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Sample records for meel maksim saat

  1. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 62365- 62366, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing receipt of... beets (Petition 03-323-01). On October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR... public review. On March 17, 2005, we published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR...

  2. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1... Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2), advising the public of our... preparing an EIS, for which we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket...

  3. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... determination of nonregulated status of sugar beet event H7-1. On May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket No... published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing receipt of a..., we published another notice in the Federal Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket...

  4. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 67945- 67946, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing the availability of an... notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing that the Monsanto/ KWS... published a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2) advising the public...

  5. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  6. The Effect of Industrial Training on Ethical Awareness of Final Year Students in a Malaysian Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saat, Maisarah Mohamed; Yusoff, Rosman Md.; Panatik, Siti Aisyah

    2014-01-01

    Studies (for example, Dellaportas in Making a difference with a discrete course on accounting ethics. "J Bus Ethics" 65(4):391-404, 2006; Saat in "An investigation of the effects of a moral education program on the ethical development of Malaysian future accountants," 2010) on final year accounting students show that industrial…

  7. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  8. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H.

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  9. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Gaete-Eastman, Carlos; Herrera, Raúl; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2016-01-01

    Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) (EC 2.3.1.84) catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD) that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT) using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This mechanism is in

  10. The dynamics and pH-dependence of Ag43 adhesins' self-association probed by atomic force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquot, Adrien; Sakamoto, Chizuko; Razafitianamarahavo, Angelina; Caillet, Céline; Merlin, Jenny; Fahs, Ahmad; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Duval, Jérôme F. L.; Beloin, Christophe; Francius, Grégory

    2014-10-01

    Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed light on the possible mechanism governing the self-recognition of SAAT adhesins, in particular the importance of trans-interactions between the L shaped β-helical scaffold of two α-domains of neighboring adhesins. In this study, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) to unravel the dynamics of Ag43-self association under various pH and molecular elongation rate conditions that mimic the situations encountered by E. coli in its natural environment. Results evidenced an important stretchability of Ag43α with unfolding of sub-domains leading to molecular extension as long as 150 nm. Nanomechanical analysis of molecular stretching data suggested that self-association of Ag43 can lead to the formation of dimers and tetramers driven by rapid and weak cis- as well as slow but strong trans-interaction forces with a magnitude as large as 100-250 pN. The dynamics of cis- and trans-interactions were demonstrated to be strongly influenced by pH and applied shear force, thus suggesting that environmental conditions can modulate Ag43-mediated aggregation of bacteria at the molecular level.Self-associating auto-transporter (SAAT) adhesins are two-domain cell surface proteins involved in bacteria auto-aggregation and biofilm formation. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a SAAT adhesin commonly found in Escherichia coli whose variant Ag43a has been shown to promote persistence of uropathogenic E. coli within the bladder. The recent resolution of the tri-dimensional structure of the 499 amino-acids' β-domain in Ag43a has shed

  11. Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yr

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Darnell, Betty E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-yr change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 yr later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants’ reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ± 229.9 mg and 1623.1 ± 348.5 kcals, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT were +4.9 ± 4.4 kg, +5.3 ± 4.0 kg, +7.7 ± 19.5 cm2, and +49.3 ± 81.1 cm2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-yr change in IAAT (standardized β: −0.23, P<0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100 mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7 cm2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 yr in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. PMID:20203630

  12. Lifestyle and socioeconomic-status modify the effects of ADRB2 and NOS3 on adiposity in European-American and African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S; Gutin, Bernard; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of and interaction between lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity (PA)) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-candidate genes (ADRB2, APOB and NOS3) on general and central adiposity. Six-hundred-and-twenty-one European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) youths aged 13-19 years were classified by ethnicity (49% AA), gender (45% male), and socioeconomic status (SES). PA and dietary intake with up to seven 24-h recalls were reported for all subjects. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Reported energy intake (EI) and vigorous PA (VPA) were negative predictors of %BF and SAAT. Carriers of the NOS3 Asp298 allele had higher %BF only in the presence of an adverse environment (low SES). Compared to the most common NOS3 haplotype, homozygotes for haplotype A-non4r-Asp had 6.1% higher %BF. Significant interactions were revealed between the ADRB2 Arg16Gly SNP and VPA on VAT, SAAT and waist circumference (WC) such that Gly16 homozygotes may benefit less from increased VPA to reduce their weight. Genetic susceptibility to increased general and central adiposity is dependent on several factors, such as SES and vigorous exercise. Improved understanding of the joint effect of genes and lifestyle on adiposity will offer new insights into obesity and may provide new avenues for personalized prevention and treatment. PMID:20930716

  13. Adolescent obesity, bone mass and cardiometabolic risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Norman K; Bernard, Paul J; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare bone mass between overweight adolescents with and without cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR). Associations of bone mass with CMR and adiposity were also determined. Study design Overweight adolescents (aged 14–18 years) were classified in Healthy (n=55), 1CMR (n=46) or ≥2CMR (n=42). CMR were measured using standard methods and defined according to pediatric definitions of metabolic syndrome. Total body bone mass, fat mass and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) were measured by DXA. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) were assessed using MRI. Results After controlling for age, sex, race, height and FFST, Healthy group had 5.4% and 6.3% greater bone mass than the 1CMR and ≥2CMR groups, respectively (both P<0.04). Multiple linear regression, adjusting for same covariates, revealed that VAT (β=−0.22), waist circumference (β= −0.23), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (β= −0.23) and HDL-cholesterol (β=0.22) were associated with bone mass (all P<0.04). There was a trend towards a significant inverse association between bone mass and fasting glucose (P=0.056). No relations were found between bone mass and fat mass, SAAT, BP or triglycerides. Conclusion Being overweight with metabolic abnormalities, particularly insulin resistance, low HDL-cholesterol and visceral adiposity, may adversely influence adolescent bone mass. PMID:21232765

  14. Influence of Light Intensity and Temperature on Cultivation of Microalgae Desmodesmus Communis in Flasks and Laboratory-Scale Stirred Tank Photobioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanags, J.; Kunga, L.; Dubencovs, K.; Galvanauskas, V.; Grīgs, O.

    2015-04-01

    Optimization of the microalgae cultivation process and of the bioprocess in general traditionally starts with cultivation experiments in flasks. Then the scale-up follows, when the process from flasks is transferred into a laboratory-scale bioreactor, in which further experiments are performed before developing the process in a pilot-scale reactor. This research was done in order to scale-up the process from a 0.4 1 shake flask to a 4.0 1 laboratory-scale stirred-tank photobioreactor for the cultivation of Desmodesmus (D.) communis microalgae. First, the effect of variation in temperature (21-29 ºC) and in light intensity (200-600 μmol m-2s-1) was studied in the shake-flask experiments. It was shown that the best results (the maximum biomass concentration of 2.72 g 1-1 with a specific growth rate of 0.65 g g-1d-1) can be achieved at the cultivation temperature and light intensity being 25 °C and 300 μmol m2s-1, respectively. At the same time, D. communis cultivation under the same conditions in stirred-tank photobioreactor resulted in average volumetric productivities of biomass due to the light limitation even when the light intensity was increased during the experiment (the maximum biomass productivity 0.25 g 1-1d-1; the maximum biomass concentration 1.78 g 1-1). Mikroaļģu kultivēšanas procesa optimizēšana parasti sākas ar kultivēšanas eksperimentiem kolbās. Tālāk seko procesa pārnese uz laboratorijas mēroga fotobioreaktoru, kurā tiek veikti tālāki eksperimenti, pirms tiek izveidots pilota mēroga reaktors. Šis pētījums tika veikts ar mērķi, pārnest Desmodesmus communis kultivēšanas procesu no 0.4 1 kolbas uz 4.0 1 laboratorijas fotobioreaktoru. Vispirms tika pētīta dažādu temperatūru (21-29 ºC) un gaismas intensitātes (200-600 μmol m-2s-1) ietekme uz aļģu biomasu veicot eksperimentus kolbās. Labākie rezultāti (maksimālā biomasas koncentrācija 2.72 g 1-1; īpatnējais augšanas ātrums 0.65 g g-1d-1) sasniegti, kad

  15. Saturation of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and accumulation of ectopic fat associated with metabolic dysfunction during late and post-pubertal growth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Puberty is a period defined by large changes in adipose tissue accumulation and distribution, however longitudinal patterns of ectopic fat development have not been shown. We have previously shown significant declines in beta-cell function (BCF) across puberty and hypothesize that accumulation of ectopic fat deposition, particularly hepatic fat, will predict this fall. Subject/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study and examined 2-year change in abdominal fat distribution and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 76 Hispanic children and young adults (16.1 ±0.5 years, 66% obese, 52% male, 51% post-pubertal). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) were measured by 3-Tesla MRI, and markers of type 2 diabetes risk were collected at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results Baseline pubertal status significantly moderated 2-year change in ectopic fat deposition, such that VAT, HFF and PFF increased in individuals during late and post-pubertal growth whereas children earlier in their pubertal development decreased ectopic accumulation and had less VAT accumulation (VAT: pTanner*time =0.044, 0.31±0.08L vs. 0.03±0.10L; HFF: pTanner*time=0.007, 1.34±0.87% vs. −2.61±1.11%; PFF: pTanner*time<0.001, 1.61±0.39% vs. −0.96±0.50%). Independent of pubertal status, two-year increase in HFF and VAT significantly associated with a decline in BCF (β=−1.04, p=0.038; β=−1.81, p=0.020) and metabolic function, while accumulation of SAAT significantly associated with BCF (β=1.36, p=0.012) and metabolic improvement. HFF accumulation was the only depot to significantly predict clinical markers of type 2 diabetes risk, fasting glucose and HbA1c, and circulating free fatty acid levels (β=1.00, p=0.034; β=1.00, p=0.015; β=01.01, p=0.024). Conclusions The accumulation of SAAT defends against type 2 diabetes risk and potentially ectopic

  16. SDPSK-Specific Demodulation Method for the Nanortu Field-Programmable Gate Array / SDPSK-Specifiska Demodulācijas Metode Nanortutm Programmētajām Loģiskajām Integrācijas Shēmām

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorodumovs, A.

    2013-02-01

    The software-defined radio (SDR) solutions inpart flexibility to the satellite applications when the devices are physically inaccessible after the launch. The nanoRTU FPGA-based controller (AAC Microtec) may be programmed to serve as a software-defined differential phase shift keying (SDPSK) modem backend to be used in satellites for communication with the Earth. The modem consists of two units - a modulator and a demodulator. A fully functional symmetric SDPSK modulator for nanoRTU FPGA has already been implemented. The next step of the modem implementation is the development of demodulator. In order to implement such facilities, the existing demodulation techniques should be reviewed in order to propose the appropriate method in which the demodulator would be capable of demodulating a signal, and, at the same time, would be resource-efficient. The author describes a valid method of specific SDPSK signal demodulation for the nanoRTU FPGA. Rakstā piedāvāts SDPSK modulēta signāla apstrādes veids, kas ir optimizēts izmantošanai FPGA, kā arī demodulatora realizācija ÅAC nanoRTU radiācijas noturīgajai aparatūras platformai. Galvenais darba mērķis ir maksimāli efektīva aparatūras resursu izmantošana.

  17. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  18. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  19. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  20. Association of Breakfast Skipping With Visceral Fat and Insulin Indices in Overweight Latino Youth

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Katharine E.; Ventura, Emily E.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10–17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted. PMID:19424166

  1. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea via sonication and vacuum infiltration.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Souvika; Sadhukhan, Ayan; Mishra, Sagarika; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2011-12-01

    An improved method of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cowpea was developed employing both sonication and vacuum infiltration treatments. 4 day-old cotyledonary nodes were used as explants for co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harbouring the binary vector pSouv-cry1Ac. Among the different injury treatments, vacuum infiltration and their combination treatments tested, sonication for 20 s followed by vacuum infiltration for 5 min with A. tumefaciens resulted in highest transient GUS expression efficiency (93% explants expressing GUS at regenerating sites). After 3 days of co-cultivation, the explants were cultured in 150 mg/l kanamycin-containing selection medium and putative transformed plants were recovered. The presence, integration and expression of nptII and cry1Ac genes in T0 transgenic plants were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genomic Southern and qualitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. Western blot hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected and demonstrated the accumulation of Cry1Ac protein in transgenic plants. The cry1Ac gene transmitted in a Mendelian fashion. The stable transformation efficiency increased by 88.4% using both sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) and vacuum infiltration than simple Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in cowpea.

  2. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016.

  3. An Experimental Study of Radiation Effect on Normal Tissue: Analysis of HIF-1α, VEGF, eIF2, TIA-1, and TSP-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Caner; Kurtman, Cengiz; Ozbilgin, M Kemal; Tek, Ibrahim; Toprak, Selami Koçak

    2013-12-01

    Amaç: Çalışmada, radyasyonun normal vasküler endotelde oluşturduğu stres ve hipoksiye bağlı olarak HIF-1α, VEGF, eIF2, TIA-1 ve TSP-1 ekspresyonu ile bunların aralarında ilişki olup olmadığı ve bu ekspresyonlar neticesinde anjiojenezin uyarılabileceği hipotezi araştırılmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu amaç ile 24 adet erkek Swiss albino fare, kontrol grubu (1. Grup) ve sırasıyla 24 saat (2. Grup), 48 saat (3. Grup) ve 7. Günde (4. Grup) ötanazi uygulanmak üzere 4 gruba ayrıldı. Co-60 cihazı ile pelvis bölgesine tek fraksiyonda 10 Gy iyonize radyasyon uygulandı. İmmünhistokimyasal metod ve ışık mikroskobu yöntemi ile HIF-1α, VEGF, eIF2, TIA-1 ve TSP-1 antikorları kullanılarak mesane damar endotelinde anjiojenez yolunda yer alan faktörlerin ekspresyonları değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Çalışmamızda iyonize radyasyon ile mesane damar endotelinde HIF-1α antikoru ile 3. grupta kuvvetli boyanma izlenirken diğer grupların boyanma şiddeti daha az idi. VEGF incelendiğinde, 1. ve 4. grupta zayıf boyanma izlenirken, 2. grupta orta derecede, 3.grupta ise kuvvetli boyanma izlendi. eIF2, 1. ve 4. grupta kuvvetli boyanma göstermiş, 2. ve 3. grupta ise zayıf boyanmıştı. TIA-1 ile yapılan değerlendirmede ise 1. grupta zayıf boyanma özellikleri gözlenirken, 2. ve 4. grup orta derecede, 3. grupta ise oldukça kuvvetli boyanma izlendi. Çalışmamızda TSP-1 ile boyanma 1. grup örneklerde oldukça kuvvetli gözlenirken, diğer gruplarda boyanma özellikleri oldukça zayıf izlendi. Sonuç: Radyasyon uygulaması ile normal dokuda anjiojenez yolundaki pozitif etkili faktörlerin (HIF-1α, VEGF, eIF2, TIA-1) arttığı görülürken, negatif etkili faktörün (TSP-1) düştüğü belirlendi. Bu sonuç ile radyasyona yanıt olarak normal dokuda fizyolojik anjiojenezin başlatılarak doku iyileşmesinin hızlandırılmaya çalışıldığı düşünülmüştür.

  4. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries "Profumata di Tortona" (F. moschata) and "Regina delle Valli" (F. vesca).

    PubMed

    Negri, Alfredo S; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  5. Comparative analysis of fruit aroma patterns in the domesticated wild strawberries “Profumata di Tortona” (F. moschata) and “Regina delle Valli” (F. vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Allegra, Domenico; Simoni, Laura; Rusconi, Fabio; Tonelli, Chiara; Espen, Luca; Galbiati, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the most valued fruit worldwide. Modern cultivated varieties (Fragaria × ananassa) exhibit large fruits, with intense color and prolonged shell life. Yet, these valuable traits were attained at the cost of the intensity and the variety of the aroma of the berry, two characteristics highly appreciated by consumers. Wild species display smaller fruits and reduced yield compared with cultivated varieties but they accumulate broader and augmented blends of volatile compounds. Because of the large diversity and strength of aromas occurring in natural and domesticated populations, plant breeders regard wild strawberries as important donors of novel scented molecules. Here we report a comprehensive metabolic map of the aroma of the wild strawberry Profumata di Tortona (PdT), an ancient clone of F. moschata, considered as one of the most fragrant strawberry types of all. Comparison with the more renowned woodland strawberry Regina delle Valli (RdV), an aromatic cultivar of F. vesca, revealed a significant enrichment in the total level of esters, alcohols and furanones and a reduction in the content of ketones in in the aroma of PdT berries. Among esters, particularly relevant was the enhanced accumulation of methyl anthranilate, responsible for the intensive sweetish impression of wild strawberries. Interestingly, increased ester accumulation in PdT fruits correlated with enhanced expression of the Strawberry Alcohol Acyltransferase (SAAT) gene, a key regulator of flavor biogenesis in ripening berries. We also detected a remarkable 900-fold increase in the level of mesifurane, the furanone conferring the typical caramel notes to most wild species. PMID:25717332

  6. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    ), E Noruzifar (Mainz), M Oettel (Mainz), O Otto (Leipzig), S Overduin (Düsseldorf), E C Oğuz (Düsseldorf), T Palberg (Mainz), G Pauschenwein (Vienna), G Pellicane (Messina), F Pesth (Mainz), P Pfleiderer (Mainz), D J Pine (New York), D Pini (Milan), H Reiber (Mainz), V Reshetnyak (Kiev), M Rex (Düsseldorf), M Ripoll (Jülich), M Roth (Mainz), P Royall (Bristol), M Rubin-Zuzic (Garching), T Schilling (Mainz), A Schmidt (Düsseldorf), M Schmiedeberg (Berlin), H J Schöpe (Mainz), S Schreiber (Bayreuth), B Schumann (Düsseldorf), F Sciortino (Rome), L Shapran-Reiber (Mainz), M Siebenbürger (Bayreuth), S P Singh (New Delhi), R Siquieri (Aachen), F Smallenburg (Utrecht), I Snook (Melbourne), M Sperl (Cologne), J Stellbrink (Jülich), E Stiakakis (Jülich), T Szymborski (Warsaw), H Tanaka (Tokyo), P Tierno (Barcelona), U Tkalec (Ljubljana), A Tsigkri (Jülich), T Tückmantel (Düsseldorf), C Valeriani (Edinburgh), A van Blaaderen (Utrecht), E van den Pol (Utrecht), J van Meel (Amsterdam), P van Oostrum (Utrecht), R van Roij (Utrecht), S van Teeffelen (Düsseldorf), L Verhoeff (Utrecht), E Vermolen (Utrecht), R Vink (Göttingen), P Virnau (Mainz), T Voigtmann (Cologne), D Vollmer (Mainz), G J Vroege (Utrecht), H R Vutukuri (Utrecht), C Walz (Konstanz), M Walz (Erlangen), D A Weitz (Harvard), J Wenk (Düsseldorf), R Wensink (London), F Weyßer (Konstanz), L Willner (Jülich), R G Winkler (Jülich), A Wynveen (Düsseldorf), A Wysocki (Düsseldorf), J Zausch (Mainz), J Zhao (Mainz), M Zietara (Konstanz), U Zimmermann (Düsseldorf), J Zwanikken (Utrecht).

  7. Small Hydropower in Latvia and Intellectualization of its Operating Systems / Par Mazo HIDROENERĢĒTIKU LATVIJĀ un TĀS Staciju VADĪBAS SISTĒMAS INTELEKTUALIZĀCIJU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Linkevics, O.; Varfolomejeva, R.; Umbrasko, I.

    2013-12-01

    The authors estimate the potential for power generation from water resources of small and medium-sized rivers, which are abundant in Latvia. They propose the algorithm for optimal operation of a small-scale hydropower plant (SHPP) at the chosen optimality criterion in view of the plant's participation in the market. The choice of SHPP optimization algorithm is made based on two mathematical programming methods - dynamic and generalized reduced gradient ones. Approbation of the algorithm is illustrated by an example of optimized SHPP operation. Darbā analizētas tradicionālo un pieejamo vietējo atjaunojamo energoresursu - mazo un vidējo upju hidroresursa izmantošanas iespējas Latvijas enerģētikā. Tiek sniegts faktiskais materiāls šajā jautājumā, kas iegūts, balstoties uz oficiālos avotos publicētiem citu autoru iepriekš veiktajiem pētījumiem. Tiek atzīmēts, ka teritoriju, kas atrodas mazo upju tuvumā un nav ietvertas centralizētās elektroapgādes sistēmā, saimnieciskā apgūšana rada apstākļus patērētāju stimulēšanai izmantot autonomus vietējos energoresursus, ieskaitot hidroenerģiju, izmantojošas mazas jaudas energoiekārtas. Atjaunojamās enerģijas tehnoloģiju un iekārtu pastāvīga attīstība un pilnveidošanās veicinās mazo upju plūsmas izmantošanas elektroenerģijas ražošanas efektivitātes paaugstināšanos. Mūsdienu enerģētikas attīstības koncepcija, kas balstīta uz viedo tīklu (smart grids) izveidi, ļauj paaugstināt mazās hidroenerģētikas darbības efektivitāti, integrējot to elektroenerģētiskajā sistēmā. Mazo hidroelektrostaciju (MHES) darbības vadības sistēmas intelektualizācijas pamatā jābūt kompleksam algoritmam un programmām, kas ļauj tiešsaistes (online) režīmā nodrošināt izdevīgu MHES darbības grafiku (režīmu) maksimālā ienākuma gūšanai, balstoties uz zināmu elektroenerģijas cenas prognozi attiecīgajam laika periodam (diennaktij). MHES darbības optimiz

  8. Vertical Variations In Heat Flow Inferred From Experiments In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Y.; Romushkevich, R.; Gorobtsov, D.; Korobkov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Deep scientific and parametric continental boreholes allow to obtain representative experimental data on combination of the geothermal parameters of the crust - temperature, temperature gradient, rock thermal properties, and, as the result, heat flow density values - which are more reliable compared to the previous data from shallow boreholes. Special advantages of the scientific boreholes include also a possibility for many repeated temperature logging during long time intervals (several years often) after a finish of the drilling that allowed (1) to determine temperatures and temperature gradient values corresponding to thermal equilibrium of the formations studied, (2) to study temporal regularities in temperature and temperature gradient behaviour within different formation layers during the formation recovery process. Scientific boreholes are drilled with numerous coring (often - with continuous coring) that provides the possibility to obtain detailed information on a distribution of rock thermal conductivity along the borehole. As a result, the scientific deep and super-deep boreholes provided the unique possibility for the determination of vertical distributions of the heat flow density that can not be reached normally in other boreholes. Experimental geothermal and petrothermal investigations performed for the super-deep boreholes Kola, Ural, Vorotilovo, Tyumen, Yen-Yakha (all - Russia), Saatly (Azerbaidzhan), and deep scientific and parametric boreholes Kolva, Timano-Pechora, Tyrnyaus, (all - Russia), Krivoy Rog (Ukraine), Muruntau (Uzbekistan), Nordlingen-72 (Germany), Yaxcopoil-1 (Mexico) allowed us to establish the following important peculiarities in geothermal parameters of the crustal blocks studied with scientific deep drilling were established from the investigations: (1) temperature gradient recovery up to undisturbed values occurs essentially faster than it was assumed earlier; (2) a rate of temperature gradient recovery was found to be different

  9. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    can then allow exploring easily the desired range of search for unknown or not fully determined orbit objects. These features make Radar VLBI personality most useful in the space debris measurements. DBBC sistēma izstrādāta Noto Radioastronomijas institūtā. Sistēmas galvenaisuzdevums - palielināt visa Eiropas VLBI tīkla jutību - realizēts, palielinotvisas novērojamās joslas platumu un pielietojot ciparu signālu apstrādes metodes.Izejas datu plūsma palielināta no 1 līdz 4 Gbps katram radioteleskopam un visasoperācijas, kas saistītas ar signālu apstrādi (frekvences pārveidošana, pastiprinājums,iekšējie ģeneratori, utt.), realizētas digitālā formā, kas ļauj iegūt nozīmīgusuzlabojumus atkārtojamībā, precizitātē, vienkāršībā, nemaz neminot vispārzināmāspriekšrocības, ko nodrošina digitālo tehnoloģiju izmantošana. Maksimālā ieejassignāla frekvenču josla ir 3.5 GHz, un momentānais joslas platums ir līdz 1 GHz uzkatru no astoņiem iespējamajiem RF/IF kanāliem. Šī datu reģistrācijas sistēma irļoti veiktspējīga platforma ne tikai EVN, bet arī citiem radioastronomijas pielietojumiem,un papildus tiek izstrādāta vesela virkne programmatūras pakotņu, kasvēl vairāk paplašina sistēmas funkcionalitāti. Tas ietver PFB (Polifāzes FiltruBanka) uztvērējus "Spectra”, kas piemēroti augstas izšķirtspējas spektroskopijasvajadzībām. Papildus realizēts jaunas programmatūras risinājums, ar mērķiizmantot DBBC sistēmu kā daudzfunkcionālu datu ciparošanas iekārtu, kasizmantojama bistatiskiem radara novērojumiem, tai skaitā arī radara VLBInovērojumiem. Šāda veida novērojumos tiek pētīta kosmisko atlūzu populācija,nodrošinot iespēju detektēt pat centimetra

  10. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    šanu veicinošu serumu (FBS). Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukuma. Fibrīna matricas un ādas imitējošā maketa absorbcijas spējas ir mazas salīdzinājumā ar hromoforu absorbcijas spējām. Lai novērtētu maketu, kas paredzēti konkrētu hromoforu spektrālo īpašību imitēšanai, iespējams veikt eksperimentus ar fibrīna matricu, kuras izveidošanai ir nepieciešama viena diena. Sintezētā bilirubīna koncentrācijas tika mainītas robežās no 0,01-2,00 mg/ml, melanīna optisko īpašību simulējošās vielas nigrozīna koncentrācija tika mainīta no 1,5 - 312,8 μg/ml, eritrocītu masas koncentrācija mainījās no 0,2 - 42,4 mg/ml.Mērījumi tika veikti, izmantojot multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtu Cri Nuance 2.4. (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., Amerikas Savienotās Valstis). Absorbcijas spektrs tika apstrādāts, izmantojot Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Iegūtajos rezultātos ir iespējams redzēt, ka piedāvātais ādas makets spēj simulēt ādas optiskās īpašības. Izmantotie absorbenti - sintezētais bilirubīns, nigrozīns un eritrocītu masa - spēj simulēt ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības. Palielinot absorbentu koncentrāciju paraugā, palielinās absorbcijas spektra maksimālā intensit