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Sample records for meel maksim saat

  1. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    training material in light of pilot test feedback o Presented the revised SAAT to LTC Dennis McGurk, LTC Jeffrey Thomas, and Dr. Amy Adler at the Walter Reed...University of Chicago to develop and scientifically test a training package that focuses on social resilience, and it was designed to alter the social... tested Social Fitness and Cultural Awareness training in focus groups, Fort Bliss, July 2011. o Revised training material in light of focus group

  2. Maksim Trpkovič and the reform of the Julian calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovič, M.; Trajkovska, V.

    In this essay, we try to express the short history of different Christian calendars, as well as the history of the Julian calendar. Especially, we emphasize Maksim Trpkovic's fundamental role in this reform, who was a professor of natural sciences and originated from Macedonia.

  3. Efficient regeneration and improved sonication-assisted Agrobacterium transformation (SAAT) method for Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Alam, Pravej; Khan, Zainul Abdeen; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Khan, Jawaid A; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Elkholy, Shereen F; Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud A

    2017-05-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant known for its pharmacological qualities such as antimicrobial, anticancerous, antifeedant, antisterility, antidiabetic activities. More than 130 bioactive compounds like vinblastine, vindoline and vincristine have been synthesized in this plant. Extensive studies have been carried out for optimization regeneration and transformation protocols. Most of the protocol described are laborious and time-consuming. Due to sophisticated protocol of regeneration and genetic transformation, the production of these bioactive molecules is less and not feasible to be commercialized worldwide. Here we have optimized the efficient protocol for regeneration and transformation to minimize the time scale and enhance the transformation frequency through Agrobacterium and sonication-assisted transformation (SAAT) method. In this study, hypocotyl explants responded best for maximal production of transformed shoots. The callus percentage were recorded 52% with 1.0 mg L(-1) (BAP) and 0.5 mg L(-1) (NAA) while 80% shoot percentage obtained with 4.0 mg L(-1) (BAP) and 0.05 mg L(-1) (NAA). The microscopic studies revealed that the expression of GFP was clearly localized in leaf tissue of the C. roseus after transformation of pRepGFP0029 construct. Consequently, transformation efficiency was revealed on the basis of GFP localization. The transformation efficiency of SAAT method was 6.0% comparable to 3.5% as conventional method. Further, PCR analysis confirmed the integration of the nptII gene in the transformed plantlets of C. roseus.

  4. [History of scurvy therapy and the injustice done to Dr. Maksim Nikolić-Miskovićev of Sremski Karlovci in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews historical aspects regarding medical knowledge on scurvy, vitamin C deficiency, and its etiological factors. This disease used to affect naval-crews on long lasting sea voyages, soldiers during times of war and the poor. Although efficient therapy of scurvy (fresh vegetables, lemon juice) was known in the mid-18th century, its etiology was not known. It was believed to be caused by the cold, moist winds, unhealthy evaporations, malnutrition and it was called "alkaline disease". It was established that acid substances like lemon juice, had beneficial effects on the disease. However, it was soon generally accepted that it was caused by deficient diet. In 1830, Dr. John Elliotson, Professor of Medicine at London University supported this opinion. In 1928, Albert Szent Gyordyi, professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Szeged and Budapest Universities, isolated vitamin C from green pepper, vegetable proved to be rich with vitamin C. Due to this discovery, and some discoveries regarding biological processes, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology in 1937. Back in 1864, a military doctor in Belgrade, Dr. Maksim Nikolić-Miskovićev from Sremski Karlovci, wrote to Ministry of Defence of the Serbian Principality. He informed the authorities about a successful, quick and cheap cure for scurvy-pepper juice. A medical board headed by Dr. Vladan Dordević was formed to evaluate his discovery. Dr. Nikolić-Miskovićev was underestimated and laughed at, and his discovery was completely forgotten. The aim of this paper was to correct injustice done to Dr. Maksim Nikolić-Miskovićev.

  5. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    children ,  if  relevant  (RS_CHILD),  (2)  parents,  if  relevant...try  to  be  fair.   17. Social  integration  (CHILD,  RELAT,  FRIEND,  CHURCH).  Number  of   children ,  close...close  to  them,   divorce ,  legal  problems,  and  health  threats.   2. Previous  deployment  (PD).  At

  6. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    behaviors 5. Economy & politics Natural resources; labor issues; opium production 6. Recreation Sports, art, dance, music , film 7. Food, dress...Research and Therapy , 34, 669-673. Bray, R. M., Fairbank, J. A., & Marsden, M. E. (1999). Stress and substance use among military women and men. The...factor for traumatic mishaps. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 633-649. Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1994). Organizational citizenship

  7. Social Awareness and Action Training (SAAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    2009). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Third Edition). Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self...Tremble, R. T., Jr. (2002). Cognitive and personality predictors of leader performance in West Point cadets . Military Psychology, 14, 321-338...335-342. Bernstein, D. P. et al. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire . Child Abuse

  8. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... regulations in 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests,'' regulate, among other...

  9. "Catholic Higher Education: Challenges of Discipleship and Citizenship," Presentation at the Andrews McMeel University Annual Service Learning Conference. (South Bend, Indiana, November 4, 2000.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Carol Jean

    2000-01-01

    Explores the relationship between discipleship and citizenship, discussing ways Catholic educators can teach their students to be faithful to their Catholic ideals as they exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Service learning provides a means for integrating head and heart for students while working in a real world context.…

  10. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant...

  11. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which... products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to...

  12. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is... genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  13. Kyrgyzstan Country Profile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    prins’ Maksim Bakiev otobral u zakonnyx vladeltsev pansionat ‘ Utos ’ na beregu Issyk-Kyla” ( The case of Poroskun-Sirotina bears a serious risk for the...Kyrgyz elites: almighty younger son of Kyrgyz president ‘prince’ Maxim Bakiev forcefully took over ‘ Utos ’ resort on the beach of Issyk-Kul Lake) by

  14. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; Ptrend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥4.0–6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT. PMID

  15. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis - association with clinical and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Kontny, Ewa; Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients' body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor - TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients' age. We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may contribute to maintenance of normal body composition and mass, (ii

  16. Translations on USSR Trade and Services, No. 1130.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Implemented (P. P. Pavlov ; VOPROSY ISTORII KPSS, No 9, 1978) 1 Soviet-French Economic Cooperation (G. Dad’yants; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA...ECONOMIC RELATIONS COMPLEX ECONOMIC INTEGRATION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTED Moscow VOPROSY ISTORII KPSS in Russian No 9 1978 pp 60-72 [Article by F. P. Pavlov ...vessels of the "rest flotilla," 102 which includes such modern motor ships as the " Ivan Franko," "Maksim Gor’kiy " "Belorussiya" and others will

  17. Quasiparticle interference and strong electron-mode coupling in the quasi-one-dimensional bands of Sr2RuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Walkup, Daniel; Derry, Philip; Scaffidi, Thomas; Rak, Melinda; Vig, Sean; Kogar, Anshul; Zeljkovic, Ilija; Husain, Ali; Santos, Luiz H.; Wang, Yuxuan; Damascelli, Andrea; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Abbamonte, Peter; Fradkin, Eduardo; Madhavan, Vidya

    2017-08-01

    The single-layered ruthenate Sr2RuO4 is presented as a potential spin-triplet superconductor with an order parameter that may break time-reversal invariance and host half-quantized vortices with Majorana zero modes. Although the actual nature of the superconducting state is still a matter of controversy, it is believed to condense from a metallic state that is well described by a conventional Fermi liquid. In this work we use a combination of Fourier transform scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (FT-STS) and momentum-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (M-EELS) to probe interaction effects in the normal state of Sr2RuO4. Our high-resolution FT-STS data show signatures of the β-band with a distinctly quasi-one-dimensional (1D) character. The band dispersion reveals surprisingly strong interaction effects that dramatically renormalize the Fermi velocity, suggesting that the normal state of Sr2RuO4 is that of a `correlated metal' where correlations are strengthened by the quasi-1D nature of the bands. In addition, kinks at energies of approximately 10 meV, 38 meV and 70 meV are observed. By comparing STM and M-EELS data we show that the two higher energy features arise from coupling with collective modes. The strong correlation effects and the kinks in the quasi-1D bands could provide important information for understanding the superconducting state.

  18. Secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in male patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis – association with clinical and laboratory data

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Agnieszka; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Material and methods Basal and interleukin (IL)-1β-triggered secretion of selected adipocytokines from SAAT explants was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Patients’ body composition was evaluated by bioelectric impendence technique. Results Rheumatoid SAAT secreted more adiponectin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) than respective osteoarthritis tissue. In both RA and OA patient groups, stimulation of SAAT explants with IL-1β (1 ng/ml/100 mg tissue) significantly up-regulated release of pro-(IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor – TNF) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines but had no effect on the secretion of adiponectin, leptin, MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Compared with RA, patients with OA were more obese. In RA patients SAAT-released adiponectin and TNF inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat rating (FVSC). In addition, SAAT-secreted adiponectin and leptin positively correlated with DAS28 and disease duration, respectively. In the OA group tissue-released TNF positively correlated with patients’ age. Conclusions We conclude that in RA male patients adipocytokines originating from SAAT are of clinical importance because: (i) adiponectin and TNF may

  19. The Effect of Industrial Training on Ethical Awareness of Final Year Students in a Malaysian Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saat, Maisarah Mohamed; Yusoff, Rosman Md.; Panatik, Siti Aisyah

    2014-01-01

    Studies (for example, Dellaportas in Making a difference with a discrete course on accounting ethics. "J Bus Ethics" 65(4):391-404, 2006; Saat in "An investigation of the effects of a moral education program on the ethical development of Malaysian future accountants," 2010) on final year accounting students show that industrial…

  20. The Effect of Industrial Training on Ethical Awareness of Final Year Students in a Malaysian Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saat, Maisarah Mohamed; Yusoff, Rosman Md.; Panatik, Siti Aisyah

    2014-01-01

    Studies (for example, Dellaportas in Making a difference with a discrete course on accounting ethics. "J Bus Ethics" 65(4):391-404, 2006; Saat in "An investigation of the effects of a moral education program on the ethical development of Malaysian future accountants," 2010) on final year accounting students show that industrial…

  1. The Interrelationships between Abdominal Adiposity, Leptin and Bone Mineral Content in Overweight Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Afrooz; Goran, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims The link between abdominal fat and bone mineral content (BMC), independent of weight, has not been extensively studied. In Latino children, the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat to BMC have not been examined. Research on the effect of leptin on BMC has also been inconclusive. Methods The present study included 256 overweight Latino children (111 girls, 145 boys; mean BMI 28.2; age 11.1 ± 1.7 years) from Los Angeles, California. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) were determined by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. BMC was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Independent of age, Tanner stage and weight, abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT + IAAT) was inversely correlated with BMC (r = –0.46, p < 0.0001; n = 256). In girls, there was an inverse correlation between SAAT and BMC (r = –0.38, p < 0.05), between IAAT and BMC (r = –0.32, p < 0.05) and between leptin and BMC (r = –0.39, p < 0.05). In boys, SAAT and BMC were inversely correlated (r = –0.26, p < 0.05), but the correlation between IAAT and BMC was not significant (p = 0.22). Leptin was also inversely correlated with BMC (r = –0.38, p < 0.05) in boys and contributed to the variances in BMC in both girls and boys. Conclusion Total abdominal adipose fat and leptin are negatively associated with BMC in Latino children. The correlation between SAAT and BMC is stronger in girls than boys. IAAT and BMC are negatively associated in girls but not correlated in boys. PMID:19690425

  2. MRI-determined total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal and trunk adipose tissue are differentially and sex-dependently associated with patterns of estimated usual nutrient intake in a northern German population.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Karina; Moewes, Daniela; Koch, Manja; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAAT) and trunk (STRAT) adipose tissue (AT) have been suggested to be differentially influenced by diet. We investigated whether and to what extent usual patterns of nutrient intake are associated with VAT, SAAT, and STRAT compared with nondietary predictors in northern German adults (n = 583). AT volumes were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Nutrient intake was estimated by a 112-item food-frequency questionnaire linked to the German Food Code and Nutrient Database. Exploratory nutrient patterns were derived by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS) of 87 nutrients. Cross-sectional associations between nutrient patterns, single nutrients, or total energy intake and AT compartments were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Next to sex and age, respectively, which were important nondietary predictors and accounted for more of the variation in VAT (∼13% and ∼4%) than in SAAT or STRAT (both 4-7% and <1%), variation in VAT (16.8% or 17.6%) was explained to a greater extent by 9 or 2 nutrient patterns derived by principal components analysis or partial least-squares regression, respectively, than was variation in SAAT (10.6% or 8.2%) or STRAT (11.5% or 8.6%). Whereas VAT (16.6%) was primarily explained by nutrient quality, SAAT (6.9%) and STRAT (7.4%) were mainly explained by total energy intake. VAT was positively associated with nutrients characteristic of animal (except for dairy) products, including arachidonic acid (standardized β: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.34; P < 0.0001), but negatively with dietary fiber, including polypentoses (standardized β: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.09; P < 0.0001), and nutrients found in milk. The direction and strength of many associations, however, depended strongly on sex and adjustment for BMI. VAT may be particularly associated with sex-specific interplays of nutrients found in animal products and fiber, whereas SAAT and STRAT are associated

  3. Aera Handbook Series: Nigeria - A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Yoruba artisans was a significant item of trade, made from copper , tin, and zinc imported either from North Africa or from mines in the Sahara and...Day of Judgment, resurrection, and the eternal life of the soul. The duties of the Muslim form the "five pillars " of the faith. These are shahada, saat...prayer, and everyone knew at least the minimum Arabic prayers and the five pillars of the religion required for full participation. Public adju

  4. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  5. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  6. Expression of Plant Flavor Genes in Lactococcus lactis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Igor; Molenaar, Douwe; Beekwilder, Jules; Bouwmeester, Harro; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactococcus lactis, are attractive hosts for the production of plant-bioactive compounds because of their food grade status, efficient expression, and metabolic engineering tools. Two genes from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), encoding an alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT) and a linalool/nerolidol synthase (FaNES), were cloned in L. lactis and actively expressed using the nisin-induced expression system. The specific activity of SAAT could be improved threefold (up to 564 pmol octyl acetate h−1 mg protein−1) by increasing the concentration of tRNA1Arg, which is a rare tRNA molecule in L. lactis. Fermentation tests with GM17 medium and milk with recombinant L. lactis strains expressing SAAT or FaNES resulted in the production of octyl acetate (1.9 μM) and linalool (85 nM) to levels above their odor thresholds in water. The results illustrate the potential of the application of L. lactis as a food grade expression platform for the recombinant production of proteins and bioactive compounds from plants. PMID:17209074

  7. Subtraction of subcutaneous fat to improve the prediction of visceral adiposity: exploring a new anthropometric track in overweight and obese youth.

    PubMed

    Samouda, H; De Beaufort, C; Stranges, S; Van Nieuwenhuyse, J-P; Dooms, G; Keunen, O; Leite, S; Vaillant, M; Lair, M-L; Dadoun, F

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of traditional anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (Waist C) used to replace biomedical imaging for assessing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is still highly controversial in youth. We evaluated the most accurate model predicting VAT in overweight/obese youth, using various anthropometric measurements and their correlation with different body fat compartments, especially by testing, for the first time in youth, the hypothesis that subtracting the anthropometric measurement the most highly correlated with subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and less correlated possible with VAT from an anthropometric abdominal measurement highly correlated with visceral and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), predicts VAT with higher accuracy. VAT and SAAT data resulted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis performed on 181 boys and girls (7-17 y) from Diabetes & Endocrinology Care Paediatrics Clinic in Luxembourg. Height, weight, abdominal diameters, waist, hip, and thigh circumferences were measured with a view to developing the anthropometric VAT predictive algorithms. In girls, subtracting proximal thigh circumference (Proximal Thigh C), the most closely correlated anthropometric measurement with SAAT, from Waist C, the most closely correlated anthropometric measurement with VAT was instrumental in improving VAT prediction, in comparison with the most accurate single VAT anthropometric surrogate. [Formula: see text] Residual analysis showed a negligible estimation error (5 cm(2) ). In boys, Waist C was the best VAT predictor. Subtraction of abdominal subcutaneous fat is important to predict VAT in overweight/obese girls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Zeta potential response of human erythrocyte membranes to the modulators of Gardos channel activity under low rate β-radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, V V; Iakovenko, I N; Voitsitskiy, V M; Khyzhnyak, S V; Zubrikova-Chugainova, O G; Gorobetz, V A

    2015-12-01

    Tsel' raboty. Izuchenie reaktsii dzeta potentsiala (DP) membran éritrotsitov cheloveka pri modifikatsii aktivatorami i blokatorami funktsional'nogo sostoianiia Ca2+-zavisimykh kalievykh kanalov v pole radioizotopnogo izlucheniia 90Sr/90Y maloi moshchnosti.Materialy i metody. Éritrotsity poluchali iz donorskoi krovi. DP vychisliali po poluchennomu znacheniiu élektroforeticheskoi podvizhnosti kletok. V kletochnye suspenzii predvaritel'no vnosili issleduemye veshchestva, a zatem alikvoty rastvora 90Sr(NO3)2, chtoby poluchit' konechnuiu kontsentratsiiu 44,4⋅kBk⋅l-1.Rezul'taty. Radioizotopnoe izluchenie 90Sr/90Y (RI, 15 mkGr/ch) povyshaet absoliutnoe znachenie DP (DPab) membran éritrotsitov i ego deistvie iavliaetsia obratimym. Éto ukazyvaet na to, chto éffekt oposreduetsia neioniziruiushchei komponentoi RI. Dibutiril-tsAMF v diapazone kontsentratsii 1–100 mkM dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov, no RI ne usilivaet ego éffekt. Anaprilin v kontsentratsiiakh 10 i 100 mkM dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab. Éffekt maksimal'noi kontsentratsii anaprilina (100 mkM) – snizhaetsia RI. Klotrimazol v diapazone kontsentratsii 0,1–10 mkM povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov otnositel'no kontrolia, togda kak ego maksimal'naia kontsentratsiia – snizhet, a minimal'naia – dostoverno ne vliiaet na étot pokazatel'. Deistvie klotrimazola na DP pri kontsentratsiiakh 10–100 mkM otmeniaetsia RI, no ne izmeniaetsia pri 0,1–1 mkM. Nitrendipin vo vsem diapazone kontsentratsii dozonezavisimo povyshaet DPab membran éritrotsitov, a RI usilivaet ego deistvie. Vyvody. 1. Dlia ioniziruiushchei komponenty radionuklidnogo izlucheniia sushchestvuet porog biologicheskogo deistviia na kletki, opredeliaemyi éffektivnost'iu ikh antioksidantnoi sistemy.2. Pri moshchnosti doz nizhe porogovoi deistvie radioizotopnogo izlucheniia oposreduetsia ego neioniziruiushchei komponentoi i iavliaetsia obratimym, a poétomu opredeliaetsia tol'ko v pole izlucheniia.

  9. The dynamics and pH-dependence of Ag43 adhesins' self-association probed by atomic force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Adrien; Sakamoto, Chizuko; Razafitianamarahavo, Angelina; Caillet, Céline; Merlin, Jenny; Fahs, Ahmad; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Duval, Jérôme F. L.; Beloin, Christophe; Francius, Grégory

    2014-10-01

    Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed light on the possible mechanism governing the self-recognition of SAAT adhesins, in particular the importance of trans-interactions between the L shaped β-helical scaffold of two α-domains of neighboring adhesins. In this study, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to unravel the dynamics of Ag43-self association under various pH and molecular elongation rate conditions that mimic the situations encountered by E. coli in its natural environment. Results evidenced an important stretchability of Ag43α with unfolding of sub-domains leading to molecular extension as long as 150 nm. Nanomechanical analysis of molecular stretching data suggested that self-association of Ag43 can lead to the formation of dimers and tetramers driven by rapid and weak cis- as well as slow but strong trans-interaction forces with a magnitude as large as 100-250 pN. The dynamics of cis- and trans-interactions were demonstrated to be strongly influenced by pH and applied shear force, thus suggesting that environmental conditions can modulate Ag43-mediated aggregation of bacteria at the molecular level.Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed

  10. Lifestyle and socioeconomic-status modify the effects of ADRB2 and NOS3 on adiposity in European-American and African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Gutin, Bernard; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of and interaction between lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity (PA)) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-candidate genes (ADRB2, APOB and NOS3) on general and central adiposity. Six-hundred-and-twenty-one European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) youths aged 13-19 years were classified by ethnicity (49% AA), gender (45% male), and socioeconomic status (SES). PA and dietary intake with up to seven 24-h recalls were reported for all subjects. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Reported energy intake (EI) and vigorous PA (VPA) were negative predictors of %BF and SAAT. Carriers of the NOS3 Asp298 allele had higher %BF only in the presence of an adverse environment (low SES). Compared to the most common NOS3 haplotype, homozygotes for haplotype A-non4r-Asp had 6.1% higher %BF. Significant interactions were revealed between the ADRB2 Arg16Gly SNP and VPA on VAT, SAAT and waist circumference (WC) such that Gly16 homozygotes may benefit less from increased VPA to reduce their weight. Genetic susceptibility to increased general and central adiposity is dependent on several factors, such as SES and vigorous exercise. Improved understanding of the joint effect of genes and lifestyle on adiposity will offer new insights into obesity and may provide new avenues for personalized prevention and treatment.

  11. Lower bone mass in prepubertal overweight children with pre-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Wenger, Karl; Misra, Sudipta; Gower, Barbara A; Allison, Jerry D; Zhu, Haidong; Davis, Catherine L

    2011-01-01

    Childhood studies of the fat-bone relationship are conflicting, possibly reflecting the influence of metabolic abnormalities in some but not all obese children. Bone mass was compared between prepubertal overweight children with (n=41) and without (n=99) pre-diabetes. Associations of bone mass with measures of total and central adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, systemic inflammation, and osteocalcin were also determined. In 140 overweight children aged 7–11 y, an oral glucose tolerance test was used to identify those with pre-diabetes and for determination of glucose, 2-h glucose, glucose AUC, insulin, 2-hr insulin, and insulin AUC. Blood samples were also assessed for lipids, C-reactive protein, and osteocalcin. Total body bone mineral content (BMC), fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST), and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Total body BMC was 4% lower in overweight children with pre-diabetes than those without pre-diabetes, after controlling for sex, race, height, and weight (P=0.03). In the total sample, FM was positively related with BMC (β=0.16, P=0.01), after adjusting for sex, race, height, and FFST. However, VAT (β=−0.13, P=0.03) and SAAT (β=−0.34, P=0.02) were inversely associated with BMC, after controlling for sex, race, height, FFST, FM, and SAAT or VAT. No significant associations were found between BMC and the biochemical measurements. Prepubertal overweight children with pre-diabetes may be at risk for poor skeletal development. In addition, it appears that greater levels of central, rather than total, adiposity may be deleterious for developing bone. PMID:20641032

  12. Functional Characterization of Enzymes Forming Volatile Esters from Strawberry and Banana[w

    PubMed Central

    Beekwilder, Jules; Alvarez-Huerta, Mayte; Neef, Evert; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Aharoni, Asaph

    2004-01-01

    Volatile esters are flavor components of the majority of fruits. The last step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by alcohol acyltransferases (AATs), which link alcohols to acyl moieties. Full-length cDNAs putatively encoding AATs were isolated from fruit of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and banana (Musa sapientum) and compared to the previously isolated SAAT gene from the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). The potential role of these enzymes in fruit flavor formation was assessed. To this end, recombinant enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli, and their activities were analyzed for a variety of alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. When the results of these activity assays were compared to a phylogenetic analysis of the various members of the acyltransferase family, it was clear that substrate preference could not be predicted on the basis of sequence similarity. In addition, the substrate preference of recombinant enzymes was not necessarily reflected in the representation of esters in the corresponding fruit volatile profiles. This suggests that the specific profile of a given fruit species is to a significant extent determined by the supply of precursors. To study the in planta activity of an alcohol acyltransferase and to assess the potential for metabolic engineering of ester production, we generated transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants overexpressing the SAAT gene. While the expression of SAAT and the activity of the corresponding enzyme were readily detected in transgenic plants, the volatile profile was found to be unaltered. Feeding of isoamyl alcohol to explants of transgenic lines resulted in the emission of the corresponding acetyl ester. This confirmed that the availability of alcohol substrates is an important parameter to consider when engineering volatile ester formation in plants. PMID:15326278

  13. Effects of omeprazole on iron absorption: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tempel, Mila; Chawla, Anupama; Messina, Catherine; Celiker, Mahmut Yaşar

    2013-09-01

    Amaç: Giderek artan sayıda pediatrik ve yetişkin hastalar proton pompa inhibitörleri (PPI) ile tedavi edilmektedir. PPI’ların mide asidini inhibe ettikleri bilinmektedir. Heme’e bağlı olmayan demir ferroz şekline geçerek absorb edilebilmesi için mide asidi gerektirir. Diyetteki demirin yüzde doksanı ve tedavide kullanılan demirin yüzde yüzü heme’e bağlı olmayan durumdadır. Bilgimize göre PPI’ların demir absobsiyonunda nasıl etki ettiği insanlarda araştırılmamıstır. Araştırmamız omeprazol tedavisi ile demir absorbsiyonu arasındaki ilişkiyi sağlıklı kişilerde incelemiştir.Gereç ve Yöntemler: Haziran 2010 ile Mart 2011 arasında 9 sağlıklı gönüllüyü çalışmamiz için davet ettik. Kronik hastalığı veya anemisi olan kişilerle PPI tedavisinde olan kişileri dışladık. Serum demir konsantrasyonunu demir alımından 1, 2, ve 3 saat sonra ölçtük (kontrol grubu). Bu ölçümleri bir sonraki ziyarette 4 günlük oral 40 mg dozunda omeprazol tedavisinden sonra tekrarladık (tedavi grubu).Bulgular: Ortalama yaşları 33 yıl olan 8 erkek ve 1 kadın gönüllü çalışmamıza katıldı. Kontrol grubu ile tedavi grubu arasında bazal, 1 saat, 2 saat, ve 3 saat sonraki demir konsantrasyonları arasında istatistiksel anlamlı bir fark görülmedi. Sonuç: Sağlıklı kişilerde kısa bir zaman sürecince verilen omeprazol oral olarak alınan demirin absorbsiyonunu etkilemez.

  14. Influence of Light Intensity and Temperature on Cultivation of Microalgae Desmodesmus Communis in Flasks and Laboratory-Scale Stirred Tank Photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanags, J.; Kunga, L.; Dubencovs, K.; Galvanauskas, V.; Grīgs, O.

    2015-04-01

    Optimization of the microalgae cultivation process and of the bioprocess in general traditionally starts with cultivation experiments in flasks. Then the scale-up follows, when the process from flasks is transferred into a laboratory-scale bioreactor, in which further experiments are performed before developing the process in a pilot-scale reactor. This research was done in order to scale-up the process from a 0.4 1 shake flask to a 4.0 1 laboratory-scale stirred-tank photobioreactor for the cultivation of Desmodesmus (D.) communis microalgae. First, the effect of variation in temperature (21-29 ºC) and in light intensity (200-600 μmol m-2s-1) was studied in the shake-flask experiments. It was shown that the best results (the maximum biomass concentration of 2.72 g 1-1 with a specific growth rate of 0.65 g g-1d-1) can be achieved at the cultivation temperature and light intensity being 25 °C and 300 μmol m2s-1, respectively. At the same time, D. communis cultivation under the same conditions in stirred-tank photobioreactor resulted in average volumetric productivities of biomass due to the light limitation even when the light intensity was increased during the experiment (the maximum biomass productivity 0.25 g 1-1d-1; the maximum biomass concentration 1.78 g 1-1). Mikroaļģu kultivēšanas procesa optimizēšana parasti sākas ar kultivēšanas eksperimentiem kolbās. Tālāk seko procesa pārnese uz laboratorijas mēroga fotobioreaktoru, kurā tiek veikti tālāki eksperimenti, pirms tiek izveidots pilota mēroga reaktors. Šis pētījums tika veikts ar mērķi, pārnest Desmodesmus communis kultivēšanas procesu no 0.4 1 kolbas uz 4.0 1 laboratorijas fotobioreaktoru. Vispirms tika pētīta dažādu temperatūru (21-29 ºC) un gaismas intensitātes (200-600 μmol m-2s-1) ietekme uz aļģu biomasu veicot eksperimentus kolbās. Labākie rezultāti (maksimālā biomasas koncentrācija 2.72 g 1-1; īpatnējais augšanas ātrums 0.65 g g-1d-1) sasniegti, kad

  15. Common variants near MC4R are associated with general and visceral adiposity in European- and African-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Treiber, Frank A; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies found common variants near the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene associated with obesity. This study aimed to assess the influence of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs17782313 and rs17700633 on general and visceral adiposity in European- and African-American youth. Study design In 1890 youth (49.1% European-American, 45.6% male, mean age 16.7 years), we examined the associations of the rs17782313 and rs17700633 with anthropometry, percent body fat (%BF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT). Interaction of the SNPs with ethnicity or gender was investigated and haplotype analyses conducted. Results Rs17782313 was significantly associated with weight (P=0.02) and waist circumference (P=0.03) in all subjects, and with body mass index (P=0.002) in females. In females rs17700633 was significantly associated with %BF (P=0.001), VAT (P<0.001) and SAAT (P<0.001). Rs17700633 was significantly associated with fasting insulin and HOMA, but the significance attenuated after adjustment for %BF. These findings were confirmed by haplotype analysis. No significant interactions of the variants with ethnicity were found for any of these phenotypes. Conclusions The relatively large effect of these common variants near MC4R on general and visceral adiposity in childhood, especially in girls, could prove helpful in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of obesity in early life. PMID:20070976

  16. Adolescent obesity, bone mass and cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare bone mass between overweight adolescents with and without cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR). Associations of bone mass with CMR and adiposity were also determined. Study design Overweight adolescents (aged 14–18 years) were classified in Healthy (n=55), 1CMR (n=46) or ≥2CMR (n=42). CMR were measured using standard methods and defined according to pediatric definitions of metabolic syndrome. Total body bone mass, fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) were measured by DXA. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Results After controlling for age, sex, race, height and FFST, Healthy group had 5.4% and 6.3% greater bone mass than the 1CMR and ≥2CMR groups, respectively (both P<0.04). Multiple linear regression, adjusting for same covariates, revealed that VAT (β=−0.22), waist circumference (β= −0.23), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (β= −0.23) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.22) were associated with bone mass (all P<0.04). There was a trend towards a significant inverse association between bone mass and fasting glucose (P=0.056). No relations were found between bone mass and fat mass, SAAT, BP or triglycerides. Conclusion Being overweight with metabolic abnormalities, particularly insulin resistance, low HDL-cholesterol and visceral adiposity, may adversely influence adolescent bone mass. PMID:21232765

  17. The Calendar of the Greek Orthodox Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Theodossiou, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the Orthodox Church Council in 1923 in Constantinople a proposal concerning the reform of the calendar, elaborated by the Serbian astronomer Milutin Milankovic´ together with professor Maksim Trpkovic´, was submitted, providing for a more exact calendar than the Gregorian one. Instead of three days in 4 centuries one should omit 7 days in 9 centuries or 0.0077 days per year. This means that only 2 years out of 9 ending the centuries would be leap years. The rule is that those years whose ordinal number ends with two zeros are leap years only provided that the number of centuries they belong to, divided by 9, yields the remainder 2 or 6. For instance the year 2000, ending the 20th century, is a leap year since 20 divided by 9 equals to 2 plus the remainder 2. Milankovic´'s proposal implies a much smaller difference, with respect to the true tropical year, than the Gregorian calendar. Further improvements concerning the approach to the duration of the tropical year are not necessary since that duration itself undergoes changes over longer periods.

  18. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  19. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  20. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Treiber, Frank A; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2010-04-09

    Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  1. [Development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Srdjan; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Ilanković, Nikola; Dunjić, Dusan; Lakić, Aneta; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Nenadović, Milutin; Randjelović, Dragisa; Milovanović, Dimitrije

    2013-01-01

    The development of legislation in the field of mental health in our region is linked with the emergence and development of the oldest psychiatric hospitals in Serbia.The principle that the mentally ill who committed a criminal offense need to be placed in a psychiatric hospital instead of a prison was introduced at the same time as in the most developed European countries. The founders of the Serbian forensic psychiatry, Dr. Jovan Danić, Dr.Vojislav Subotić Jr. and Dr. Dusan Subotić, were all trained at the first Serbian Psychiatric Hospital ("Home for the Unsound of Mind") that was founded in 1861 in the part of Belgrade called Guberevac. Their successors were psychiatric enthusiasts Prof. Dr.Vladimir F.Vujić and Prof. Dr. Laza Stanojević. A formal establishment of the School of Medicine of Belgrade, with acquirement of new experience and positive shifts within this field, based on the general act of the University in 1932, led to the formation of the Council of the School of Medicine, which, as a collective body passed expert opinions. Thus, the first Forensic Medicine Committee of the School of Medicine was formed and started its activities in 1931 when Forensic Medicine Committee Regulations were accepted. After the World War II prominent educators in the field of mental health, and who particularly contributed to further development of forensic psychiatry in Serbia were Prof. Dr. Uros Jekić, Prof Dr. Dusan Jevtić, Dr. Stevan Jovanović, Prof. Dr. Borislav Kapamadzija, Prof. Dr. Maksim Sternić, Prof. Dr. Josif Vesel and Prof. Dr. Dimitrije Milovanović.

  2. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  3. MDCT Linear and Volumetric Analysis of Adrenal Glands: Normative Data and Multiparametric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Carsin-Vu, Aline; Oubaya, Nadia; Mulé, Sébastien; Janvier, Annaëlle; Delemer, Brigitte; Soyer, Philippe; Hoeffel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    To study linear and volumetric adrenal measurements, their reproducibility, and correlations between total adrenal volume (TAV) and adrenal micronodularity, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), visceral (VAAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAAT), presence of diabetes, chronic alcoholic abuse and chronic inflammatory disease (CID). We included 154 patients (M/F, 65/89; mean age, 57 years) undergoing abdominal multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Two radiologists prospectively independently performed adrenal linear and volumetric measurements with semi-automatic software. Inter-observer reliability was studied using inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC). Relationships between TAV and associated factors were studied using bivariate and multivariable analysis. Mean TAV was 8.4 ± 2.7 cm(3) (3.3-18.7 cm(3)). ICC was excellent for TAV (0.97; 95 % CI: 0.96-0.98) and moderate to good for linear measurements. TAV was significantly greater in men (p < 0.0001), alcoholics (p = 0.04), diabetics (p = 0.0003) and those with micronodular glands (p = 0.001). TAV was lower in CID patients (p = 0.0001). TAV correlated positively with VAAT (r = 0.53, p < 0.0001), BMI (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001), SAAT (r = 0.29, p = 0.0003) and age (r = 0.23, p = 0.005). Multivariable analysis revealed gender, micronodularity, diabetes, age and BMI as independent factors influencing TAV. Adrenal gland MDCT-based volumetric measurements are more reproducible than linear measurements. Gender, micronodularity, age, BMI and diabetes independently influence TAV. • Volumetric measurements are more reproducible than linear measurements for adrenal glands. • Inter-observer reproducibility of adrenal gland volume is excellent using semiautomatic software. • Gender, age, BMI, and diabetes independently influence total adrenal gland volume. • Adrenal micronodularity is associated with increased total adrenal gland volume.

  4. Intrabdominal fat is related to metabolic risk factors in Hispanic Americans, African Americans and in girls.

    PubMed

    Casazza, K; Dulin-Keita, A; Gower, B A; Fernandez, J R

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to test the association of individual adipose depots on cardiometabolic outcomes, whether the association varied by depot and if the associations differed by race/ethnicity or gender in early pubertal children. Three hundred and twenty children (53% male) aged 7-12 years self-identified as African American (AA; n = 114), European American (EA; n = 120) or Hispanic American (HA; n = 86) participated. Insulin dynamics were assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance test; body composition with DXA; fat distribution with CT. AA had the least fat in each depot and HA had the most. Fat accumulation negatively impacted cardiometabolic outcomes independent of race/ethnicity or gender. AA and females were reproductively more mature. In AA and HA, each measure of adiposity influenced the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), whereas intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) did not contribute to S(I) in EA. IAAT was positively associated with blood pressure in AA only. In females, adiposity adversely influenced cardiometabolic outcomes such that total fat mass, IAAT and/or SAAT was inversely associated with S(I), and positively associated with blood pressure and fasting insulin. IAAT is uniquely related to metabolic risk factors in Hispanic Americans, African Americans and girls, suggesting that either the threshold for adverse effects of IAAT is lower, or the IAAT metabolism differs in these groups.

  5. [Allozyme variability and genetic divergence of Pacific trout (species Parasalmo) from western Kamchatka].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, S D

    2000-09-01

    Genetic variation in several populations of Parasalmo (Onchorhyncus) mykiss from Kamchatka was examined on the basis of data obtained by the author and results from literature. Three (sSOD-1*, LDH-C*, and EST-1*) out of 44 protein-coding loci were highly polymorphic. Low-frequency alternative alleles occurred at sAAT-1,2*, LDH-A2*, EST-5*, IDDH-1,2*, and sMDH-1,2*. The results of the present work and comparison with evidence on North American species indicated that, in the Kamchatka part of the range, P. mykiss is represented by several populations carrying unique alleles and forming a genetically independent group. Gene exchange between North American and Western Kamchatka populations is mainly determined by straying in the feeding stock of the American coastal form entering the Sea of Okhotsk. The genetic divergence and mean heterozygosities in the Kamchatka populations were low (D magnitude of 0.0002-0.0275; HS magnitude of 0.011-0.0371). The difference between the Western Kamchatka populations from the North American coastal form was so small (D magnitude of 0.0109-0.0241) that these forms clustered together. Genetic divergence of the Kamchatka populations and the inland North American P. mykiss is an order of magnitude higher (D magnitude of 0.1973-0.2367).

  6. Association of breakfast skipping with visceral fat and insulin indices in overweight Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (> or =85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10-17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted.

  7. Advanced Concept for Creation of Security Holograms / PROGRESĪVĀ Koncepcija AIZSARDZĪBAS Hologrammas Izveidei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanovs, A.; Gerbreders, S.

    2013-12-01

    A new concept is proposed for digital hologram production along with the relevant techniques developed in our laboratory. The main idea of the concept is to maximally separate the calculation of hologram from its optical recording on the light-sensitive media. A special file format containing information on each holographic pixel is created at the stage of calculation. The file is a device-independent by structure, and can be employed for recording a hologram using any of the existing techniques (dot-matrix, optical matrix lithography, e-beam lithography). An optical lithography device is applied to calculate the images for a spatial light modulator at the stage of hologram recording in accordance with the data from the file and in conformity with the hardware features of the device. The proposed method was tested and successfully used to record security holograms. For commercial use a software package and an optical recording system have been developed. Šajā rakstā tiek apskatītas koncepcijas un metodes, kuras tiek izmantotas drošības hologrammu ražošanai mūsu laboratorijā. Koncepcijas galvenā ideja ir hologrammas aprēķina posmu maksimālais sadalījums no hologrammu optiskā ieraksta uz gaismas jūtīgām vidēm. Hologrammas aprēķina posmā tiek izveidots īpaša formāta fails, kas satur pilnu informāciju par katru hologrāfisko pikseli. Pēc struktūras fails ir neatkarīgs no ierīces un to var izmantot hologrammas ierakstam pēc jebkuras no esošajām tehnoloģijām. Hologrammas ieraksta posmā optiskā litogrāfijas iekārta pēc faila datiem veic SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) attēla aprēķinu, ievērojot iekārtas darbības īpatnības. Piedāvātā metode ir pārbaudīta un veiksmīgi tiek izmantota drošības hologrammu ierakstam. Izstrādāta programmu pakete un optiskā ieraksta iekārta komerciālai izmantošanai.

  8. The Levels of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in Sepsis Patients Receiving Prophylactic Enoxaparin.

    PubMed

    Al Otair, Hadil A; Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil M; Khurshid, Syed M; Alzeer, Abdulaziz H; Al Momen, Abdul Kareem; Al Shaikh, Mashael; Al Gahtani, Farja; Al Aseri, Zohair A; Abdelrazik, Hossam A H

    2016-06-05

    Amaç: Sepsis sendromuna genellikle kan pıhtılaşma sisteminin aktivasyonu eşlik eder. İlk çalışmalar ana doğal 3 antikoagülan olan antitrombin, protein C ve protein S eksikliği bulmuştur. Bununla birlikte, bu inhibitörlerin hiç biri doku faktörü bloke etmez, sepsis sırasındaki koagülasyon tetiklenişi özelllikle doku faktör yolak inhibitörü (DFYİ) ile kontrol edilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı sepsis sırasındaki doğal antikoagülan ve özellikle DFYİ düzeyi dalgalanmalarını karakterize etmek ve bunların düşük moleküler ağırlıklı heaprin enoksaparinin antikoagülan eylemi ile ilişkilerini öğrenmekti. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Ardışık 51 sepsis hastası çalışmaya alındı. Taban (0 saat) ve enoksaparin verimesinden 4, 12, 24 saat sonra kan örnekleri alındı. Aşağıdaki deneyler ticari kitleri kullanılarak yapılmıştır; parsiyel tromboplastin zamanı, protrombin zamanı, trombin zamanı, toplam ve serbest DFYİ, protein C ve protein S, antitrombin, fibrinojen, ve aktif anti-faktör Xa. Bulgular: Enoksaparin uygulamadan önce ptorombin zamanı ve aktif parsiyel protrombin zamanında önemli uzama vardı. Bu durum sonraki 3 örneklemde de devam etti. Çalışma boyunca antitrombin, protein C, toplam ve serbest protein S seviyeleri değerlerinde kontrollere göre belirgin bir azalma oldu. Buna karşılık, hem toplam hem de serbest plazma DFYİ değerleri belirgin biçimde yükseldi ve enoksaparin tedavisinden sonra arttı. Anti faktör Xa düzeyleri terapötik aralık içindeydi. Vefat eden ve sağ kalan hastalar arasında DFYİ düzeyi açısından fark yoktu. Sonuç: Sepsis, endotel hücrelerinden belirgin DFYİ salınımı ile tetiklenir. Bu, enoksaparin uygulmasını takiben kalıcı olmuş ve daha da artmıştır. Bunun aksine, doğal koagülasyon inhibitörleri antitrombin, protein C ve protein S’nin belirgin tüketimi vardı. Bu sonuçlar, tedavi amaçlı rekombinant DFYİ kullanımının sepsis ilişkili koag

  9. Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Lory Elen

    This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive

  10. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  11. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species.

  12. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    ), E Noruzifar (Mainz), M Oettel (Mainz), O Otto (Leipzig), S Overduin (Düsseldorf), E C Oğuz (Düsseldorf), T Palberg (Mainz), G Pauschenwein (Vienna), G Pellicane (Messina), F Pesth (Mainz), P Pfleiderer (Mainz), D J Pine (New York), D Pini (Milan), H Reiber (Mainz), V Reshetnyak (Kiev), M Rex (Düsseldorf), M Ripoll (Jülich), M Roth (Mainz), P Royall (Bristol), M Rubin-Zuzic (Garching), T Schilling (Mainz), A Schmidt (Düsseldorf), M Schmiedeberg (Berlin), H J Schöpe (Mainz), S Schreiber (Bayreuth), B Schumann (Düsseldorf), F Sciortino (Rome), L Shapran-Reiber (Mainz), M Siebenbürger (Bayreuth), S P Singh (New Delhi), R Siquieri (Aachen), F Smallenburg (Utrecht), I Snook (Melbourne), M Sperl (Cologne), J Stellbrink (Jülich), E Stiakakis (Jülich), T Szymborski (Warsaw), H Tanaka (Tokyo), P Tierno (Barcelona), U Tkalec (Ljubljana), A Tsigkri (Jülich), T Tückmantel (Düsseldorf), C Valeriani (Edinburgh), A van Blaaderen (Utrecht), E van den Pol (Utrecht), J van Meel (Amsterdam), P van Oostrum (Utrecht), R van Roij (Utrecht), S van Teeffelen (Düsseldorf), L Verhoeff (Utrecht), E Vermolen (Utrecht), R Vink (Göttingen), P Virnau (Mainz), T Voigtmann (Cologne), D Vollmer (Mainz), G J Vroege (Utrecht), H R Vutukuri (Utrecht), C Walz (Konstanz), M Walz (Erlangen), D A Weitz (Harvard), J Wenk (Düsseldorf), R Wensink (London), F Weyßer (Konstanz), L Willner (Jülich), R G Winkler (Jülich), A Wynveen (Düsseldorf), A Wysocki (Düsseldorf), J Zausch (Mainz), J Zhao (Mainz), M Zietara (Konstanz), U Zimmermann (Düsseldorf), J Zwanikken (Utrecht).

  13. The Dual Diverse Dynamic Reversible Effects of Ankaferd Blood Stopper on EPCR and PAI-1 Inside Vascular Endothelial Cells With and Without LPS Challenge.

    PubMed

    Karabıyık, Afife; Yılmaz, Erkan; Güleç, Sükrü; Haznedaroğlu, Ibrahim; Akar, Nejat

    2012-12-01

    Amaç: Ankaferd, Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum ve Urtica dioica bitkilerindenoluşan bir karışımdır. Kanamayı durdurucu etkisinden dolayı topikal hemostatik ajan olarak kullanılmaktadır.Hemostatik çalışma mekanizması araştırılmaktadır. Koagülasyon faktörleri II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI ve XII seviyeleriAnkaferd’den etkilenmemektedir. Çalışmamızda Ankaferd’in endotel üzerindeki ve immün yanıttaki etkisini araştırmakamacıyla, İnsan Umbilical Ven Endotel Hücreleri (HUVEC) kullanılarak Endotelyal Protein C Reseptörü (EPCR) vePlazminojen Aktivatör İnhibitör (PAI-1) gen ekspresyonları üzerindeki etkisi araştırılmış ve farklı doz ve zamanlardaoluşturduğu değişikliklerin incelenmesi, lipopolisakkarit (LPS) muamelesinden sonra EPCR ve PAI-1 ekspresyonlarıüzerindeki olası etkisinin gösterilmesi amaçlanmıştır.Gereç ve Yöntemler: HUVEC’lere 10 µl ve 100 µl konsantrasyonlarda Ankaferd 5 dk, 25 dk, 50 dk, 6 saat ve 24saat süreyle uygulanmıştır. Ayrıca immün yanıt üzerindeki etkisinin incelenebilmesi için 10 µg/ml LPS ile 1 saatlikmuamelenin ardından hücreler 10 µl ve 100 µl Ankaferd’le birlikte 5 dk, 25 dk, 50 dk ve 6 saatlik sürelerde maruzbırakılmıştır. HUVEC hücrelerinden RNA izolasyonu yapılmış; EPCR ve PAI-1 gen ekspresyonları incelenmiştir.Bulgular: Yapılan mikroskobik incelemede Ankaferd uygulamasıyla hücrelerin yüzeyden kalkıp toplanarak birbirlerineyapıştıkları ve 24 saatin içerisinde büyüme ve gelişmelerinin normale döndüğü gözlenmiştir. Bu, Ankaferd’in etkisininzamanla azaldığı anlamına gelebilir. Ankaferd muamelesiyle başlangıçta gözlenen EPCR ve PAI-1 ekspresyonundakideğişim zamanla azalmıştır. Ayrıca ekspresyonlardaki hızlı değişim göz önüne alındığında Ankaferd’in artankonsantrasyonlarda etkisini daha da fazla gösterdiği söylenebilir. Böylece Ankaferd’in EPCR ve PAI-1

  14. Small Hydropower in Latvia and Intellectualization of its Operating Systems / Par Mazo HIDROENERĢĒTIKU LATVIJĀ un TĀS Staciju VADĪBAS SISTĒMAS INTELEKTUALIZĀCIJU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Linkevics, O.; Varfolomejeva, R.; Umbrasko, I.

    2013-12-01

    The authors estimate the potential for power generation from water resources of small and medium-sized rivers, which are abundant in Latvia. They propose the algorithm for optimal operation of a small-scale hydropower plant (SHPP) at the chosen optimality criterion in view of the plant's participation in the market. The choice of SHPP optimization algorithm is made based on two mathematical programming methods - dynamic and generalized reduced gradient ones. Approbation of the algorithm is illustrated by an example of optimized SHPP operation. Darbā analizētas tradicionālo un pieejamo vietējo atjaunojamo energoresursu - mazo un vidējo upju hidroresursa izmantošanas iespējas Latvijas enerģētikā. Tiek sniegts faktiskais materiāls šajā jautājumā, kas iegūts, balstoties uz oficiālos avotos publicētiem citu autoru iepriekš veiktajiem pētījumiem. Tiek atzīmēts, ka teritoriju, kas atrodas mazo upju tuvumā un nav ietvertas centralizētās elektroapgādes sistēmā, saimnieciskā apgūšana rada apstākļus patērētāju stimulēšanai izmantot autonomus vietējos energoresursus, ieskaitot hidroenerģiju, izmantojošas mazas jaudas energoiekārtas. Atjaunojamās enerģijas tehnoloģiju un iekārtu pastāvīga attīstība un pilnveidošanās veicinās mazo upju plūsmas izmantošanas elektroenerģijas ražošanas efektivitātes paaugstināšanos. Mūsdienu enerģētikas attīstības koncepcija, kas balstīta uz viedo tīklu (smart grids) izveidi, ļauj paaugstināt mazās hidroenerģētikas darbības efektivitāti, integrējot to elektroenerģētiskajā sistēmā. Mazo hidroelektrostaciju (MHES) darbības vadības sistēmas intelektualizācijas pamatā jābūt kompleksam algoritmam un programmām, kas ļauj tiešsaistes (online) režīmā nodrošināt izdevīgu MHES darbības grafiku (režīmu) maksimālā ienākuma gūšanai, balstoties uz zināmu elektroenerģijas cenas prognozi attiecīgajam laika periodam (diennaktij). MHES darbības optimiz

  15. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sistēma izstrādāta Noto Radioastronomijas institūtā. Sistēmas galvenaisuzdevums - palielināt visa Eiropas VLBI tīkla jutību - realizēts, palielinotvisas novērojamās joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu signālu apstrādes metodes.Izejas datu plūsma palielināta no 1 līdz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoperācijas, kas saistītas ar signālu apstrādi (frekvences pārveidošana, pastiprinājums,iekšējie ģeneratori, utt.), realizētas digitālā formā, kas ļauj iegūt nozīmīgusuzlabojumus atkārtojamībā, precizitātē, vienkāršībā, nemaz neminot vispārzināmāspriekšrocības, ko nodrošina digitālo tehnoloģiju izmantošana. Maksimālā ieejassignāla frekvenču josla ir 3.5 GHz, un momentānais joslas platums ir līdz 1 GHz uzkatru no astoņiem iespējamajiem RF/IF kanāliem. Šī datu reģistrācijas sistēma irļoti veiktspējīga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet arī citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstrādāta vesela virkne programmatūras pakotņu, kasvēl vairāk paplašina sistēmas funkcionalitāti. Tas ietver PFB (Polifāzes FiltruBanka) uztvērējus "Spectra”, kas piemēroti augstas izšķirtspējas spektroskopijasvajadzībām. Papildus realizēts jaunas programmatūras risinājums, ar mērķiizmantot DBBC sistēmu kā daudzfunkcionālu datu ciparošanas iekārtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara novērojumiem, tai skaitā arī radara VLBInovērojumiem. Šāda veida novērojumos tiek pētīta kosmisko atlūzu populācija,nodrošinot iespēju detektēt pat centimetra

  16. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    šanu veicinošu serumu (FBS). Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukuma. Fibrīna matricas un ādas imitējošā maketa absorbcijas spējas ir mazas salīdzinājumā ar hromoforu absorbcijas spējām. Lai novērtētu maketu, kas paredzēti konkrētu hromoforu spektrālo īpašību imitēšanai, iespējams veikt eksperimentus ar fibrīna matricu, kuras izveidošanai ir nepieciešama viena diena. Sintezētā bilirubīna koncentrācijas tika mainītas robežās no 0,01-2,00 mg/ml, melanīna optisko īpašību simulējošās vielas nigrozīna koncentrācija tika mainīta no 1,5 - 312,8 μg/ml, eritrocītu masas koncentrācija mainījās no 0,2 - 42,4 mg/ml.Mērījumi tika veikti, izmantojot multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtu Cri Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., Amerikas Savienotās Valstis). Absorbcijas spektrs tika apstrādāts, izmantojot Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Iegūtajos rezultātos ir iespējams redzēt, ka piedāvātais ādas makets spēj simulēt ādas optiskās īpašības. Izmantotie absorbenti - sintezētais bilirubīns, nigrozīns un eritrocītu masa - spēj simulēt ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības. Palielinot absorbentu koncentrāciju paraugā, palielinās absorbcijas spektra maksimālā intensit