA with increasing temperature, whereas the end-point conductivity did not increase noticeably in the other reaction system.

  18. Improvement of Surface Temperature Prediction Using SVR with MOGREPS Data for Short and Medium range over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.

  19. Temperatures following x-ray free-electron-laser heating of thin low- and medium-Z solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, D. S.; Wagenaars, E.; Tallents, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    The absorption of ultrashort (100 fs or shorter) bursts of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation by thin (less than an attenuation length) solid carbon and iron target is modeled. Photon energies of several hundred eV to several keV and intensities of 1016 to 1018 W cm-2 are considered. We calculate carbon and iron temperatures at sufficient times after XFEL irradiation that local thermodynamic equilibrium has been established and electron-ion thermalization has occurred, assuming classical heat capacities. It is shown that there is an optimum photon energy for maximizing temperatures. Constant irradiation at 1018 W cm-2 for 100 fs with photons of 2 and 3 keV, for example, is predicted to result in a temperature of over 500 eV in solid density carbon and over 1 keV in solid density iron, respectively.

  20. Generalized multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation: Application to (Ga,Mn)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Nelson, R.; Siddiqui, Elisha; Tam, K.-M.; Yu, U.; Berlijn, T.; Ku, W.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.

    2016-12-01

    We generalize the multiband typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and the formalism introduced by Blackman, Esterling, and Berk so that it can deal with localization in multiband disordered systems with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder with complicated potentials. We also introduce an ansatz for the momentum-resolved typical density of states that greatly improves the numerical stability of the method while preserving the independence of scattering events at different frequencies. Starting from the first-principles effective Hamiltonian, we apply this method to the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ga1 -xMnxN , and find the impurity band is completely localized for Mn concentrations x <0.03 , while for 0.03

  1. Recording and reading temperature tolerance in holographic data storage, in relation to the anisotropic thermal expansion of a photopolymer medium.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomiji

    2009-08-03

    In holographic data storage, it is difficult to retrieve data if the temperature difference between recording and reading exceeds 2 K. To widen this tolerance, a compensation method--adjusting the wavelengths and incident directions of the recording and reading beams--has been proposed. In this paper, for the first time, a method for calculating the recording and reading temperature tolerance using this compensation is introduced. To widen the narrow tolerance, typically +/- 10 K, it is effective to increase the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the substrate or decrease the CTE of the photopolymer. Although reducing the Numerical aperture of the objective lens is also effective, it degrades the recording density.

  2. Effect of Boron on the Kinetics of Low-Temperature Decomposition of Martensite in Quenched Medium-Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Grinberg, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of boron on the microstructure, microhardness, and kinetics of low-temperature decomposition of martensite in the 40Kh and 30KhRA steels quenched at different cooling rates has been studied. It has been shown that the low-temperature decomposition of martensite in the boron-containing steel after quenching from 1050°C at a high cooling rate is strongly decelerated at the initial stage of decomposition. At low quenching cooling rates, the martensite decomposition in the steels under investigation is characterized by a similar kinetics.

  3. Hydrometallurgical application for treating a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in chloride medium: Part I. Dissolution kinetics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Alafara A.; Ayinla, Kuranga I.; Adekola, Folahan A.; Bale, Rafiu B.; Ghosh, Malay K.; Alabi, Abdul G. F.; Sheik, Abdul R.; Folorunso, Ismael O.

    2013-11-01

    The dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian chalcopyrite ore in hydrochloric acid was studied in this article. Acid concentration, reaction temperature, and ore particle size were chosen as experimental parameters. The chemical and morphological studies of the ore before and after leaching at optimal conditions were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is revealed that increasing the acid concentration and system temperature and decreasing the ore particle size greatly enhances the dissolution rate. The dissolution kinetics was found to follow the shrinking core model for the diffusion control mechanism where the activation energy ( E a) of 32.92 kJ·mol-1 was obtained for the process and supported by morphological changes at a higher dissolution of 91.33%.

  4. Applications of a New England stream temperature model to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have applied a statistical stream network (SSN) model to predict stream thermal metrics (summer monthly medians, growing season maximum magnitude and timing, and daily rates of change) across New England nontidal streams and rivers, excluding northern Maine watersheds that extend into Canada (Detenbeck et al., in review). We excluded stream temperature observations within one kilometer downstream of dams from our model development, so our predictions for those reaches represent potential thermal regimes in the absence of dam effects. We used stream thermal thresholds for mean July temperatures delineating transitions between coldwater, transitional coolwater, and warmwater fish communities derived by Beauchene et al. (2014) to classify expected stream and river thermal regimes across New England. Within the model domain and based on 2006 land-use and air temperatures, the model predicts that 21.8% of stream + river kilometers would support coldwater fish communities (mean July water temperatures 22.3 degrees C mean July temperatures). Application of the model allows us to assess potential condition given full riparian zone restoration as well as potential loss of cold or coolwater habitat given loss of riparian shading. Given restoration of all ripa

  5. Turbine-engine applications of thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    The thermographic-phosphor (TP) method can measure temperature, heat flux, strain, and other physical quantities remotely in hostile and/or inaccessible environments such as the first-stage turbine components in turbine engines. It is especially useful in situations in which no other known method works well. This paper is a brief review of engine tests that demonstrated the utility of the TP method. For the most part, the results presented here are discussed only qualitatively. The papers in the bibliography describe these and other experiments and results in detail. The first viewgraph summarizes the many desirable features of the TP method. The second viewgraph describes TPs, and the third summarizes how the TP method works. To measure single-point temperatures in turbine-engine applications, we use the decay-time method, which depends on the fact that the luminescence following an impulse of ultraviolet excitation decays, with a characteristic decay time that. Is a monotonically decreasing function of temperature over some range of temperatures. The viewgraph is a set of calibration curves showing the behavior of some useful emission lines for ten important TPs. Consider Lu PO{sub 4}:Eu as an example. Below the {open_quotes}quenching{close_quotes} temperature near 900 Y, the decay time is nearly constant. Above it, the decay time decreases exponentially with the temperature. This strong functional dependence means that one can have a fairly large error in the lifetime measurement, as in environments with poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), yet still obtain high accuracy in the temperature measurement. Our more-recent data up to 1900 K show the same behavior.

  6. GREENER AND RAPID ACCESS TO BIO-ACTIVE HETEROCYCLES: ROOM TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS OF PYRAZOLES AND DIAZEPINES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expeditious room temperature synthesis of pyrazoles and diazepines by condensation of hydrazines/hydrazides and diamines with various 1,3-diketones is described. This greener protocol was catalyzed by polystyrene supported sulfonic acid (PSSA) and proceeded efficiently in wate...

  7. Long-Term Formaldehyde Emissions from Medium-Density Fiberboard in a Full-Scale Experimental Room: Emission Characteristics and the Effects of Temperature and Humidity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weihui; Yang, Shen; Yang, Xudong

    2015-09-01

    We studied formaldehyde emissions from the medium-density fiberboard (MDF) in a full-scale experimental room to approximate emissions in actual buildings. Detailed indoor formaldehyde concentrations and temperature and humidity data were obtained for about 29 months. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) ranged over -10.9-31.4 °C, 46.5-83.6%, and 1.1-23.1 g/kgair, respectively. Annual cyclical seasonal variations were observed for indoor formaldehyde concentrations and emission rates, exhibiting entirely different characteristics than those in an environmental chamber under constant environmental conditions. The maximum concentration occurred in summer rather than at initial introduction of the material. The concentrations in summer could be a few up to 20 times higher than that in winter, depending on the indoor temperature and humidity conditions. Concentrations decreased by 20-65% in corresponding months of the second year. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations were positively correlated with temperature and AH but were poorly correlated with RH. The combined effects of temperature and AH on formaldehyde emissions from MDF in actual buildings were verified. These detailed long-term experimental results could be used with environmental chamber measurement data to scale up and validate emission models from chambers held at constant conditions to actual buildings.

  8. High performance polymer electrolytes based on main and side chain pyridine aromatic polyethers for high and medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geormezi, M.; Chochos, C. L.; Gourdoupi, N.; Neophytides, S. G.; Kallitsis, J. K.

    Novel aromatic polyether type copolymers bearing side chain polar pyridine rings as well as combination of main and side chain pyridine units have been evaluated as potential polymer electrolytes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The advanced chemical and physicochemical properties of these new polymers with their high oxidative stability, mechanical integrity and high glass transition temperatures (T g's up to 270 °C) and decomposition temperatures (T d's up to 480 °C) make them promising candidates for high and medium temperature proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. These copolymers exhibit adequate proton conductivities up to 0.08 S cm -1 even at moderate phosphoric acid doping levels. An optimized terpolymer chemical structure has been developed, which has been effectively tested as high temperature phosphoric acid imbibed polymer electrolyte. MEA prepared out of the novel terpolymer chemical structure is approaching state of the art fuel cell operating performance (135 mW cm -2 with electrical efficiency 45%) at high temperatures (150-180 °C) despite the low phosphoric acid content (<200 wt%) and the low platinum loading (ca. 0.7 mg cm -2). Durability tests were performed affording stable performance for more than 1000 h.

  9. Hot deformation behaviour of alloys for applications at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voyzelle, Benoit

    The present study investigated the deformation behaviour, microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour under hot working conditions of alloys designed for elevated-temperature applications. For this purpose, iron-aluminum and titanium-aluminum alloys were selected and their compositions are: Fe-8.5wt%Al-5.5Cr-2.0Mo-0.2Zr-0.03C, Fe-16.5Al-5.5Cr-1.0Nb-0.05C and Ti-33.3Al-2.8Mn-4.8Nb. These alloys were tested in the as-cast condition and in the form of hot-rolled + annealed plate for the iron-aluminum alloys and in the HIP'ed condition for the titanium-aluminum alloy. Isothermal compression tests were carried out with a Gleeble 2000 over a range of temperatures from 800 to 1250°C and constant strain rates from 10-3 to 10 s-1. In general, the flow curves are marked by a peak stress and softening which decline as temperature rises, and a flow stress which diminishes with rise in temperature and decrease in strain rate. The flow behaviour at peak stress (sigmap) and 0.5 true strain of these materials was described well by the Zener-Hollomon parameter Z=3˙exp /RTQHW , where Z=K3sinha sn . A numerical curve-fitting method was used to yield values of the following parameters: (i) stress exponent, n and (ii) activation energy, QHW . The dynamic material modeling approach was performed to extract from hot compression data: (i) the strain rate sensitivity parameter, m, (ii) the efficiency of power dissipation, eta, and (iii) the instability parameter, xi. The microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour were assessed using optical and electron microscopy. The deformation processes occuring were determined by correlation of the sigma-epsilon curves, m and microstructural observations. The resulting deformation map indicates that at lower temperatures and higher strain rates, the dominant restoration occurs by dynamic recovery, while at lower strain rates and higher temperatures dynamic recrystallization is the operative mode. At the highest temperatures, dynamic

  10. Effect of temperature on the shape of spatial quasi-periodic oscillations of the refractive index of alkali atoms in an optically dense medium with a closed excitation contour of Δ type

    SciTech Connect

    Barantsev, K A; Litvinov, A N

    2014-10-31

    A theory of a closed excitation contour (Δ system) of a three-level atom in an optically dense medium is constructed with allowance for temperature. The spatial quasi-periodic oscillations of the refractive index in the system under study are shown to damp with increasing temperature. The range of temperatures at which these oscillations are most pronounced is found. (quantum optics)

  11. Spectroscopy for Industrial Applications: High-Temperature Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, Alexander; Grosch, Helge; Clausen, Sonnik; Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    The continuous development of the spectroscopic databases brings new perspectives in the environmental and industrial on-line process control, monitoring and stimulates further optical sensor developments. This is because no calibration gases are needed and, in general, temperature-dependent spectral absorption features gases of interest for a specific instrument can in principle be calculated by knowing only the gas temperature and pressure in the process under investigation/monitoring. The latest HITRAN-2012 database contains IR/UV spectral data for 47 molecules and it is still growing. However use of HITRAN is limited to low-temperature processes (< 400 K) and therefor can be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. For higher temperatures, the HITEMP-2010 database is available. Only a few molecules CO2, H2O, CO and NO are those of interest for e.g. various combustion and astronomical applications are included. In the recent few years, several efforts towards a development of hot line lists have been made; those have been implemented in the latest HITRAN2012 database1. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 (IR, 0.1 cm-1) and phenol (UV, 0.019 nm) on a flow gas cell2 up to 800 K are presented. Molecules are of great interest in various high-temperature environments including exoplanets, combustion and gasification. Measured NH3 hot lines have been assigned and spectra have been compared with that obtained by calculations based on the BYTe hot line list1. High-temperature NH3 absorption spectra have been used in the analysis of in situ high-resolution IR absorption measurements on the producer gas in low-temperature gasification process on a large scale. High-resolution UV temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of phenol are reported for the first time. All UV data have been calibrated by relevant GC/MS measurements. Use of the data is demonstrated by the analysis of in situ UV absorption measurements on a

  12. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  13. Establishment of the intracranial hemodynamic model based on contrast medium and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yaoer; He, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ischemic cerebrovascular diseases are one of the most common vascular diseases in aged people and CT perfusion (CTP) is a very popular tool to detect the ischemic changes in brain vascular. The present study aims to establish a novel intracranial hemodynamic model to simulate anterior cerebral artery blood flow, and compare the actual and simulated hemodynamic parameters of healthy people and patients with carotid stenosis or occlusion. A mathematical model of the intracranial hemodynamic was generated using MATLAB software, and data from patients with or without infarct disease (57 and 44 cases, respectively) were retrospectively collected to test the new model. The actual time-density curve (TDC) of anterior cerebral artery was obtained from the original intracranial CTP data, and simulated TDC was calculated from our intracranial hemodynamic model. All model parameters were adjusted according to patients’ sex, height, and weight. Time to peak enhancement (TTP), maximum enhancement (ME), and mean transit time (MTT) were selected to evaluate the status of hemodynamics. In healthy people, there were no significant differences of TTP and ME between actual and simulated curves. For patients with infarct symptoms, ME was significantly decreased in actual data compared with simulated curve, while there was no obvious difference of TTP between actual and simulated data. Moreover, MTT was delayed in infarct patients compared with healthy people. Our group generated a computer-based, physiologic model to simulate intracranial hemodynamics. The model successfully simulated anterior cerebral artery hemodynamics in normal healthy people and showed noncompliant ME and MTT in infarct patients, reflecting their abnormal cerebral hemodynamic status. The digital model is reliable and may help optimize the protocol of contrast medium enhancement in intracranial CT, and provide a solid tool to study intracranial hemodynamics. PMID:27930555

  14. Supporting data intensive applications with medium grained parallelism. Progress report, July 1, 1991--February 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Pfaltz, J.L.; French, J.C.; Grimshaw, A.S.; Son, S.H.

    1992-04-01

    ADAMS is an ambitious effort to provide new database access paradigms for the kinds of scientific applications that require massively parallel access to very large data sets in order to be effective. Many of the Grand Challenge Problems fall into this category, as well as those kinds of scientific research which depend on widely distributed shared sets of disparate data. The essence of the ADAMS approach is to view data purely in functional terms, rather than the more traditional structural view in which multiple data items are aggregated into records or tuples of flat files. Further, ADAMS has been implemented as an embedded interface so that scientists can develop applications in the host programming language of their choice, often Fortran, Pascal, or C, and still access shared data generated in other environments. The syntax and semantics of ADAMS is essentially complete. The functional nature of the ADAMS data interface paradigm simplifies its implementation in a distributed environment, e.g., the Mentat run-time system, because one must only distribute functional servers, not pieces of data structures. However, this only opens up the possibility of effective parallel database processing; to realize this potential far more work must be done in the areas of data dependence, intra-statement parallelism, parallel query optimization, and maintaining consistency and reliability in concurrent systems. Discovering how to make effective parallel data access an actually in real scientific applications is the point of this research.

  15. Oxidation of Palladium-Chromium Alloys for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piltch, Nancy D.; Jih-Fen, Lei; Zeller, Mary V.

    1994-01-01

    An alloy consisting of Pd with 13 wt % Cr is a promising material for high temperature applications. High temperature performance is degraded by the oxidation of the material, which is more severe in the fine wires and thin films used for sensor applications than in the bulk. The present study was undertaken to improve our understanding of the physical and chemical changes occurring at these temperatures and to identify approaches to limit oxidation of the alloy. The alloy was studied in both ribbon and wire forms. Ribbon samples were chosen to examine the role of grain boundaries in the oxidation process because of the convenience of handling for the oxidation studies. Wire samples 25 microns in diameter which are used in resistance strain gages were studied to correlate chemical properties with observed electrical, physical, and structural properties. Overcoating the material with a metallic Cr film did prevent the segregation of Pd to the surface; however, it did not eliminate the oxidation of the alloy.

  16. Hardfacing of high temperature alloys for ethylene pyrolysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agosta, P.; Levesque, C.; Kurlekar, A.

    1994-12-31

    Materials of construction in an ethylene pyrolysis furnace must withstand severe conditions including high temperatures, alternating oxidizing and carburizing atmospheres, impinging coke particles, and thermal cycling. The creep, high temperature corrosion, and erosion which are experienced by furnace components can be resisted by proper materials selection. Positioned directly in the process stream, thermowells are used to monitor process temperatures. Thermowell materials of construction must be selected with the extreme process conditions in mind. As always, safety is an underlying factor. Given the highly flammable ethylene stream, thermowell failures must be prevented at any cost. No single material was found to resist both creep and erosion under existing operating conditions. However, the combination of a creep resistant base material with a wear resistant coating was found to not only prevent failures, but also greatly extend thermowell life, reducing downtime and maintenance costs. Laboratory research and actual operations data have shown a nickel based superalloy with a ceramic hardfacing to be highly cost effective in thermowell applications in resisting the combination of creep and erosion found in ethylene pyrolysis applications.

  17. Highly entangled photons and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates in a room-temperature active Raman gain medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hang Chao; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-11-15

    We present a scheme for obtaining entangled photons and quantum phase gates in a room-temperature four-state tripod-type atomic system with two-mode active Raman gain (ARG). We analyze the linear and nonlinear optical responses of this ARG system and show that the scheme is fundamentally different from those based on electromagnetically induced transparency and hence can avoid significant probe-field absorption as well as a temperature-related Doppler effect. We demonstrate that highly entangled photon pairs can be produced and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates can be constructed based on the unique features of the enhanced cross-phase-modulation and superluminal probe-field propagation of the system.

  18. Mathematical modeling of forest canopy ignition by the Tunguska meteorite with allowance for the dual temperature of the medium

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, A.M.; Perminov, V.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The ignition of the forest canopy during the Tunguska event is examined by using a mathematical model of forest fires. The dimensions of the ignition zone for fixed explosion energies are determined for different parameters of the forest canopy. Based on mathematical experiments, the explosion energy that agrees best with the available data is determined. The temperature fields and the velocities and concentrations of the gas phase components are determined for different points in time. 8 refs.

  19. Electronic Components for use in Extreme Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such extreme conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at extreme temperatures, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under extreme temperatures. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.

  20. Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

  1. Accelerated Stress Testing of Hydrocarbon-Based Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Moricone, T. J.; Kilkenny, M.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2011-02-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems have great potential to reduce photovoltaic (PV) electricity costs because of the relatively low cost of optical components as compared to PV cells. A transparent polymeric material is used to optically couple the PV cell to optical components and is thus exposed to the concentrated light source at elevated temperatures. In this work polymeric encapsulant materials are positioned close to a Xenon arc lamp to expose them to ultraviolet radiation (UV) that is about 42 times as intense as sunlight. Furthermore, different glass types are used as filters to modify the spectral distribution of light in the UV range. A strong sensitivity of non-silicone-based encapsulants to light below ~350 nm is demonstrated. Of all the materials examined in this study, the polydimethyl silicone samples performed the best. The next best material was an ionomer which maintained optical transmission but became photo-oxidized where exposed to the atmosphere.

  2. Production of nearly monodisperse Fe3O4 and Fe@Fe3O4 nanoparticles in aqueous medium and their surface modification for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Lee, Sang Hyup; Chae, Kwon Seok; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2017-02-01

    Iron (Fe)-based nanoparticles are extremely valuable in biomedical applications owing to their low toxicity and high magnetization values at room temperature. In this study, we synthesized nearly monodisperse iron oxide (Fe3O4) and Fe@Fe3O4 (core: Fe, shell: Fe3O4) nanoparticles in aqueous medium under argon flow and then, coated them with various biocompatible ligands and silica. In this study, eight types of surface-modified nanoparticles were investigated, namely, Fe3O4@PAA (PAA = polyacrylic acid; Mw of PAA = 5100 amu and 15,000 amu), Fe3O4@PAA-FA (FA = folic acid; Mw of PAA = 5100 amu and 15,000 amu), Fe3O4@PEI-fluorescein (PEI = polyethylenimine; Mw of PEI = 1300 amu), Fe@Fe3O4@PEI (Mw of PEI = 10,000 amu), Fe3O4@SiO2 and Fe@Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the prepared surface-modified nanoparticles using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and confocal microscopy. Finally, we measured the cytotoxicity of the samples. The results indicate that the surface-modified nanoparticles are biocompatible and are potential candidates for various biomedical applications.

  3. 3D methodology for modeling and analysis of medium-complexity mechanical assemblies: Application in elevator-car design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoglanidis, Georgios A.; Sapidis, Nickolas S.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with design methods for medium-complexity mechanical systems, and focuses on two standard steps in such a method: "2D drawing" (included in the early stages of design) and "3D CADmodel simplification & defeaturing" (in the concluding "analysis stages" of a design procedure), whose contribution to mechanical design has always been a controversial subject. On the basis of the state-of-the-art in mechanical design, this "position paper" advocates complete elimination of the above two steps, and details the corresponding modified mechanical-design method. Application of this new design-method on a real-life industrial case (: elevator-car design) is fully analyzed, demonstrating the method's efficacy for mediumcomplexity mechanical assemblies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  5. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  6. Unified constitutive models for high-temperature structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, U. S.; Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Weber, R. M.; Walker, K. P.

    1988-01-01

    Unified constitutive models are characterized by the use of a single inelastic strain rate term for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation, including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation under monotonic or cyclic loading. The structure of this class of constitutive theory pertinent for high temperature structural applications is first outlined and discussed. The effectiveness of the unified approach for representing high temperature deformation of Ni-base alloys is then evaluated by extensive comparison of experimental data and predictions of the Bodner-Partom and the Walker models. The use of the unified approach for hot section structural component analyses is demonstrated by applying the Walker model in finite element analyses of a benchmark notch problem and a turbine blade problem.

  7. Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

  8. Transmission matrix of a scattering medium and its applications in biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Youngwoon; Yoon, Changhyeong; Choi, Wonshik

    2015-05-18

    A conventional lens has well-defined transfer function with which we can form an image of a target object. On the contrary, scattering media such as biological tissues, multimode optical fibers and layers of disordered nanoparticles have highly complex transfer function, which makes them impractical for the general imaging purpose. In recent studies, we presented a method of experimentally recording the transmission matrix of such media, which is a measure of the transfer function. In this review paper, we introduce two major applications of the transmission matrix: enhancing light energy delivery and imaging through scattering media. For the former, we identified the eigenchannels of the transmission matrix with large eigenvalues and then coupled light to those channels in order to enhance light energy delivery through the media. For the latter, we solved matrix inversion problem to reconstruct an object image from the distorted image by the scattering media. We showed the enlargement of the numerical aperture of imaging systems with the use of scattering media and demonstrated endoscopic imaging through a single multimode optical fiber working in both reflectance and fluorescence modes. Our approach will pave the way of using scattering media as unique optical elements for various biophotonics applications.

  9. Resin Transfer Moldable Polyimides Developed for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature polyimides, such as PMR 15 (which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field), are becoming an increasingly important class of materials for a variety of aerospace applications, such as aircraft engine components and propulsion and airframe components for reusable launch vehicles (RLV s). Because of their high specific strength and low density, use of these materials in place of more traditional aerospace materials, such as titanium, can significantly reduce component and vehicle weight, leading to reductions in fuel consumption (and pollutants), increases in payload and passenger capacity, and improvements in vehicle performance.

  10. High Temperature Polymeric Materials for Space Transportation Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Campbell, Sandi G.; Chuang, Kathy C.; Scheimann, Daniel A.; Mintz, Eric; Hylton, Donald; Veazie, David; Criss, James; Kollmansberg, Ron; Tsotsis, Tom

    2003-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites are attractive materials for space transporation propulsion systems because of their low density and high specific strength. However, the relatively poor stability and processability of these materials can render them unsuitable for many of these applications. New polymeric materials have been developed under the Propulsion Research and Technology Program through the use of novel resin chemistry and nanotechnology. These new materials can significantly enhance the durability and weight and improve the processability and affordability of propulsion components for advanced space transportation systems.

  11. Exceptional damage-tolerance of a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Thurston, Keli V. S.; Bei, Hongbin; Wu, Zhenggang; George, Easo P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-02-02

    The high-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties not from a single dominant constituent, such as iron in steels, nor from the presence of a second phase, such as in nickel-base superalloys, but rather comprise multi-element systems that crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations (~20 at.%) of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Indeed, we have recently reported on one such single-phase high-entropy alloy, NiCoCrFeMn, which displays exceptional strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here which displays unprecedented strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys and most multi-phase alloys. With roomtemperature tensile strengths of almost 1 GPa and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200 MPa.m 1/2 (with crack-growth toughnesses exceeding 300 MPa.m 1/2), the strength, ductility and toughness of the NiCoCr alloy actually improve at cryogenic temperatures to unprecedented levels of strengths above 1.3 GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275 MPa.m 1/2 (with crackgrowth toughnesses above 400 MPa.m 1/2). These properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning.

  12. Exceptional damage-tolerance of a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi at cryogenic temperatures

    DOE PAGES

    Gludovatz, Bernd; Hohenwarter, Anton; Thurston, Keli V. S.; ...

    2016-02-02

    The high-entropy alloys are an intriguing new class of metallic materials that derive their properties not from a single dominant constituent, such as iron in steels, nor from the presence of a second phase, such as in nickel-base superalloys, but rather comprise multi-element systems that crystallize as a single phase, despite containing high concentrations (~20 at.%) of five or more elements with different crystal structures. Indeed, we have recently reported on one such single-phase high-entropy alloy, NiCoCrFeMn, which displays exceptional strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Here which displays unprecedented strength-toughness properties that exceed those of all high-entropy alloys andmore » most multi-phase alloys. With roomtemperature tensile strengths of almost 1 GPa and KJIc fracture-toughness values above 200 MPa.m 1/2 (with crack-growth toughnesses exceeding 300 MPa.m 1/2), the strength, ductility and toughness of the NiCoCr alloy actually improve at cryogenic temperatures to unprecedented levels of strengths above 1.3 GPa, failure strains up to 90% and KJIc values of 275 MPa.m 1/2 (with crackgrowth toughnesses above 400 MPa.m 1/2). These properties appear to result from continuous steady strain hardening, which acts to suppress plastic instability, resulting from pronounced dislocation activity and deformation-induced nano-twinning.« less

  13. Dust Accelerators And Their Applications In High-Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui

    2011-06-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Although much effort has been devoted to getting rid of the dust nuisance, there are instances where a controlled use of dust can be beneficial. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  14. Some potential antenna applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Robert J.

    1990-09-01

    A review of possible applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) to antennas and antenna feed networks is presented. The frequency range of consideration is 1 MHz to 100 GHz. Three antenna application areas seem appropriate for HTS material. (1) Electrically small antennas and their matching networks: an increase in efficiency is possible for electrically short antennas, but at the expense of bandwidth. Substantial radiated power levels (on the order of kilowatts) can be handled by the best HTS material. Substantial improvement may be realized by making only the matching network of HTS material. (2) Feed and matching networks for compact arrays with enhanced directive gain (superdirective arrays): HTS material should permit such arrays to be fabricated that have high efficiency. (3) Feed networks for millimeter-wave arrays: Low-loss feed networks using HTS microstrip transmission lines give many decibels improvement in gain.

  15. Dust accelerators and their applications in high-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catakin M

    2010-01-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Much effort has been devoted to gening rid of the dust nuisance. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  16. Low-Temperature Solution Processable Electrodes for Piezoelectric Sensors Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuukkanen, Sampo; Julin, Tuomas; Rantanen, Ville; Zakrzewski, Mari; Moilanen, Pasi; Lupo, Donald

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric thin-film sensors are suitable for a wide range of applications from physiological measurements to industrial monitoring systems. The use of flexible materials in combination with high-throughput printing technologies enables cost-effective manufacturing of custom-designed, highly integratable piezoelectric sensors. This type of sensor can, for instance, improve industrial process control or enable the embedding of ubiquitous sensors in our living environment to improve quality of life. Here, we discuss the benefits, challenges and potential applications of piezoelectric thin-film sensors. The piezoelectric sensor elements are fabricated by printing electrodes on both sides of unmetallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) film. We show that materials which are solution processable in low temperatures, biocompatible and environmental friendly are suitable for use as electrode materials in piezoelectric sensors.

  17. The Low-temperature Ion Sulfurizing Technology and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G. Z.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Li, G. L.; Zhang, S.

    A solid lubrication film mainly consists of FeS, which has excellent tribology properties, can be formed on the sulfurized iron or steel surface. The sulfurizing technology has aroused intense attention from the day it appeared. However, the widespread industrial application of sulfurizing technology was promoted by the low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) process. This paper summarized the phylogeny and sorts of sulfurizing technology firstly; then, the process flow of LTIS technology, the forming mechanism, microstructure and tribological properties of ion sulfurized layer were introduced detailedly; and then, the technological, economic and environmental merits of LTIS technology were generalized; finally, the industrial applications of LTIS technology in various typical rolling, sliding and heavy duty parts were reviewed briefly. LTIS technology, with the advantages of high sulfurizing speed, good performance of sulfurized layer and without sideeffect, has played an important role in the tribology modification of ferrous parts, and the LTIS process will become more green, simple and efficient in the future.

  18. Design and application of feedback-sustained target waves in excitable medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ningjie; Chen, Jiangxing; Gao, Hongjun; Ying, Heping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a formulas of rational ratios between the frequency of external stimulus and its paced target waves, considering the existence of the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period. Based on this, we design a self-sustained high-frequency target waves by feeding back few periphery field points to the center to responsibly play the role of source for pacemaker. Such constructed target waves, to all appearances, are shown as a repetition of their initial condition. We explore further in application that those feedback-sustained targets can eliminate both a freely rotating spiral waves and a pinned ones only if frequencies, feedback lengths and radius of obstacles are appropriately chosen. After feedback stimuli are removed, the system eventually returns to the rest state.

  19. White tea as a promising antioxidant medium additive for sperm storage at room temperature: a comparative study with green tea.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Socorro, Sílvia; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2014-01-22

    Storage of sperm under refrigeration reduces its viability, due to oxidative unbalance. Unfermented teas present high levels of catechin derivatives, known to reduce oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of white tea (WTEA) on epididymal spermatozoa survival at room temperature (RT), using green tea (GTEA) for comparative purposes. The chemical profiles of WTEA and GTEA aqueous extracts were evaluated by (1)H NMR. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate was the most abundant catechin, being twice as abundant in WTEA extract. The antioxidant power of storage media was evaluated. Spermatozoa antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation, and viability were assessed. The media antioxidant potential increased the most with WTEA supplementation, which was concomitant with the highest increase in sperm antioxidant potential and lipid peroxidation decrease. WTEA supplementation restored spermatozoa viability to values similar to those obtained at collection time. These findings provide evidence that WTEA extract is an excellent media additive for RT sperm storage, to facilitate transport and avoid the deleterious effects of refrigeration.

  20. Alcohol from whey permeate: strain selection, temperature, and medium optimization. [Candida pseudotropicalis, Kluyveromyces fragilis, and K. lactis

    SciTech Connect

    Vienne, P.; Von Stockar, U.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of shaken flask cultures of some yeast strains capable of fermenting lactose showed no significant differences in alcohol yield among the four best strains. Use of whey permeate concentrated three times did not affect the yields. An optimal growth temperature of 38/sup 0/C was determined for K. fragilis NRRL 665. Elemental analysis of both the permeate and the dry cell mass of two strains indicated the possibility of a stoichiometric limitation by nitrogen. Batch cultures in laboratory fermentors confirmed this finding and revealed in addition the presence of a limitation due to growth factors. Both types of limitations could be overcome by adding yeast extract. The maximum productivity of continuous cultures could thus be improved to 5.1 g/l-h. The maximum specific growth rate was of the order of 0.310 h/sup -1/. 15 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Electrodeposition of Sn-Ni Alloy Coatings for Water-Splitting Application from Alkaline Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sandhya; Hegde, A. Chitharanjan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, Sn-Ni alloy coatings were developed onto the surface of copper from a newly formulated electrolytic bath by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition technique using gelatin as an additive. The electrocatalytic behavior of coatings deposited at different current densities (c.d.'s) for water-splitting applications, in terms of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), has been researched. The experimental results showed that the electrocatalytic activity of Sn-Ni coatings has a close relationship with its composition, surface morphology, and phase structure depending on the c.d. used, supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques have demonstrated that Sn-Ni alloy deposited at 4.0 A dm-2 (having 37.6 wt pct Ni) and 1.0 A dm-2 (having 19.6 wt pct Ni) exhibit, respectively, the highest electrocatalytic behavior for HER and OER in 1.0-M KOH solution. Sn-Ni alloy coatings were found to be stable under working conditions of electrolysis, confirmed by electrochemical corrosion tests. High electrocatalytic activity of Sn-Ni alloy coatings for both HER and OER is specific to their composition, surface morphology, and active surface area.

  2. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable

  3. A mechanical cooler for dual-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, W.; Carrington, H.; Kiehl, W.; Byrne, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Ball Aerospace has been developing Stirling cycle mechanical cryocoolers specifically for space applications. These coolers are special in that they are designed from the beginning for power efficiency, high reliability, and compatibility with sensitive instruments. We have delivered several of these coolers to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and are currently assembling one for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) program. In our current research effort, funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), we are tailoring our basic design to new requirements from the Air Force Research Laboratory and its customers. We describe our success in optimizing a cooler to efficiently provide refrigeration at two different temperatures simultaneously. This two-temperature application requires 0.4 W of cooling at 35 K, and 0.6 W of cooling at 60 K. We have met these requirements with an input power of approximately 70 W from a dc source with a breadboard version of the cooler. We expect to deliver the protoflight version of this cooler to the Air Force Research Laboratory in January 1998.

  4. Thermal Death of Temperature-Sensitive Lysyl- and Tryptophanyl-Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Synthetase Mutants of Bacillus subtilis: Effect of Culture Medium and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, William

    1974-01-01

    The growth of thermosensitive Bacillus subtilis lysyl- and tryptophanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase mutants (lysS1 and trypS1) (l-lysine:transfer ribonucleic acid [tRNA] ligase [AMP], EC 6.1.1.6; and l-tryptophan:tRNA ligase [AMP], EC 6.1.1.2) was terminated when exponential phase cells were shifted from 30 to 43 C in a rich medium. Under these conditions, the temperature-inhibited cells undergo thermal death; they rapidly lose their ability to form colonies at 30 C. Another lysyl-tRNA synthetase mutant (lysS2) is refractory to thermal death even though its growth is inhibited at 43 C. The thermal death response of the lysS1 mutant is affected by the stage of cell development. At periods in spore outgrowth and sporogenesis these cells become refractory to thermal death. The refractory state does not result from the production of an inhibitor, or from the degradation of an activator of thermal death. However, culture medium composition does modify the thermal death response. Rich media enhance the effect, and no thermal death occurs in the lysS1 strain grown in a minimal medium. Temperature-sensitive cells can grow in a lysine- (0.25 mM) or tryptophan- (0.25 mM) supplemented minimal medium at 43 C, but amino acid concentrations of 25 mM only transiently protect trypS1 and lysS1 cells from thermal death in a rich medium. Osmotic agents such as sucrose (0.5 M) and NaCl (0.34 M) completely prevent thermal death in the lysS1 strain, although growth is still arrested. On solid media, sucrose stabilized lysS1 cells can form colonies at the restrictive temperature, but neither sucrose (0.5 M) nor NaCl (0.34 M) stabilized the lysS1 enzyme in vitro. Chloramiphenicol increased the rate of thermal death of the lysS1 strain but decreased the thermal death response of the trypS1 mutant. Considering the nature of the enzyme defect in the lysS1 strain, the common genetic origin of the spore and vegetative lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and the protective effects exerted by lysine

  5. Transient magnetic field and temperature modeling in large magnet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, H.; Hardy, G.E.; Peck, S.D.; Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1989-07-01

    This paper discusses a coupled magnetic/thermal model developed to study heat and magnetic field diffusion in conducting materials subject to time-varying external fields. There are numerous applications, both military and commercial. These include: energy storage devices, pulsed power transformers, and electromagnetic launchers. The time scales of interest may range from a magnetic field pulse of a microsecond in an electromagnetic launcher, to hundreds of seconds in an energy storage magnet. The problem can be dominated by either the magnetic field or heat diffusion, depending on the temperature and the material properties of the conductor. In general, heat diffuses much more rapidly in high electrical conductivity materials of cryogenic temperatures. The magnetic field takes longer to diffuse, since screening currents can be rapidly set up which shield the interior of the material from further magnetic field penetration. Conversely, in high resistivity materials, the magnetic field diffuses much more rapidly. A coupled two-dimensional thermal/magnetic model has been developed. The results of this model, showing the time and spatial variation of the magnetic field and temperature, are discussed for the projectile of an electromagnetic launcher.

  6. Rapid growth of nanocrystalline CuInS 2 thin films in alkaline medium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Seung Jae; Mane, Rajaram S.; Pathan, Habib M.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of CuInS 2 (CIS) thin films at room temperature (25 °C) from alkaline CuSO 4 + In 2(SO 4) 3 and Na 2S precursor solutions was reported. The method allowed self-limited growth of CIS films with nanocrystalline structure and composed of densely packed nanometer-sized grains. The as-deposited CIS film was 250 nm thick and composed of closely packed particles of 20-30 nm in diameter. The alkaline cationic precursor solution was obtained by dissolving CuSO 4 and InSO 4 in deionized water with a appropriate amount of hydrazine monohydrate (H-H) and 2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol (TEA). CIS films were annealed at 200 °C for 2 h and effect of annealing on structural, optical, and surface morphological properties was thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrometer, C-V, and water contact angle techniques, respectively.

  7. Corrosion Behaviour of Ni{sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} Alloy in 1 M NaCl Aqueous Medium at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Shubhra; Vyas, Rishi; Sachdev, K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2010-06-29

    Potentiodynamic polarization studies were performed on the air side and wheel side of the specimen Ni{sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium at room temperature. It was observed that the corrosion current density on the air side of the specimen was less than that of the wheel side of the specimen in 1 M NaCl aqueous medium. The amorphous nature of the air side and wheel side of the specimen Ni{sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The observed behaviour can be related to the surface morphology due to processing of the ribbons. It is suggested that the inferior corrosion resistance of the wheel side surface is attributed to higher concentration of quenched-in defects due to higher cooling rate. Weight loss studies were also carried out in order to corroborate the polarization results. The results are discussed in the paper in the light of data reported in the literature.

  8. Unsteady MHD convective flow of Second grade fluid through a porous medium in a Rotating parallel plate channel with temperature dependent source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VeeraKrishna, M.; Subba Reddy, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we make an initial vale investigation of hydromagnetic convective flow of a viscous electrically conducting second grade fluid through a porous medium in a rotating parallel plate channel in the presence of a temperature dependent heat source. The perturbations in the flow are created by a constant pressure gradient along the plates in addition to non-torsional oscillations of the lower plate. The exact solutions of the velocity and the temperature fields consist of the steady state and the transient components using Laplace transform technique. The time required for the transient effects to decay is discussed in detail and the ultimate steady state consists of boundary layers on the plates and an interior. Attention is focused on the physical nature of the solutions, and the structure of the various kinds of boundary layers formed on the plates. The final steady state velocity and temperature fields are numerically discussed for different values of the governing parameters. The shear stresses and the Nusselt number are tabulated. Particular case when both the plates are at rest has also been computed and analyzed.

  9. Freezing transition of the directed polymer in a 1 + d random medium: location of the critical temperature and unusual critical properties.

    PubMed

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    In dimension d > or =3, the directed polymer in a random medium undergoes a phase transition between a free phase at high temperature and a low-temperature disorder-dominated phase. For the latter phase, Fisher and Huse have proposed a droplet theory based on the scaling of the free-energy fluctuations Delta F(l) approximately l theta at scale l. On the other hand, in related growth models belonging to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, Forrest and Tang have found that the height-height correlation function is logarithmic at the transition. For the directed polymer model at criticality, this translates into logarithmic free-energy fluctuations Delta FTc(l) approximately (lnl)sigma with sigma = 1/2. In this paper, we propose a droplet scaling analysis exactly at criticality based on this logarithmic scaling. Our main conclusion is that the typical correlation length xi(T) of the low-temperature phase diverges as ln xi(t) approximately [-ln(Tc-T)]1/sigma approximately [-ln(Tc-T)]2, instead of the usual power law xi(T) approximately (Tc-T)-v. Furthermore, the logarithmic dependence of Delta FTc(l) leads to the conclusion that the critical temperature Tc actually coincides with the explicit upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and co-workers, where T2 corresponds to the temperature below which the ratio Z 2 L/(ZL)2 diverges exponentially in L. Finally, since the Fisher-Huse droplet theory was initially introduced for the spin-glass phase, we briefly mention the similarities with and differences from the directed polymer model. If one speculates that the free energy of droplet excitations for spin glasses is also logarithmic at Tc, one obtains a logarithmic decay for the mean square correlation function at criticality, C2(r) approximately 1/(ln r)sigma, instead of the usual power law l/rd-2+eta.

  10. Freezing transition of the directed polymer in a 1+d random medium: Location of the critical temperature and unusual critical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    In dimension d⩾3 , the directed polymer in a random medium undergoes a phase transition between a free phase at high temperature and a low-temperature disorder-dominated phase. For the latter phase, Fisher and Huse have proposed a droplet theory based on the scaling of the free-energy fluctuations ΔF(l)˜lθ at scale l . On the other hand, in related growth models belonging to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, Forrest and Tang have found that the height-height correlation function is logarithmic at the transition. For the directed polymer model at criticality, this translates into logarithmic free-energy fluctuations ΔFTc(l)˜(lnl)σ with σ=1/2 . In this paper, we propose a droplet scaling analysis exactly at criticality based on this logarithmic scaling. Our main conclusion is that the typical correlation length ξ(T) of the low-temperature phase diverges as lnξ(T)˜[-ln(Tc-T)]1/σ˜[-ln(Tc-T)]2 , instead of the usual power law ξ(T)˜(Tc-T)-ν . Furthermore, the logarithmic dependence of ΔFTc(l) leads to the conclusion that the critical temperature Tc actually coincides with the explicit upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and co-workers, where T2 corresponds to the temperature below which the ratio ZL2¯/(ZL¯)2 diverges exponentially in L . Finally, since the Fisher-Huse droplet theory was initially introduced for the spin-glass phase, we briefly mention the similarities with and differences from the directed polymer model. If one speculates that the free energy of droplet excitations for spin glasses is also logarithmic at Tc , one obtains a logarithmic decay for the mean square correlation function at criticality, C2(r)¯˜1/(lnr)σ , instead of the usual power law 1/rd-2+η .

  11. The application of kudzu as a medium for the adsorption of heavy metals from dilute aqueous wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Brown, J M; Allen, S J

    2001-06-01

    This study assessed the use of kudzu (Pueraria lobata ohwi) as a medium for the capture of copper, cadmium, and zinc from low concentration solutions. The rate and extent of uptake was studied using a system of standardized batch adsorbers under steady-state and transient-rate conditions. All plant components were tested. Residual metals analyses were performed on an ICP-AES/OES (Optima 3000 DV). The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms were determined; the Langmuir isotherm was found to best represent the data for copper and cadmium uptake. The Redlich-Peterson best represented the data for zinc. Kudzu was determined to be an effective adsorbent for removal of heavy metals. Though its capacity for metals removal is less than commercial grade ion exchange resins, it could be used at much lower cost, and may find application in the treatment of dilute mixed-matrix metal wastestreams, such as urban runoff, where the application of resins would be expensive and subject to premature poisoning by interfering contaminants.

  12. Second-generation functionalized medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates: the gateway to high-value bioplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Marta; da Silva, Luiziana Ferreira; Prieto, María Auxiliadora

    2013-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable biocompatible polyesters, which accumulate as granules in the cytoplasm of many bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs), characterized by C6-C14 branched monomer chains and typically produced by Pseudomonas species, are promising thermoelastomers, as they can be further modified by introducing functional groups in the side chains. Functionalized PHAs are obtained either by feeding structurally related substrates processed through the beta-oxidation pathway, or using specific strains able to transform sugars or glycerol into unsaturated PHA by de novo fatty-acid biosynthesis. Functionalized mcl-PHAs provide modified mechanical and thermal properties, and consequently have new processing requirements and highly diverse potential applications in emergent fields such as biomedicine. However, process development and sample availability are limited due to the toxicity of some precursors and still low productivity, which hinder investigation. Conversely, improved mutant strains designed through systems biology approaches and cofeeding with low-cost substrates may contribute to the widespread application of these biopolymers. This review focuses on recent developments in the production of functionalized mcl-PHAs, placing particular emphasis on strain and bioprocess design for cost-effective production.

  13. On the Mechanism of Interaction of Two Water Droplets Moving Successively at a Small Distance from Each Other in a High-Temperature Gas Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study has been made of the macroscopic regularities of travel of two water droplets with initial diameters of 1 to 3 mm with a velocity to 3 m/s through a high-temperature ( 1100 K) gas counterflow propagating with a velocity no higher than 1.5 m/s. Consideration has been given to successive motion of the two droplets in the gas medium with variation of the initial distance between them in the range 5-30 mm. The hypothesis that the rate of evaporation of the second droplet in the gas counterflow is much lower than that of the first droplet has been substantiated experimentally. The physical model of the processes of approach of the droplets and their subsequent coagulation has been formulated

  14. Enabling high-temperature nanophotonics for energy applications

    PubMed Central

    Yeng, Yi Xiang; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Bermel, Peter; Chan, Walker R.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The nascent field of high-temperature nanophotonics could potentially enable many important solid-state energy conversion applications, such as thermophotovoltaic energy generation, selective solar absorption, and selective emission of light. However, special challenges arise when trying to design nanophotonic materials with precisely tailored optical properties that can operate at high-temperatures (> 1,100 K). These include proper material selection and purity to prevent melting, evaporation, or chemical reactions; severe minimization of any material interfaces to prevent thermomechanical problems such as delamination; robust performance in the presence of surface diffusion; and long-range geometric precision over large areas with severe minimization of very small feature sizes to maintain structural stability. Here we report an approach for high-temperature nanophotonics that surmounts all of these difficulties. It consists of an analytical and computationally guided design involving high-purity tungsten in a precisely fabricated photonic crystal slab geometry (specifically chosen to eliminate interfaces arising from layer-by-layer fabrication) optimized for high performance and robustness in the presence of roughness, fabrication errors, and surface diffusion. It offers near-ultimate short-wavelength emittance and low, ultra-broadband long-wavelength emittance, along with a sharp cutoff offering 4∶1 emittance contrast over 10% wavelength separation. This is achieved via Q-matching, whereby the absorptive and radiative rates of the photonic crystal’s cavity resonances are matched. Strong angular emission selectivity is also observed, with short-wavelength emission suppressed by 50% at 75° compared to normal incidence. Finally, a precise high-temperature measurement technique is developed to confirm that emission at 1,225 K can be primarily confined to wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength. PMID:22308448

  15. Genetic particle filter application to land surface temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechri, Rihab; Ottlé, Catherine; Pannekoucke, Olivier; Kallel, Abdelaziz

    2014-03-01

    Thermal infrared data are widely used for surface flux estimation giving the possibility to assess water and energy budgets through land surface temperature (LST). Many applications require both high spatial resolution (HSR) and high temporal resolution (HTR), which are not presently available from space. It is therefore necessary to develop methodologies to use the coarse spatial/high temporal resolutions LST remote-sensing products for a better monitoring of fluxes at appropriate scales. For that purpose, a data assimilation method was developed to downscale LST based on particle filtering. The basic tenet of our approach is to constrain LST dynamics simulated at both HSR and HTR, through the optimization of aggregated temperatures at the coarse observation scale. Thus, a genetic particle filter (GPF) data assimilation scheme was implemented and applied to a land surface model which simulates prior subpixel temperatures. First, the GPF downscaling scheme was tested on pseudoobservations generated in the framework of the study area landscape (Crau-Camargue, France) and climate for the year 2006. The GPF performances were evaluated against observation errors and temporal sampling. Results show that GPF outperforms prior model estimations. Finally, the GPF method was applied on Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager time series and evaluated against HSR data provided by an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer image acquired on 26 July 2006. The temperatures of seven land cover classes present in the study area were estimated with root-mean-square errors less than 2.4 K which is a very promising result for downscaling LST satellite products.

  16. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane by carbon dioxide: a medium-temperature thermochemical process for carbon dioxide utilisation.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Yao, B; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, Hamid; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2015-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 is an attractive catalytic route for C3H6 production. In studying the various possibilities to utilise CO2 to convert hydrocarbons using the sustainable energy source of solar thermal energy, thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the dehydrogenation of C3H8 using CO2for the process operating in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Importantly, the results highlight the enhanced potential of C3H8 as compared to its lighter and heavier homologues (C2H6 and C4H10, respectively). To be utilised in this CO2 utilisation reaction the Gibbs free energy (ΔrGθm) of each reaction in the modelled, complete reacting system of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 also indicate that further cracking of C3H6 will affect the ultimate yield and selectivity of the final products. In a parallel experimental study, catalytic tests of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 over 5 wt%-Cr2O3/ZrO2 catalysts operating at 500 °C, atmospheric pressure, and for various C3H8 partial pressures and various overall GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity) values. The results showed that an increase in the C3H8 partial pressure produced an inhibition of C3H8 conversion but, importantly, a promising enhancement of C3H6 selectivity. This phenomenon can be attributed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst between the generated C3H6 and inactivated C3H8, which inhibits any further cracking effect on C3H6 to produce by-products. As a comparison, the increase of the overall GHSV can also decrease the C3H8 conversion to a similar extent, but the further cracking of C3H6 cannot be limited.

  17. NASA PS400: A New Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Edmonds, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    A new solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, has been developed for high temperature tribological applications. This plasma sprayed coating is a variant of the patented PS304 coating and has been formulated to provide higher density, smoother surface finish and better dimensional stability than PS304. PS400 is comprised of a nickel-molybdenum binder that provides strength, creep resistance and extreme oxidative and dimensional stability. Chromium oxide, silver and barium-calcium fluoride eutectic are added to the binder to form PS400.Tribological properties were evaluated with a pin-on-disk test rig in sliding contact to 650 C. Coating material samples were exposed to air, argon and vacuum at 760 C followed by cross section microscopic analysis to assess microstructure stability. Oil-Free microturbine engine hot section foil bearing tests were undertaken to assess PS400 s suitability for hot foil gas bearing applications. The preliminary results indicate that PS400 exhibits tribological characteristics comparable to the PS304 coating but with enhanced creep resistance and dimensional stability suitable for demanding, dynamic applications.

  18. High Temperature Polymer Film Dielectrics for Aerospace Power Conditioning Capacitor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2128 HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FILM DIELECTRICS FOR AEROSPACE POWER CONDITIONING CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS (Postprint...AND SUBTITLE HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FILM DIELECTRICS FOR AEROSPACE POWER CONDITIONING CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...development of compact capacitors which are thermally robust for operation in a variety of aerospace power conditioning applications. While such applications

  19. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  20. Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q

    2013-07-15

    Reversible operation of a high current superconductor switch based on the quench of high-resistance second generation high temperature superconducting wire is demonstrated. The quench is induced by a burst of an ac field generated by an inductively coupled radio-frequency coil. The switch makes a superconducting-to-normal transition within 5 ms and also has a rapid recovery to the superconducting state. The device has potential applications as an active current limiter or as a storage switch for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. Operation in a full flux penetration/flow regime can effectively minimize the detrimental effects of the intrinsic conductor non-uniformity. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  1. Amorphous metallizations for high-temperature semiconductor device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J. D.; Perepezko, J. H.; Nordman, J. E.; Kang-Jin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The initial results of work on a class of semiconductor metallizations which appear to hold promise as primary metallizations and diffusion barriers for high temperature device applications are presented. These metallizations consist of sputter-deposited films of high T sub g amorphous-metal alloys which (primarily because of the absence of grain boundaries) exhibit exceptionally good corrosion-resistance and low diffusion coefficients. Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, W-Si, and Mo-Si were deposited on Si, GaAs, GaP, and various insulating substrates. The films adhere extremely well to the substrates and remain amorphous during thermal cycling to at least 500 C. Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements indicate atomic diffussivities in the 10 to the -19th power sq cm/S range at 450 C.

  2. Developments in TurboBrayton Technology for Low Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, W. L.; Zagarola, M. V.; Nellis, G. F.; McCormick, J. A.; Gibbon, Judy

    1999-01-01

    A single stage reverse Brayton cryocooler using miniature high-speed turbomachines recently completed a successful space shuttle test flight demonstrating its capabilities for use in cooling the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The NICMOS CryoCooler (NCC) is designed for a cooling load of about 8 W at 65 K, and comprises a closed loop cryocooler coupled to an independent cryogenic circulating loop. Future space applications involve instruments that will require 5 mW to 200 mW of cooling at temperatures between 4 K and 10 K. This paper discusses the extension of Turbo-Brayton technology to meet these requirements.

  3. Type T reference function suitability for low temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, D.

    2013-09-01

    Type T thermocouples are commonly used in industrial measurement applications due to their accuracy relative to other thermocouple types, low cost, and the ready availability of measurement equipment. Type T thermocouples are very effective when used in differential measurements, as there is no cold junction compensation necessary for the connections to the measurement equipment. Type T's published accuracy specifications result in its frequent use in low temperature applications. An examination of over 328 samples from a number of manufacturers has been completed for this investigation. Samples were compared to a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) at the LN2 boiling point along with four other standardized measurement points using a characterized ice point reference, low-thermal EMF scanner and an 8.5 digit multimeter, and the data compiled and analyzed. The test points were approximately -196 °C, -75 °C, 0 °C, +100 °C, and +200 °C. These data show an anomaly in the conformance to the reference functions where the reference functions meet at 0 °C. Additionally, in the temperature region between -100 °C to -200 °C, a positive offset of up to 5.4 °C exists between the reference function equations published in the ASTM E230-06 for the nitrogen point and the measured response of the actual wire. This paper will examine the historical and technological reasons for this anomaly in the both the ASTM and IEC reference functions. At the request of the author and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained several figures with missing information/characters—caused by processes used to generate the PDF file. All figures were affected by this error. The article has been replaced and these figures now display correctly. The corrected article was published on 7 November 2013.

  4. Modelling of heat and mass transfer in a granular medium during high-temperature air drying. Effect of the internal gas pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmani, Hammouda; Hassini, Lamine; Lamloumi, Raja; El Cafsi, Mohamed Afif

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive internal heat and water transfer model including the gas pressure effect has been proposed in order to improve the industrial high-temperature air drying of inserts made of agglomerated sand. In this model, the internal gas phase pressure effect was made perfectly explicit, by considering the liquid and vapour transfer by filtration and the liquid expulsion at the surface. Wet sand enclosed in a tight cylindrical glass bottle dried convectively at a high temperature was chosen as an application case. The model was validated on the basis of the experimental average water content and core temperature curves for drying trials at different operating conditions. The simulations of the spatio-temporal distribution of internal gas pressure were performed and interpreted in terms of product potential damage. Based on a compromise between the drying time and the pressure increase, a simple drying cycle was implemented in order to optimize the drying process.

  5. Production of gymnemic acid depends on medium, explants, PGRs, color lights, temperature, photoperiod, and sucrose sources in batch culture of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2012-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA). The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L) and KN (0.5 mg/L). Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w) was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w). Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w) was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors.

  6. Production of Gymnemic Acid Depends on Medium, Explants, PGRs, Color Lights, Temperature, Photoperiod, and Sucrose Sources in Batch Culture of Gymnema sylvestre

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A. S.; Rao, M. V.; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2012-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA). The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L) and KN (0.5 mg/L). Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w) was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w). Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w) was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors. PMID:22629221

  7. High Temperature Gas Reactors: Assessment of Applicable Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Bruce K.; Nickolaus, James R.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Pugh, Ray

    2011-10-31

    Current interest expressed by industry in HTGR plants, particularly modular plants with power up to about 600 MW(e) per unit, has prompted NRC to task PNNL with assessing the currently available literature related to codes and standards applicable to HTGR plants, the operating history of past and present HTGR plants, and with evaluating the proposed designs of RPV and associated piping for future plants. Considering these topics in the order they are arranged in the text, first the operational histories of five shut-down and two currently operating HTGR plants are reviewed, leading the authors to conclude that while small, simple prototype HTGR plants operated reliably, some of the larger plants, particularly Fort St. Vrain, had poor availability. Safety and radiological performance of these plants has been considerably better than LWR plants. Petroleum processing plants provide some applicable experience with materials similar to those proposed for HTGR piping and vessels. At least one currently operating plant - HTR-10 - has performed and documented a leak before break analysis that appears to be applicable to proposed future US HTGR designs. Current codes and standards cover some HTGR materials, but not all materials are covered to the high temperatures envisioned for HTGR use. Codes and standards, particularly ASME Codes, are under development for proposed future US HTGR designs. A 'roadmap' document has been prepared for ASME Code development; a new subsection to section III of the ASME Code, ASME BPVC III-5, is scheduled to be published in October 2011. The question of terminology for the cross-duct structure between the RPV and power conversion vessel is discussed, considering the differences in regulatory requirements that apply depending on whether this structure is designated as a 'vessel' or as a 'pipe'. We conclude that designing this component as a 'pipe' is the more appropriate choice, but that the ASME BPVC allows the owner of the facility to select

  8. A temperature independent pH (TIP) buffer for biomedical biophysical applications at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sieracki, Nathan A; Hwang, Hee Jung; Lee, Michelle K; Garner, Dewain K; Lu, Yi

    2008-02-21

    A temperature independent pH buffer has been developed from a combination of buffers of opposite-sign temperature coefficients, and utility in low temperature spectroscopy and storage of pH sensitive compounds is demonstrated.

  9. Physiological responses and scope for growth upon medium-term exposure to the combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature in a subtidal scavenger Nassarius conoidalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyu; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, S G

    2015-05-01

    Physiological responses (ingestion rate, absorption rate and efficiency, respiration, rate, excretion rate) and scope for growth of a subtidal scavenging gastropod Nassarius conoidalis under the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 levels: 380, 950, 1250 μatm) and temperature (15, 30 °C) were investigated for 31 days. There was a significant reduction in all the physiological rates and scope for growth following short-term exposure (1-3 days) to elevated pCO2 except absorption efficiency at 15 °C and 30 °C, and respiration rate and excretion rate at 15 °C. The percentage change in the physiological rates ranged from 0% to 90% at 15 °C and from 0% to 73% at 30 °C when pCO2 was increased from 380 μatm to 1250 μatm. The effect of pCO2 on the physiological rates was enhanced at high temperature for ingestion, absorption, respiration and excretion. When the exposure period was extended to 31 days, the effect of pCO2 was significant on the ingestion rate only. All the physiological rates remained unchanged when temperature increased from 24 °C to 30 °C but the rates at 15 °C were significantly lower, irrespective of the duration of exposure. Our data suggested that a medium-term exposure to ocean acidification has no effect on the energetics of N. conoidalis. Nevertheless, the situation may be complicated by a longer term of exposure and/or a reduction in salinity in a warming world.

  10. Niobium Oxide-Metal Based Seals for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ivar Reimanis

    2006-08-14

    The present final report describes technical progress made in regards to evaluating niobium oxide/alumina as a high temperature seal material. Fabrication and characterization of specimens comprising niobium oxide and alumina composites of various compositions was performed. The goal was to identify regions where a glass formed. There were no experimental conditions where a glassy phase was unequivocally identified. However, the results led to the formation of an interesting class of fibrous composites which may have applications where high compliance and high toughness are needed. It is clear that vapor phase sintering is an active mass transport mechanism in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites (Figure 1), and it may be possible to design porous materials by utilizing vapor phase sintering. The compositions evaluated in the present work are 52, 60, 73, 82 and 95 mol. % Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the remainder Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These were chosen so that some eutectic composition was present during cooling, in an attempt to encourage glass formation. However, the presence of large, elongated crystals, both in the slow cool and the quench experiments indicates that the driving force for crystallization is very high. Several joints were formed between high purity alumina with two compositions (60 and 82 mol. %) forming the joint. These were created by grinding and polishing alumina surfaces and stacking them end-to-end with the powdered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in between. Joining was accomplished in air at temperatures between 1400 C and 1450 C. The joints failed during subsequent machining for strength bars, indicating low strength. It may be possible to use the compositions evaluated here as a joint material, but it seems unlikely that a glassy phase could be produced while joining.

  11. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  12. Application of hard coatings to substrates at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sproul, William D.

    1993-01-01

    BIRL, the industrial research laboratory of Northwestern University, has conducted unique and innovative research, under sponsorship from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), in the application of hard, wear resistant coatings to bearing steels using the high-rate reactive sputtering (HRRS) process that was pioneered by Dr. William Sproul, the principal investigator on this program. Prior to this program, Dr. Sproul had demonstrated that it is possible to apply hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN) to alloy steels at low temperatures via the HRRS process without changing the metallurgical properties of the steel. The NASA MSFC program at BIRL had the specific objectives to: apply TiN to 440C stainless steel without changing the metallurgical properties of the steel; prepare rolling contact fatigue (RCF) test samples coated with binary hard coatings of TiN, zirconium nitride (ZrN), hafnium nitride (HfN), chromium nitride (CrN), and molybdenum nitride (MoN), and metal coatings of copper (Cu) and gold (Au); and develop new alloyed hard coatings of titanium aluminum nitride (Ti(0.5)Al(0.5)N), titanium zirconium nitride (Ti(0.5)Zr(0.5)N), and titanium aluminum vanadium nitride.

  13. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  14. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  15. X-Aerogels for Structural Components and High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Future NASA missions and space explorations rely on the use of materials that are strong ultra lightweight and able to withstand extreme temperatures. Aerogels are low density (0.01-0.5 g/cu cm) high porosity materials that contain a glass like structure formed through standard sol-gel chemistry. As a result of these structural properties, aerogels are excellent thermal insulators and are able to withstand temperatures in excess of l,000 C. The open structure of aerogels, however, renders these materials extremely fragile (fracturing at stress forces less than 0.5 N/sq cm). The goal of NASA Glenn Research Center is to increase the strength of these materials by templating polymers and metals onto the surface of an aerogel network facilitating the use of this material for practical applications such as structural components of space vehicles used in exploration. The work this past year focused on two areas; (1) the research and development of new templated aerogels materials and (2) process development for future manufacturing of structural components. Research and development occurred on the production and characterization of new templating materials onto the standard silica aerogel. Materials examined included polymers such as polyimides, fluorinated isocyanates and epoxies, and, metals such as silver, gold and platinum. The final properties indicated that the density of the material formed using an isocyanate is around 0.50 g/cc with a strength greater than that of steel and has low thermal conductivity. The process used to construct these materials is extremely time consuming and labor intensive. One aspect of the project involved investigating the feasibility of shortening the process time by preparing the aerogels in the templating solvent. Traditionally the polymerization used THF as the solvent and after several washes to remove any residual monomers and water, the solvent around the aerogels was changed to acetonitrile for the templating step. This process

  16. Li-Ion Cell Development for Low Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Sakamoto, J. S.; Surampudi, S.; Wolfenstine, J.

    2000-01-01

    JPL is involved in the development of rechargeable Li-ion cells for future Mars Exploration Missions. The specific objectives are to improve the Li-ion cell cycle life performance and rate capability at low temperature (<<-20 C) in order to enhance survivability of the Mars lander and rover batteries. Poor Li-ion rate capability at low temperature has been attributed to: (1) the electrolytes becoming viscous or freezing and/or (2) reduced electrode capacity that results from decreased Li diffusivity. Our efforts focus on increasing the rate capability at low temperature for Li-ion cells. In order to improve the rate capability we evaluated the following: (1) cathode performance at low temperatures, (2) electrode active material particle size on low temperature performance and (3) Li diffusivity at room temperature and low temperatures. In this paper, we will discuss the results of our study.

  17. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dantsker, Eugene

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  18. Advanced latent heat storage media for high-temperature industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1984-03-01

    Several advanced thermal energy storage (TES) media are being developed for high temperature industrial applications. One of the concepts involves a composite medium consisting of a phase-change carbonate salt supported and immobilized within a submicro sized capillary structure of a particulate ceramic matrix or porous sintered ceramic. Immobilization of the molten salt within the ceramic structure permits operation of the composite pellets, bricks, or other shapes in direct contact with compatible fluids. Energy storage occurs in both sensible and latent forms with the composite providing higher energy storage densities than standard sensible heat storage systems. The second concept centers on the development of a self-encapsulating metallic eutectic. This work focuses on metallic eutectics containing silicon. Starting with a silicon-rich mixture, it is feasible to develop a self-encapsulating pellet by cooling the liquid drops at a controlled rate. A solid of nearly pure silicon will form on the exterior of the pellet leaving a eutectic, phase change media in the interior. The concept are described and information concerning current development activities is presented.

  19. Development of integrated thermionic circuits for high-temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, J. B.; Wilde, D.; Depp, S.; Hamilton, D. J.; Kerwin, W.; Derouin, C.; Roybal, L.; Wooley, R.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500 C are studied. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits were successfully operated in 5000 C environments for extended periods. It is suggested that ITC's may become an important technology for high temperature instrumentation and control systems in geothermal and other high temperature environments.

  20. Application of the artificial neural network for reconstructing the internal-structure image of a random medium by spatial characteristics of backscattered optical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Meglinskii, I V

    2008-06-30

    The feasibility of using an artificial neural network (ANN), which is the standard Matlab tool, for non-invasive (based on the data of backscattering) diagnostics of macro-inhomogeneities, localised at subsurface layers of the turbid strongly scattering medium was shown. The spatial and angle distribution of the backscattered optical radiation was calculated by using the Monte-Carlo method combining the modelling of effective optical paths and the use of statistical weights. It was shown that application of the backscattering method together with the ANN allows solving inverse problems for determining the average radius of the scattering particles and for reconstructing the images of structural elements within the medium with a high accuracy. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  1. Application of Phosphor Thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.; Andrews, W.H.; Cates, M.R.; Grann, E.B.; Manges, W.W.; McIntyre, T.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Simpson, M.L.; Childs, R.M.; Vehec, J.; Zhang, L.

    1999-06-01

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 840 to 1292 F with an accuracy of better than {+-}9 F. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control.

  2. Electrical Devices and Circuits for Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S.; Overton, E.; Elbuluk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental temperature in many NASA missions, such as deep space probes and outer planetary exploration, is significantly below the range for which conventional commercial-off-the-shelf electronics is designed. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of such deep space missions carry a large number of radioisotope or other heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronic devices and circuits capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures will not only tolerate the harsh environment of deep space but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development cost as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results from better behavior in the electrical and thermal properties of some semiconductor and dielectric materials at low temperatures. An on-going research and development program on low temperature electronics at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of efficient electrical systems and circuits capable of surviving and exploiting the advantages of low temperature environments. An overview of the program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with selected data obtained from in-house component testing will also be discussed. On-going research activities that are being performed in collaboration with various organizations will also be presented.

  3. Antigenicity of cell wall mannans of Candida albicans NIH B-792 (serotype B) strain cells cultured at high temperature in yeast extract-containing sabouraud liquid medium.

    PubMed Central

    Okawa, Y; Goto, K; Nemoto, S; Akashi, M; Sugawara, C; Hanzawa, M; Kawamata, M; Takahata, T; Shibata, N; Kobayashi, H; Suzuki, S

    1996-01-01

    Cultivation of Candida albicans NIH B-792 (serotype B) at high temperature (37 degrees C) for 48 h in yeast extract-containing Sabouraud liquid medium (YSLM) provided the following findings in comparison with the findings obtained after incubation at 27 degrees C. Growth of the blastoconidia of this strain was decreased, with a dry weight of 9%, and the cells were deficient in cytokinesis. The cells did not undergo agglutination with serum factor 5 from a commercially available serum factor kit (Candida Check). Mannan (B-37-M) obtained from the cells cultured at 37 degrees C had partially lost its reactivity against serum factor 4 and lost most of its reactivity against serum factor 5 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in contrast to that (B-27-M) at 27 degrees C. Both cells and mannan prepared by cultivation first at 37 degrees C and then at 27 degrees C entirely recovered their reactivities with serum factors 4 and 5. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis also revealed that B-37-M had lost a beta-1,2-linked mannopyranose unit and retained a phosphate group. Similar changes were observed in the three other serotype B strains used in the study. The beta-1,2-linked mannooligosaccharides longer than mannotetraose were not included among the products released from B-37-M by mild acid treatment. The results of the inhibition ELISA with a series of beta-1,2-linked mannooligosaccharides from biose to octaose (M2 to M8, respectively) showed that the reactivity against serum factor 4 was inhibited most strongly by the oligosaccharides M4 to M8 and that the reactivity against serum factor 5 was inhibited completely by relatively longer oligosaccharides, M5 to M8, indicating their participation as the antigenic factor 5 epitopes. PMID:8705679

  4. Thermodynamics of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures: application of variable-temperature titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rao, Linfeng

    2007-06-01

    Studies of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures provide insight into the effect of solvation and the energetics of complexation, and help to predict the chemical behavior of actinides in nuclear waste processing and disposal where temperatures are high. This tutorial review summarizes the data on the complexation of actinides at elevated temperatures and describes the methodology for thermodynamic measurements, with the emphasis on variable-temperature titration calorimetry, a highly valuable technique to determine the enthalpy and, under appropriate conditions, the equilibrium constants of complexation as well.

  5. Ultrasonic level and temperature sensor for power reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.: Miller, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic waveguide employing torsional and extensional acoustic waves has been developed for use as a level and temperature sensor in pressurized and boiling water nuclear power reactors. Features of the device include continuous measurement of level, density, and temperature producing a real-time profile of these parameters along a chosen path through the reactor vessel.

  6. Characterizations of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Erdinc

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets (APLTPJs) driven by short pulses have recently received great attention because of their potential in biomedical and environmental applications. This potential is due to their user-friendly features, such as low temperature, low risk of arcing, operation at atmospheric pressure, easy handheld operation, and low concentration of ozone generation. Recent experimental observations indicate that an ionization wave exists and propagates along the plasma jet. The plasma jet created by this ionization wave is not a continuous medium but rather consists of a bullet-like-structure known as "Plasma Bullet". More interestingly, these plasma bullets actually have a donut-shaped makeup. The nature of the plasma bullet is especially interesting because it propagates in the ambient air at supersonic velocities without any externally applied electric field. In this dissertation, experimental insights are reported regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of the APLTPJs. The dynamics of the plasma bullet are investigated by means of a high-speed ICCD camera. A plasma bullet propagation model based on the streamer theory is confirmed with adequate explanations. It is also found that a secondary discharge, ignited by the charge accumulation on the dielectric electrode surfaces at the end of the applied voltage, interrupts the plasma bullet propagation due to an opposing current along the ionization channel. The reason for this interesting phenomenon is explained in detail. The plasma bullet comes to an end when the helium mole fraction along the ionization channel, or applied voltage, or both, are less than some critical values. The presence of an inert gas channel in the surrounding air, such as helium or argon, has a critical role in plasma bullet formation and propagation. For this reason, a fluid dynamics study is employed by a commercially available simulation software, COMSOL, based on finite element method. Spatio

  7. High Temperature Thermocouples For In-pile Applications

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; S. C. Wilkins

    2005-10-01

    Traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1080 degrees C. Hence, a project has been initiated to explore the use of specialized thermocouples that are composed of materials that are able to withstand higher temperature, in-pile test conditions. Results from efforts to develop, fabricate and evaluate the performance of these specialized thermocouples are reported in this paper. Candidate materials were evaluated for their ability to withstand irradiation, to resit material interactions and to remain ductile at high temperatures. In addition, candidate thermocouples were evaluated based on their resolution over the temperature ranges of interest. Results from these evaluations are reported, and additional on-going development activities are summarized.

  8. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  9. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  10. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell

    2005-10-31

    Development of practical, high-temperature optical claddings for improved waveguiding in sapphire fibers continued during the reporting period. A set of designed experiments using the Taguchi method was undertaken to efficiently determine the optimal set of processing variables to yield clad fibers with good optical and mechanical properties. Eighteen samples of sapphire fibers were prepared with spinel claddings, each with a unique set of variables. Statistical analyses of the results were then used to predict the set of factors that would result in a spinel cladding with the optimal geometrical, mechanical, and optical properties. To confirm the predictions of the Taguchi analysis, sapphire fibers were clad with the magnesium aluminate spinel coating using the predicted optimal set of factors. In general, the clad fibers demonstrated high quality, exceeding the best results obtained during the Phase I effort. Tests of the high-temperature stability of the clad fibers were also conducted. The results indicated that the clad fibers were stable at temperatures up to 1300 C for the duration of the three day test. At the higher temperatures, some changes in the geometry of the fibers were observed. The design, fabrication, and testing of a sapphire sensor for measurement of temperature was undertaken. The specific sensor configuration uses a polished sapphire wafer as the temperature-sensitive element. The wafer is attached to a sapphire fiber (clad or unclad), and interrogated as a Fabry-Perot sensor. Methods for assembling the sensor were investigated. A prototype sensor was fabricated and tested at room temperature and elevated temperatures. Results were difficult to interpret, due to the presence of modal noise which was found to result from the use of a spectrometer that was not designed for use with multimode fibers. A spectrometer optimized for use of multimode fiber has been obtained, and further evaluation of the sapphire temperature sensor is continuing.

  11. Battery pack/controller for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfenbarger, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    At temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C, standard conductive wirelines cannot be used for signal or power transmission in geothermal wells. At such temperatures, a mechanical slickline can be used to raise and lower instrumentation, but the instrumentation control and power must then be self contained. This paper reviews the development of a battery and timing circuit to control a motor in a Los Alamos National Laboratory sampling tool. The battery pack-controller circuitry enclosed in a dewar was used in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) for temperatures approaching 400/sup 0/C.

  12. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance.

  13. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  14. Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill for High Temperature Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Scott, James; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Jones, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Venus is one of the many significant scientific targets for NASA. New rock sampling tools with the ability to be operated at high temperatures of the order of 460 deg C are required for surface in-situ sampling/analysis missions. Piezoelectric materials such as LiNbO? crystals and Bismuth Titanate are potentially operational at the temperature range found on the surface of Venus. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills for a temperature up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes investigation of the high temperature properties of piezoelectric crystals and ceramics with different formulas and doping. Several prototypes of Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers (USDC) driven by transducers using the high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single LiNbO? crystal were fabricated. The transducers were analyzed by scanning the impedance at room temperature and 500 deg C under both low and high voltages. The drilling performances were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. Preliminary results were previously reported [Bao et al, 2009]. In this paper, the progress is presented and the future works for performance improvements are discussed.

  15. Novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure and temperature sensor designed for high-temperature gen-IV reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M. E.; Fielder, R. S.; Davis, M. A.

    2006-07-01

    A novel, fiber optic, hybrid pressure-temperature sensor is presented. The sensor is designed for reliable operation up to 1050 C, and is based on the high-temperature fiber optic sensors already demonstrated during previous work. The novelty of the sensors presented here lies in the fact that pressure and temperature are measured simultaneously with a single fiber and a single transducer. This hybrid approach will enable highly accurate active temperature compensation and sensor self-diagnostics not possible with other platforms. Hybrid pressure and temperature sensors were calibrated by varying both pressure and temperature. Implementing active temperature compensation resulted in a ten-fold reduction in the temperature-dependence of the pressure measurement. Sensors were also tested for operability in a relatively high neutron radiation environment up to 6.9x10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}. In addition to harsh environment survivability, fiber optic sensors offer a number of intrinsic advantages for nuclear power applications including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, self diagnostics / prognostics, and smart sensor capability. Deploying fiber optic sensors on future nuclear power plant designs would provide a substantial improvement in system health monitoring and safety instrumentation. Additional development is needed, however, before these advantages can be realized. This paper will highlight recent demonstrations of fiber optic sensors in environments relevant to emerging nuclear power plants. Successes and lessons learned will be highlighted. (authors)

  16. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  17. Self-lubricating coatings for high-temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    Solid lubricants with maximum temperature capabilities of about 1100 C are known. Unfortunately, none of the solid lubricants with the highest temperature capabilities are effective below 400 C. However, research at NASA's Lewis Research Center shows that silver and stable fluorides such as calcium and barium fluorides act synergistically to provide lubrication from below room temperature to about 900 C. This paper describes plasma-sprayed composite coatings that contain these solid lubricants in combination with a metal-bonded chromium carbide. The lubricants control friction, and the carbide matrix provides wear resistance. Successful tests of these coatings as backup lubricants for compliant gas bearings in turbomachinery and as self-lubricating liners in a four-cylinder Stirling engine are discussed.

  18. Electrolytes for Li-Ion Cells in Low Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Prototype AA-size lithium-ion cells have been demonstrated to operate effectively at temperatures as low as -30 to -40 C. These improvements in low temperature cell performance have been realized by the incorporation of ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes which possess low melting, low viscosity cosolvents, such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, gamma-butyrolactone, and ethyl methyl carbonate. The cells containing a 0.75M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1:1:1:1) electrolyte displayed the best performance at -30 C (> 90% of the room temperature capacity at approximately C/15 rate), whereas, at -40 C the cells with the 0.75M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+MA (1:1:1:1) and 0.75M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+EA (1:1:1:1) electrolytes showed superior performance.

  19. Electrochemical corrosion rate probes for high temperature energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes were constructed and exposed along with mass loss coupons in a N2/O2/CO2/H2O environment to determine ECR probe operating characteristics. Temperatures ranged from 450 to 800 C and both ECR probes and mass loss coupons were coated with ash. Results are presented in terms of the probe response to temperature, the measured zero baseline, and the quantitative nature of the probes. The effect of Stern-Geary constant and the choice of electrochemical technique used to measure the corrosion rate are also discussed. ECR probe corrosion rates were a function of time, temperature, and process environment and were found to be quantitative for some test conditions. Measured Stern-Geary constants averaged 0.0141 V/decade and the linear polarization technique was found to be more quantitative than the electrochemical noise technique.

  20. Structural application of high strength, high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of rocket engine turbine pumps is limited by the temperature restrictions of metallic components used in the systems. Mechanical strength and stability of these metallic components decrease drastically at elevated temperatures. Ceramic materials that retain high strength at high temperatures appear to be a feasible alternate material for use in the hot end of the turbopumps. This project identified and defined the processing parameters that affected the properties of Si3N4, one of candidate ceramic materials. Apparatus was assembled and put into operation to hot press Si3N4 powders into bulk material for in house evaluation. A work statement was completed to seek outside contract services to design, manufacture, and evaluate Si3N4 components in the service environments that exists in SSME turbopumps.

  1. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  2. The application of medium-chain fatty acids: edible oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Seiji; Kojima, Keiichi; Aoyama, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    The bulk of fatty acids found in our diets consists of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are molecules containing 12 or more carbon atoms. In contrast, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are composed of 8-10 carbon atoms, and are found in palm kernel oil, among other types of foods. MCFA have attracted attention as being part of a healthy diet, because they are absorbed directly into the portal vein, transported rapidly to the liver for beta-oxidation, and thus increase diet-induced thermogenesis. In contrast, long-chain triacylglycerols are absorbed via the intestinal lymphatic ducts and transported by chylomicrons through the thoracic duct into the systemic circulation. Because medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) containing solely MCFA have a few disadvantages when used for deep frying, we have developed a new kind of triacylglycerol product: medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT). MLCT is produced by lipase-catalyzed enzymatic transesterification. Long-term clinical trials have demonstrated that MLCT and MCT result in less body fat accumulation in humans. MLCT oil has been approved as FOSHU (Food for Specified Health Use) for use as cooking oil with a suppressing effect on body fat accumulation.

  3. High temperature strain gage technology for hypersonic aircraft development applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. L.; Grant, H. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of Pd 13 percent Cr and of BCL-3 alloy wire strain gages was conducted on IN100 and Cu 0.15 percent Zr alloy substrates. Testing included apparent strain, drift, gage factor, and creep. Maximum test temperature was 1144 K (1600 F). The PdCr gages incorporated Pt temperature compensation elements. The PdCr gages were found to have good resistance stability below 866 K (1100 F). The BCL 3 gages were found to have good resistance stability above 800 K (981 F), but high drift around 700 K (800 F).

  4. A polytetrafluorethylene insulated cable for high temperature oxygen aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, A. T.; Webber, R. G.

    For electrical cables to function and survive in the severe high temperature oxygen environment that will be experienced in the external tanks of the space shuttle, extreme cleanliness and material purity is required. A flexible light weight cable has been developed for use in pure oxygen at worst case temperatures of -190 to +260 degrees Centigrade and pressures as high as 44 pounds per square inch absolute. A comprehensive series of tests were performed on cables manufactured to the best commercial practices in order to establish the basic guidelines for control of build configuration as well as each material used in construction of the cable.

  5. Temperature Dependent Electron Transport Studies for Diffuse Discharge Switching Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    of <e>, k (<e >), for C2F6 and C3F8 at gas temperature up to 7!fu K. These results may be used to under stand the influence of elevated gas...of k (<&>) have also been performed in c3F8 as a functionaof gas temperature up to 750 R in Ar buffer gas (over the mean electron energy range 0.76...dependent electron attachment pro- cesses are negligible indicating that electron attachment to C3F8 at t hese t emperatures i s predomi- nantly dissociati

  6. Stability of Materials in High Temperature Water Vapor: SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell material systems require long term stability in environments containing high-temperature water vapor. Many materials in fuel cell systems react with high-temperature water vapor to form volatile hydroxides which can degrade cell performance. In this paper, experimental methods to characterize these volatility reactions including the transpiration technique, thermogravimetric analysis, and high pressure mass spectrometry are reviewed. Experimentally determined data for chromia, silica, and alumina volatility are presented. In addition, data from the literature for the stability of other materials important in fuel cell systems are reviewed. Finally, methods for predicting material recession due to volatilization reactions are described.

  7. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  8. A silicon carbide wireless temperature sensing system for high temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2013-02-01

    In this article, an extreme environment-capable temperature sensing system based on state-of-art silicon carbide (SiC) wireless electronics is presented. In conjunction with a Pt-Pb thermocouple, the SiC wireless sensor suite is operable at 450 °C while under centrifugal load greater than 1,000 g. This SiC wireless temperature sensing system is designed to be non-intrusively embedded inside the gas turbine generators, acquiring the temperature information of critical components such as turbine blades, and wirelessly transmitting the information to the receiver located outside the turbine engine. A prototype system was developed and verified up to 450 °C through high temperature lab testing. The combination of the extreme temperature SiC wireless telemetry technology and integrated harsh environment sensors will allow for condition-based in-situ maintenance of power generators and aircraft turbines in field operation, and can be applied in many other industries requiring extreme environment monitoring and maintenance.

  9. A Silicon Carbide Wireless Temperature Sensing System for High Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an extreme environment-capable temperature sensing system based on state-of-art silicon carbide (SiC) wireless electronics is presented. In conjunction with a Pt-Pb thermocouple, the SiC wireless sensor suite is operable at 450 °C while under centrifugal load greater than 1,000 g. This SiC wireless temperature sensing system is designed to be non-intrusively embedded inside the gas turbine generators, acquiring the temperature information of critical components such as turbine blades, and wirelessly transmitting the information to the receiver located outside the turbine engine. A prototype system was developed and verified up to 450 °C through high temperature lab testing. The combination of the extreme temperature SiC wireless telemetry technology and integrated harsh environment sensors will allow for condition-based in-situ maintenance of power generators and aircraft turbines in field operation, and can be applied in many other industries requiring extreme environment monitoring and maintenance. PMID:23377189

  10. Metals Technology for Aerospace Applications in 2020: Development of High Temperature Aluminum Alloys For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The role of trace additions on the nucleation and stability of the primary strengthening phase, omega, is of paramount importance for the enhancement of mechanical properties for moderate temperature application of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) alloys. In order to better understand the competition for solute, which governs the microstructural evolution of these alloys, a series of Al-Cu-Mg-Si quaternary alloys were prepared to investigate the role of trace Si additions on the nucleation of the omega phase. Si additions were found to quell omega nucleation in conjunction with the enhanced matrix precipitation of competing phases. These initial results indicate that it is necessary to overcome a critical Mg/Si ratio for omega precipitation, rather than a particular Si content.

  11. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  12. Kamacite blocking temperatures and applications to lunar magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Weiss, Benjamin P.

    2010-05-01

    The long-term stability of remanent magnetization is a requirement for paleomagnetic studies. Here we present calculations that predict the magnetic relaxation times of single domain crystals of the iron-nickel mineral kamacite as a function of their time-temperature history. Kamacite is one of the most abundant ferromagnetic minerals in the solar system and is the dominant remanence carrier on the Moon. We perform these calculations for a variety of grain sizes, times, and temperatures to derive a broad view of the remanence stability of kamacite over geologic timescales. Previously, such blocking temperature calculations were only available for the common Earth minerals magnetite, hematite, and pyrrhotite. Our results show that remanence in kamacite-bearing lunar samples is stable against typical thermal perturbations during the last several billion years of lunar history and residence on Earth. Our findings indicate that lunar paleomagnetism cannot be entirely an artifact due to sample storage in the Earth's magnetic field. Future paleomagnetic studies of iron-bearing samples can use our blocking temperature diagram to determine the effects of geologic heating events on magnetic remanence.

  13. STREAM TEMPERATURE SIMULATION OF FORESTED RIPARIAN AREAS: II. MODEL APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SHADE-HSPF modeling system described in a companion paper has been tested and applied to the Upper Grande Ronde (UGR) watershed in northeast Oregon. Sensitivities of stream temperature to the heat balance parameters in Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and the ripa...

  14. Applications of Land Surface Temperature from Microwave Observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes. Yet, it remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observation...

  15. Practical approaches for application of hi-temperature strain gages on high temperature composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Four major areas of interest with respect to utilizing strain gages on carbon/carbon (with SiC surfaces) and titanium matrix composites are addressed. Strain gage and adhesive combinations on carbon/carbon (C/C) at temperatures from minus 190 C to 540 C, half-bridge gaging for reducing apparent strain on C/C using Poisson's ratio and bending configurations, review of the 'field installation' techniques developed for gaging a C/C hypersonic generic elevon, and results of initial strain gaging efforts on titanium matrix composites are discussed. Current research in developing techniques for increasing the maximum temperature for strain gages on carbon/carbon are reviewed.

  16. Metal-metal laminar composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to obtain indications of the potentialities of laminar metal-metal composites for elevated temperature use. Most of the composites consisted of multiple layers or laminae of tungsten alternated with laminae of Nichrome V, a ductile, weaker but oxidation-resistant alloy. Composites with 50 volume percent of each phase were tested in tension and stress rupture at temperatures of 871 and 1093 C (1600 and 2000 F) and in impact at 23 and 524 C (73 and 975 F). A tension and a short time stress-rupture test was conducted on specimens of 77 v/o W-Re-Hf-C/23 v/o Inconel alloy 600 at 1093 C (2000 F).

  17. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  18. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    McKamey, Claudette G.; Liu, Chain T.

    1990-01-01

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  19. Combined conjugated heat transfer from a scattering medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Chung, B. T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Combined heat transfer from a radiating and convecting flow of an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium in a reflecting channel with conducting wall was numerically investigated. The results clearly indicate that in any high-temperature applications, if the effects of scattering and wall reflection are ignored, the position and magnitude of the maximum wall temperature and the behavior of the convective Nusselt number can be grossly misrepresented.

  20. Microfiber Bragg grating for temperature and strain sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Liu, Shuhui; Yu, Wenbing; Deng, Peigang

    2017-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating is inscribed on microfiber with femtosecond laser pulses irradiation. The microfiber is fabricated by stretching a section of single mode fiber over a flame. Periodic grooves are carved on the microfiber by the laser as have been observed experimentally. The microfiber Bragg grating is demonstrated for temperature and strain sensing, and the strain sensitivity is improved with decreased diameters of the microfibers.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics for High Temperature Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    phenomenon not only after creep, but also after simple annealing tests, depending on the time-temperature regime. The inner oxidation is very dependent...to strengthening the common defer.ce posture; - Improving the co-operation among member nations in aerospace research and development; Providing...chemical behaviour we must take into ac- count the system: nonoxide ceramic - turbine gas as highly unstable in terms of thermo- dynamics. Thus

  2. Thermal Barrier/Seal for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Phelps, Jack; Bauer, Paul; Bond, Bruce; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large solid rocket motors, as found on the Space Shuttle, are fabricated in segments for manufacturing considerations, bolted together, and sealed using conventional Viton O-ring seals. Similarly the nine large solid rocket motor nozzles are assembled from several different segments, bolted together, and sealed at six joint locations using conventional O-ring seals. The 5500 F combustion gases are generally kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic or rubber insulation. Joint-fill compounds, including RTV (room temperature vulcanized compound) and polysulfide filler, are used to fill the joints in the insulation to prevent a direct flow-path to the O-rings. Normally these two stages of protection are enough to prevent a direct flow-path of the 900-psi hot gases from reaching the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. However, in the current design 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket motors experience hot gas effects on the Joint 6 wiper (sacrificial) O-rings. Also worrisome is the fact that joints have experienced heat effects on materials between the RTV and the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have experienced heat effects. These conditions lead to extensive reviews of the post-flight conditions as part of the effort to monitor flight safety. We have developed a braided carbon fiber thermal barrier to replace the joint fill compounds in the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzles to reduce the incoming 5500 F combustion gas temperature and permit only cool (approximately 100 F) gas to reach the temperature-sensitive O-ring seals. Implementation of this thermal barrier provides more robust, consistent operation with shorter turn around times between Shuttle launches.

  3. Microfiber Bragg grating for temperature and strain sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Liu, Shuhui; Yu, Wenbing; Deng, Peigang

    2016-12-01

    Fiber Bragg grating is inscribed on microfiber with femtosecond laser pulses irradiation. The microfiber is fabricated by stretching a section of single mode fiber over a flame. Periodic grooves are carved on the microfiber by the laser as have been observed experimentally. The microfiber Bragg grating is demonstrated for temperature and strain sensing, and the strain sensitivity is improved with decreased diameters of the microfibers.

  4. Low Temperature Atmospheric Argon Plasma: Diagnostics and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, Svetlana; Petrov, Oleg; Zigangirova, Nailya; Vasiliev, Mikhail; Sysolyatina, Elena; Antipov, Sergei; Alyapyshev, Maxim; Kolkova, Natalia; Mukhachev, Andrei; Naroditsky, Boris; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Grigoriev, Anatoly; Morfill, Gregor; Fortov, Vladimir; Gintsburg, Alexander

    This study was devoted to diagnostic of low temperature plasma produced by microwave generator and investigation of its bactericidal effect against bacteria in biofilms and within eukaryotic cells. The profile of gas temperature near the torch outlet was measured. The spectrum in a wide range of wavelengths was derived by the method of optical emission spec-troscopy. Probe measurements of the floating potential of plasma were car-ried out. The estimation and adaptation of parameters of plasma flow (tem-perature, velocity, ion number density) according to medico-technical requirements were produced. The model of immersed surface-associated biofilms formed by Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, was used to assess bactericidal effects of plasma treatment. Reduction in the concentration of live bacteria in biofilms treated with plasma for 5 min was demonstrated by measuring Live/Dead fluorescent labeling and using direct plating. The intracellular infection model with the pathogenic bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, was used to study the efficacy of microwave argon plasma against intracellular parasites. A 2 min plasma treatment of mouse cells infected with C. trachomatis reduced infectious bacteria by a factor of 2×106. Plasma treatment diminished the number of viable host cells by about 20%. When the samples were covered with MgF2 glass to obstruct active particles and UV alone was applied, the bactericidal effect was re-duced by 5×104 fold compared to the whole plasma.

  5. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc; Daniel, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  6. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature turbine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to develop thin film thermocouples (TFTC) for Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components such as the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) blades and to test TFTC survivability and durability in the SSME environment. The purpose for developing TFTC's for SSME components is to obtain blade temperatures for computational models developed for fluid mechanics and structures. The TFTC must be able to withstand the presence of high temperature, high pressure hydrogen as well as a severe thermal transient due to a cryogenic to combustion temperature change. The TFTC's will eventually be installed and tested on SSME propulsion system components in the SSME test bed engine. The TFTC's were successfully fabricated on flat coupons of MAR-M 246 (Hf+), which is the superalloy material used for HPFTP turbine blades. The TFTC's fabricated on flat coupons survived thermal shock cycling as well as testing in a heat flux measurement facility which provided a rapid thermal transient. The same fabrication procedure was used to deposit TFTC's on HPFTP first stage rotor blades. Other results from the experiments are presented, and future testing plans are discussed.

  7. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    SciTech Connect

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard; Duval, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for the ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.

  8. Applications of American design codes for elevated temperature environment. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Severud, L.K.

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the ASME Code rules of Case N-47 is presented. An overview of the typical procedure used to demonstrate Code compliance is provided. Application experience and some examples of detailed inelastic analysis and simplified-approximate methods are given. Recent developments and future trends in design criteria and ASME Code rules are also presented.

  9. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  10. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: On the possibility of high-temperature plasma production by laser pulses irradiating a volume-structured medium formed upon the explosion of a thin conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Ivanenkov, G. V.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2003-11-01

    The properties and parameters of volume-structured metal media produced by exploding thin conductors in a high-power electric discharge are analysed. Such media are proposed for the production of nonequilibrium high-temperature laser plasma as a high-power X-ray and neutron radiation source. The physics of the interaction of a high-power laser pulse with a volume-structured metal medium and the properties of produced nonequilibrium plasma are considered.

  11. Computational criterion for application of the characteristic effective medium approximation to ultrathin Co Au multi-bilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haija, A. J.; Larry Freeman, W.; DeNinno, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    The basic optical properties, reflectivity and transmissivity, of three sets of Co-Au bilayer structures are calculated for normal incidence in the wavelength range 300-700 nm. Each set consists of a total number of bilayer identity periods m=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The thickness of the bilayer in each set is 5, 7, and 9 nm. The composition of the bilayer is kept fixed: 40% Co and 60% Au. The calculations are done for ideal layered Co-Au stacks using the characteristic matrix technique. Calculations for each stack based on the thicknesses of the two composite layers and their optical constants are contrasted against calculations using the characteristic effective medium approximation, CEMA. A third calculation of the optical properties for each stack is performed, again using the CEMA, but when the whole stack, called the effective stack, ES, is treated as one uniform medium of effective optical constants. The comparison of the three sets of calculations for all sets is intended to shed more light onto the validity of the CEMA approximation that has been established for thin bilayer structures whose constituents have thicknesses much less than the wavelength of the incident radiation. The study establishes a limit based on the product of the number of layers m and the identity period of the stack h, beyond which the CEMA approximation cannot be applied. This limit is consistent with a previous study carried out on Ag-SiO ultrathin stacks.

  12. [The medium chain fat acids. Content in food. Physiology, characteristics of metabolism and application in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Arkhipovskiĭ, A V; Titov, V N

    2013-06-01

    It is rational, according to biology laws and purposes for which cells use fatty acids, to distinguish between saturated (without double bonds in chain), monoene (with one bond), unsaturated (with 2 and 3 double bonds) and polyene (with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds) acids. The saturated and monoene fatty acids are mainly the substratum for oxygenation and working out of energy by cells. The unsaturated fatty acids are the substratum for formation of membranes. The polyene fatty acids are the predecessors of synthesis of eicosanoids and aminophosphotides. With subject to characteristics of metabolism and transfer in vivo, the fatty acids are subdivided into short chain C4 - C8 and medium chain C-10 - C-14 fatty acids. The etherification occurs with glycerin into "short" triglycerides which are not bounded with apoproteins. The long chain fatty acids form "long" triglycerides which in enterocytes are structured by apoprotein B-48 into composition of chylomicrons. It is possible to validly consider that difference in outflow from enterocytes to veins of portal system (which includes veins of omentum) of medium chain fatty acids in the form of short triglycerides can directly input into pathogenesis of syndrome of isolated omental obesity and metabolic syndrome. The another input into the mentioned conditions is the secretion through ductus thoracicus into large veins of greater systemic circulation of long chain fatty acids in the form of triglycerides in the content of chylomicrons. The omental obesity is the only specific symptom of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Transparent electrically conducting thin films for spacecraft temperature control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, G.; Heaney, J. B.; Toft, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Thin transparent films of In2O3 or In2O3 + SnO2 prepared by evaporation or sputtering have been tested for use as surface layers for spacecraft temperature control coatings. The films are intended to prevent nonuniform electric charge buildup on the spacecraft exterior. Film thicknesses of 300 to 500 A were found to be optimal in terms of durability and minimum impact on the solar absorptance and the thermal emissivity of the underlayers. As a verification of their suitability for long-duration space missions, the films were subjected to simulated solar UV plus proton irradiation in a vacuum.

  14. Laser phosphoroscope and applications to room-temperature phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah J; Zhang, Guoqing; Demas, James N; Fraser, Cassandra L; Degraff, Ben A

    2011-11-01

    A simple phosphoroscope with no moving parts is described. In one scan the total luminescence, the long-lived phosphorescence, and the short-lived fluorescence can be determined. A 50% duty cycle excitation from a diode laser is used to excite the sample, and from the digitized waveform the phosphorescence is extracted from the off period, the total emission from the full cycle, and the fluorescence from the on period corrected for the phosphorescence contribution. The performance of the system is demonstrated using room-temperature phosphorescence of organic dyes in boric acid glasses, a multi-emissive boron-polymer dye, and a europium chelate.

  15. NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Palitha Jayaweera

    2004-05-01

    SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from October 2003 to April 2004.

  16. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    SciTech Connect

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  17. Photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium bounded externally or internally by an infinitely long circular cylindrical applicator. II. Quantitative examinations of the steady-state theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anqi; Xu, Guan; Daluwatte, Chathuri; Yao, Gang; Bunting, Charles F; Pogue, Brian W; Piao, Daqing

    2011-02-01

    This is Part II of the work that examines photon diffusion in a homogenous medium enclosed by a concave circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a convex circular cylindrical applicator. Part I of this work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 648 (2010)] analytically examined the steady-state photon diffusion between a source and a detector for two specific cases: (1) the detector is placed only azimuthally with respect to the source, and (2) the detector is placed only longitudinally with respect to the source, in the infinitely long concave and convex applicator geometries. For the first case, it was predicted that the decay rate of photon fluence would become smaller in the concave geometry and greater in the convex geometry than that in the semi-infinite geometry for the same source-detector distance. For the second case, it was projected that the decay rate of photon fluence would be greater in the concave geometry and smaller in the convex geometry than that in the semi-infinite geometry for the same source-detector distance. This Part II of the work quantitatively examines these predictions from Part I through several approaches, including (a) the finite-element method, (b) the Monte Carlo simulation, and (c) experimental measurement. Despite that the quantitative examinations have to be conducted for finite cylinder applicators with large length-to-radius ratio to approximate the infinite-length condition modeled in Part I, the results obtained by these quantitative methods for two concave and three convex applicator dimensions validated the qualitative trend predicted by Part I and verified the quantitative accuracy of the analytic treatment of Part I in the diffusion regime of the measurement, at a given set of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the medium.

  18. Qualification of room-temperature-curing epoxy adhesives for spacecraft structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Alain; O'Donnell, Tim

    1988-01-01

    An adhesive-bonding test program is being conducted in order to develop structural adhesives applicable to JPL spacecraft. A noteworthy application for such an adhesive will be JPL's Galileo mission, whose trajectory will involve the circumnavigation of the planet Venus prior to Jupiter rendezvous, and will accordingly require stringent temperature and radiation environment requirements. The baseline adhesive for the test program is the EA 934 room temperature-cure epoxy, which has been widely used as a 'space-qualified' material.

  19. Silicon carbide-based hydrogen gas sensors for high-temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-10-09

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  20. Application of TL dosemeters for dose distribution measurements at high temperatures in nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Osvay, M; Deme, S

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3:Mg,Y ceramic thermoluminescence dosemeters were developed at the Institute of Isotopes for high dose applications at room temperatures. The glow curve of Al2O3:Mg,Y exhibits two peaks--one at 250 degrees C (I) and another peak at approximately 400 degrees C (II). In order to extend the application of these dosemeters to high temperatures, the effect of irradiation temperature was investigated using temperature controlled heating system during high dose irradiation at various temperatures (20-100 degrees C). The new calibration and measuring method has been successfully applied for dose mapping within the hermetic zone of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant even at high temperature parts of blocks.

  1. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongjeen; Choi, Jehoon; Jung, Minsoo; Joo, Sungjae; Kim, Sangchoel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC) was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures. PMID:24113685

  2. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  3. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  4. Characterisation of high temperature refractory ceramics for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, P. D. W.; Wiss, Th; Janssen, A.; Cremer, B.; Thiele, H.; Manara, D.; Scheindlin, M.; Murray-Farthing, M.; Lajarge, P.; Menna, M.; Bouexière, D.; Rondinella, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The ternary oxide ceramic system UO2-ZrO2-FeO is a refractory system that is of great relevance to the nuclear industry as it represents one of the main systems resulting from the interaction of the Zircaloy cladding, the UO2 fuel and the structural elements of a nuclear reactor. It is particularly the high temperature properties that require investigation; that is, when substantial overheating of the nuclear core occurs and interactions can lead to its degradation, melting and result in a severe nuclear accident. There has been much work on the UO2-ZrO2 system and also on the ternary system with FeO but there is still a need to examine 2 further aspects; firstly the effect of sub-oxidized systems, the UO2-Zr and FeO-Zr systems, and secondly the effect of Fe/Zr or Fe/U ratios on the melting point of the U-Zr-Fe oxide system. Samples of UO2-Zr and UO2-ZrO2-FeO were fabricated at ITU and then characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray diffraction to determine the ceramic's structure and verify the composition. Thereafter the samples are to be melted by laser flash heating and their liquidus and solidus temperatures determined by pyrometry. This programme is currently ongoing. The frozen samples, after testing, were then sectioned, polished and the molten zone micro-analytically examined by OM & SEM-EDS in order to determine its structure and composition and to compare with the existing phase diagrams. Examples of results from these systems will be given. Finally, a reacted Zr-FeO thermite mixture was examined, which had been used to generate high temperatures during tests of reactor melt-concrete interactions. The aim was to assess the reaction and estimate the heat generation from this novel technique. These results allow verification or improvement of the phase diagram and are of primary importance as input to models used to predict materials interactions in a severe nuclear accident.

  5. A novel application of range-gated underwater laser imaging system (ULIS) in near-target turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, ChingSeong; Seet, Gerald; Sluzek, Andrzej; He, DuoMin

    2005-09-01

    Range-gated imaging system improves signal-to-backscattering noise ratio (SBR) by rejecting backscattered light from the target irradiance. This is achieved by synchronizing the arrival of pulsed target irradiance with the gating of an intensified camera. Witherspoon and Holloway (Ocean Optics X 1302 (1990) 414-420) indicated that the image quality of range-gated imaging system might be further improved by a delay in the camera gating towards the tail of reflected image temporal profile (RITP). This phenomena has, however, not been further elaborated. This paper extends on Witherspoon's observation. The MCRITP (Monte Carlo for RITP) algorithm is validated with theoretical and experimental results for medium attenuation coefficients of 0.26-5.90/m. By temporal convolution of the simulated results with outgoing Gaussian light pulse, Tail RITP region shows more reduction in the unwanted backscatter effects than the target intensity. This can be observed as an improvement in image contrast and a modified fidelity index (MF).

  6. Thin Film Materials and Devices for Resistive Temperature Sensing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) with help from Yiyang Gong from the department of Electrical Engineering. A 32 nm of Al2O3 was...on Thin Film Physics and Applications, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9068, 2013. [26] D. Zhao, Plasma-enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition Zinc Oxide Flexible... deposition of Si:H and SiGe:H 25 thin films, thin films of Ge:H also show a decrease in the thickness of amorphous bulk layer prior to the

  7. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy for control of the medium composition during the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mara; Muter, Olga; Strikauska, Silvija; Gavare, Marita; Limane, Baiba

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies showed that cabbage leaf extract (CLE) added to the growth medium can noticeably promote the degradation of nitro aromatic compounds by specific consortium of bacteria upon their growth. For further development of the approach for contaminated soil remediation it was necessary to evaluate the qualitative and/or quantitative composition of different origin CLE and their relevance on the growth of explosives-degrading bacteria. Six CLE (different by species, cultivars and harvesting time) were tested and used as additives to the growth medium. It was shown that nitro aromatic compounds can be identified in the FT-IR absorption spectra by the characteristic band at 1,527 cm(-1), and in CLE by the characteristic band at 1,602 cm(-1). The intensity of the CLE band at 1,602 cm(-1) correlated with the concentration of total nitrogen (R2=0.87) and decreased upon the growth of bacteria. The content of nitrogen in CLE differed (0.22-1.00 vol.%) and significantly influenced the content of total carbohydrates (9.50-16.00% DW) and lipids [3.90-9.90% dry weight (DW)] accumulated in bacterial cells while the content of proteins was similar in all samples. Though this study showed quantitative differences in the composition of the studied CLE and the response of bacterial cells to the composition of the growth media, and proved the potential of this additive for remediation of contaminated soil. It was shown that analysis of CLE and monitoring of the conversion of nitro aromatic compounds can be investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as by conventional chemical methods.

  8. Applications of Medium C-Band and High Resolution X-Band Multitemporal Interferometry in Landslide Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowski, J.; Bovenga, F.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Chiaradia, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing quantity and quality of the imagery available from a growing number of SAR satellites and the improved processing algorithms, multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) is expected to be commonly applied in landslide studies. MTI can now provide long-term (years), regular (weekly-monthly), precise (mm) measurements of ground displacements over large areas (thousands of km2), at medium (~20 m) to high (up to 1-3 m) spatial resolutions, combined with the possibility of multi-scale (regional to local) investigations, using the same series of radar images. We focus on the benefits as well as challenges of multisensor and multi-scale investigations by discussing MTI results regarding two landslide prone regions with distinctly different topographic, climatic and vegetation conditions (mountains in Central Albania and Southern Gansu, China), for which C-band (ERS or ENVISAT) and X-band COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) imagery was available (all in Stripmap descending mode). In both cases X-band MTI outperformed C-band MTI by providing more valuable information for the regional to local scale detection of slope deformations and landslide hazard assessment. This is related to the better spatial-temporal resolutions and more suitable incidence angles (40°-30° versus 23°) of CSK data While the use of medium resolution imagery may be appropriate and more cost-effective in reconnaissance or regional scale investigations, high resolution data could be preferentially exploited when focusing on urbanized landslides or potentially unstable slopes in urban/peri-urban areas, and slopes traversed by lifelines and other engineering structures.

  9. Application of response surface methodology for optimizing arginine deiminase production medium for Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kaur, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Arginine metabolism in Enterococcus faecium sp. GR7 was enhanced via arginine deiminase pathway. Process parameters including fermentation media and environmental conditions were optimized using independent experiments and response surface methodology (central composite design). Fermentation media (EAPM) were optimized using independent experiments which resulted in 4-fold increase in arginine deiminase specific activity as compared to basal medium. To further enhance arginine deiminase activity in E. faecium sp. GR7 and biomass production including a five-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to study the interactive effect of three-process variables. Response surface methodology suggested a quadratic model which was further validated experimentally where it showed approximately 15-fold increase in arginine metabolism (in terms of arginine deiminase specific activity) over basal medium. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface cartons, optimal concentrations of the media components (g/L) were determined as arginine 20.0; tryptone 15.0; lactose 10.0; K2HPO4 3.0; NaCl 1.0, MnSO4 0.6 mM; Tween 80 1%; pH 6.0 for achieving specific arginine deiminase activity of 4.6 IU/mG with concomitant biomass production of 12.1 mg/L. The model is significant as the coefficient of determination (R (2)) was 0.87 to 0.90 for all responses. Enhanced arginine deiminase yield from E. faecium, a GRAS lactic acid bacterial strain, is desirable to explore in vitro therapeutic potential of the arginine metabolizing E. faecium sp. GR7.

  10. Ankle and Thigh Skin Surface Temperature Changes With Repeated Ice Pack Application

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Janice E.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on cold applications has been performed on nonexercising supine subjects during a single cold pack application. Most athletic injuries occur during exercise, which increases skin temperature. Exercise before ice application will also increase ankle skin temperature during the rewarming phase. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of activity on subsequent ice pack applications and rewarming using standard immediate care procedures. Design and Setting: Three experimental conditions (20-, 30-, and 40-minute ice pack applications) were applied to 12 subjects in a repeated measures design. Subjects rode a bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes before ice application to the ankle and opposite thigh, and were active (walking with crutches, simulated showering and dressing) for 20 minutes following application. Subjects rested with the limb elevated for an additional 40 minutes. Ice packs were then reapplied for the appropriate time (20, 30, or 40 minutes) followed by 60 minutes of rest with the limb elevated. Subjects: Twelve (8 males, 4 females) college-aged volunteers. Only subjects with good-to-high fitness levels were accepted for this study. Measurements: Ankle skin, thigh skin, and atmospheric temperatures were measured every minute using an Isothermex (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH). Results: Thigh temperature changes during the first ice application were greater during the 30- and 40-minute conditions than the 20-minute condition. Ankle and thigh temperature changes during the first ice application and rewarming, and for the entire trial were greater during the 40-minute condition than the 20-or 30-minute conditions. Throughout the first ice application and rewarming, and the entire trial, thigh temperature changes were greater during the 30-minute condition than the 20-minute condition. Conclusions: During immediate care procedures following injury, ice packs should be reapplied immediately following showering

  11. NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Palitha Jayaweera

    2004-05-01

    SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from May 2004 to October 2004 including testing of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, and software development.

  12. Application of the Parker flash method to high temperature thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical aspects of thermal diffusivity measurements are reviewed and applied to develop an experimental setup at JPL. Certain approximations commonly appearing in the literature are examined in some detail and rejected based upon sensitive slope variations having significant impact on the results. The final mathematical formulation used was one developed by Parker et al. (1961), which evaluated the diffusivity in a way that could be simply evaluated by examining an oscilloscope trace. A computer algorithm was written to examine solution sensitivity to the number of terms taken in the infinite series. The mathematical technique is being used at JPL to evaluate diffusivities of graphite, Boron Carbon and Lanthanum Sulphur compounds in the temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K.

  13. Polymeric medium

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Jones, Michael G [Chubbuck, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Trowbridge, Tammy L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  14. Development of ultrasonic thermometry for high-temperature high-resolution temperature profiling applications in LMFBR safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, M. E.

    1986-05-01

    Ultrasonic thermometry was developed as a high temperature profiling diagnostic for use in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Debris Coolability Program at Sandia National Laboratories. These instruments were used successfully in the DC series experiments and the D10 experiment. Temperatures approaching 3000 C with spatial resolution of 10 mm and indicated temperature gradients of 700 C/cm were measured. Instruments were operated in molten sodium, molten steel, and molten UO2 environments. Up to 14 measurement zones on a single instrument in molten sodium were used with 12 mm and 15 mm spatial resolution. Hermetically sealed units operating at elevated temperatures were used. Post-test examination revealed very little systematic calibration drifts (less than 10 C) with random drifts occuring with less than 40 C standard deviation in a 10 to 12 mm measured zone. The stability of the system varies from +/- 1 C to +/- 15 C depending on the sensor design constraints for a particular application. Doped tungsten sensors were developed to permit operation of total measurement zone length of 30 cm at temperatures above 2500 C.

  15. Development and application of nonflammable, high-temperature beta fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber technology have contributed to the success of the U.S. space program. The inorganic fiber Beta, developed as a result of efforts begun in the early 1960's and heightened following the January 27, 1967 Apollo fire is unique among inorganic and organic fibers. It has been developed into woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided, coated and printed structures. All of these were used extensively for the Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz test project, space shuttle, Spacelab, and satellite programs. In addition to being used successfully in the space program, Beta fibers are being used commercially as firesafe fabrics in homes, hospitals, institutions, public buildings, aircraft, and public transportation, wherever total nonflammability is required. One of the most unique applications of the Beta composite structure is the roofing material for the 80,000-seat Detroit Lion's Silverdome and 5 square miles of the Jeddah International Airport in Saudi Arabia. This fiber has been successfully incorporated into 165 major public construction projects around the globe. The United States alone has used more than 12 million square yards of the material. Beta fiber has been used successfully to date and has a promising future with unlimited potential for both space and commercial application. Efforts are currently underway to improve Beta fiber to meet the requirements of extended service life for the Space Station Freedom, lunar outpost, and Mars exploration missions.

  16. Evaluation of a low temperature hardening Inorganic Phosphate Cement for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alshaaer, M.; Cuypers, H.; Mosselmans, G.; Rahier, H.; Wastiels, J.

    2011-01-15

    Phase and mechanical changes of Inorganic Phosphate Cement (IPC) are identified along with changes in macro properties as functions of temperature and time. In addition to amorphous phases, the presence of significant amounts of brushite and wollastonite in the reference IPC is confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior of IPC up to 1000 {sup o}C shows that contraction of the solid phase in IPC due to chemical transformations causes reduction in the volume of the material. Also the ongoing meta-stable calcium phosphate transformations and reactions over a long time contribute significantly to the phase instability of the material at ambient conditions. It is found that the strength of IPC increases with ageing at ambient conditions but the formation microcracks below 105 {sup o}C causes a sharp reduction in the mechanical performance of IPC. According to the results obtained by Mercury intrusion porosimetry, the pore system of the reference IPC is dominated by mesopores.

  17. Study on the activation of styrene-based shape memory polymer by medium-infrared laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Yanju; Yu, Kai; Lan, Xin

    2010-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of shape memory polymer (SMP) activation by medium-infrared laser light. Medium-infrared light is transmitted by an optical fiber embedded in the SMP matrix, and the shape recovery process and temperature distribution are recorded by an infrared camera. Light-induced SMP exhibits potential applications in biomedicines and flexible displays.

  18. Dust Particle Growth and Application in Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-01

    Dust particle nucleation and growth has been widely studied these last fifteen years in different chemistries and experimental conditions. This phenomenon is correlated with various electrical changes at electrodes, including self-bias voltage and amplitudes of the various harmonics of current and voltage [1]. Some of these changes, such as the appearance of more resistive plasma impedance, are correctly attributed to loss of electrons in the bulk plasma to form negative molecular ions (e.g. SiH3-) and more precisely charged nanoparticles. These changes were studied and correlated to the different phases on the dust particle formation. It is well known now that, in silane argon gas mixture discharges, in the first step of this particle formation we have formation of nanometer sized crystallites. These small entities accumulate and when their number density reaches a critical value, about 1011 to 1012 cm-1, they start to aggregate to form bigger particles. The different phases are well defined and determined thanks to the time evolution of the different electrical parameter changes. The purpose of this contribution is to compare different chemistries to highlight similarities and/or differences in order to establish possible universal dust particle growth mechanisms. The chemistries we studied concern SiH4-Ar, CH4, CH4-N2 and Sn(CH3)4 [2]. We also refer to works performed in other laboratories in different discharge configurations [3]. Different applications have already developed or are foreseen for these nanoparticles. The first application concerns the inclusion of nanosized dust crystallites in an amorphous matrix in order to modify the optoelectronic and mechanical properties [4-5]. At the present time a very active research programs are devoted towards single electron devises where nanometer sized crystallites play a role of quantum dots. These nanoparticles can be produced in low pressure cold plasmas.

  19. Ultra high temperature ceramics for hypersonic vehicle applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Rajan; Dumm, Hans Peter; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    HfB{sub 2} and ZrB{sub 2} are of interest for thermal protection materials because of favorable thermal stability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance. We have made dense diboride ceramics with 2 to 20 % SiC by hot pressing at 2000 C and 5000 psi. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows very thin grain boundary phases that suggest liquid phase sintering. Fracture toughness measurements give RT values of 4 to 6 MPam{sup 1/2}. Four-pt flexure strengths measured in air up to 1450 C were as high as 450-500 MPa. Thermal diffusivities were measured to 2000 C for ZrB{sub 2} and HfB{sub 2} ceramics with SiC contents from 2 to 20%. Thermal conductivities were calculated from thermal diffusivities and measured heat capacities. Thermal diffusivities were modeled using different two-phase composite models. These materials exhibit excellent high temperature properties and are attractive for further development for thermal protection systems.

  20. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  1. (abstract) PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  2. PV Technology for Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Pool, Frederick S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Iles, Peter A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the recent NASA emphasis on smaller, lower cost space missions, PV is now being considered for a number of missions operating at solar distances of 3 AU or greater. In the past, many of these missions would utilize an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). Historically, silicon solar cell behavior at these distances has been compromised by a number of mechanisms including shunting, nonohmic back contacts, and the 'broken knee' curve shape. The former two can usually be neglected for modern silicon cells, but the latter has not been eliminated. This problem has been identified with localized diffusion at the top contact/silicon interface which leads to structural changes at the local junction. This is believed to create a resistive metal-semiconductor-like (MSL) interface in parallel with the junction which results in the characteristic forms of the LILT (low intensity, low temperature) 'broken knee'. This paper discusses a TaSiN contact barrier that will prevent the MSL structure in the junction.

  3. High Strength Aluminum Alloy For High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The cast article has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 6.0-25.0, Copper 5.0-8.0, Iron 0.05-1.2, Magnesium 0.5-1.5, Nickel 0.05-0.9, Manganese 0.05-1.2, Titanium 0.05-1.2, Zirconium 0.05-1.2, Vanadium 0.05-1.2, Zinc 0.05-0.9, Strontium 0.001-0.1, Phosphorus 0.001-0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10-25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4-15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2 crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  4. A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

  5. Assessment of Various Low Temperature Electrolytes in Prototype Li-Ion Cells Developed for ESMD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.

    2008-01-01

    Due to their attractive properties and proven success, Li-ion batteries have become identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future NASA missions. A number of these applications would be greatly benefited by improved performance of Li-ion technology over a wider operating temperature range, especially at low temperatures, such as future ESMD missions. In many cases, these technology improvements may be mission enabling, and at the very least mission enhancing. In addition to aerospace applications, the DoE has interest in developing advanced Li-ion batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range to enable terrestrial HEV applications. Thus, our focus at JPL in recent years has been to extend the operating temperature range of Li-ion batteries, especially at low temperatures. To accomplish this, the main focus of the research has been devoted to developing improved lithium-ion conducting electrolytes. In the present paper, we would like to present some of the results we have obtained with six different ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes optimized for low temperature. In addition to investigating the behavior in experimental cells initially, the performance of these promising low temperature electrolytes was demonstrated in large capacity, aerospace quality Li-ion prototype cells, manufactured by Yardney Technical Products and Saft America, Inc. These cells were subjected to a number of performance tests, including discharge rate characterization, charge rate characterization, cycle life performance at various temperatures, and power characterization tests.

  6. Evaluation of high temperature dielectric films for high voltage power electronic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suthar, J. L.; Laghari, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Three high temperature films, polyimide, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy and poly-P-xylene, were evaluated for possible use in high voltage power electronic applications, such as in high energy density capacitors, cables and microelectronic circuits. The dielectric properties, including permittivity and dielectric loss, were obtained in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz at temperatures up to 200 C. The dielectric strengths at 60 Hz were determined as a function of temperature to 250 C. Confocal laser microscopy was performed to diagnose for voids and microimperfections within the film structure. The results obtained indicate that all films evaluated are capable of maintaining their high voltage properties, with minimal degradation, at temperatures up to 200 C. However, above 200 C, they lose some of their electrical properties. These films may therefore become viable candidates for high voltage power electronic applications at high temperatures.

  7. A new application of PVDF line-focus transducers on measuring dispersion curves of a layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yung-Chun; Ko, Shin-Pin

    2000-05-01

    In the past few years, PVDF line-focus acoustic transducers have been proven to be a useful and convenient tool for accurately measuring surface wave velocity. The transducer is very easy to construct and the measurement system can be readily established with conventional ultrasonic instruments. In this investigation, however, the capability of PVDF line-focus transducers will be further extended to the measurement of dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves of a layered medium. To achieve this, a number of line-focus transducers are first fabricated with PVDF films of various thickness so that they can operate at different frequencies. Experimental testing on these transducers shows that surface acoustic waves of frequency ranging from 2 MHz to 20 MHz can be effectively generated and detected. For the determination of surface wave velocity as a function of frequency, a new method of processing the measured waveforms during a z-direction defocusing measurements is developed. A mathematical model is given to explain how this method works. With the transducers and the analyzing method, the surface wave dispersion relation of a layer/substrate configuration have been experimentally determined. Samples include thick polymeric films as well as metal films deposited on glass, aluminum, and silicon crystal. Possibility of determining material properties of the layers from the measured dispersion curves will be discussed.

  8. Fluorimetric detection of Sn2 + ion in aqueous medium using Salicylaldehyde based nanoparticles and application to natural samples analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kishor S.; Mahajan, Prasad G.; Patil, Shivajirao R.

    2017-01-01

    The fluorescent 2-[(E)-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene)methyl]phenol nanoparticles (PHPNPs) were prepared by a simple reprecipitation method. The prepared PHPNPs examined by Dynamic Light Scattering show narrower particle size distribution having an average particle size of 93.3 nm. The Scanning Electron Microphotograph shows distinct spherical shaped morphology of nanoparticles. The blue shift in UV-absorption and fluorescence spectra of PHPNPs with respect to corresponding spectra of PHP in acetone solution indicates H- aggregates and Aggregation Induced Enhanced Emission (AIEE) for nanoparticles. The nanoparticles show selective tendency towards the recognition of Sn2 + ions by enhancing the fluorescence intensity preference to Cu2 +, Fe3 +, Fe2 +, Ni2 +, NH4+, Ca2 +, Pb2 +, Hg2 + and Zn2 + ions, which actually seem to quench the fluorescence of nanoparticles. The studies on Langmuir adsorption plot, fluorescence lifetime of PHPNPs, DLS-Zeta sizer, UV-visible and fluorescence titration with and without Sn2 + helped to propose a suitable mechanism of fluorescence enhancement of nanoparticles by Sn2 + and their binding ability during complexation. The fluorescence enhancement effect of PHPNPs induced by Sn2 + is further used to develop an analytical method for detection of Sn2 + from aqueous medium in environmental samples.

  9. Application of a global variational analysis to quasi three-dimensional temperature retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalcher, A.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Halen and Kalnay (1983) hypothesis that the application of global variational analysis to clear column radiances will result in a reduction of both observational noise and data gaps is tested, together with the hypothesis of these authors that the estimate of clear column radiances furnished by the variational analysis can yield a useful reduction of the data gaps in the retrieved temperatures. In the first of two experiments conducted, attention is given to whether the nonlinearity of the temperature retrieval method is sufficiently strong to result in more accurate temperature retrievals. In the second experiment, realistic subgrid scale cloud fields and observational and temperature errors are included in the simulation system.

  10. Application of Mixed Spin iMQCs for Temperature and Chemical-Selective Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jenista, Elizabeth R.; Galiana, Gigi; Branca, Rosa T.; Yarmolenko, Pavel S.; Stokes, Ashley M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of accurate and non-invasive temperature imaging techniques has a wide variety of applications in fields such as medicine, chemistry and materials science. Accurate detection of temperature both in phantoms and in vivo can be obtained using iMQCs (intermolecular multiple quantum coherences), as demonstrated in a recent paper [1]. This paper describes the underlying theory of iMQC temperature detection, as well as extensions of that work allowing not only for imaging of absolute temperature but also for imaging of analyte concentrations through chemically selective spin density imaging. PMID:20303808

  11. The spatial and temporal behavior of brightness temperature in Tel-Aviv and its application to air temperature monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pelta, Ran; Chudnovsky, A. Alexandra; Schwarts, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study applies remote sensing technology to assess and examine the spatial and temporal Brightness Temperature (BT) profile in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel over the last 30 years using Landsat imagery. The location of warmest and coldest zones are constant over the studied period. Distinct diurnal and temporal BT behavior divide the city into four different segments. As an example of future application, we applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to correlate Landsat BT data with monitored air temperature (Tair) measurements using 14 images for 1989–2014. Our preliminary results show a good model performance with R2 = 0.81. Furthermore, based on the model’s results, we analyzed the spatial profile of Tair within the study domain for representative days. PMID:26499933

  12. Application of Combined Sustained and Cyclic Loading Test Results to Alloy 617 Elevated Temperature Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2014-08-25

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of 900-950°C . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200°F (650°C). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 1200 °F, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures.

  13. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  14. Cellulose binding domain assisted immobilization of lipase (GSlip-CBD) onto cellulosic nanogel: characterization and application in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Zhang, Shaowei; Wu, Gaobing; Wu, Cheng Chao; Chen, JunPeng; Baskaran, R; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-12-01

    A cbd gene was cloned into the C-terminal region of a lip gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The native lipase (43.5 kDa) and CBD-Lip fusion protein (60.2 kDa) were purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. A highly stable cellulosic nanogel was prepared by controlled hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose onto which the CBD-lip fusion protein was immobilized through bio-affinity based binding. The nanogel-bound lipase showed optimum activity at 55 °C, and it remains stable and active at pH 10-10.5. Furthermore, the immobilized lipase showed an over two-fold increase of relative activity in the presence of DMSO, isopropanol, isoamyl alcohol and n-butanol, but a mild activity decrease at a low concentration of methanol and ethanol. The immobilized biocatalyst retained ~50% activity after eight repetitive hydrolytic cycles. Enzyme kinetic studies of the immobilized lipase showed a 1.24 fold increase in Vmax and 5.25 fold increase in kcat towards p-NPP hydrolysis. Additionally, the nanogel bound lipase was tested to synthesize a biodiesel ester, ethyl oleate in DMSO. Kinetic analysis showed the km 100.5 ± 4.3 mmol and Vmax 0.19 ± 0.015 mmolmin(-1) at varied oleic acid concentration. Also, the values of km and Vmax at varying concentration of ethanol were observed to be 95.9 ± 13.9 mmol and 0.22 ± 0.013 mmolmin(-1) respectively. The maximum yield of ethyl oleate 111.2 ± 1.24 mM was obtained under optimized reaction conditions in organic medium. These results suggest that this immobilized biocatalyst can be used as an efficient tool for the biotransformation reactions on an industrial scale.

  15. Nanostructure-based proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Junsheng; Wang, Zhengbang; Li, Junrui; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-02-01

    As a clean and highly efficient energy source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been considered an ideal alternative to traditional fossil energy sources. Great efforts have been devoted to realizing the commercialization of the PEMFC in the past decade. To eliminate some technical problems that are associated with the low-temperature operation (such as catalyst poisoning and poor water management), PEMFCs are usually operated at elevated temperatures (e.g., > 100 degrees C). However, traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) shows poor performance at elevated temperature. To achieve a high-performance PEM for high temperature fuel cell applications, novel PEMs, which are based on nanostructures, have been developed recently. In this review, we discuss and summarize the methods for fabricating the nanostructure-based PEMs for PEMFC operated at elevated temperatures and the high temperature performance of these PEMs. We also give an outlook on the rational design and development of the nanostructure-based PEMs.

  16. Electromagnetic induction in a conductive strip in a medium of contrasting conductivity: application to VLF and MT above molten dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves that penetrate conductive magma-filled dykes generate secondary fields on the surface that can be used to invert for dyke properties. The model used for the interpretation calculates currents induced in a conductive strip by an inducing field that decays exponentially with depth due to the conductivity of the surrounding medium. The differential equations are integrated to give an inhomogeneous Fredholm equation of the second kind with a kernel consisting of a modified Bessel function of the second kind. Numerical methods are typically used to solve for the induced currents in the strip. In this paper, we apply a modified Galerkin-Chebyshev method, which involves separating the kernel into source and field spectra and integrating the source terms to obtain a matrix equation for the unknown coefficients. The incident wave is expressed as a Chebyshev series. The modified Bessel function is separated into a logarithmic singularity and a non-singular remainder, both of which are expanded in complex Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev coefficients for the remainder are evaluated using a fast Fourier transform, while the logarithmic term and incident field have analytic series. The deconvolution then involves a matrix inversion. The results depend on the ratio of strip-size to skin-depth. For infinite skin-depth and a singular conductivity distribution given by τ_0 a/√{a^2 - z^2 } (where τ0 is the conductance, a is the half-length and z the distance from the centre), Parker gives an analytic solution. We present a similar analytic series solution for the finite skin-depth case, where the size to skin depth ratio is small. Results are presented for different ratios of size to skin depth that can be compared with numerical solutions. We compare full-space and half-space solutions. A fit of the model to VLF data taken above a magma filled dykes in Hawaii and Mt Etna demonstrates that while properties such as depth to top

  17. A new soil-temperature module for SWAT application in regions with seasonal snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Junyu; Li, Sheng; Li, Qiang; Xing, Zisheng; Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2016-07-01

    Accurate estimates of soil temperature are important for quantifying hydrological and biological processes in hydrological models. Soil temperature predictions in the widely used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) have large prediction errors when applied to regions with significant snow cover during winter. In this study, a new physically-based soil-temperature module is developed as an alternative to the empirical soil-temperature module currently used in SWAT. The physically-based module ​simulates soil temperature in different soil layers as a result of energy transfer between the atmosphere and soil (or snow) interface. The modified version of SWAT with the new soil-temperature module in place, introduces only three new parameters over the original soil-temperature module. Both the original and new soil-temperature modules are tested against field data from the Black Brook Watershed, a small watershed in Atlantic Canada. The results indicate that both versions of soil-temperature module ​are able to provide acceptable predictions of temperature in different layers of the soil during non-winter seasons. However, the original module severely underestimates soil temperatures in winter (within -10 to -20 °C), while the new module produces results that are more consistent with field measurements (within -2 to 2 °C). In addition, unlike its counterpart, the new module ​is able to simulate freeze-thaw cycles in the soil profile. Ice-water content variations in winter are reasonably simulated by the new module for different snow cover scenarios. In general, modified-SWAT improves prediction accuracy on baseflow discharge compared with the original-SWAT, due to improved estimates of soil temperature during winter. The new physically-based soil-temperature module has greatly improved the ability of SWAT to predict soil temperatures under seasonal snow cover, which is essential to the application of the model in regions like Atlantic Canada.

  18. Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

  19. Characterization of piezoelectric materials for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing for ultra-low frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouroz Islam, Mohammad; Seethaler, Rudolf; Shahria Alam, M.

    2015-08-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used extensively in a number of sensing applications ranging from aerospace industries to medical diagnostics. Piezoelectric materials generate charge when they are subjected to strain. However, since measuring charge is difficult at low frequencies, traditional piezoelectric sensors are limited to dynamic applications. In this research an alternative technique is proposed to determine static strain that relies upon the measurement of piezoelectric capacitance and resistance using piezoelectric sensors. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the capacitance and resistance of a piezoelectric patch sensor was characterized for a wide range of strain and temperature. The study shows that the piezoelectric capacitance is sensitive to both strain and temperature while the resistance is mostly dependent on the temperature variation. The findings can be implemented to obtain thermally compensated static strain from piezoelectric sensors, which does not require an additional temperature sensor.

  20. Measurement of axisymmetric temperature fields using reference beam and shearing interferometry for application to flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, A.; Guj, G.; Giammartini, S.

    A unified methodology for the application of reference beam and shearing interferometry to measure axisymmetric temperature fields within flames is proposed. Sensitivity and accuracy of the techniques are analyzed basing on interferograms of reference temperature profiles and CARS measurements obtained in test laminar flames. The rapid decay of temperature measurements accuracy with increasing both intensity of errors sources and uncertainty on independent parameters is assessed. The spatial variation of mixture composition in diffusive combusting flows requires the application of complementary methods to obtain a satisfactory accuracy, while flow fields with lean premixed combustion can be treated as optically-homogeneous media. The temperature maps resulting from the investigation of the test laminar flames are presented and discussed. The capability to disclose the thermal structure and to provide reliable quantitative data is demonstrated.

  1. Perspectives of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Applications and p-type and n-type Aluminoborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.

    2016-10-01

    A need exists to develop high-temperature thermoelectric materials which can utilize high-temperature unutilized/waste heat in thermal power plants, steelworks, factories, incinerators, etc., and also focused solar power. The thermal power plant topping application is of potential high impact since it can sizably increase the efficiency of power plants which are the major supply of electrical power for many countries. Higher borides are possible candidates for their particular high-temperature stability, generally large Seebeck coefficients, α, and intrinsic low thermal conductivity. Excellent (|α| > 200 μV/K) p-type or n-type behavior was recently achieved in the aluminoboride YAl x B14 by varying the occupancy of Al sites, x. Finding p-type and n-type counterparts has long been a difficulty of thermoelectric research not limited to borides. This paper reviews possible high-temperature thermoelectric applications, and recent developments and perspectives of thermoelectric aluminoborides.

  2. Temperature feedback-controlled photothermal treatment with diffusing applicator: theoretical and experimental evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trung Hau; Park, Suhyun; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-01-01

    To minimize thermal injury, the current study evaluated the real-time temperature monitoring with a proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller during 980-nm photothermal treatment with a radially-diffusing applicator. Both simulations and experiments demonstrated comparable thermal behaviors in temperature distribution and the degree of irreversible tissue denaturation. The PID-controlled application constantly maintained the pre-determined temperature of 353 K (steady-state error = < 1 K). Due to constant energy delivery, coagulation volumes linearly increased up to 1.04 ± 0.02 cm3 with irradiation time. Integration of temperature feedback with diffuser-assisted photothermal treatments can provide a feasible therapeutic modality to treat pancreatic tumors in an effective manner. PMID:27231632

  3. Thermal regime and temperature stresses in bodies during thermoradiational heating. [application of perturbation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chistopyanova, N. V.; Chumakov, V. L.

    1974-01-01

    An approach is developed to the application of the perturbation method for the solution of problems with essential external nonlinearities, based on identification in the boundary condition of a small nonlinear complex which is considered a perturbing function. The solutions obtained in the first approximation with error of 1 to 2% in calculating the unsteady temperature fields are then used to determine the temperature stresses and deformations in solid bodies of classical form.

  4. Electrical Properties of Materials for Elevated Temperature Resistance Strain Gage Application. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications.

  5. A New Approach to Joining of Silicon Carbide-Based Materials for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based materials in a number of high temperature applications. An affordable, robust technique for the joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. Microstructure and mechanical properties of reaction formed joints in a reaction bonded silicon carbide have been reported. These joints maintain their mechanical strengths at high temperatures (up to 1350 C) in air. This technique is capable of joining large and complex shaped ceramic components.

  6. A survey of possible passive antenna applications of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, Robert J.; Bowling, Donald R.; Martin, Anna M.

    1991-09-01

    A survey of possible applications of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to antennas and antenna feed networks is presented. The frequency range considered is 1 MHz to 100 GHz. Three antenna application areas seem appropriate for HTS material: electrically small antennas and their matching networks; feed and matching networks for compact arrays with enhanced directive gain (superdirective arrays); and feed networks for millimeter-wave arrays. Preliminary experimental results are presented on YBaCuO and TBaCaCuO 500 MHz half-loop antennas that show an increase in radiation efficiency (compared with a copper antenna at the same temperature) by a factor of 5 for the HTS antennas.

  7. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas to Cancerous Cell Treatment and Tooth Bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Myoung Soo; Byun, June Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Park, Gan Young

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have attracted great interests and they have been widely applied to biomedical applications to interact with living tissues, cells, and bacteria due to their non-thermal property. This paper reviews the biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas to cancerous cell treatment and tooth bleaching. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with cancer-specific antibodies have been introduced to cancerous cells to enhance selective killing of cells, and the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by plasma has been investigated. Tooth exposed to helium plasma jet with hydrogen peroxide has become brighter and the productions of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide have been enhanced by plasma exposure.

  8. Thick sputtered tantalum coatings for high-temperature energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmakh, Veronika Peykov, Daniel; Chan, Walker R.; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan; Castillo, Robert; Coulter, Kent; Wei, Ronghua

    2015-11-15

    Thick sputtered tantalum (Ta) coatings on polished Inconel were investigated as a potential replacement for bulk refractory metal substrates used for high-temperature emitters and absorbers in thermophotovoltaic energy conversion applications. In these applications, high-temperature stability and high reflectance of the surface in the infrared wavelength range are critical in order to sustain operational temperatures and reduce losses due to waste heat. The reflectance of the coatings (8 and 30 μm) was characterized with a conformal protective hafnia layer as-deposited and after one hour anneals at 700, 900, and 1100 °C. To further understand the high-temperature performance of the coatings, the microstructural evolution was investigated as a function of annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the texture and residual stress in the coatings at four reflections (220, 310, 222, and 321), as-deposited and after anneal. No significant changes in roughness, reflectance, or stress were observed. No delamination or cracking occurred, even after annealing the coatings at 1100 °C. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the thick Ta coatings are a promising alternative to bulk substrates and pave the way for a relatively low-cost and easily integrated platform for nanostructured devices in high-temperature energy conversion applications.

  9. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain...

  10. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A

    2007-01-10

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  11. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Hf-40 Wt Pct Ti Alloy in Nitric Acid Medium for Reprocessing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, J.; Ravi, K. R.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-09-01

    The Hf-40 wt pct Ti (Hf-Ti) alloy was developed for neutron poison application in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The furnace-cooled Hf-Ti sample exhibited the microstructure comprising equiaxed-α, lamellar-α, and feathery-α. The water-quenched Hf-Ti sample confirmed the presence of lath and internally twinned martensite. In comparison to the furnace-cooled sample, low corrosion current density and passivation current density values obtained for the water-quenched Hf-Ti in 6 M HNO3 at 298 K (25 °C) indicated better passivation ability. The martensitic structure exhibited high hardness (660 HV) and negligible corrosion rate in 6 M nitric acid at 298 K (25 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirmed that passivation behavior of this alloy was due to the protective passive film composed of TiO2 and HfO2.

  12. Optoacoustic imaging of absorbing objects in a turbid medium: ultimate sensitivity and application to breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Kozhushko, Victor V.; Zharinov, Alexei N.; Solomatin, Vladimir S.; Karabutov, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major medical applications of optoacoustic (OA) tomography is in the diagnostics of early-stage breast cancer. A numerical approach was developed to characterize the following parameters of an OA imaging system: resolution, maximum depth at which the tumor can be detected, and image contrast. The parameters of the 64-element focused array transducer were obtained. The results of numerical modeling were compared with known analytical solutions and further validated by phantom experiments. The OA images of a 3 mm piece of bovine liver immersed in diluted milk at various depths were obtained. Based on the results of modeling, a signal filtering algorithm for OA image contrast enhancement has been proposed.

  13. Thermal Stability of GaAs Solar Cells for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yukun; Faucher, Joseph; Jung, Daehwan; Vaisman, Michelle; McPheeters, Clay; Sharps, Paul; Perl, Emmett; Simon, John; Steiner, Myles; Friedman, Daniel; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2016-11-21

    The characteristics of GaAs solar cells after 200 hours of annealing at 400-450 degrees C are reported. The room-temperature reflectivity and external quantum efficiency (EQE) are unchanged after such heat treatments, and peak EQE values of 90% are observed both before and after. At an operating temperature of 400 degrees C, the performance of annealed cells was only slightly worse than cells that had not undergone any annealing; Voc = 0.55 V and FF = 66% were demonstrated for annealed cells tested at 400 degrees C under strong optical injection. These results constitute a promising first step towards photovoltaic applications that demand stable operation at elevated temperatures.

  14. Stainless steel component with compressed fiber Bragg grating for high temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinesh, Mathew; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.; Maier, Robert R. J.

    2016-05-01

    A smart metal component having the potential for high temperature strain sensing capability is reported. The stainless steel (SS316) structure is made by selective laser melting (SLM). A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is embedded in to a 3D printed U-groove by high temperature brazing using a silver based alloy, achieving an axial FBG compression of 13 millistrain at room temperature. Initial results shows that the test component can be used for up to 700°C for sensing applications.

  15. Record low temperature Mo doped V2O5 thermochromic thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazemiyan, M.; Jalili, Y. S.

    2013-11-01

    Thermochromic properties of polycrystalline molybdenum doped vanadium pentoxide thin films grown by the spray pyrolysis technique were investigated. Tetragonal thin film structures of this system are grown. The transmittance spectral analysis with temperature indicates a record semiconductor-metal transition temperature of < 50oC. This critical temperature is approximately 1/3 to 1/6 of magnitude expected for V2O5 thin films. The resistance of the thermochromic thin film also underwent a transition or phase change as expected, a reduction from more than few mega ohms to less than kilo ohm regime indicating potential applications in optoelectronics.

  16. Setup for high-temperature surface Brillouin light scattering: Application to opaque thin films and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurie, D.; Girodon-Boulandet, N.; Kaladjian, A.; Challali, F.; Abadias, G.; Djemia, P.

    2017-02-01

    A setup combining surface Brillouin light scattering with a high-temperature chamber has been developed. The temperature of the sample is controlled with a Bühler HDK chamber for optical measurements (maximum temperature of 1600 °C), in controlled atmospheres or high vacuum (10-6 mbar). This setup allows the study of sound velocity of surface acoustic waves and of the elastic constants of opaque thin films and coatings in situ as a function of temperature from surface Brillouin light scattering, by analyzing the backscattered light from the sample at a fixed angle of incidence. In this paper, we will demonstrate the applications of this setup for metallic glass thin films devitrification study and evaluation of high temperature elastic properties of hard nitride coatings. This kind of study using surface acoustic waves is rare, in contrast to those made on transparent bulk materials.

  17. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Larry H. (Editor); Flom, Yury (Editor); Moorjani, Kishin (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference focused on understanding high temperature superconductivity with special emphasis on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS 90, highlighted the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC were discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  18. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High-Temperature Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L.H.; Flom, Yury; Moorjani, Kishin.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference focused on understanding high temperature superconductivity with special emphasis on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS 90, highlighted the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC were discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  19. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  20. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. A Review of Heating and Temperature Control in Microfluidic Systems: Techniques and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Malloggi, Florent; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the different techniques developed over the last decade to regulate the temperature within microfluidic systems. A variety of different approaches has been adopted, from external heating sources to Joule heating, microwaves or the use of lasers to cite just a few examples. The scope of the technical solutions developed to date is impressive and encompasses for instance temperature ramp rates ranging from 0.1 to 2,000 °C/s leading to homogeneous temperatures from −3 °C to 120 °C, and constant gradients from 6 to 40 °C/mm with a fair degree of accuracy. We also examine some recent strategies developed for applications such as digital microfluidics, where integration of a heating source to generate a temperature gradient offers control of a key parameter, without necessarily requiring great accuracy. Conversely, Temperature Gradient Focusing requires high accuracy in order to control both the concentration and separation of charged species. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction requires both accuracy (homogeneous temperature) and integration to carry out demanding heating cycles. The spectrum of applications requiring temperature regulation is growing rapidly with increasingly important implications for the physical, chemical and biotechnological sectors, depending on the relevant heating technique. PMID:26835667

  2. Estimation of effective temperatures in quantum annealers for sampling applications: A case study with possible applications in deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Marcello; Realpe-Gómez, John; Biswas, Rupak; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    An increase in the efficiency of sampling from Boltzmann distributions would have a significant impact on deep learning and other machine-learning applications. Recently, quantum annealers have been proposed as a potential candidate to speed up this task, but several limitations still bar these state-of-the-art technologies from being used effectively. One of the main limitations is that, while the device may indeed sample from a Boltzmann-like distribution, quantum dynamical arguments suggest it will do so with an instance-dependent effective temperature, different from its physical temperature. Unless this unknown temperature can be unveiled, it might not be possible to effectively use a quantum annealer for Boltzmann sampling. In this work, we propose a strategy to overcome this challenge with a simple effective-temperature estimation algorithm. We provide a systematic study assessing the impact of the effective temperatures in the learning of a special class of a restricted Boltzmann machine embedded on quantum hardware, which can serve as a building block for deep-learning architectures. We also provide a comparison to k -step contrastive divergence (CD-k ) with k up to 100. Although assuming a suitable fixed effective temperature also allows us to outperform one-step contrastive divergence (CD-1), only when using an instance-dependent effective temperature do we find a performance close to that of CD-100 for the case studied here.

  3. Heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a nutrient medium and in ground beef patties as influenced by storage and holding temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T C; Hardin, M D; Acuff, G R

    1996-03-01

    Stationary-phase cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were inoculated into tryptic soy broth, sealed in vials, and stored at -18 degrees C for 1, 8, and 15 days, or 3 or 15 degrees C for 3, 6, and 9 h. Thermal resistance was determined at 55 degrees C. Each storage treatment was repeated with additional holding at 23 or 30 degrees C for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h prior to heating to simulate potential temperature abuse during handling. Cultures under treatments enabling the growth of E. coli O157:H7 were generally more heat sensitive than those held at temperatures which restricted growth or enabled growth to stationary phase. Cultures stored frozen (-18 degrees C) without holding at elevated temperatures had greater heat resistance than those stored under refrigeration (3 degrees C) or at 15 degrees C. Subsequent holding of frozen cultures at 23 or 30 degrees C resulted in a decrease in heat resistance. To determine whether these responses would be observed under typical commercial preparation procedures, ground beef patties were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 3 or 15 degrees C for 9 h or at -18 degrees C for 8 d and then held at 21 or 30 degrees C for 0 or 4 h. Patties were grilled to an internal temperature of 54.4 degrees C (130 degrees F), 62.8 degrees C (145 degrees F), or 68.3 degrees C (155 degrees F). Cultures were most resistant in frozen patties, while cultures in patties stored at 15 degrees C were the most heat sensitive. Holding patties at 21 or 30 degrees C prior to grilling resulted in increased sensitivity. Storage and holding temperatures similar to those encountered in food service may influence the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive heat treatments.

  4. Combination of transurethral and interstitial ultrasound applicators for high-temperature prostate thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Diederich, C J; Nau, W H; Burdette, E C; Bustany, I S; Deardorff, D L; Stauffer, P R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a transurethral ultrasound applicator in combination with implantable ultrasound applicators for inducing thermal coagulation and necrosis of localized cancer lesions or benign disease within the prostate gland. The potential to treat target zones in the anterior and lateral portions of the prostate with the angularly directive transurethral applicator, while simultaneously treating regions of extracapsular extension and zones in the posterior prostate with the directive implantable applicators in combination with a rectal cooling bolus, is evaluated. Biothermal computer simulations, acoustic characterizations, and in vivo thermal dosimetry experiments with canine prostates were used to evaluate the performance of each applicator type and combinations thereof. Simulations have demonstrated that transurethral applicators with 180-270 degrees acoustic active zones can direct therapeutic heating patterns to the anterior and lateral prostate, implantable needles can isolate heating to the posterior gland while avoiding rectal tissue, and that the combination of applicators can be used to produce conformal heating to the whole gland. Single implantable applicators (1.8 mm OD x 10 mm long, approximately 180 degrees active sector, approximately 7 MHz, direct-coupled type) produced directional thermal lesions within in vivo prostate, with temperatures >50 degrees C extending more than 10 mm radially after 10-15 min. Combination of interstitial applicators (1-2) and a transurethral applicator (3-2.5 mm OD x 6 mm long, approximately 180 degrees active sector, 6.8 MHz, 6 mm OD delivery catheter) produced conforming temperature distributions (48-85 degrees C) and zones of acute thermal damage within 15 min. The preliminary results of this investigation demonstrate that implantable directional ultrasound applicators, in combination with a transurethral ultrasound applicator, have the potential to provide

  5. Construction and application of an indicator system to assess the ergonomic performance of large and medium-sized construction companies.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Isabela Xavier Barbalho; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a system of indicators to evaluate the performance of companies in ergonomics for buildings. The system was developed based primarily on studies related to the performance evaluation of the construction industry and on Brazilian standards of ergonomics and work safety and had also the contribution of national and international indicators related to ergonomics, work safety, quality, sustainability, quality of work life and to organizational behavior. The indicators were named, classified and their components were assigned to compose the theoretical model SIDECE--System of Performance Indicators in Ergonomics for Building Construction (as for the Portuguese acronym), serving the major goals of ergonomics: health, safety and workers' satisfaction and production efficiency. The SIDECE is being validated along with the building construction companies in the city of Natal, Brazil, whose practical results, deriving from the application of instruments to collect field data, are under process, to be presented on the occasion of the 18th World Congress on Ergonomics. It is intended that the SIDECE be used by building construction companies as a support tool for excellence management.

  6. The impact of water and temperature interactions on lag phase, growth and potential ochratoxin A production by two new species, Aspergillus aculeatinus and A. sclerotiicarbonarius, on a green coffee-based medium.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Asya; Magan, Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Two new species of Aspergillus (A. aculeatinus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius) were previously isolated from coffee in Thailand. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of interacting environmental factors of water availability (water activity, aw) and temperature on lag phases prior to growth, growth and potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) production by three strains of each species on a green coffee-based medium for the first time. This showed that overall the growth of the three strains of each species was similar over the 20-37°C and 0.85-0.99 aw ranges. The lag phase prior to growth was <1day at 0.95-0.98 aw and 25-37°C and increased to 2-3 days at marginal temperatures and aw levels. The growth of strains of the uniseriate species A. aculeatinus was optimum at 0.98 aw and 30-35°C. For the biseriate A. sclerotiicarbonarius strains this was 0.99 aw and 30°C. This species was not able to grow at 37°C. None of the strains of the two species grew at 0.85 aw, regardless of temperature. Integrated profiles based on the data from three strains of each species have been developed to show the optimum, maximum and marginal conditions of interacting aw and temperature conditions for growth. None of the strains produced OTA on a green coffee-based medium. This information is important as these species are part of the mycobiota of coffee and may influence OTA contamination by other ochratoxigenic species during coffee processing.

  7. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests; Mesures des tres hautes temperatures: Applications a des essais de surete des reacteurs nucleaires

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-09-27

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  8. Local Ice-Bag Application and Triceps Surae Muscle Temperature During Treadmill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea L; Kramer, Erin E; Brucker, Jody B; Demchak, Timothy J; Cordova, Mitchell L; Stone, Marcus B

    2005-01-01

    Context: Ice bags “to go” are a common practice in athletic training. Objective: To determine the effect of submaximal exercise on tissue temperatures during a common ice-bag application. Design: 2 X 5 fully repeated-measures design with treatment (cooling while resting, cooling while walking) and time (pretreatment, immediately after ice application, and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes during treatment) as the independent variables. Setting: Laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen healthy, physically active volunteers (age = 21.63 ± 2.63 yrs, height = 68.97 ± 4.00 cm, mass = 80.97 ± 18.18 kg, calf skinfold = 21.1 ± 9.3 mm). Main Outcome Measure(s): Left triceps surae intramuscular and skin temperatures, as measured by thermocouples to the nearest 0.1°C, served as dependent measures. Intervention(s): After collecting baseline temperatures, we secured a 1.0-kg ice bag to the calf using plastic wrap before the subject either rested prone or walked on a treadmill at 4.5 km/h for 30 minutes. Results: Treatment did not (P < 0.10) affect the ∼15°C (P < 0.0001) surface temperature decrease, which remained depressed immediately upon ice-bag application (P < 0.05). Conversely, intramuscular temperature continually cooled (34 to 28°C), while subjects rested (P < 0.0001), whereas no change took place during walking (P = 0.49). Moreover, at the 20- and 30-minute treatment intervals, the resting intramuscular temperatures were, respectively, 3.9°C and 5.4°C cooler than the walking intramuscular temperatures (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The current trend of wrapping “to go” ice bags to the leg is not likely to achieve deep tissue cooling despite surface temperature decreases. PMID:16404447

  9. Application of Gamma code coupled with turbomachinery models for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Oh

    2008-02-01

    The very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is envisioned as a single- or dual-purpose reactor for electricity and hydrogen generation. The concept has average coolant temperatures above 9000C and operational fuel temperatures above 12500C. The concept provides the potential for increased energy conversion efficiency and for high-temperature process heat application in addition to power generation. While all the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts have sufficiently high temperature to support process heat applications, such as coal gasification, desalination or cogenerative processes, the VHTR’s higher temperatures allow broader applications, including thermochemical hydrogen production. However, the very high temperatures of this reactor concept can be detrimental to safety if a loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) occurs. Following the loss of coolant through the break and coolant depressurization, air will enter the core through the break by molecular diffusion and ultimately by natural convection, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heatup of the reactor core and the release of a toxic gas, CO, and fission products. Thus, without any effective countermeasures, a pipe break may lead to significant fuel damage and fission product release. Prior to the start of this Korean/United States collaboration, no computer codes were available that had been sufficiently developed and validated to reliably simulate a LOCA in the VHTR. Therefore, we have worked for the past three years on developing and validating advanced computational methods for simulating LOCAs in a VHTR. GAMMA code is being developed to implement turbomachinery models in the power conversion unit (PCU) and ultimately models associated with the hydrogen plant. Some preliminary results will be described in this paper.

  10. Applicaton of radiative transfer theory to microwave transmission medium calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    Precise determinations of the transmission medium loss and noise temperature contribution which are important to the performance characterization of low noise microwave receiving systems and thermal noise standards are discussed. Tropospheric loss is frequently inferred from microwave radiometer noise temperature measurements. Interpretation of these measurements requires an inversion of the radiative transfer integral equation. This is inconvenient even with computer techniques. Solutions of a rapidly convergent power series of the radiative transfer equations are presented. This solution is applicable to a low loss medium with either uniform or nonuniform loss distributions. A four layer atmosphere model is investigated to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution relative to the model. Applications include thermal noise standards and single- and dual-frequency water radiometers.

  11. Iron phthalocyanine in non-aqueous medium forming layer-by-layer films: growth mechanism, molecular architecture and applications.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Priscila; Rodríguez-Méndez, Maria Luz; De Saja Saez, Jose Antonio; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo

    2010-04-28

    The application of organic thin films as transducer elements in electronic devices has been widely exploited, with the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) technique being one of the most powerful tools to produce such films. The conventional LbL method, however, is restricted in many cases to water soluble compounds. Here, an alternative way to produce LbL films containing iron phthalocyanine (FePc) in non-aqueous media (chloroform) is presented. This film fabrication was made possible by exploiting the specific interactions between Fe and NH(2) groups from PAH, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) used as the supporting layer, leading to the formation of bilayers structured as (PAH/FePc)(n). We have also incorporated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in LbL films with (PAH/FePc/AgNP)(n) trilayers, making it possible to achieve the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon. The molecular architecture of the LbL films was determined through different techniques. The growth was monitored with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, their morphology characterized by optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopes, and their molecular organization determined using FTIR. The electrochemical properties of the LbL films were successfully applied in detecting dopamine in KCl aqueous solutions at different concentrations using cyclic voltammetry. The results confirmed that the LbL films from FePc in non-aqueous media keep their electroactivity, while showing an interesting electrocatalytic effect. The SERS phenomenon suggested that FePc aggregates might be directly involved in the maintenance of the electroactivity of the LbL films.

  12. Origin of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak in a medium carbon high alloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xianwen; Jin, Mingjiang; Zhao, Hongshan; Li, Wei; Jin, Xuejun

    2014-10-01

    A distinct internal friction peak located at the low-temperature shoulder of Snoek-Köster peak (LTS-SK) was found in Fe-0.39C-9.8Ni-1.56Si-2.0Mn steel and its evolution with respect to various aging treatments was investigated. The LTS-SK internal friction peak was found to occur when aged below 373 K. TEM observation confirmed that the ε-carbide precipitated beyond 373 K, providing an evidence that the LTS-SK peak cannot be caused by ε-carbide precipitation. The corresponding evolution on the S-K peak and thermoelectric power (TEP) illustrated that the carbon content in the solid solution decreases due to carbon atoms segregation on the surrounding dislocations during low-temperature aging. The origin of the LTS-SK peak is likely attributed to the interaction between the carbon atoms and twin boundaries in martensite.

  13. Nanocomposites from Solution-Synthesized PbTe-BiSbTe Nanoheterostructure with Unity Figure of Merit at Low-Medium Temperatures (500-600 K).

    PubMed

    Xu, Biao; Agne, Matthias T; Feng, Tianli; Chasapis, Thomas C; Ruan, Xiulin; Zhou, Yilong; Zheng, Haimei; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Snyder, Gerald Jeffrey; Wu, Yue

    2017-03-01

    A scalable, low-temperature solution process is used to synthesize precursor material for Pb-doped Bi0.7 Sb1.3 Te3 thermoelectric nanocomposites. The controllable Pb-doping leads to the increase in the optical bandgap, thus delaying the onset of bipolar conduction. Furthermore, the solution synthesis enables nanostructuring, which greatly reduces thermal conductivity. As a result, this material exhibits a zT = 1 over the 513-613 K range.

  14. Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Palmero, D; de Cara, M; Iglesias, C; Gálvez, L; Tello, J C

    2011-07-01

    The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature.

  15. Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, D.; de Cara, M.; Iglesias, C.; Gálvez, L.; Tello, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature. PMID:24031710

  16. Radiative transfer in multilayered random medium with laminar structure - Green's function approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    For a multilayered random medium with a laminar structure a Green's function approach is introduced to obtain the emitted intensity due to an arbitrary point source. It is then shown that the approach is applicable to both active and passive remote sensing. In active remote sensing, the computed radar backscattering cross section for the multilayered medium includes the effects of both volume multiple scattering and surface multiple scattering at the layer boundaries. In passive remote sensing, the brightness temperature is obtained for arbitrary temperature profiles in the layers. As an illustration the brightness temperature and reflectivity are calculated for a bounded layer and compared with results in the literature.

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigation of evanescent-wave absorption sensors for extreme temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, Michael P.; Ohodnicki, Paul; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    Recently, significant developments in evanescent wave absorption sensors have been demonstrated for high temperature sensing applications based upon the optical responses of advanced thin film materials. We will demonstrate how such sensors can be utilized in a mode that allows for chemical or temperature sensing starting from basic theoretical considerations. We will also present experimental high temperature sensing results for fabricated sensors. Potential applications of the sensors to be discussed include a range of high temperature systems relevant for fossil energy and combustion monitoring such as industrial combustors or reaction vessels, solid oxide fuel cells, and gas turbines. In these applications, even a small increase in operating efficiency realized via careful observation of in-process parameters and implementation of real-time process controls can result in dramatic savings across the energy industry, illustrating the necessity of pursuing such techniques. It is hoped that sensors of the type described here will allow for unprecedented measurement-access to processes which present challenging high-temperature and chemically reactive environments.

  18. Evaluation of Phenylnaphthalenes as Heat Transfer Fluids for High Temperature Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Luo, Huimin; Garland, Marc A; Steele, William V.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of 1- and 2-phenyl substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been measured and estimated under conditions relevant to heat transport applications almost to the critical point. Densities, vapor pressures, and heat capacity measurements were used to derive critical temperature, pressure and density for the phenylnaphthalenes. The thermal and radiolytic stability of 1-phenylnaphthalene was examined using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetery, and gamma irradiation. Low vapor pressure and resistance to thermal decomposition may make phenylnaphthalenes suitable for heat transfer applications involving parabolic solar collectors. In particular, 1-phenylnaphthalene has an advantage over high temperature inorganic salts for applications up to 800 K because it is a liquid at temperatures at or close to ambient. Thermal cycling would have to be restricted to temperatures below the critical point to avoid degradation of the fluid. Radiation stability was also tested by a 100 kGy irradiation of 1-phenylnaphthalene in a Co-60 irradiator. NMR analysis indicated 1.7 mol.% degradation, which although lower than observed for tributylphosphate/kerosene benchmark fluids for nuclear applications, is higher than that seen in imidazolium ionic liquids.

  19. Sintered alpha silicon carbide ceramics for high temperature structural application - Status review and recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R. S.; Boecker, W. D. G.; Mcmurtry, C. H.; Srinivasan, M.

    1985-01-01

    The physical properties of sintered alpha silicon carbide are reviewed, including the effect of oxidation at high temperatures. Net shape fabricated components are described which have undergone extensive testing in heat engine applications. Properties of an SiC/TiB2 composite material, which has significantly improved fracture toughness, are presented.

  20. An Application of Trimethylsilyl Derivatives with Temperature Programmed Gas Chromatography to the Senior Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to teach temperature programed gas chromatography (TPGC) techniques and importance of derivatizing many classes of substrated to be separated. Includes equipment needed, procedures for making trimethylsilyl derivatives, applications, sample calculations, and typical results. Procedure required one, three-hour…

  1. Microwave applications and characterization of the microwave properties of high temperature superconducting films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Bautista, J. J.; Riley, A. L.; Dick, G. J.; Housley, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The development by NASA JPL of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for use in microwave circuit elements is discussed. The synthesis of HTS films and characterization of their microwave absorption are reviewed. Applications to cryogenic low-noise receivers, spacecraft microwave systems, and low-noise oscillators are considered.

  2. The Application of Laser Speckle Interferometry to Measure Strain at Elevated Temperatures and Various Loading Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    MTL TR 90-23 lAD IAD- A225 583 JILL COPY THE APPLICATION OF LASER SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY TO MEASURE STRAIN AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND VARIOUS...specimen was visable. Then LSI was used to measure further straining in the necking regions. The second question to be answered was whc:’,- cr LSI

  3. Design and application of a novel ionic liquid with the property of strengthening coenzyme regeneration for whole-cell bioreduction in an ionic liquid-distilled water medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Pu; Huang, Jin; Sun, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the task-specific properties of ionic liquids (ILs), a novel IL was designed by combining the quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, [N1,1,1,1](+), with benign amino acid anion ([Cys](-)), and was successfully employed in whole-cell-catalyzed bioreduction by Trichodermaasperellum ZJPH0810 using an ionic liquid-distilled water medium. As expected, based on better understanding about the effects of ILs' characteristics of cations and anions on T. asperellum ZJPH0810-catalyzed bioreduction and the optimization of reaction parameters, the developed tetramethylammonium cysteine ([N1,1,1,1][Cys])-containing system is more efficient for the asymmetric reduction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone to (R)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] ethanol by whole-cell catalysis in contrast to that in monophasic aqueous system. Herein, a new biotechnological application for designed type of ILs is proposed due to its novel property of strengthening coenzyme regeneration during the bioreduction process. The designed IL [N1,1,1,1][Cys] was also evaluated in Candidatropicalis 104-catalyzed bioreduction to board its application, with remarkable success.

  4. Numerical modeling of the impact pressure in a compressible liquid medium: application to the slap phase of the locomotion of a basilisk lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Erriguible, A.; Amiroudine, S.

    2017-02-01

    The forces acting on a solid body just at the time of impact on the surface of a medium with very low compressibility, such as water, can be quantified at acoustic time scales. This is necessary in wide range of applications varying from large-scale ship designs to the walking or running mechanisms of small creatures such as the basilisk lizard. In order to characterize such forces, a numerical model is developed in this study and is validated using analytical expressions of pressure as a function of the speed of sound-wave propagation in water. The computational results not only accurately match the analytical values but are also able to effectively capture the propagation of acoustic waves in water. The model is further applied to a case study wherein the impact impulse required by the basilisk lizard to assist in its walking on the water surface is evaluated. The numerical results are found to be in agreement with the closest available experimental data. The model and approach are thus proposed to evaluate impact forces for wide range of applications.

  5. Multiwavelength Pyrometer Developed for Use at Elevated Temperatures in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L.

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique multiwavelength pyrometer for aerospace applications. It has been shown to be a useful and versatile instrument for measuring the surface temperatures of ceramic zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and alumina, even when their emissivity is unknown. The introduction of fiber optics into the pyrometer has greatly increased the ease of using this instrument. Direct comparison of measurements obtained using the pyrometer and thin film thermocouples on a sample provided independent verification of pyrometry temperature measurement. Application of the pyrometer has also included simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurement in a transparent material, the measurement of combustion gas temperatures in the flames of an atmospheric burner, the measurement of the temperature distribution appearing on a large surface from the recording of just a single radiation spectrum emitted from this nonuniform temperature surface, and the measurement of some optical properties for special aeronautical materials-such as nanostructured layers. The multiwavelength pyrometer temperature is obtained from a radiation spectrum recorded over a broad wavelength region by transforming it into a straight line segment(s) in part or all of the spectral region. The intercept of the line segment(s) with the vertical axis at zero wavelength gives the inverse of the temperature. In a two-color pyrometer, the two data points are also amenable to this analysis to determine the unknown temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength-independent emissivity. Its two (and minimum) pieces of data are sufficient to determine this straight line. However, a multiwavelength pyrometer not only has improved accuracy but also confirms that the wavelength-independent emissivity assumption is valid when a multitude of data points are shown to lie on a simple straight line.

  6. Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    2001-01-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircomia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

  7. METCAN simulation of candidate metal matrix composites for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    1990-01-01

    The METCAN (Metal Matrix Composite Analyzer) computer code is used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of select metal matrix composites in order to assess their potential for high temperature structural applications. Material properties for seven composites are generated at a fiber volume ratio of 0.33 for two bonding conditions (a perfect bond and a weak interphase case) at various temperatures. A comparison of the two bonding conditions studied shows a general reduction in value of all properties (except CTE) for the weak interphase case from the perfect bond case. However, in the weak interphase case, the residual stresses that develop are considerably less than those that form in the perfect bond case. Results of the computational simulation indicate that among the metal matrix composites examined, SiC/NiAl is the best candidate for high temperature applications at the given fiber volume ratio.

  8. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, which allows a shape to be formed prior to the cure, and is then pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Basalt fibers are used for the reinforcement in the composite system. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material.

  9. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  10. Application of path-independent integrals to elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Van Stone, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of the J-integral in elasto-plastic fracture mechanics is limited to isothermal, monotonic loading conditions from the theoretical viewpoint, while in many applications, for instance gas turbine engines, crack growth occurs in the presence of cyclic inelastic loading, thermomechanical loading and temperature gradients. A number of path-independent (P-I) integrals have been proposed which do not have the restrictions of the J-integral. A review indicates that four of these integrals, although they are not the classical conservation integrals, are path-independent under these complex loading conditions. This paper describes a combined analytical and experimental effort to evaluate the ability of these four P-I integrals to correlate the crack growth data of Alloy 718 at elevated temperatures. Results for uniform temperature, 538 C, cases indicate that all these integrals are capable of correlating the crack growth data over a wide range of cyclic plasticity.

  11. Drying of porous materials in a medium with variable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the Luikov system of heat and mass transfer equations in dimensionless form to predict the temperature and moisture distributions in a slab of capillary-porous material during drying. The heat and mass potentials of the external medium in the boundary conditions are assumed to vary linearly with time. The method of solution is illustrated by considering the drying of a slab of lumber. Numerical results based on the estimated thermophysical properties of spruce are presented.

  12. Summary of workshop on alloys for very high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In current fossil energy systems, the maximum operating temperatures experienced by critical metal structures do not exceed approximately 732{degrees}C and the major limitation on the use of the alloys typically is corrosion resistance. In systems intended for higher performance and higher efficiency, increasingly higher working fluid temperatures will be employed, which will require materials with higher-temperature capabilities, in particular, higher creep strength and greater environmental resistance. There have been significant developments in alloys in recent years, from modifications of currently-used wrought ferritic and austenitic alloys with the intent of improving their high-temperature capabilities, to oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys targeted at extremely high-temperature applications. The aim of this workshop was to examine the temperature capability of these alloys compared to current alloys, and compared to the needs of advanced fossil fuel combustion or conversion systems, with the goals of identifying where modified/new alloys would be expected to find application, their limitations, and the information/actions required or that are being taken to qualify them for such use.

  13. First-principles prediction of new complex transition metal hydrides for high temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kelly M; Sholl, David S

    2014-11-17

    Metal hydrides with high thermodynamic stability are desirable for high-temperature applications, such as those that require high hydrogen release temperatures or low hydrogen overpressures. First-principles calculations have been used previously to identify complex transition metal hydrides (CTMHs) for high temperature use by screening materials with experimentally known structures. Here, we extend our previous screening of CTMHs with a library of 149 proposed materials based on known prototype structures and charge balancing rules. These proposed materials are typically related to known materials by cation substitution. Our semiautomated, high-throughput screening uses density functional theory (DFT) and grand canonical linear programming (GCLP) methods to compute thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams: 81 of the 149 materials are found to be thermodynamically stable. We identified seven proposed materials that release hydrogen at higher temperatures than the associated binary hydrides and at high temperature, T > 1000 K, for 1 bar H2 overpressure. Our results indicate that there are many novel CTMH compounds that are thermodynamically stable, and the computed thermodynamic data and phase diagrams should be useful for selecting materials and operating parameters for high temperature metal hydride applications.

  14. The ingestible telemetric body core temperature sensor: a review of validity and exercise applications

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Christopher; Lim, Chin Leong

    2007-01-01

    An ingestible telemetric temperature sensor for measuring body core temperature (Tc) was first described 45 years ago, although the method has only recently gained widespread use for exercise applications. This review aims to (1) use Bland and Altman's limits of agreement (LoA) method as a basis for quantitatively reviewing the agreement between intestinal sensor temperature (Tintestinal), oesophageal temperature (Toesophageal) and rectal temperature (Trectal) across numerous previously published validation studies; (2) review factors that may affect agreement; and (3) review the application of this technology in field‐based exercise studies. The agreement between Tintestinal and Toesophageal is suggested to meet our delimitation for an acceptable level of agreement (ie, systematic bias <0.1°C and 95% LoA within ±0.4°C). The agreement between Tintestinal and Trectal shows a significant systematic bias >0.1°C, although the 95% LoA is acceptable. Tintestinal responds less rapidly than Toesophageal at the start or cessation of exercise or to a change in exercise intensity, but more rapidly than Trectal. When using this technology, care should be taken to ensure adequate control over sensor calibration and data correction, timing of ingestion and electromagnetic interference. The ingestible sensor has been applied successfully in numerous sport and occupational applications such as the continuous measurement of Tc in deep sea saturation divers, distance runners and soldiers undertaking sustained military training exercises. It is concluded that the ingestible telemetric temperature sensor represents a valid index of Tc and shows excellent utility for ambulatory field‐based applications. PMID:17178778

  15. The ingestible telemetric body core temperature sensor: a review of validity and exercise applications.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Christopher; Lim, Chin Leong

    2007-03-01

    An ingestible telemetric temperature sensor for measuring body core temperature (Tc) was first described 45 years ago, although the method has only recently gained widespread use for exercise applications. This review aims to (1) use Bland and Altman's limits of agreement (LoA) method as a basis for quantitatively reviewing the agreement between intestinal sensor temperature (Tintestinal), oesophageal temperature (Toesophageal) and rectal temperature (Trectal) across numerous previously published validation studies; (2) review factors that may affect agreement; and (3) review the application of this technology in field-based exercise studies. The agreement between Tintestinal and Toesophageal is suggested to meet our delimitation for an acceptable level of agreement (ie, systematic bias <0.1 degrees C and 95% LoA within +/-0.4 degrees C). The agreement between Tintestinal and Trectal shows a significant systematic bias >0.1 degrees C, although the 95% LoA is acceptable. Tintestinal responds less rapidly than Toesophageal at the start or cessation of exercise or to a change in exercise intensity, but more rapidly than Trectal. When using this technology, care should be taken to ensure adequate control over sensor calibration and data correction, timing of ingestion and electromagnetic interference. The ingestible sensor has been applied successfully in numerous sport and occupational applications such as the continuous measurement of Tc in deep sea saturation divers, distance runners and soldiers undertaking sustained military training exercises. It is concluded that the ingestible telemetric temperature sensor represents a valid index of Tc and shows excellent utility for ambulatory field-based applications.

  16. RETRACTION: Unsteady flow and heat transfer of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, H. A.

    2007-04-01

    It has come to the attention of the Institute of Physics that this article should not have been submitted for publication owing to its plagiarism of an earlier paper (Hossain A, Hossain M A and Wilson M 2001 Unsteady flow of viscous incompressible fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity due to a rotating disc in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat transfer Int. J. Therm. Sci. 40 11-20). Therefore this article has been retracted by the Institute of Physics and by the author, Hazem Ali Attia.

  17. Options to Extend the Applicability of High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins; John C. Crepeau; Joshua E. Daw; Patrick J. Green

    2007-09-01

    Several options have been identified that could further enhance the reliability and increase the applicability of recently developed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Irradiation Resistant thermocouples (HTIR-TCs) for in-pile testing, allowing their use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1700 °C). INL and the University of Idaho (UI) are investigating these options with the ultimate objective of providing recommendations for alternate thermocouple designs that are optimized for various applications. This paper reports the status of INL/UI investigations. Results are reported from tests completed to evaluate the ductility, resolution, transient response, and stability of thermocouples made from specially formulated alloys of molybdenum and niobium. In addition, this paper reports preliminary insights gained by comparing the performance of thermocouples fabricated with various heat treatments and alternate geometries.

  18. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  19. The Influence of Prior Modes of Growth, Temperature, Medium, and Substrate Surface on Biofilm Formation by Antibiotic-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of bacterial gastrointestinal food-borne infection worldwide. It has been suggested that biofilm formation may play a role in survival of these bacteria in the environment. In this study, the influence of prior modes of growth (planktonic or sessile), temperatures (37 and 42 °C), and nutrient conditions (nutrient broth and Mueller-Hinton broth) on biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles was examined. The ability of these strains to form biofilm on different abiotic surfaces (stainless steel, glass, and polystyrene) as well as factors potentially associated with biofilm formation (bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, and initial attachment) was also determined. The results showed that cells grown as sessile culture generally have a greater ability to form biofilm (P < 0.05) compared to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilm was also greater (P < 0.05) in lower nutrient media, while growth at different temperatures affects biofilm formation in a strain-dependent manner. The strains were able to attach and form biofilms on different abiotic surfaces, but none of them demonstrated strong, complex, or structured biofilm formation. There were no clear trends between the bacterial surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, attachment, and biofilm formation by the strains. This finding suggests that environmental factors did affect biofilm formation by C. jejuni, and they are more likely to persist in the environment in the form of mixed-species rather than monospecies biofilms.

  20. Anaerobic treatment of a medium strength industrial wastewater at low-temperature and short hydraulic retention time: a pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Esparza Soto, M; Solís Morelos, C; Hernández Torres, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of cereal-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (17 degrees C) for more than 300 days. The applied organic loading rate (OLR(appl)) was gradually increased from 4 to 6 and 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d by increasing the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(sol)), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (5.2 h). The removal efficiency was high (82 to 92%) and slightly decreased after increasing the influent COD(sol) and the OLR(appl). The highest removed organic loading rate (OLR(rem)) was reached when the UASB reactor was operated at 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d and it was two times higher than that obtained for an OLR(appl) of 4 kg COD(sol)/m3d. Some disturbances were observed during the experimentation. The formation of biogas pockets in the sludge bed significantly complicated the biogas production quantification, but did not affect the reactor performance. The volatile fatty acids in the effluent were low, but increased as the OLR(appl) increased, which caused an increment of the effluent COD(sol). Anaerobic treatment at low temperature was a good option for the biological pre-treatment of cereal processing industry wastewater.

  1. Alumina Volatility in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures: Application to Combustion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility of alumina in high temperature water vapor was determined by measuring weight loss of sapphire coupons at temperatures between 1250 and 1500 C, water vapor partial pressures between 0.15 and 0.68 atm in oxygen, at one atmosphere total pressure, and a gas velocity of 4.4 centimeters per second. The variation of the volatility with water vapor partial pressure was consistent with Al(OH)3(g) formation. The enthalpy of reaction to form Al(OH)3(g) from alumina and water vapor was found to be 210 plus or minus 20 kJ/mol. Surface rearrangement of ground sapphire surfaces increased with water vapor partial pressure, temperature and volatility rate. Recession rates of alumina due to volatility were determined as a function of water vapor partial pressure and temperature to evaluate limits for use of alumina in long term applications in combustion environments.

  2. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  3. Tribological Performance of PM300 Solid Lubricant Bushings for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striebing, Donald R.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Rossi, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    PM300 is a high temperature solid lubricant material produced through conventional powder metallurgy processing. PM300 is a combination of metal binder (NiCr), hardener (Cr2O3) and lubricant (Ag and BaF2/CaF2) phases and is in commercial use in high temperature furnace conveyors. In this paper, the tribological characteristics of PM300 are evaluated using a newly developed bushing test rig in which PM300 bushings are loaded against rotating steel shafts at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The data shows that friction and wear are low to moderate and that the lubrication performance (friction) improves with increasing temperature. Several alternative PM300 compositions are evaluated which do not contain silver and are targeted at aircraft gas turbine applications in which environmental compatibility of silver is a concern. It is expected that the data resulting from this research will further the commercialization of this technology.

  4. A new type of sheet sealing material for high temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, J.

    1998-07-01

    The transition from asbestos reinforced sheet sealing materials has resulted in some excellent high performance new materials, such as biaxially orientated PTFE and exfoliated graphite, coming to the fore. The recent conclusion that the upper service temperature of exfoliated graphite should be considered to be 650 F, rather than the higher value previously considered to be appropriate, has emphasized the fact that, until now, no sheet material matching the performance of the asbestos materials has evolved which is suitable for the highest temperature applications. A new, high temperature, sealing material based upon a blend of chemically exfoliated vermiculite and thermally exfoliated vermiculite has now been developed which offers a unique combination of superb sealing functionality and an excellent high temperature capability without any thermal oxidation sensitivity.

  5. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  6. Characterization of modified tapioca starch solutions and their sprays for high temperature coating applications.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Sulaiman, S A; Ariwahjoedi, B; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature.

  7. Evaluation of multielement catheter-cooled interstitial ultrasound applicators for high-temperature thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Nau, W H; Diederich, C J; Burdette, E C

    2001-07-01

    Catheter-cooled (CC) interstitial ultrasound applicators were evaluated for their use in high-temperature coagulative thermal therapy of tissue. Studies in ex vivo beef muscle were conducted to determine the influences of applied electrical power levels (5-20 W per element), catheter flow rate (20-60 ml min(-1)), circulating water temperature (7-40 degrees C), and frequency (7-9 MHz) on temperature distribution and thermal lesion geometry. The feasibility of using multiple interstitial applicators to thermally coagulate a predetermined volume of tissue was also investigated. Results of these studies revealed that the directional shape of the thermal lesions is maintained with increasing time and power. Radial depths of the thermal lesions ranged from 10.7 +/- 0.7 mm after heating for 4 min with an applied power level of 5 W, to 16.2 +/- 1.4 mm with 20 W. The axial length of the thermal lesions is controlled tightly by the number of active transducers. A catheter flow rate of 20 to 40 ml min(-1) (52.2 +/- 5.5 kPa at 40 ml min(-1)) with 22 degrees C water was determined to provide sufficient cooling of the transducers for power levels used in this study. In vivo temperatures measured in the center of a 3-cm-diam peripheral implant of four applicators in pig thigh muscle reached 89.3 degrees C after 4 min of heating, with boundaries of coagulation clearly defined by applicator position and directivity. Conformability of heating in a clinically relevant model was demonstrated by inserting two directional CC applicators with a 2 cm separation within an in vivo canine prostate, and generating a thermal lesion measuring 3.8 cm x 2.2 cm in cross section while directing energy away from, and protecting the rectum. Maximum measured temperatures at midgland exceeded 90 degrees C within 20 min of heating. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of single or multiple CC applicators for conformal thermal coagulation and high temperature thermal therapy, with potential

  8. Directed polymer in a random medium of dimension 1+1 and 1+3: weights statistics in the low temperature phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    We consider the low temperature Ttemperature Tgaptemperature-dependent exponent μ(T) that governs the main singularities P1(w)~(1-w)μ(T)-1 and Π(Y2)~(1-Y2)μ(T)-1 as well as the power-law decay of the moments \\overline {Y_k(i)} \\sim 1/k^{\\mu (T)} . The exponent μ(T) grows from the value μ(T = 0) = 0 up to μ(Tgap)~2. (ii) For Tgap

  9. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  10. Molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) into capacitive carbon at medium temperature: effect of the electrolyte composition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bowen; Chen, Zhigang; Gao, Muxing; Song, Yuqiao; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Tang, Juanjuan; Xiao, Wei; Mao, Xuhui; Wang, Dihua

    2016-08-15

    Electrochemical transformation of CO2 into functional materials or fuels (i.e., carbon, CO) in high temperature molten salts has been demonstrated as a promising way of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) in recent years. In a view of continuous operation, the electrolysis process should match very well with the CO2 absorption kinetics. At the same time, in consideration of the energy efficiency, a molten salt electrochemical cell running at lower temperature is more beneficial to a process powered by the fluctuating renewable electricity from solar/wind farms. Ternary carbonates (Li : Na : K = 43.5 : 31.5 : 25.0) and binary chlorides (Li : K = 58.5 : 41.5), two typical kinds of eutectic melt with low melting points and a wide electrochemical potential window, could be the ideal supporting electrolyte for the molten salt CO2 capture and electro-transformation (MSCC-ET) process. In this work, the CO2 absorption behaviour in Li2O/CaO containing carbonates and chlorides were investigated on a home-made gas absorption testing system. The electrode processes as well as the morphology and properties of carbon obtained in different salts are compared to each other. It was found that the composition of molten salts significantly affects the absorption of CO2, electrode processes and performance of the product. Furthermore, the relationship between the absorption and electro-transformation kinetics are discussed based on the findings.

  11. Joining of Silver Nanomaterials at Low Temperatures: Processes, Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Hu, Anming; Gerlich, Adrian P; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Y Norman

    2015-06-17

    A review is provided, which first considers low-temperature diffusion bonding with silver nanomaterials as filler materials via thermal sintering for microelectronic applications, and then other recent innovations in low-temperature joining are discussed. The theoretical background and transition of applications from micro to nanoparticle (NP) pastes based on joining using silver filler materials and nanojoining mechanisms are elucidated. The mechanical and electrical properties of sintered silver nanomaterial joints at low temperatures are discussed in terms of the key influencing factors, such as porosity and coverage of substrates, parameters for the sintering processes, and the size and shape of nanomaterials. Further, the use of sintered silver nanomaterials for printable electronics and as robust surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates by exploiting their optical properties is also considered. Other low-temperature nanojoining strategies such as optical welding of silver nanowires (NWs) through a plasmonic heating effect by visible light irradiation, ultrafast laser nanojoining, and ion-activated joining of silver NPs using ionic solvents are also summarized. In addition, pressure-driven joining of silver NWs with large plastic deformation and self-joining of gold or silver NWs via oriented attachment of clean and activated surfaces are summarized. Finally, at the end of this review, the future outlook for joining applications with silver nanomaterials is explored.

  12. Development of a HTSMA-Actuated Surge Control Rod for High-Temperature Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II; Noebe, Ronald; Bigelow, Glen; Culley, Dennis; Stevens, Mark; Penney, Nicholas; Gaydosh, Darrell; Quackenbush, Todd; Carpenter, Bernie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a demand for compact, lightweight, solid-state actuation systems has emerged, driven in part by the needs of the aeronautics industry. However, most actuation systems used in turbomachinery require not only elevated temperature but high-force capability. As a result, shape memory alloy (SMA) based systems have worked their way to the forefront of a short list of viable options to meet such a technological challenge. Most of the effort centered on shape memory systems to date has involved binary NiTi alloys but the working temperatures required in many aeronautics applications dictate significantly higher transformation temperatures than the binary systems can provide. Hence, a high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) based on NiTiPdPt, having a transformation temperature near 300 C, was developed. Various thermo-mechanical processing schemes were utilized to further improve the dimensional stability of the alloy and it was later extruded/drawn into wire form to be more compatible with envisioned applications. Mechanical testing on the finished wire form showed reasonable work output capability with excellent dimensional stability. Subsequently, the wire form of the alloy was incorporated into a benchtop system, which was shown to provide the necessary stroke requirements of approx.0.125 inches for the targeted surge-control application. Cycle times for the actuator were limited to 4 seconds due to control and cooling constraints but this cycle time was determined to be adequate for the surge control application targeted as the primary requirement was initial actuation of a surge control rod, which could be completed in approximately one second.

  13. Polysynthetic twinned TiAl single crystals for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Peng, Yingbo; Zheng, Gong; Qi, Zhixiang; Wang, Minzhi; Yu, Huichen; Dong, Chengli; Liu, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    TiAl alloys are lightweight, show decent corrosion resistance and have good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, making them appealing for high-temperature applications. However, polysynthetic twinned TiAl single crystals fabricated by crystal-seeding methods face substantial challenges, and their service temperatures cannot be raised further. Here we report that Ti-45Al-8Nb single crystals with controlled lamellar orientations can be fabricated by directional solidification without the use of complex seeding methods. Samples with 0° lamellar orientation exhibit an average room temperature tensile ductility of 6.9% and a yield strength of 708 MPa, with a failure strength of 978 MPa due to the formation of extensive nanotwins during plastic deformation. At 900 °C yield strength remains high at 637 MPa, with 8.1% ductility and superior creep resistance. Thus, this TiAl single-crystal alloy could provide expanded opportunities for higher-temperature applications, such as in aeronautics and aerospace.

  14. Polysynthetic twinned TiAl single crystals for high-temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Peng, Yingbo; Zheng, Gong; Qi, Zhixiang; Wang, Minzhi; Yu, Huichen; Dong, Chengli; Liu, C T

    2016-08-01

    TiAl alloys are lightweight, show decent corrosion resistance and have good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, making them appealing for high-temperature applications. However, polysynthetic twinned TiAl single crystals fabricated by crystal-seeding methods face substantial challenges, and their service temperatures cannot be raised further. Here we report that Ti-45Al-8Nb single crystals with controlled lamellar orientations can be fabricated by directional solidification without the use of complex seeding methods. Samples with 0° lamellar orientation exhibit an average room temperature tensile ductility of 6.9% and a yield strength of 708 MPa, with a failure strength of 978 MPa due to the formation of extensive nanotwins during plastic deformation. At 900 °C yield strength remains high at 637 MPa, with 8.1% ductility and superior creep resistance. Thus, this TiAl single-crystal alloy could provide expanded opportunities for higher-temperature applications, such as in aeronautics and aerospace.

  15. GRCop-84: A High Temperature Copper-based Alloy For High Heat Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    While designed for rocket engine main combustion chamber liners, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) offers potential for high heat flux applications in industrial applications requiring a temperature capability up to approximately 700 C (1292 F). GRCop-84 is a copper-based alloy with excellent elevated temperature strength, good creep resistance, long LCF lives and enhanced oxidation resistance. It also has a lower thermal expansion than copper and many other low alloy copper-based alloys. GRCop-84 can be manufactured into a variety of shapes such as tubing, bar, plate and sheet using standard production techniques and requires no special production techniques. GRCop-84 forms well, so conventional fabrication methods including stamping and bending can be used. GRCop-84 has demonstrated an ability to be friction stir welded, brazed, inertia welded, diffusion bonded and electron beam welded for joining to itself and other materials. Potential applications include plastic injection molds, resistance welding electrodes and holders, permanent metal casting molds, vacuum plasma spray nozzles and high temperature heat exchanger applications.

  16. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an...

  17. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an...

  18. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an...

  19. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an...

  20. Phenolics for high temperature applications in small engine technologies (cost effective performance advantages)

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, D.; Jones, R.

    1995-12-31

    Plastic materials have made significant progress in small engine components. Most of these applications have been in external parts like fan shrouds and fuel tanks. Meeting new emissions requirements, along with reducing noise and more compact engine styling will require plastic materials which perform at higher temperatures than those typically used to date, as well as materials which can replace mechanical parts now produced in metal. This paper presents mechanical performance data at temperatures up to 200 C for several engineering phenolic compounds. Also reviewed are fluid resistance, fatigue endurance, and examples of phenolics in production components in small engines.