Science.gov

Sample records for meeting aquatic species

  1. 78 FR 60306 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... meeting of the Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) Task Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and... Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. on Wednesday, November 6, through Thursday, November...

  2. 75 FR 61175 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species (ANS) Task Force. The meeting is open to the public. The meeting topics are identified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on...

  3. 76 FR 15334 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species (ANS) Task Force. The meeting is open to the public. The meeting topics are identified in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, May...

  4. 77 FR 16256 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service.... ADDRESSES: The ANS Task Force meeting will take place at the O'Callaghan Annapolis Hotel, 174 West Street..., Division of Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Conservation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North...

  5. 77 FR 61019 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...: 134] Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Force. The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and implement a program for U.S. waters to prevent... disseminate related information. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from...

  6. 76 FR 60863 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Species Task Force (ANS Task Force). The ANS Task Force's purpose is to develop and implement a program.... DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, November 2, and from 8...

  7. 75 FR 15457 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. DATES: The ANS Task Force will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Wednesday, May 5... place at the Holiday Inn Hotel & Convention Center by the Bay, 88 Spring Street, Portland, ME...

  8. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  9. Aquatic Species Program review: proceedings of principal investigators meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species Program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant culture technologies. The emphasis of the program is on developing a mass culture technology for cultivating oil-yielding microalgae in the American southwest. A technical and economic analysis indicated that such a concept would be feasible if (1) lipid yields from microalgae are improved, (2) there is sufficient saline water for large-scale development, and (3) microalgal lipids can be economically converted to conventional fuels. It was determined that fuels from microalgal lipids presented better options than converting the microalgal biomass to either alcohols or methane. All lipids can potentially be catalytically converted to gasoline, or the fatty acids can be converted to substitute diesel fuels. The Southwest has the necessary low, flat, underutilized lands, and carbon dioxide is available from either natural deposits or flue gas from industrial plants. The amount of saline water available will probably determine how much fuel can be produced from aquatic species, and this question should be answered during 1985. The largest constraint of this technology is the economical production of an oil-rich microalgal feedstock. The agenda for the review was divided into four sections: species selection and characterization, applied physiological studies, outdoor mass cultivation, and systems design and analysis. Papers from these presentations are included in these proceedings. Program advances were reported in the areas of species collection and selection, modulated light physiology, mass culture yields, harvesting of microalgae, mass culture facility design and analysis, and assessments on fuel options from microalgae. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Aquatic species program review. Proceedings of the April 1984 principal investigators meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant species for energy. The emphasis of the program is on developing oil-yielding microalgae which will grow in the saline waters of the desert in the American Southwest. To meet this objective, research is carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. The principal objectives of the biological task are (1) to conduct a comprehensive and complete screening activity that will result in the selection of the best microalgae strains for production of fuels; (2) to establish a gene pool so that species can be improved through agronomic means; and (3) to develop techniques that will result in enhancing the yields of the desired fuel product. Engineering research is concerned with integrating biological concepts with engineering principals to develop the most cost-effective microalgal culture technology. Work is concentrated on developing culture management strategies and required subsystems such as harvesting technologies. Analysis supports the technology development through cost goal determination, resource assessment, and technology evaluation. The program also supports the development of macroalgae culture for methane gas or alcohols. This volume contains progress reports presented by the Aquatic Species Program subcontractors and SERI researchers at the SERI Biomass Program Review held in Boulder, Colorado, April 4, 1984. These reports present and discuss research advances achieved by the program participants during the preceding year. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. Aquatic Species Program Review: Proceedings of the March 1983 Principal Investigators Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  12. Abstracts of Presentation: Aquatic Species Program Annual Review Meeting, Golden, Colorado, 24-25 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The goal of the aquatic species program is to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert southwest. Microalgae are known to accumulate lipids in large quantities and can thrive in high salinity water which currently has no other use.

  13. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  14. Aquatic species program

    SciTech Connect

    Bollmeier, W.S.; Sprague, S.

    1989-09-01

    Researchers have learned that many species of aquatic microalgae produce lipids, or oils, when stimulated by environmental stress. These oils can then be processed into diesel fuel or gasoline. Scientists in the Department of Energy (DOE)/Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Aquatics Species Program have collected and screened more than 3,000 strains of microalgae from desert and saline environments. The most promising of these strains are maintained in a culture collection at SERI, and research is now focusing on applying genetic techniques to enhance lipid production of microalgae. Researchers are also studying ways to optimize microalgae lipid production by growing the microalgae in intensive cultures of large outdoor ponds. Because microalgae require large amounts of carbon dioxide as a nutrient, these microalgae facilities could be coupled with a power plant or other source of carbon dioxide. Thus, this technology offers not only the potential of producing renewable liquid fuels, but a possible way to improve the environment at the same time. 135 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the SERI Biomass Program Principal Investigators' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program Reports; 23-25 June 1982, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) is concerned with how plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas is utilized. Processes are being developed in this program to make use of those aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as on their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  16. The National Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlitz, Rachel J.; David, Kayla D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program monitors, analyzes, and records sightings of non-native (introduced) aquatic species throughout the United States. The program is based at the USGS Southeast Ecological Science Center in Gainesville, Florida. The initiative to maintain scientific information on nationwide occurrences of non-native aquatic species began with the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, a group created by Congress in 1990 to address the need for this type of information by natural resource managers. Since then, the NAS program has maintained the database as a clearinghouse of information for confirmed sightings of non-native aquatic species throughout the Nation. The program also produces email alerts, maps, summary graphs, publications, and other information products to support natural resource managers.

  17. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  18. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  19. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M. ); Sprague, S. )

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse'' gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  20. Aquatic species project report: FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project, which is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The project is focused on applying genetic engineering techniques to enhance the lipid, or oil, production of microalgae. Those lipids can be extracted and processed into high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. Because microalgae require carbon dioxide, a major ``greenhouse`` gas, as a nutrient, project researchers also study the role that microalgae could play in a possible global climate change mitigation strategy.

  1. SERI Aquatic Species Program 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant species cultivated for energy. The emphasis of the program is on developing oil-yielding microalgae that will grow in the saline waters of the desert in the American Southwest. During 1984 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at improving photosynthetic efficiencies and lipid yield of species that can be cultivated using mass culture technologies operated in the American Southwest. Emphasis has been placed on screening for productive species, developing culture and management techniques for growing desirable species, and understanding photosynthetic and lipid physiology as it applies to increasing yields. Engineering research focused on the development and analysis of harvesting schemes applicable to species of microalgae that grow in saline waters. Three system designs and analyses were initiated in 1984, and these designs will be completed in 1985. The analysis task is designed to support technology development through the determination of cost goals, assessment of resources, and evaluation of emerging technologies. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation was completed during 1984. This analysis and assessment provided insights into where program emphasis should be placed for the next ten years. 6 refs., 36 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. FY 1987 Aquatic Species Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-11-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy/Solar Energy Research Institute (DOE/SERI) Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalgae at prices competitive with conventional alternatives. Microalgae are unusual plants that can accumulate large quantities of oil and can thrive in high-salinity water, which currently has no competing uses. The algal oils, in turn, are readily converted into gasoline and diesel fuels. The best site for successful microalgae production was determined to be the US desert Southwest, with potential applications to other warm areas. A technical and economic analysis, Fuels from Microalgae, demonstrated that liquid fuels can be produced from mass-cultured microalgae at prices that will be competitive with those of conventional fuels by 2010. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements required are attainable.

  3. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management ...

  4. ESTIMATION OF AQUATIC SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND POPULATION-LEVEL RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining species sensitivity and population-level responses of aquatic organisms to contaminants are critical components of criteria development and ecological risk assessment. To address data gaps in species sensitivity, the U.S. EPA developed the Interspecies Correlation Est...

  5. FY 1986 aquatic species program: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of the Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert Southwest. Three major task areas are important to the economical development of this technology: biology, engineering, and analysis. Biological activities include screening, characterizing, and improving microalgae species. More than 3000 microalgae strains have been collected to date. With the intensive collection efforts, the program now has strains that can tolerate wide environmental fluctuations, from 10/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/C and 10 to 70 mmho cm/sup -1/. Rates of productivity increased from 10 to 20 g dry wt m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/ in 1982 to greater than 50 g dry wt m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/ under laboratory conditions and more than 35 g dry wt m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/ in outdoor systems in 1986. Lipid content of the algal cells also increased significantly. A current problem is that salinity- and temperature-tolerant species do not have high productivity and produce large amounts of lipid. Therefore, basic research is under way in genetic engineering to put all three characteristics into one or two strains. Engineering research focused on polymer harvesting of microalgae. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements defined are within the bounds of attainability. A major concern has been the availability of saline water resources in the desert Southwest. It has been recently demonstrated, however, that there is sufficient saline water in Arizona and New Mexico to produce at least one quad of energy from microalgae.

  6. FY 1987 Aquatic Species Program: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.; Sprague, S.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy/Solar Energy Research Institute Aquatic Species Program is to develop the technology base to produce liquid fuels from microalagae at prices competitive with conventional alternatives. Microalgae are unusual plants that can accumulate large quantities of oil and can thrive in high-salinity water, which currently has no competing uses. The algal oils, in turn, are readily converted into gasoline and diesel fuels. The best site for successful microalgae production was determined to be the US desert Southwest, with potential applications to other warm areas. Aggressive research is needed, but the improvements required are attainable. The four prime research areas in the development of this technology are growth and production, engineering design, harvesting, and conversion. Algae are selected for three criteria: tolerance to environmental fluctuations, high growth rates, and high lipid production. From 1982 to 1986, the program collected more than 3000 strains of microalgae that are more than twice as tolerant to temperature and salinity fluctuation than the initial strains. Productivity has been increased by a factor of two in outdoor culture systems since 1982, and lipid content has also been increased from 20% of body weight in 1982 to greater than 66% of body weight in 1987. Research programs are ongoing in lipid biochemistry and genetic engineering so that ultimately strains can be modified and improved to combine their best characteristics. An outdoor test facility is being built in Roswell, New Mexico.

  7. 75 FR 54648 - Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting... the distribution of nonindigenous aquatic species, primarily fish, in open waters of the United States... control number. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-NEW. Title: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species...

  8. Mapping, Monitoring and Modeling Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Species and Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartis, Brett Michael

    Aquatic macrophyte communities are critically important habitat species in aquatic systems worldwide. None are more important than those found beneath the water's surface, commonly referred to as submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although vital to such systems, many native submersed plants have shown near irreversible declines in recent decades as water quality impairment, habitat destruction, and encroachment by invasive species have increased. In the past, aquatic plant science has emphasized the restoration and protection of native species and the management of invasive species. Comparatively little emphasis has been directed toward adequately mapping and monitoring these resources to track their viability over time. Modeling the potential intrusion of certain invasive plant species has also been given little attention, likely because aquatic systems in general can be difficult to assess. In recent years, scientists and resource managers alike have begun paying more attention to mapping SAV communities and to address the spread of invasive species across various regions. This research attempts to provide new, cutting-edge techniques to improve SAV mapping and monitoring efforts in coastal regions, at both community and individual species levels, while also providing insights about the establishment potential of Hydrilla verticillata, a noxious, highly invasive submersed plant. Technological advances in satellite remote sensing, interpolation and spatial analysis in geographic information systems, and state-of-the-art climate envelope modeling techniques were used to further assess the dynamic nature of SAV on various scales. This work contributes to the growing science of mapping, monitoring, and modeling of SAV

  9. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  10. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; Petit, Elsa; Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding") and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  11. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology and aquatic animal species.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Alexis M; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-06-01

    Aquatic animal species are the overall leaders in the scientific investigation of tough but important global health issues, including environmental toxicants and climate change. Historically, aquatic animal species also stand at the forefront of experimental biology, embryology and stem cell research. Over the past decade, intensive and high-powered investigations principally involving mouse and human cells have brought the generation and study of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a level that facilitates widespread use in a spectrum of species. A review of key features of these investigations is presented here as a primer for the use of iPSC technology to enhance ongoing aquatic animal species studies. iPSC and other cutting edge technologies create the potential to study individuals from "the wild" closer to the level of investigation applied to sophisticated inbred mouse models. A wide variety of surveys and hypothesis-driven investigations can be envisioned using this new capability, including comparisons of organism-specific development and exposure response and the testing of fundamental dogmas established using inbred mice. However, with these new capabilities, also come new criteria for rigorous baseline assessments and testing. Both the methods for inducing pluripotency and the source material can negatively impact iPSC quality and bourgeoning applications. Therefore, more rigorous strategies not required for inbred mouse models will have to be implemented to approach global health issues using individuals from "the wild" for aquatic animal species.

  13. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management activities came from publicly available information, was analyzed with respect to climate-change effects, a...

  14. Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the Aquatic Species Project. The four articles included are summaries of individual research projects and are entered into the EDB as such. The goal of the Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology base for large-scale production of oil-rich microalgae. The project is also developing methods to convert the microalgal lipids into liquid fuels needed for industry and transportation. Researchers in the Aquatics Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels such as diesel. It is important for the United States to develop alternative renewable oil sources because 42% of the current energy market in the United States is for liquid fuels, and 38% of these fuels are imported. In 1979, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated the Aquatic Species Project as part of the overall effort in biofuels. The project began to focus exclusively on fuels from microalgae in 1982. Estimates show that the technology being developed by the project can provide as much as 7% of the total current energy demand. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft report reviews available literature on climate change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state level AIS management activities. This draft report assesses the state of the science of climate change effects on AIS and examines state level AIS management activities.

  16. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Belinda; Clavero, Miguel; Sánchez, Marta I; Vilà, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of invasive species, which often differ functionally from the components of the recipient community, generates ecological impacts that propagate along the food web. This review aims to determine how consistent the impacts of aquatic invasions are across taxa and habitats. To that end, we present a global meta-analysis from 151 publications (733 cases), covering a wide range of invaders (primary producers, filter collectors, omnivores and predators), resident aquatic community components (macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish) and habitats (rivers, lakes and estuaries). Our synthesis suggests a strong negative influence of invasive species on the abundance of aquatic communities, particularly macrophytes, zooplankton and fish. In contrast, there was no general evidence for a decrease in species diversity in invaded habitats, suggesting a time lag between rapid abundance changes and local extinctions. Invaded habitats showed increased water turbidity, nitrogen and organic matter concentration, which are related to the capacity of invaders to transform habitats and increase eutrophication. The expansion of invasive macrophytes caused the largest decrease in fish abundance, the filtering activity of filter collectors depleted planktonic communities, omnivores (including both facultative and obligate herbivores) were responsible for the greatest decline in macrophyte abundance, and benthic invertebrates were most negatively affected by the introduction of new predators. These impacts were relatively consistent across habitats and experimental approaches. Based on our results, we propose a framework of positive and negative links between invasive species at four trophic positions and the five different components of recipient communities. This framework incorporates both direct biotic interactions (predation, competition, grazing) and indirect changes to the water physicochemical conditions mediated by invaders (habitat

  17. 75 FR 53273 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY53 Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce ACTION: Notice of availability of draft revised research protocol... availability of the draft revised Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol...

  18. Arsenic and mercury in native aquatic bryophytes: differences among species.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Santiago; Villares, Rubén; López, Jesús; Carballeira, Alejo

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the capacities of five species of aquatic bryophytes to accumulate As and Hg from their natural habitats in rivers in Galicia (NW Spain). The distributions of the concentrations of both elements in all species were skewed to the right, with a higher incidence of extreme values in the As data, which may indicate a greater degree of contamination by this metalloid. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of either of the elements between the different species studied, which justifies their combined use as biomonitors of As and Hg, at least in the study area.

  19. Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species (Final Report) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Climate Change and Aquatic Invasive Species. This report reviews available literature on climate-change effects on aquatic invasive species (AIS) and examines state-level AIS management activities. Data on management activities came from publicly available information, was analyzed with respect to climate-change effects, and was reviewed by managers. This report also analyzes state and regional AIS management plans to determine their capacity to incorporate information on changing conditions generally, and climate change specifically. The report is intended for managers and scientists working with AIS to provide them with information on the potential effects of climate change on AIS, strategies for adapting their management to accomodate these environmental changes, and highlight further research needs and gaps.

  20. 75 FR 7622 - Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ....S. Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting... from the public regarding the distribution of nonindigenous aquatic species, primarily fish, in open... nonindigenous aquatic species. The USGS does not actively solicit this information; a form is posted on our...

  1. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the SALCC - an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Our project represents the first attempt to utilize the NAS Database within the context of a Landscape Conservation Cooperative conservation blueprint. A significant amount of effort during the past year was dedicated to determining the most appropriate use of these data for the purposes of identifying the mechanisms and patterns of aquatic species invasions. Descriptive analyses were first undertaken to characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of the SALCC subset of NAS data.

  2. Historical aspects of international movement of living aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Bartley, D M; Subasinghe, R P

    1996-06-01

    The use of exotic aquatic species to increase both the level of food production and the income generated by this production has been an established practice since the mid 19th century. At present, advances in husbandry have enabled large-scale movements of many different species over great distances. Despite a gradual fall in the volume of such movements since the 1960s, the practice still persists and continues to generate controversy in regard to the protection of native biological diversity, the spread of pests and disease, and socio-economic factors. The author presents the results of a recent international questionnaire on species introductions, distributed in an attempt to gain further insight into the uses and effects of introduced species. Information was received on 654 introductions of aquatic organisms, mostly fish. Aquaculture was the main reason for most introductions, followed by the creation of fisheries, the ornamental fish trade, research, biological control, accident, natural diffusion, and the provision of bait and forage. National governments were responsible for 40% of the introductions, with the private sector accounting for 18%, individuals another 15% and international organisations 7%, with the remaining 20% being of unknown source. The impact and benefits of many of the introductions reported were unclear. Most introductions (62%) probably did not result in the establishment of the exotic species in natural waters. Respondents reported that 63% of the introductions probably had no effect on th ecosystem: 25% of the impacts were judged positive, while for 58% the nature of the impact (positive or negative) was undetermined. Furthermore, 62% of the introductions probably had no effect on the socio-economic system: 40% of the impacts were beneficial, while in 55% of cases the respondents were undecided whether or not the impact was beneficial. The authors recommend that planning, regulation and monitoring of introductions of aquatic species

  3. Attached bacterial populations shared by four species of aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Crump, Byron C; Koch, Evamaria W

    2008-10-01

    Symbiotic relationships between microbes and plants are common and well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about such relationships in aquatic environments. We compared the phylogenetic diversities of leaf- and root-attached bacteria from four species of aquatic angiosperms using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Plants were collected from three beds in Chesapeake Bay at sites characterized as freshwater (Vallisneria americana), brackish (Potomogeton perfoliatus and Stuckenia pectinata), and marine (Zostera marina). DGGE analyses showed that bacterial communities were very similar for replicate samples of leaves from canopy-forming plants S. pectinata and P. perfoliatus and less similar for replicate samples of leaves from meadow-forming plants Z. marina and V. americana and of roots of all species. In contrast, bacterial communities differed greatly among plant species and between leaves and roots. DNA sequencing identified 154 bacterial phylotypes, most of which were restricted to single plant species. However, 12 phylotypes were found on more than one plant species, and several of these phylotypes were abundant in clone libraries and represented the darkest bands in DGGE banding patterns. Root-attached phylotypes included relatives of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. Leaf-attached phylotypes included relatives of polymer-degrading Bacteroidetes and phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Also, leaves and roots of three plant species hosted relatives of methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to the family Methylophilaceae. These results suggest that aquatic angiosperms host specialized communities of bacteria on their surfaces, including several broadly distributed and potentially mutualistic bacterial populations.

  4. Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Olden, Julian D

    2008-06-01

    Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions.

  5. Life support for aquatic species--past; present; future.

    PubMed

    Slenzka, K

    2002-01-01

    Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc. together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.

  6. Effective control of aquatic invasive species in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Sydes, Damon

    2011-09-01

    Often ecologists and natural resource managers can easily access data on invasive species occurrence across a region. Yet, collecting species abundance data over a large area is arguably more important for decision making, but inherently costly, so methods which can provide robust information at low-cost are particularly valuable. Studies of species distribution often use occurrence data to build models of the environmental niche. Environmental suitability derived from such models may be used to predict the potential distributions of species. The ability of such models to predict spatial patterns in abundance have recently been demonstrated. Here we tested the relationship of environmental suitability with local abundance of an aquatic invasive species, olive hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis) in the Wet Tropics of Australia. Ordinary least squares and quantile regressions revealed a positive relationship between environmental suitability and local abundance of olive hymenachne. We expand on this and use the relationship between environmental suitability and local abundance to quantify the effectiveness of management (reduction in local abundance) under four different management investments. We show that the upper limit of abundance can be used to evaluate management effectiveness based on varying investments, and that ongoing management is the most effective at reducing local abundance. We discuss implications of this in addressing important problems in invasive species management.

  7. Positional strategy of trunk muscles among aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species in Urodela

    PubMed Central

    OMURA, Ayano; ANZAI, Wataru; KOYABU, Daisuke; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Clarification of the trunk structure in Urodela is important in understanding the locomotive evolution of basal tetrapods. The components of the muscular trunk wall among Urodela using different modes of locomotion were compared. Since the whole trunk may be used for swimming and the effect of limbs may be small in the more aquatic species, they showed smaller differences in the trunk muscles among anterior, middle and posterior sections of the trunk. By contrast, in the more terrestrial species, the dorsal and abdominal muscles are larger in the middle section than those in the anterior and posterior sections. High compressive stresses occur in the supporting limbs and their insertion at the trunk on the ventral side, and spread from the forelimbs along the back to the supporting hindlimbs on the dorsal side. Tensile stresses occur in the middle ventral part. The components of the trunk muscles among the three sections may reflect differences in stresses occurring in the trunk of the more terrestrial species. The findings also suggest that in the middle section, larger dorsal muscles for stiffening the back to maintain posture and larger abdominal muscles are responsible for balancing the body weight while it is supported by the limbs in the more terrestrial species. PMID:25843153

  8. Positional strategy of trunk muscles among aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species in Urodela.

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Koyabu, Daisuke; Endo, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Clarification of the trunk structure in Urodela is important in understanding the locomotive evolution of basal tetrapods. The components of the muscular trunk wall among Urodela using different modes of locomotion were compared. Since the whole trunk may be used for swimming and the effect of limbs may be small in the more aquatic species, they showed smaller differences in the trunk muscles among anterior, middle and posterior sections of the trunk. By contrast, in the more terrestrial species, the dorsal and abdominal muscles are larger in the middle section than those in the anterior and posterior sections. High compressive stresses occur in the supporting limbs and their insertion at the trunk on the ventral side, and spread from the forelimbs along the back to the supporting hindlimbs on the dorsal side. Tensile stresses occur in the middle ventral part. The components of the trunk muscles among the three sections may reflect differences in stresses occurring in the trunk of the more terrestrial species. The findings also suggest that in the middle section, larger dorsal muscles for stiffening the back to maintain posture and larger abdominal muscles are responsible for balancing the body weight while it is supported by the limbs in the more terrestrial species.

  9. 75 FR 74007 - Federal Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Risk Analysis Protocol

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., and implementing the Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. The National Oceanic... ANSTF developed a research protocol as is required by the Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and...-indigenous'' and/or ``nuisance'' are used when referring to aquatic species that are the target of this...

  10. Incorporating climate science in applications of the US endangered species act for aquatic species.

    PubMed

    McClure, Michelle M; Alexander, Michael; Borggaard, Diane; Boughton, David; Crozier, Lisa; Griffis, Roger; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Lindley, Steven T; Nye, Janet; Rowland, Melanie J; Seney, Erin E; Snover, Amy; Toole, Christopher; VAN Houtan, Kyle

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic species are threatened by climate change but have received comparatively less attention than terrestrial species. We gleaned key strategies for scientists and managers seeking to address climate change in aquatic conservation planning from the literature and existing knowledge. We address 3 categories of conservation effort that rely on scientific analysis and have particular application under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA): assessment of overall risk to a species; long-term recovery planning; and evaluation of effects of specific actions or perturbations. Fewer data are available for aquatic species to support these analyses, and climate effects on aquatic systems are poorly characterized. Thus, we recommend scientists conducting analyses supporting ESA decisions develop a conceptual model that links climate, habitat, ecosystem, and species response to changing conditions and use this model to organize analyses and future research. We recommend that current climate conditions are not appropriate for projections used in ESA analyses and that long-term projections of climate-change effects provide temporal context as a species-wide assessment provides spatial context. In these projections, climate change should not be discounted solely because the magnitude of projected change at a particular time is uncertain when directionality of climate change is clear. Identifying likely future habitat at the species scale will indicate key refuges and potential range shifts. However, the risks and benefits associated with errors in modeling future habitat are not equivalent. The ESA offers mechanisms for increasing the overall resilience and resistance of species to climate changes, including establishing recovery goals requiring increased genetic and phenotypic diversity, specifying critical habitat in areas not currently occupied but likely to become important, and using adaptive management. Incorporación de las Ciencias Climáticas en las Aplicaciones del

  11. 78 FR 29378 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force; Public Teleconference/Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Guidelines, National Invasive Species Awareness Week, Michigan and Mississippi ANS Management Plans, and... Fish and Wildlife Service Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force; Public Teleconference/ Webinar AGENCY..., announce a public teleconference/webinar of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANS Task Force)....

  12. 78 FR 39310 - Voluntary Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Species; Recreational Activities and Water Gardening AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Guidelines to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species: Water Gardening These... guidelines that would prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species by water gardening. The goal of the...

  13. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  14. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of introduced aquatic species. The NAS website provides scientific reports, online/real-time queries, spatial data sets, distribution maps, fact sheets, and general information.

  15. Capabilities of Seven Species of Aquatic Macrophytes for Phytoremediation of Pentachlorophenol Contaminated Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liangyuan; Guo, Weijie; Li, Qingyun; Li, Huan; Zhao, Weihua; Cao, Xiaohuan

    2017-01-01

    Sediments are regarded as the ultimate sink of pentachlorophenol(PCP) in aquatic environment, and capabilities of seven species of aquatic macrophytes for remediating PCP contaminated sediment were investigated. Seven species of aquatic macrophytes could significantly accelerate the degradation of PCP in sediments. Among all, canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim. can be used as efficient alternative plants for remediation of PCP contaminated sediment, which attained 98%, 92% and 88% of PCP removal in sediments, respectively. PCP was detected only in root tissues and the uptake was closely related to the root lipid contents of seven plants. The presence of seven aquatic macrophytes significantly increased microbial populations and the activities of dehydrogenase compared with control sediments, indicating that rhizosphere microorganism played important role in the remediation process. In conclusion, seven species of aquatic macrophytes may act as promising tools for the PCP phytoremediation in aquatic environment, especially Canna indica L., Acorus calamus L. and Iris tectorum Maxim.

  16. Species diversity and environmental determinants of aquatic and terrestrial communities invaded by Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-03-01

    The impact of invasive species on native biodiversity varies across environments, with invasion effects of amphibious plant species across terrestrial and aquatic systems especially poorly understood. In this study, we established 29 terrestrial plots and 23 aquatic plots which were invaded by the alien plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides in Southern China. We measured α-species diversity (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson index), species richness and evenness, species cover and the importance value (a comprehensive index of cover, height and abundance) of A. philoxeroides in invaded communities in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. We recorded seven environmental factors (longitude, latitude, elevation above sea level, temperature, precipitation, ammonia and nitrate) across habitats. We then used Redundancy Analysis (RDA) to determine which factors best explain A. philoxeroides invasion in either environment type. We found that terrestrial habitats had greater species diversity (Shannon index) than aquatic habitats, and the biotic resistance of aquatic plant communities to the A. philoxeroides invasion was weaker than terrestrial plant communities. Accumulated ammonia improved some indices of species diversity (Shannon-Weiner, Simpson) and evenness, but decreased species cover of A. philoxeroides in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Precipitation increased species richness in terrestrial habitats but decreased richness in aquatic habitats. Precipitation increased A. philoxeroides cover in both environment types, while elevated nitrate increased A. philoxeroides cover in terrestrial habitats only. In aquatic habitats, species richness increased but A. philoxeroides cover decreased with increasing longitude. Our study indicates that increased precipitation may accelerate A. philoxeroides spread across aquatic and terrestrial habitats, while reducing nitrate inputs could inhibit terrestrial A. philoxeroides invasion. Aquatic communities appear to

  17. Development and Practical Application of Petroleum and Dispersant Interspecies Correlation Models for Aquatic Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the acute toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed oil following an oil spill has generally relied on existing toxicological data for a relatively limited number of aquatic species. Recognition of differences in species sensitivities to contaminants has facilitat...

  18. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  19. Can ozone be used to control the spread of freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buley, Riley P.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Tix, John A.; Suski, Cory D.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of aquatic invasive species to non-native habitats can cause negative ecological effects and also billions of dollars in economic damage to governments and private industries. Once aquatic invasive species are introduced, eradication may be difficult without adversely affecting native species and habitats, urging resource managers to find preventative methods to protect non-invaded areas. The use of ozone (O3) as a non-physical barrier has shown promise as it is lethal to a wide range of aquatic taxa, requires a short contact time, and is relatively environmentally safe in aquatic systems when compared to other chemicals. However, before O3 can be considered as an approach to prevent the spread of aquatic invasive species, its effects on non-target organisms and already established aquatic invasive species must be fully evaluated. A review of the current literature was conducted to summarize data regarding the effects of O3 on aquatic taxa including fish, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton, microbes, and pathogens. In addition, we assessed the practicality of ozone applications to control the movement of aquatic invasive species, and identified data gaps concerning the use of O3 as a non-physical barrier in field applications.

  20. Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.; Jarvis, E.; Dunahay, T.; Roessler, P.; Zeiler, K. ); Sprague, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The primary goal of the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project is to develop the technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass feedstock for the production of a diesel fuel substitute (biodiesel), thereby reducing the need for imported petroleum. Microalgae are of interest as a feedstock because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels such as biodiesel. Microalgae can be grown in arid and semi-arid regions with poor soil quality, and saline water from aquifers or the ocean can be used for growing microalgae. Biodiesel is an extremely attractive candidate to fulfill the need for a diesel fuel substitute. Biodiesel is a cleaner fuel than petroleum diesel; it is virtually free of sulfur, and emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulates during combustion are significantly reduced in comparison to emissions from petroleum diesel. Biodiesel provides essentially the same energy content and power output as petroleum-based diesel fuel.

  1. Angler awareness of aquatic nuisance species and potential transport mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, K.K.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Horton, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The role anglers play in transporting aquatic nuisance species (ANS) is important in managing infestations and preventing introductions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify angler movement patterns in southwestern Montana, ANS awareness and equipment cleaning practices; and (2) quantify the amount of soil transported on boots and waders. Mean distance travelled by residents from their home to the survey site was 115 km (??17, 95% CI). Mean distance travelled by non-residents was 1738 km (??74). Fifty-one percent of residents and 49% of non-residents reported occasionally, rarely or never cleaning their boots and waders between uses. Mean weight of soil carried on one boot leg was 8.39 g (??1.50). Movement and equipment cleaning practices of anglers in southwestern Montana suggest that future control of ANS dispersal may require restricting the use of felt-soled wading boots, requiring river-specific wading equipment or providing cleaning stations and requiring their use. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Biodiesel from aquatic species. Project report: FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.M.; Sprague, S.; Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Zeiler, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    Researchers in the Biodiesel/Aquatic Species Project focus on the use of microalgae as a feedstock for producing renewable, high-energy liquid fuels. The program`s basic premise is that microalgae, which have been called the most productive biochemical factories in the world, can produce up to 30 times more oil per unit of growth area than land plants. It is estimated that 150 to 400 barrels of oil per acre per year (0.06 to 0.16 million liters/hectar) could be produced with microalgal oil technology. Initial commercialization of this technology is envisioned for the desert Southwest because this area provides high solar radiation and offers flat land that has few competing uses (hence low land costs). Similarly, there are large saline aquifers with few competing uses in the region. This water source could provide a suitable, low-cost medium for the growth of many microalgae. The primary area of research during FY 1993 was the effort to genetically improve microalgae in order to control the timing and magnitude of lipid accumulation. Increased lipid content will have a direct effect on fuel price, and the control of lipid content is a major project goal. The paper describes progress on the following: culture collection; molecular biology of lipid biosynthesis; microalgal transformation; and environmental, safety, and health and quality assurance.

  3. Influence of Taxonomic Relatedness and Chemical Mode of Action in Acute Interspecies Estimation Models for Aquatic species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological risks to aquatic organisms are typically assessed using toxicity data for relatively few species and with limited understanding of relative species sensitivity. We developed a comprehensive set of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models for aquatic organisms a...

  4. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics.

  5. Ohio Aquatic Gap Analysis-An Assessment of the Biodiversity and Conservation Status of Native Aquatic Animal Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covert, S. Alex; Kula, Stephanie P.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the GAP Analysis Program is to keep common species common by identifying those species and habitats that are not yet adequately represented in the existing matrix of conservation lands. The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is sponsored by the Biological Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Ohio Aquatic GAP (OH-GAP) is a pilot project that is applying the GAP concept to aquatic-specifically, riverine-data. The mission of GAP is to provide regional assessments of the conservation status of native animal species and to facilitate the application of this information to land-management activities. OH-GAP accomplished this through * mapping aquatic habitat types, * mapping the predicted distributions of fish, crayfish, and bivalves, * documenting the presence of aquatic species in areas managed for conservation, * providing GAP results to the public, planners, managers, policy makers, and researchers, and * building cooperation with multiple organizations to apply GAP results to state and regional management activities. Gap analysis is a coarse-scale assessment of aquatic biodiversity and conservation; the goal is to identify gaps in the conservation of native aquatic species. It is not a substitute for biological field studies and monitoring programs. Gap analysis was conducted for the continuously flowing streams in Ohio. Lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and the Lake Erie islands were not included in this analysis. The streams in Ohio are in the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds and pass through six of the level III ecoregions defined by Omernik: the Eastern Corn Belt Plains, Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains, Huron/Erie Lake Plain, Erie Drift Plains, Interior Plateau, and the Western Allegheny Plateau. To characterize the aquatic habitats available to Ohio fish, crayfish, and bivalves, a classification system needed to be developed and mapped. The process of classification includes delineation of areas of relative

  6. The U.S. Geological Survey’s nonindigenous aquatic species database: over thirty years of tracking introduced aquatic species in the United States (and counting)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database has tracked introductions of freshwater aquatic organisms in the United States for the past four decades. A website provides access to occurrence reports, distribution maps, and fact sheets for more than 1,000 species. The site also includes an on-line reporting system and an alert system for new occurrences. We provide an historical overview of the database, a description of its current capabilities and functionality, and a basic characterization of the data contained within the database.

  7. 78 FR 14351 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancellation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Invasive Species....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The ISAC is comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts...

  8. Application of environmental DNA for inventory and monitoring of aquatic species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Laramie, Matthew B.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet was created to help biologists and resource managers understand emerging methods for detecting environmental DNA and their potential application for inventorying and monitoring aquatic species. It is a synthesis of published information.

  9. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  10. Assessing Toxicity of Obscurant Grade Pan-Based Carbon Fiber Aquatic Species Chronic Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    with minimal restrictions. To this end we are investigating the toxicity of PAN-based carbon fibers to the aquatic species Ceriodaphnia dubia (water...media, and to supernatants produced from fibers soaked in media. Aquatic test species are Ceriodaphnia dubia (daphnid...provide dose-response information for mortality, growth, and reproduction . These methods are recommended by USEPA for testing of effluents, and may be

  11. Augmenting aquatic species sensitivity distributions with interspecies toxicity estimation models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) are cumulative distribution functions of species toxicity values. The SSD approach is increasingly being used in ecological risk assessment, but is often limited by available toxicity data necessary for diverse species representation. In ...

  12. Warming-induced reductions in body size are greater in aquatic than terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David

    2012-11-20

    Most ectothermic organisms mature at smaller body sizes when reared in warmer conditions. This phenotypically plastic response, known as the "temperature-size rule" (TSR), is one of the most taxonomically widespread patterns in biology. However, the TSR remains a longstanding life-history puzzle for which no dominant driver has been found. We propose that oxygen supply plays a central role in explaining the magnitude of ectothermic temperature-size responses. Given the much lower oxygen availability and greater effort required to increase uptake in water vs. air, we predict that the TSR in aquatic organisms, especially larger species with lower surface area-body mass ratios, will be stronger than in terrestrial organisms. We performed a meta-analysis of 1,890 body mass responses to temperature in controlled experiments on 169 terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species. This reveals that the strength of the temperature-size response is greater in aquatic than terrestrial species. In animal species of ∼100 mg dry mass, the temperature-size response of aquatic organisms is 10 times greater than in terrestrial organisms (-5.0% °C(-1) vs. -0.5% °C(-1)). Moreover, although the size response of small (<0.1 mg dry mass) aquatic and terrestrial species is similar, increases in species size cause the response to become increasingly negative in aquatic species, as predicted, but on average less negative in terrestrial species. These results support oxygen as a major driver of temperature-size responses in aquatic organisms. Further, the environment-dependent differences parallel latitudinal body size clines, and will influence predicted impacts of climate warming on food production, community structure, and food-web dynamics.

  13. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  14. 77 FR 46730 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Strategic Plan 2013-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Strategic Plan 2013-2017 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Nuisance Species Task Force Strategic Plan 2013--2017 (Plan), approved by the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task... committee to draft the ANSTF Strategic Plan for 2013--2017. A draft plan was presented to the ANSTF...

  15. Preventing, controlling, and managing alien species introduction for the health of aquatic and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, C.I.; Gross, S.K.; Wilkinson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is an emerging global problem. As economic and ecological impacts continue to grow, there will be an increasing need to develop innovative solutions and global partnerships to combat the increasing rate of invasions and their accompanying impacts. Threats to sustainable fisheries in North America associated with alien species come from many global directions and sources and can be deliberate or the unintended consequence of other actions. Decisions about the role of sustainable fisheries in protecting and restoring the health of aquatic ecosystems become even more complex when economic and social factors are considered along with environmental impacts, because many intentionally introduced species also have associated economic and community costs and benefits. Actions designed to prevent or control alien species in an aquatic ecosystem are often complicated by these nonenvironmental factors as well as public perception and opinion. Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed to varying degrees by alien species, including disease organisms. Prevention is the first and best line of defense. Determining likely pathways and effective countermeasures is more cost-effective than either eradication or control. Our ability to quickly identify new species and their associated risk to ecosystems is critical in designing and implementing effective control and management actions. Lack of infrastructure and necessary resources, clear-cut authority for regulation and action, and scientific information about the biology of alien species and effective control techniques are often limiting factors that prevent the needed action to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Development and validation of a new fluorescence-based bioassay for aquatic macrophyte species.

    PubMed

    Küster, Anette; Altenburger, Rolf

    2007-02-01

    Bioassays with unicellular algae are frequently used as ecotoxicological test systems to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated environmental samples or chemicals. In contrast, aquatic macrophyte test systems are still rarely used as they are laborious to handle because species exhibit distinct ecological requirements. The aim of this study was to establish a fast and reproducible measuring system for aquatic macrophyte species to overcome those limitations for use. Thus, a newly developed pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer (Imaging-PAM) was applied as an effect detection in short-term bioassays with aquatic macrophyte species. This multiwell-plate-based measuring device enables the incubation and measurement of up to 24 samples in parallel. The Imaging-PAM was used (i) to establish and validate the sensitivity of the test systems to three Photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors (atrazine, prometryn, isoproturon), (ii) to compare the test systems with established biotests for macrophytes and (iii) to define necessary time scales in aquatic macrophyte testing. The results showed that fluorescence-based measurements with the Imaging-PAM allow rapid and parallel analysis of large amounts of aquatic macrophyte samples and of toxicants effects of the PSII inhibitors tested on aquatic macrophytes. Measurements revealed a good correlation between obtained median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the new and the established biotest systems. Hence, the Imaging-PAM measuring device is a promising tool to allow fast chemical effect screening for high amounts of samples with little time and material and thus offers scope for high-throughput biotesting using aquatic macrophyte species.

  17. Assessment of in silico methods to estimate aquatic species sensitivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard species. In many cases, QSAR models are used to estimate toxici...

  18. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively.

  19. Conservation planning for imperiled aquatic species in an urbanizing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, Seth J.; Freeman, Mary C.; Fowler, Laurie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Peterson, James T.

    2010-01-01

    As the global area devoted to urban uses grows, an increasing number of freshwater species will face imperilment due to urbanization effects. Management of these impacts on both private and public lands is necessary to ensure species persistence. Such management entails several hallenges: (1) development of a management policy appropriate to the stressors; (2) linking stressor levels to species population attributes; (3) forecasting the effects of alternative management policy decisions on the species, and (4) using adaptive management to adjust the policy in the future. We illustrate how these challenges were addressed under the Etowah Habitat Conservation Plan (Etowah HCP), a management plan for three federally protected fish species in Georgia, USA. The plan involved the creation of a management policy to address the impacts of the greatest stressor, stormwater runoff, as well as other stressors. Models were constructed to link population indices of the three species with a key indicator of stormwater runoff, effective impervious area (EIA). Then, models were applied to projected levels of EIA under full watershed buildout to fine-tune the parameters of the management policy. Forecasting indicated that the most sensitive species, the Etowah darter, was likely to decline by 84% in the absence of the Etowah HCP, but only 23% if the Etowah HCP were implemented. Although there was substantial uncertainty in model predictions, an adaptive management plan was established to incorporate new data and to adjust management policies as necessary.

  20. Elucidating differences in metal absorption efficiencies between terrestrial soft-bodied and aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Veltman, Karin; Hauschild, Michael Z; Hendriks, A Jan; Steinmann, Zoran J N; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    It is unknown whether metal absorption efficiencies in terrestrial soft-bodied species can be predicted with the same metal properties as for aquatic species. Here, we developed models for metal absorption efficiency from the dissolved phase for terrestrial worms and several aquatic species, based on 23 metal physicochemical properties. For the worms, the absorption efficiency was successfully related to 7 properties, and is best predicted with the ionic potential. Different properties (8 in total) were found to be statistically significant in regressions predicting metal absorption in aquatic species, with the covalent index being the best predictor. It is hypothesized that metal absorption by soft-bodied species in soil systems is influenced by the rate of metal supply to the membrane, while in aquatic systems accumulation is solely determined by metal affinity to membrane bound transport proteins. Our results imply that developing predictive terrestrial bioaccumulation and toxicity models for metals must consider metal interactions with soil solids. This may include desorption of a cation bound to soil solids through ion exchange, or metal release from soil surfaces involving breaking of metal-oxygen bonds.

  1. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the St. Louis River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort represents the most spatially and ta...

  2. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the Duluth-Superior Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the Duluth, MN-Superior, WI harbor and lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort r...

  3. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  4. 77 FR 58097 - Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Strategic Plan 2013-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC120 Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force Strategic Plan 2013--2017 Correction In notice document 2012-19161, appearing on pages 46730-46732 in...

  5. Factors Affecting Stakeholders' Willingness to Pay to Prevent the Spread of Aquatic Nuisance Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Thomas W.; Lichtkoppler, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Physical separation of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins has been identified as the most effective method for preventing the transfer of aquatic nuisance species, particularly Asian carp, from the Mississippi River Basin to the Great Lakes. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers selected Extension to conduct a study of a key stakeholder…

  6. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  7. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Zia, M; Mirhendi, H; Toghyani, M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species.

  8. Detection and identification of Malassezia species in domestic animals and aquatic birds by PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Zia, M.; Mirhendi, H.; Toghyani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at detection and species-level identification of the Malassezia yeasts in domestic animals and aquatic birds by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Samples were collected using tape strips and swabs from 471 animals including 97 horses, 102 cattle, 105 sheep, 20 camels, 60 dogs, 30 cats, 1 hamster, 1 squirrel, 50 aquatic birds and 5 turkeys. Tape-strip samples were examined by direct microscopy. All samples were inoculated on modified Leeming and Notman agar medium. DNA extracted from the yeast colonies was amplified by PCR using primers specific for 26S rDNA. RFLP of the PCR products was performed using Hin6I enzyme, and PCR and RFLP products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Malassezia yeasts were detected at the following frequencies: 15.46% in horses, 12.74% in cattle, 12.38% in sheep, 28.33% in dogs, 26.66% in cats and 26% in aquatic birds. Eighty colonies of 6 species were isolated: Malassezia globosa 41.25%, Malassezia furfur 22.5%, Malassezia restricta 15%, Malassezia sympodialis 15%, Malassezia pachydermatis 5% and Malassezia slooffiae 1.25%. Therefore different lipophilic Malassezia species are found in a wide diversity of animals and aquatic birds. PCR-RFLP is a suitable technique for identification of different Malassezia species. PMID:27175148

  9. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  10. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  11. Mechanisms of aquatic species invasions across the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Amy J.; Stith, Bradley M.; Engel, Victor C.

    2016-12-15

    Invasive species are a global issue, and the southeastern United States is not immune to the problems they present. Therefore, various analyses using modeling and exploratory statistics were performed on the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Database with the primary objective of determining the most appropriate use of presence-only data as related to invasive species in the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) region. A hierarchical model approach showed that a relatively small amount of high-quality data from planned surveys can be used to leverage the information in presence-only observations, having a broad spatial coverage and high biases of observer detection and in site selection. Because a variety of sampling protocols can be used in planned surveys, this approach to the analysis of presence-only data is widely applicable. An important part of the management of natural landscapes is the preservation of designated protected areas. When the hydrologic connection was considered in this analysis, the number of potential invaders that could spread to each protected area within the SALCC region was greatly increased, with a mean exceeding 30 species and the maximum reaching 57 species. Nearly all protected areas are hydrologically connected to at least 20 nonindigenous aquatic species. To examine possible factors which may contribute to nonindigenous aquatic species richness in the SALCC region, a set of exploratory statistics was employed. The best statistical model that included a combination of three anthropogenic variables (densities of housing, roads, and reservoirs) and two environmental variables (elevation range and longitude) explained approximately 62 percent of the variation in introduced species richness. Highest nonindigenous aquatic species richness occurred in the more upland, mountainous regions, where elevation range favored reservoirs and attracted urban centers. Lastly, patterns seen in a diffusion

  12. Prospects for surviving climate change in Antarctic aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Peck, Lloyd S

    2005-06-06

    Maritime Antarctic freshwater habitats are amongst the fastest changing environments on Earth. Temperatures have risen around 1 degrees C and ice cover has dramatically decreased in 15 years. Few animal species inhabit these sites, but the fairy shrimp Branchinecta gaini typifies those that do. This species survives up to 25 degrees C daily temperature fluctuations in summer and passes winter as eggs at temperatures down to -25 degrees C. Its annual temperature envelope is, therefore around 50 degrees C. This is typical of Antarctic terrestrial species, which exhibit great physiological flexibility in coping with temperature fluctuations. The rapidly changing conditions in the Maritime Antarctic are enhancing fitness in these species by increasing the time available for feeding, growth and reproduction, as well as increasing productivity in lakes. The future problem these animals face is via displacement by alien species from lower latitudes. Such invasions are now well documented from sub-Antarctic sites. In contrast the marine Antarctic environment has very stable temperatures. However, seasonality is intense with very short summers and long winter periods of low to no algal productivity. Marine animals grow slowly, have long generation times, low metabolic rates and low levels of activity. They also die at temperatures between +5 degrees C and +10 degrees C. Failure of oxygen supply mechanisms and loss of aerobic scope defines upper temperature limits. As temperature rises, their ability to perform work declines rapidly before lethal limits are reached, such that 50% of populations of clams and limpets cannot perform essential activities at 2-3 degrees C, and all scallops are incapable of swimming at 2 degrees C. Currently there is little evidence of temperature change in Antarctic marine sites. Models predict average global sea temperatures will rise by around 2 degrees C by 2100. Such a rise would take many Antarctic marine animals beyond their survival limits

  13. Founding population size of an aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalinowski, Steven T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Benjamin Cox,

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species of fish threaten native fishes throughout North America, and in the Rocky Mountains, introduced populations of lake trout threaten native populations of bull trout. Effective management of lake trout and other exotic species require understanding the dynamics of invasion in order to either suppress non-native populations or to prevent their spread. In this study, we used microsatellite genetic data to estimate the number of lake trout that invaded a population of bull trout in Swan Lake, MT. Examination of genetic diversity and allele frequencies within the Swan Lake populations showed that most of the genes in the lake trout population are descended from two founders. This emphasizes the importance of preventing even a few lake trout from colonizing new territory.

  14. Aquatic Hyphomycete Species Are Screened by the Hyporheic Zone of Woodland Streams

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Eric; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Assemat, Fiona; Elger, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic hyphomycetes strongly contribute to organic matter dynamics in streams, but their abilities to colonize leaf litter buried in streambed sediments remain unexplored. Here, we conducted field and laboratory experiments (slow-filtration columns and stream-simulating microcosms) to test the following hypotheses: (i) that the hyporheic habitat acting as a physical sieve for spores filters out unsuccessful strategists from a potential species pool, (ii) that decreased pore size in sediments reduces species dispersal efficiency in the interstitial water, and (iii) that the physicochemical conditions prevailing in the hyporheic habitat will influence fungal community structure. Our field study showed that spore abundance and species diversity were consistently reduced in the interstitial water compared with surface water within three differing streams. Significant differences occurred among aquatic hyphomycetes, with dispersal efficiency of filiform-spore species being much higher than those with compact or branched/tetraradiate spores. This pattern was remarkably consistent with those found in laboratory experiments that tested the influence of sediment pore size on spore dispersal in microcosms. Furthermore, leaves inoculated in a stream and incubated in slow-filtration columns exhibited a fungal assemblage dominated by only two species, while five species were codominant on leaves from the stream-simulating microcosms. Results of this study highlight that the hyporheic zone exerts two types of selection pressure on the aquatic hyphomycete community, a physiological stress and a physical screening of the benthic spore pool, both leading to drastic changes in the structure of fungal community. PMID:24441154

  15. Microbial Characteristics of Native Aquatic Species of Savannah River Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, P.C.

    2000-12-12

    In 1974 the Savannah River Site (SRS) was established as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in the United States. NERP provided locations for long-term ecological research investigation. Many of the ecological studies that have been conducted in the past mainly focused on the macroscopic view. The Savannah River Site contains wetlands that are home to many diverse organisms. We conducted a preliminary survey of microbial habitats in order to explore the biodiversity of species-specific symbionts. Bacterial surveys included viable counts, direct counts, isolation, identification, and metabolic profiles.

  16. Aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.; Rodgers, E. B.; Obenhuber, D. C.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    The control of microbial contamination is a primary concern in the development of a water reclamation system for long-duration manned space flights. This paper describes bench-scale experiments, using both static and recycling water systems, investigating the interaction of bacterial species in the development of a biofilm and their response to the introduction of a disinfectant or of additional species. The results showed that iodine concentrations as high as 15 to 20 mg/l I2 are necessary to completely disinfect a stable biofilm. When S. aueus and E. coli were introduced into a system containing natural mixed culture biofilms, their colonization in the biofilms increased their survival time, from 3 to 5 days as unattached cells to over 60 days when protected in the biofilms. While iodine concentrations of 0.5 to 1 mg/l were enough to eliminate these organisms from the bulk water, concentrations higher than 4.0 mg/l were necessary to completely eliminate these organisms from the biofilm.

  17. Aquatic pollution-induced immunotoxicity in wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Luebke, R W; Hodson, P V; Faisal, M; Ross, P S; Grasman, K A; Zelikoff, J

    1997-05-01

    The potential for chemicals to adversely affect human immunologic health has traditionally been evaluated in rodents, under laboratory conditions. These laboratory studies have generated valuable hazard identification and immunotoxicologic mechanism data; however, genetically diverse populations exposed in the wild may better reflect both human exposure conditions and may provide insight into potential immunotoxic effects in humans. In addition, comparative studies of species occupying reference and impacted sites provide important information on the effects of environmental pollution on the immunologic health of wildlife populations. In this symposium overview, Peter Hodson describes physiological changes in fish collected above or below the outflows of paper mills discharging effluent from the bleaching process (BKME). Effects attributable to BKME were identified, as were physiological changes attributable to other environmental factors. In this context, he discussed the problems of identifying true cause and effect relationships in field studies. Mohamed Faisal described changes in immune function of fish collected from areas with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination. His studies identified a contaminant-related decreases in the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to bind to and kill tumor cell line targets, as well as changes in lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens. Altered proliferative responses of fish from the contaminated site were partially reversed by maintaining fish in water from the reference site. Peter Ross described studies in which harbor seals were fed herring obtained from relatively clean (Atlantic Ocean) and contaminated (Baltic Sea) waters. Decreased natural killer cell activity and lymphoproliferative responses to T and B cell mitogens, as well as depressed antibody and delayed hypersensitivity responses to injected antigens, were identified in seals fed contaminated herring. In laboratory studies, it was

  18. Aquatic plant community invasibility and scale-dependent patterns in native and invasive species richness.

    PubMed

    Capers, Robert S; Selsky, Roslyn; Bugbee, Gregory J; White, Jason C

    2007-12-01

    Invasive species richness often is negatively correlated with native species richness at the small spatial scale of sampling plots, but positively correlated in larger areas. The pattern at small scales has been interpreted as evidence that native plants can competitively exclude invasive species. Large-scale patterns have been understood to result from environmental heterogeneity, among other causes. We investigated species richness patterns among submerged and floating-leaved aquatic plants (87 native species and eight invasives) in 103 temperate lakes in Connecticut (northeastern USA) and found neither a consistently negative relationship at small (3-m2) scales, nor a positive relationship at large scales. Native species richness at sampling locations was uncorrelated with invasive species richness in 37 of the 60 lakes where invasive plants occurred; richness was negatively correlated in 16 lakes and positively correlated in seven. No correlation between native and invasive species richness was found at larger spatial scales (whole lakes and counties). Increases in richness with area were uncorrelated with abiotic heterogeneity. Logistic regression showed that the probability of occurrence of five invasive species increased in sampling locations (3 m2, n = 2980 samples) where native plants occurred, indicating that native plant species richness provided no resistance against invasion. However, the probability of three invasive species' occurrence declined as native plant density increased, indicating that density, if not species richness, provided some resistance with these species. Density had no effect on occurrence of three other invasive species. Based on these results, native species may resist invasion at small spatial scales only in communities where density is high (i.e., in communities where competition among individuals contributes to community structure). Most hydrophyte communities, however, appear to be maintained in a nonequilibrial condition by

  19. Interactions of gold nanoparticles with freshwater aquatic macrophytes are size and species dependent.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J Brad; White, Sarah A; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The partitioning of 4- and 18-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to aquatic macrophytes was investigated in vivo with exposure suspension in well water. Three morphologically distinct aquatic macrophytes were studied. Myriophyllum simulans Orch. and Egeria densa Planch. are submerged aquatic vascular plants, whereas Azolla caroliniana Willd. is a free-floating aquatic fern. Because aquatic plants absorb the majority of their nutrients from the water column, it is logical to hypothesize that they may absorb nanomaterials in suspension, potentially facilitating trophic transfer. Each plant was exposed to two different-sized gold nanospheres at a nominal concentration of 250 µg/L AuNPs for 24 h. Macrophytes were harvested at six time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h), dried, and then analyzed for gold concentration via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were normalized to whole-plant dry tissue mass. The present study shows that absorption of AuNPs through root uptake was size and species dependent. Electron microscopy revealed that 4- and 18-nm AuNPs adsorbed to the roots of each species. Root tissue was sectioned, and transmission electron microscopy indicated that 4-nm and 18-nm AuNPs were absorbed by A. caroliniana, whereas only 4-nm AuNPs were absorbed by M. simulans. Egeria densa did not absorb AuNPs of either size. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed in tissue by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption of AuNPs by plants may be a function of the salinity tolerance of each species.

  20. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Jackson, Crystal R; Awkerman, Jill A

    2012-07-15

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) could be generated with reasonable accuracy using only in silico modeling of toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ten chemicals were selected for evaluation that spanned several modes of actions and chemical classes. Median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were estimated using three internet-based quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) tools that employ different computational approaches: ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships), ASTER (Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk), and TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). Each QSAR estimate was then used as input into the SSD module of the internet-based toxicity estimation program Web-ICE to generate an in silico estimated fifth percentile hazard concentration (HC5) for each of the ten chemicals. The accuracy of the estimated HC5s was determined by comparison to measured HC5s developed from an independent dataset of experimental acute toxicity values for a diversity of aquatic species. Estimated HC5s showed generally poor agreement with measured HC5s determined for all available aquatic species, but showed better agreement when species composition of the chemical specific SSDs were identical. These results indicated that LC50 variability and species composition were large sources of error in estimated HC5s. Additional research is needed to reduce uncertainty in HC5s using only in silico approaches and to develop computational approaches for predicting species sensitivity.

  1. 75 FR 19369 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP) meeting in May 2010.... The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. on Tuesday... establishment of an AP to assist in the collection and evaluation of information relevant to the development...

  2. 76 FR 7547 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of Atlantic HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held on April 5... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...

  3. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP... management of Atlantic HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held Sept. 20... by the Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104-297, provided for the establishment of an AP...

  4. 75 FR 43928 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP) meeting in September... HMS. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The AP meeting will be held on September 21, 2010... Sustainable Fisheries Act, Public Law 104 297, provided for the establishment of an AP to assist in...

  5. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  6. Biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, B R; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Benoliel, M J; Barreto Crespo, M T; Samson, R A; Pereira, V J

    2015-08-01

    Relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. Taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untreated surface water. Several laboratory-scale experiments were performed using the natural microbial population present in the aquatic environment as well as spiked fungi isolates that were found to occur in different water matrices, to test the ability of fungi to degrade several pesticides of current concern (atrazine, diuron, isoproturon and chlorfenvinphos). The results obtained in this study showed that, when spiked in sterile natural water, fungi were able to degrade chlorfenvinphos to levels below detection and unable to degrade atrazine, diuron and isoproturon. Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma harzianum were found to be able to resist and degrade chlorfenvinphos. These fungi are therefore expected to play an important role in the degradation of this and other pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  7. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  8. Aquatic Empididae (Diptera: Hemerodromiinae and Clinocerinae) of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, with the description of five new species .

    PubMed

    Ivković, Marija; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Sainz-Bariaín, Marta; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2014-04-14

    In total 24 species of aquatic Empididae (Clinocerinae and Hemerodromiinae) are known from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Spain, including five new species (Hemerodromia planti Ivković & Sinclair sp. nov., Kowarzia nevadensis Sinclair & Ivković sp. nov., Wiedemannia darioi Sinclair & Ivković sp. nov., W. horvati Ivković & Sinclair sp. nov. and W. vedranae Ivković & Sinclair sp. nov.). The new species are described, illustrated and distribution of all species listed. Wiedemannia (Philolutra) angelieri Vaillant and W. (Roederella) ouedorum Vaillant are newly recorded in Sierra Nevada and nine species are endemic to this region. A key to all 24 species of aquatic empidids is presented.

  9. A spatially and temporally explicit, individual-based, life-history and productivity modeling approach for aquatic species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realized life history expression and productivity in aquatic species, and salmonid fishes in particular, is the result of multiple interacting factors including genetics, habitat, growth potential and condition, and the thermal regime individuals experience, both at critical stag...

  10. The relationship between species richness and evenness: a meta-analysis of studies across aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Janne; Passy, Sophia; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Biological diversity comprises both species richness, i.e., the number of species in a community, and evenness, measuring how similar species are in their abundances. The relationship between species richness and evenness (RRE) across communities remains, however, a controversial issue in ecology because no consistent pattern has been reported. We conducted a systematic meta-review of RRE in aquatic ecosystems along regional to continental gradients and across trophic groups, differing in body size by 13 orders of magnitude. Hypotheses that RRE responded to latitudinal and scale variability across trophic groups were tested by regression analyses. Significant correlations of species richness and evenness only existed in 71 out of 229 datasets. Among the RRE, 89 were negative and 140 were positive. RRE did not vary with latitude but showed a positive response to scale. In a meta-analysis with ecosystem type as a single explaining variable, RRE did not vary among ecosystem types, i.e. between marine and freshwater. Finally, autotrophs had more positive RRE than heterotrophs. The weak RRE in many aquatic datasets suggests that richness and evenness often reflect independent components of biodiversity, highlighting that richness alone may be an incomplete surrogate for biodiversity. Our results further elucidate that RRE is driven by organismal and environmental properties, both of which must be considered to gain a deeper understanding of large-scale patterns of biodiversity.

  11. Application of risk assessment and decision analysis to aquatic nuisance species.

    PubMed

    Suedel, Burton C; Bridges, Todd S; Kim, Jongbum; Payne, Barry S; Miller, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    The spread of nonindigenous (nonnative) species introduced into the United States is a significant and growing national problem and results in lost agricultural productivity, increased health problems, native species extinctions, and expensive prevention and eradication efforts. Thousands of nonindigenous species have either become established or spread, and introduction of aquatic nuisance species (ANS) into freshwater lakes threaten aquatic biodiversity. Expanding global trade is likely to increase the number of species that are spread across the globe, so the need to develop an approach to predict potential ANS invasions is great. Risk assessments currently being used to assess ANS risk rely on qualitative or semiquantitative information and expert opinion; thus, such approaches lack transparency and repeatability. A more quantitative approach is needed to augment the qualitative approaches currently in use. A quantitative approach with the use of the traditional ecological risk assessment (traditional ERA) framework combined with decision analysis tools was developed for assessing ANS risks in which the causative ecological risk agent is an organism rather than a chemical. This paper presents a systematic risk assessment framework that includes structured decision analysis to help organize and analyze pertinent data, state assumptions, address uncertainties in estimating the probability of an undesired ANS introduction, or spread and integrate these outputs with stakeholder values. This paper also describes when and how decision analysis tools can be used in such assessments for ANS. This framework and methodology will enable risk managers to systematically evaluate and compare alternatives and actions supporting ANS risk management and thus credibly prioritize resources.

  12. Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Turner, Cameron R.; Deiner, Kristy; Klymus, Katy E.; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Murphy, Melanie A.; Spear, Stephen F.; McKee, Anna; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Laramie, Matthew B.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Lance, Richard F.; Pilliod, David S.; Strickler, Katherine M.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Takahara, Teruhiko; Herder, Jelger E.; Taberlet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Species detection using environmental DNA (eDNA) has tremendous potential for contributing to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of aquatic species. Detecting species using eDNA methods, rather than directly sampling the organisms, can reduce impacts on sensitive species and increase the power of field surveys for rare and elusive species. The sensitivity of eDNA methods, however, requires a heightened awareness and attention to quality assurance and quality control protocols. Additionally, the interpretation of eDNA data demands careful consideration of multiple factors. As eDNA methods have grown in application, diverse approaches have been implemented to address these issues. With interest in eDNA continuing to expand, supportive guidelines for undertaking eDNA studies are greatly needed.Environmental DNA researchers from around the world have collaborated to produce this set of guidelines and considerations for implementing eDNA methods to detect aquatic macroorganisms.Critical considerations for study design include preventing contamination in the field and the laboratory, choosing appropriate sample analysis methods, validating assays, testing for sample inhibition and following minimum reporting guidelines. Critical considerations for inference include temporal and spatial processes, limits of correlation of eDNA with abundance, uncertainty of positive and negative results, and potential sources of allochthonous DNA.We present a synthesis of knowledge at this stage for application of this new and powerful detection method.

  13. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Bilton, David T.; Arribas, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae) with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters). We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate) under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:27635346

  14. Microsporidian species known to infect humans are present in aquatic birds: implications for transmission via water?

    PubMed

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Nowosad, Andrzej; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2006-07-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic and environmental transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing conventional and molecular techniques for examining feces from 570 free-ranging, captive, and livestock birds demonstrated that 21 animals shed microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans, including Encephalitozoon hellem (20 birds; 3.5%) and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (1 bird; 0.2%). Of 11 avian species that shed E. hellem and E. intestinalis, 8 were aquatic birds (i.e., common waterfowl). The prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl (8.6%) was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other birds (1.1%) (P < 0.03); waterfowl fecal droppings contained significantly more spores (mean, 3.6 x 10(5) spores/g) than nonaquatic bird droppings contained (mean, 4.4 x 10(4) spores/g) (P < 0.003); and the presence of microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans in fecal samples was statistically associated with the aquatic status of the avian host (P < 0.001). We demonstrated that a single visit of a waterfowl flock can introduce into the surface water approximately 9.1 x 10(8) microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans. Our findings demonstrate that waterborne microsporidian spores of species that infect people can originate from common waterfowl, which usually occur in large numbers and have unlimited access to surface waters, including waters used for production of drinking water.

  15. Cell cycle control in the early embryonic development of aquatic animal species.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Joseph C; Clowdus, Emily A; Sansam, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    The cell cycle is integrated with many aspects of embryonic development. Not only is proper control over the pace of cell proliferation important, but also the timing of cell cycle progression is coordinated with transcription, cell migration, and cell differentiation. Due to the ease with which the embryos of aquatic organisms can be observed and manipulated, they have been a popular choice for embryologists throughout history. In the cell cycle field, aquatic organisms have been extremely important because they have played a major role in the discovery and analysis of key regulators of the cell cycle. In particular, the frog Xenopus laevis has been instrumental for understanding how the basic embryonic cell cycle is regulated. More recently, the zebrafish has been used to understand how the cell cycle is remodeled during vertebrate development and how it is regulated during morphogenesis. This review describes how some of the unique strengths of aquatic species have been leveraged for cell cycle research and suggests how species such as Xenopus and zebrafish will continue to reveal the roles of the cell cycle in human biology and disease.

  16. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  17. Effects of twenty-five compounds on four species of aquatic fungi (Saprolegniales) pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Four species of aquatic fungi (Achlya flagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna, and S. megasperma) were exposed to 25 chemicals representing seven classes of compounds for 15 and 60 min, in an effort to identify potential fungicidal agents for use in fish culture. The antifungal activity of each chemical was compared with that of malachite green, a reference compound with known fungicidal properties but not registered for fishery use. Six compounds which inhibited fungal growth on artificial media at concentrations of < 100 mg/l (listed in order of decreasing antifungal activity) were the cationics Du-terA? and copper oxychloride sulfate, the amine LesanA?, the amide BAS-389-O1F and the cationics CuprimyxinA? and RoccalA? II. Certain chemicals from these classes of compounds may have promise as aquatic fungicides.

  18. Assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; George, W.; Preslan, J.

    1996-05-02

    This project discusses the following studies: identification and quantitation of heavy metals and petroleum products present in Bayou Trepagnier relative to control sites; assessment of the uptake and bioaccumulation of metals and organic contaminants of interest in aquatic species; establishment and use of polarographic methods for use in metal speciation studies to identify specific chemical forms present in sediments, waters and organism; and evaluation of contaminants on reproductive function of aquatic species as potential biomarkers of exposure. 14 refs.

  19. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests.

  20. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    PubMed

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).

  1. Respiration and photosynthesis of bladders and leaves of aquatic utricularia species.

    PubMed

    Adamec, L

    2006-11-01

    In aquatic species of carnivorous utricularia, about 10 - 50 % of the total biomass consists of bladders. Utricularia bladders are physiologically very active organs though their chlorophyll content may greatly be reduced. To specify energetic costs of carnivory, respiration (RD) and net photosynthetic rate (PN) were compared in bladders and leaves or shoot segments of six aquatic utricularia species with differentiated (U. ochroleuca, U. intermedia, U. floridana) or non-differentiated shoots (U. vulgaris, U. australis, U. bremii) under optimum conditions (20 degrees C, [CO (2)] 0.20 mM, 400 micromol m (-2) s (-1) PAR). RD of bladders of six utricularia species (5.1 - 8.6 mmol kg (-1)(FW) h (-1)) was 75 - 200 % greater, than that in leaves in carnivorous or photosynthetic shoots (1.7 - 6.1 mmol kg (-1)(FW) h (-1)). Within individual species, this difference was statistically significant at P < 0.002 - 0.01. However, PN in photosynthetic leaves/shoots (40 - 117 mmol kg (-1)(FW) h (-1)) exceeded that in bladders (5.2 - 14.7 mmol kg (-1)(FW) h (-1)) 7 - 10 times. RD of empty bladders of U. ochroleuca was exactly the same as that in bladders containing prey. Though utricularia bladders are essential for uptake of growth limiting mineral nutrients N and P from prey as the main benefit of carnivory, the current results support previous work showing that bladder function requires greater metabolic (maintenance) cost and very low photosynthetic efficiency (great RD : PN ratio).

  2. Presentation from 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting: Responding to Tribal Concerns: Identification of Climate Change Impacts to Water and Aquatic Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Responding to Tribal Concerns: Identification of Climate Change Impacts to Water and Aquatic Resources, was given at the 2016 STAR Tribal Research Meeting held on Sept. 20-21, 2016.

  3. Aquatic Nuisance Species in the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basin—A Risk Assessment in Support of GLMRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippo, Mark A.; Hlohowskyj, Ihor; Fox, Laura; Herman, Brook; Pothoff, Johanna; Yoe, Charles; Hayse, John

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is conducting the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study to identify the highest risk aquatic nuisance species currently established in either the Mississippi River Basin or the Great Lakes Basin and prevent their movement into a new basin. The Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study focuses specifically on aquatic nuisance species movement through the Chicago Area Waterway System, a multi-use waterway connecting the two basins. In support of Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, we conducted a qualitative risk assessment for 33 aquatic nuisance species over a 50-year period of analysis based on the probability of aquatic nuisance species establishing in a new basin and the environmental, economic, and sociopolitical consequences of their establishment. Probability of establishment and consequences of establishment were assigned qualitative ratings of high, medium, or low after considering the species' current location, mobility, habitat suitability, and impacts in previously invaded systems. The establishment and consequence ratings were then combined into an overall risk rating. Seven species were characterized as posing a medium risk and two species as posing a high risk to the Mississippi River Basin. Three species were characterized as posing a medium risk to the Great Lakes Basin, but no high-risk species were identified for this basin. Risk increased over time for some aquatic nuisance species based on the time frame in which these species were considered likely to establish in the new basin. Both species traits and the need to balance multiple uses of the Chicago Area Waterway System must be considered when identifying control measures to prevent aquatic nuisance species movement between the two basins.

  4. Aquatic Nuisance Species in the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Basin-A Risk Assessment in Support of GLMRIS.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark A; Hlohowskyj, Ihor; Fox, Laura; Herman, Brook; Pothoff, Johanna; Yoe, Charles; Hayse, John

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is conducting the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study to identify the highest risk aquatic nuisance species currently established in either the Mississippi River Basin or the Great Lakes Basin and prevent their movement into a new basin. The Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study focuses specifically on aquatic nuisance species movement through the Chicago Area Waterway System, a multi-use waterway connecting the two basins. In support of Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, we conducted a qualitative risk assessment for 33 aquatic nuisance species over a 50-year period of analysis based on the probability of aquatic nuisance species establishing in a new basin and the environmental, economic, and sociopolitical consequences of their establishment. Probability of establishment and consequences of establishment were assigned qualitative ratings of high, medium, or low after considering the species' current location, mobility, habitat suitability, and impacts in previously invaded systems. The establishment and consequence ratings were then combined into an overall risk rating. Seven species were characterized as posing a medium risk and two species as posing a high risk to the Mississippi River Basin. Three species were characterized as posing a medium risk to the Great Lakes Basin, but no high-risk species were identified for this basin. Risk increased over time for some aquatic nuisance species based on the time frame in which these species were considered likely to establish in the new basin. Both species traits and the need to balance multiple uses of the Chicago Area Waterway System must be considered when identifying control measures to prevent aquatic nuisance species movement between the two basins.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Patterns of Aquatic Species Imperilment in the Southern Appalachians: An Evaluation of Regional Databases.

    PubMed

    Flebbe; Herrig

    2000-06-01

    / For regional analyses of species imperilment patterns, data on species distributions are available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and from the state heritage programs. We compared these two different databases as sources of best available information for regional analyses of patterns of aquatic species imperilment for 132 counties in the southern Appalachians and examined patterns produced from the databases. The heritage program database contained information about a greater number of imperiled species because species need not be federally listed as threatened or endangered to be included in this database. In the southern Appalachians, about half of imperiled molluscs and about one-fourth of imperiled fish were listed as threatened or endangered; much smaller proportions of other taxonomic groups were federally listed. Most threatened and endangered species appeared on both lists, but for about 40% of the species inconsistencies exist, notably a lack of recent records in the heritage program dataset. Numbers of species in each county were significantly different between the two datasets for Georgia, Tennessee, and Virginia, where the largest number of threatened and endangered species reside. Nevertheless, some counties always appeared as centers of imperilment, and the general spatial patterns of imperilment were similar.

  6. Monitoring hydrilla using two RAPD procedures and the nonindigenous aquatic species database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madeira, Paul T.; Jacono, C.C.; Van, Thai K.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle), an invasive aquatic weed, continues to spread to new regions in the United States. Two biotypes, one a female dioecious and the other monoecious have been identified. Management of the spread of hydrilla requires understanding the mechanisms of introduction and transport, an ability to map and make available information on distribution, and tools to distinguish the known U.S. biotypes as well as potential new introductions. Review of the literature and discussions with aquatic scientists and resource managers point to the aquarium and water garden plant trades as the primary past mechanism for the regional dispersal of hydrilla while local dispersal is primarily carried out by other mechanisms such as boat traffic, intentional introductions, and waterfowl. The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database is presented as a tool for assembling, geo-referencing, and making available information on the distribution of hydrilla. A map of the current range of dioecious and monoecious hydrilla by drainage is presented. Four hydrilla samples, taken from three discrete, non-contiguous regions (Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Washington State) were examined using two RAPD assays. The first, generated using primer Operon G17, and capable of distinguishing the dioecious and monoecious U.S. biotypes, indicated all four samples were of the monoecious biotype. Results of the second assay using the Stoffel fragment and 5 primers, produced 111 markers, indicated that these samples do not represent new foreign introductions. The differences in the monoecious and dioecious growth habits and management are discussed.

  7. Predicting aquatic toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple test species using nonlinear QSTR modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we established nonlinear quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for predicting the toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple aquatic test species following the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The decision tree forest (DTF) and decision tree boost (DTB) based QSTR models were constructed using a pesticides toxicity dataset in Selenastrum capricornutum and a set of six descriptors. Other six toxicity data sets were used for external validation of the constructed QSTRs. Global QSTR models were also constructed using the combined dataset of all the seven species. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated. Model validation was performed deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of the QSTRs were evaluated. Both the QSTR models identified WPSA1 (weighted charged partial positive surface area) as the most influential descriptor. The DTF and DTB QSTRs performed relatively better than the single decision tree (SDT) and support vector machines (SVM) models used as a benchmark here and yielded R(2) of 0.886 and 0.964 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in the complete dataset (S. capricornutum). The QSTR models applied to six other aquatic species toxicity data yielded R(2) of >0.92 (DTF) and >0.97 (DTB), respectively. The prediction accuracies of the global models were comparable with those of the S. capricornutum models. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals and can be used for regulatory purpose.

  8. Oxygen stress reduces zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in a simulated aquatic system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Phytophthora includes a group of agriculturally important pathogens and they are commonly regarded as water molds. They produce motile zoospores that can move via water currents and on their own locomotion in aquatic environments. However, zoosporic response to dissolved oxygen, an important water quality parameter, is not known. Like other water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen concentration in irrigation reservoirs fluctuates dramatically over time. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how zoospore survival may be affected by elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water to better understand the aquatic biology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. Results Zoospores of P. megasperma, P. nicotianae, P. pini and P. tropicalis were assessed for survival in 10% Hoagland’s solution at a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.9 to 20.1 mg L-1 for up to seven exposure times from 0 to 72 h. Zoospore survival was measured by resultant colony counts per ml. Zoospores of these species survived the best in control Hoagland’s solution at dissolved oxygen concentrations of 5.3 to 5.6 mg L-1. Zoospore survival rates decreased with increasing and decreasing concentration of dissolved oxygen, depending upon Phytophthora species and exposure time. Overall, P. megasperma and P. pini are less sensitive than P. nicotianae and P. tropicalis to hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. Conclusion Zoospores in the control solution declined over time and this natural decline process was enhanced under hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. These findings suggest that dramatic fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in irrigation reservoirs contribute to the population decline of Phytophthora species along the water path in the same reservoirs. These findings advanced our understanding of the aquatic ecology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. They also provided a basis for pathogen risk mitigation by prolonging the turnover

  9. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Sappington, L C; Buckler, D R; Bridges, C M; Greer, I E; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Kunz, J L; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Mount, D R; Hattala, K; Neuderfer, G N

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Habitat selection determines abundance, richness and species composition of beetles in aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Binckley, Christopher A; Resetarits, William J

    2005-09-22

    Distribution and abundance patterns at the community and metacommunity scale can result from two distinct mechanisms. Random dispersal followed by non-random, site-specific mortality (species sorting) is the dominant paradigm in community ecology, while habitat selection provides an alternative, largely unexplored, mechanism with different demographic consequences. Rather than differential mortality, habitat selection involves redistribution of individuals among habitat patches based on perceived rather than realized fitness, with perceptions driven by past selection. In particular, habitat preferences based on species composition can create distinct patterns of positive and negative covariance among species, generating more complex linkages among communities than with random dispersal models. In our experiments, the mere presence of predatory fishes, in the absence of any mortality, reduced abundance and species richness of aquatic beetles by up to 80% in comparison with the results from fishless controls. Beetle species' shared habitat preferences generated distinct patterns of species richness, species composition and total abundance, matching large-scale field patterns previously ascribed to random dispersal and differential mortality. Our results indicate that landscape-level patterns of distribution and species diversity can be driven to a large extent by habitat selection behaviour, a critical, but largely overlooked, mechanism of community and metacommunity assembly.

  12. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  13. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  14. Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change.

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, Britta G; Thomas, Roxanne; Kane, Austin

    2008-06-01

    The consequences of climate change will affect aquatic ecosystems, including aquatic invasive species (AIS) that are already affecting these ecosystems. Effects on AIS include range shifts and more frequent overwintering of species. These effects may create new challenges for AIS management. We examined available U.S. state AIS management plans to assess each program's capacity to adapt to climate-change effects. We scored the adaptive capacity of AIS management plans on the basis of whether they addressed potential impacts resulting from climate change; demonstrated a capacity to adapt to changing conditions; provided for monitoring strategies; provided for plan revisions; and described funding for implementation. Most plans did not mention climate change specifically, but some did acknowledge climatic boundaries of species and ecosystem sensitivities to changing conditions. Just under half the plans mentioned changing environmental conditions as a factor, most frequently as part of research activities. Activities associated with monitoring showed the highest capacity to include information on changing conditions, and future revisions to management plans are likely to be the easiest avenue through which to address climate-change effects on AIS management activities. Our results show that programs have the capacity to incorporate information about climate-change effects and that the adaptive-management framework may be an appropriate approach.

  15. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  16. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Shuster, Stephen [Penn State University

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  17. Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuster, Stephen

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Stephen Shuster of Penn State University gives a presentation on "Genomics of Extinct and Endangered Species" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

  18. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... methodologies for implementing performance elements outlined in the 2008-2012 National Invasive Species Management Plan. The meeting agenda is now available on the NISC Web site, www.invasivespecies.gov... obtained from the NISC Web site, www.invasivespecies.gov . Dated: February 6, 2013. Lori...

  19. The USDA national animal germplasm program and the aquatic species collection. In: T.R. Tiersch and C.C. Green (eds.) Cryopreservation in Aquatic Species, 2nd Edition. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse genetic resources and the genetic variability within species are the raw materials by which the productivity of aquatic species populations can be increased for food production. Due to the importance of these resources there is growing international awareness that these resources are importa...

  20. Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program: Biodiesel from Algae; Close-Out Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J.; Dunahay, T.; Benemann, J.; Roessler, P.

    1998-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program was a relatively small research effort intended to look at the use of aquatic plants as sources of energy. Its history dates back to 1978, but much of the research from 1978 to 1982 focused on using algae to produce hydrogen. The program switched emphasis to other transportation fuels, particularly biodiesel, beginning in the early 1980's. This report summarizes the research activities carried out from 1980 to 1996, with an emphasis on algae for biodiesel production.

  1. Quantifying environmental DNA signals for aquatic invasive species across multiple detection platforms.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lucas M; Simmons, Megan; Wegleitner, Benjamin J; Jerde, Christopher L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2014-11-04

    The use of molecular surveillance techniques has become popular among aquatic researchers and managers due to the improved sensitivity and efficiency compared to traditional sampling methods. Rapid expansion in the use of environmental DNA (eDNA), paired with the advancement of molecular technologies, has resulted in new detection platforms and techniques. In this study we present a comparison of three eDNA surveillance platforms: traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) in which water samples were collected over a 24 h time period from mesocosm experiments containing a population gradient of invasive species densities. All platforms reliably detected the presence of DNA, even at low target organism densities within the first hour. The two quantitative platforms (qPCR and ddPCR) produced similar estimates of DNA concentrations. The analyses completed with ddPCR was faster from sample collection through analyses and cost approximately half the expenditure of qPCR. Although a new platform for eDNA surveillance of aquatic species, ddPCR was consistent with more commonly used qPCR and a cost-effective means of estimating DNA concentrations. Use of ddPCR by researchers and managers should be considered in future eDNA surveillance applications.

  2. Aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for the zwitterionic surfactant alkyl dimethyl amine oxide to several aquatic species and a resulting species sensitivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; McDonough, Kathleen M; Zoller, Ann C; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R

    2016-12-01

    Amine oxide (AO) is a cationically charged surfactant at environmental pH and has previously been assessed in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals program. Typical of cationic chemicals, AO is highly aquatically toxic. In this study we vastly improve the knowledge of AO toxicity by developing acute Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) for an alga (Desmodesmus subspicatus), an invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and a fish (Danio rerio) using the appropriate array of OECD Test Guidelines. A chronic toxicity QSAR was also determined for the most sensitive taxon, Desmodesmus. Pure AO spanning the chain lengths of C8 to C16 were tested individually with trace analytical confirmation of exposures in all tests. The QSARs were all of high quality (R(2) 0.92-0.98) with slopes ranging from -0.338 to -0.484. QSARs were then used to normalize toxicity outcomes for a larger, previously published data set used in HPV, European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), and peer reviewed publications. Two additional species, Lemna gibba (macrophyte) and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (alga) were studied in exposures to dodecyl (C12) AO to provide sufficient taxonomic diversity to conduct a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis. The SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5) to C12 AO was found to be 0.052mg/L which is similar to an existing AO 28-d, 3-community periphyton community bioassay normalized to C12 AO (No-observed-effect-concentration or NOEC=0.152mg/L). The statistical properties of the SSD was probed suggesting that new studies of additional taxa would be required that were at least 10-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive taxon to move the HC5 lower by a factor of 3. The overall AO hazard assessment suggests a large margin of safety relative to published environmental exposure data.

  3. Sensitivity and accuracy of DNA based methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasive fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For biomonitoring efforts aimed at early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), the ability to detect rare individuals is key and requires accurate species level identification to maintain a low occurrence probability of non-detection errors (failure to detect a present spe...

  4. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-04-29

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  5. Variations in lethal and sublethal effects of cypermethrin among aquatic stages and species of anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Biga, Lindsay M; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2013-12-01

    Despite the use of model species to predict the effects of chemicals in the environment, unpredicted variation in levels of risk to organisms from xenobiotics can be observed. Physiological and morphological differences between species and life stages may lead to differences in sensitivity, while seasonal and spatial variation in pesticide concentrations may affect the level of risk faced by organisms in the environment. Because anurans breed in aquatic habitats subject to contamination by runoff and spraying, they are particularly vulnerable to pesticides. In the present study, embryos, newly hatched larvae, and larvae with limb buds of 3 anuran amphibian species--Pseudacris regilla, Rana cascadae, and Rana aurora--were exposed for 48 h to either 0.5 µg/L or 5.0 µg/L cypermethrin under laboratory conditions. The authors monitored hatching success, larval survival, and measured growth. Additionally, they assayed avoidance behavior 2 wk after exposure or 2 wk after hatching for individuals exposed as embryos. Hatching and survival were not affected in animals of any species exposed as embryos. After exposure as embryos and as newly hatched larvae, however, P. regilla displayed behavioral abnormalities in response to prodding. Cypermethrin increased mortality in P. regilla exposed in both larval stages. Cypermethrin also increased mortality in larval R. cascadae when exposed at the early stage. These results indicate variation in sensitivity to environmentally relevant concentrations of cypermethrin among anuran species and life stages.

  6. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  7. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists.

    PubMed

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  8. Effects of Outreach on the Prevention of Aquatic Invasive Species Spread among Organism-in-Trade Hobbyists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seekamp, Erin; Mayer, Jessica E.; Charlebois, Patrice; Hitzroth, Greg

    2016-11-01

    Releases of aquatic organisms-in-trade by aquarists, water gardeners, and outdoor pond owners have been identified as aquatic invasive species vectors within the Laurentian Great Lakes region. The trademarked U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitattitude campaign was developed in 2004 to encourage self-regulation by these groups, but little is known about its effects. We surveyed organisms-in-trade hobbyists in the eight Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, USA) to assess their recognition of the Habitattitude campaign and their compliance with the campaign's recommended behaviors for organism purchase and disposal. Awareness of the Habitattitude campaign was low, but hobbyists that identified as both water gardeners and aquarium hobbyists were more aware of the campaign than individuals who participated in one of those hobbies. Engaged hobbyists (high aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) were significantly more likely than passive hobbyists (low aquatic invasive species awareness, concern, and knowledge) to make decisions about disposal of live organisms with the intention of preventing aquatic invasive species spread, were more likely to contact other hobbyists for disposal and handling advice, and were less likely to contact professionals, such as retailers. On the basis of our results, we suggest that compliance with recommended behaviors may be increased by fostering hobbyist networks; creating materials that both explain tangible, negative environmental impacts and list specific prevention behaviors; and disseminating these materials through trusted information sources and venues.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing of three Ranunculus species (Ranunculaceae) reveals candidate genes in adaptation from terrestrial to aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Zhao, Shu-Ying; Wang, Qing-Feng; Moody, Michael L

    2015-05-20

    Adaptation to aquatic habitats is a formidable challenge for terrestrial angiosperms that has long intrigued scientists. As part of a suite of work to explore the molecular mechanism of adaptation to aquatic habitats, we here sequenced the transcriptome of the submerged aquatic plant Ranunculus bungei, and two terrestrial relatives R. cantoniensis and R. brotherusii, followed by comparative evolutionary analyses to determine candidate genes for adaption to aquatic habitats. We obtained 126,037, 140,218 and 114,753 contigs for R. bungei, R. cantoniensis and R. brotherusii respectively. Bidirectional Best Hit method and OrthoMCL method identified 11,362 and 8,174 1:1:1 orthologous genes (one ortholog is represented in each of the three species) respectively. Non-synonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) analyses were performed with a maximum likelihood method and an approximate method for the three species-pairs. In total, 14 genes of R. bungei potentially involved in the adaptive transition from terrestrial to aquatic habitats were identified. Some of the homologs to these genes in model plants are involved in vacuole protein formation, regulating 'water transport process' and 'microtubule cytoskeleton organization'. Our study opens the door to understand the molecular mechanism of plant adaptation from terrestrial to aquatic habitats.

  10. Analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances and their metal species by means of multistage ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Aster, B; Burba, P; Broekaert, J A

    1996-03-01

    The molecular-size fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) and their metal species by means of a novel sequential-stage ultrafiltration (UF) device equipped with five appropriate ultramembranes (1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 kD) is described. First of all, the concentration dynamics of macromolecules, particulary HS, during five-stage UF and its subsequent washing step has been modelled. Based on these results, the fractionation of aquatic HS (from ground and bog water) by means of multistage UF has been optimized for an analytical scale (10 ml sample, 1 mg/ml HS, 10 ml washing solution, pH 6.0). The molecular size-distribution of selected aquatic HS (BOC 1/2 from the "DFG-Versuchsfeld Bocholt", VM 5 from "Venner Moor", Germany) studied by five-stage UF exhibited strong systematic influences of the procedure used for their isolation. The molecular-size distribution of HS obtained by on-line UF and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed a satisfactory agreement in the range 1-50 kD. Moreover, when interrupting multistage UF for > 48 h a slow transformation in the HS samples has been found as gradually additional HS fractions of < 1 kD have been formed. Besides unloaded HS molecules, the molecular-size distribution of freshly formed metal species of HS (1.0 mg metal/g HS of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), each) has been characterized by multistage UF as a function of pH-value, degree of loading and complexation time. Metal determinations as carried out by flame AAS, showed that considerable metal fractions in HS especially are present in molecules > 50 kD, which seemed to be rather acid-inert. With complexation times of < 2 days a transient shift of the molecular size distribution of both HS and their metal species (e.g., Al(III), Fe(III) to higher values (> 10 kD) has been found.

  11. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  12. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J.; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J.; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs. PMID:26528464

  13. Quantifying potential propagule pressure of aquatic invasive species from the commercial shipping industry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lo, Veronica B; Levings, Colin D; Chan, Kai M A

    2012-02-01

    We quantify and compare different measures of potential propagule pressure (PPP) of aquatic invasive species (AIS) from commercial vessels in Canada. We used ship arrivals and ballast water discharge volumes as proxies for PPP from ballast water organisms, and wetted surface area (WSA) as a proxy for hull fouling PPP, to determine their relative contributions to total PPP. For three regions studied, PPP proxies correlated significantly across ports and some vessel categories. Relative contributions of ship arrivals, ballast discharge, and WSAs to PPP, evidenced by non-significant correlations across these measures, varied across regions, ports, vessel types, and seasons. Flow-through (dominant on east and west coasts) and empty-refill (in Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region) were the major ballast water exchange methods employed by the vessels surveyed. These methods have different biological efficacy for AIS removal, influencing PPP. Our study illustrates benefits and limitations of using different PPP proxies to estimate invasion risk.

  14. First isolation of an aquatic birnavirus from farmed and wild fish species in Australia.

    PubMed

    Crane, M S; Hardy-Smith, P; Williams, L M; Hyatt, A D; Eaton, L M; Gould, A; Handlinger, J; Kattenbelt, J; Gudkovs, N

    2000-10-25

    During routine sampling and testing, as part of a systematic surveillance program (the Tasmanian Salmonid Health Surveillance Program), an aquatic birnavirus was isolated from 'pin-head' (fish exhibiting deficient acclimatisation on transfer to saltwater) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, approximately 18 mo old, farmed in net-pens located in Macquarie Harbour on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia. The isolate grows readily in a range of fish cell lines including CHSE-214, RTG-2 and BF-2 and is neutralised by a pan-specific rabbit antiserum raised against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) Ab strain and by a commercial pan-specific IPNV-neutralising monoclonal antibody. Presence of the virus was not associated with gross clinical signs. Histopathological examination revealed a range of lesions particularly in pancreatic tissue. The virus was localised in pancreas sections by immunoperoxidase staining using the polyclonal antiserum and by electron microscopy. Examination by electron microscopy demonstrated that the virus isolated in cell culture (1) belongs to the family Birnaviridae, genus Aquabirnaviridae; (2) was ultrastructurally and antigenically similar to virus identified in the index fish; (3) is related to IPNV. Western blot analysis using the polyclonal rabbit antiserum confirmed the cross-reactions between various aquatic birnavirus isolates. In addition, PCR analysis of isolated viral nucleic acid from the index case indicated that the virus is more closely related to IPNV fr21 and N1 isolates than to other birnavirus isolates available for comparison. Sampling of other fish species within Macquarie Harbour has demonstrated that the virus is present in several other species of fish including farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, wild flounder Rhombosolea tapirina, cod Pseudophycis sp., spiked dogfish Squalus megalops and ling Genypterus blacodes.

  15. Overview of the DOE/SERI aquatic species program: FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1987-02-01

    The goals of the Aquatic Species Program are to develop the technology to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert Southwest. Microalgae are known to accumulate lipids in large quantities and can thrive in high salinity water, which currently has no other significant use. Three major task areas are important to the economical development of this technology: biology, engineering, and analysis. Biological activities include screening, characterizing, and improving microalgae species. More than 3000 microalgae strains have been collected to date. A current problem is that salinity- and temperature-tolerant species do not always have high productivity and produce large amounts of lipid. Therefore, basic research is underway in genetic engineering to put all three characteristics into one or two strains. Engineering research focused on polymer harvesting of microalgae. All algae were harvestable but required different polymers. We performed a technical and economic analysis of a microalgae fuel production system and published it in the report entitled Fuels from Microalgae. 35 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Approach to determine the diversity of Legionella species by nested PCR-DGGE in aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Hsin-Chi; Tao, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Yi-Jia; Kao, Po-Min; Huang, Tung-Yi; Hsu, Bing-Mu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a nested PCR-DGGE strategy to detect Legionella communities from river water samples. The nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primer in the first step. After, the amplicons were employed as DNA templates in the second PCR using Legionella specific primer. The third round of gene amplification was conducted to gain PCR fragments apposite for DGGE analysis. Then the total numbers of amplified genes were observed in DGGE bands of products gained with primers specific for the diversity of Legionella species. The DGGE patterns are thus potential for a high-throughput preliminary determination of aquatic environmental Legionella species before sequencing. Comparative DNA sequence analysis of excised DGGE unique band patterns showed the identity of the Legionella community members, including a reference profile with two pathogenic species of Legionella strains. In addition, only members of Legionella pneumophila and uncultured Legionella sp. were detected. Development of three step nested PCR-DGGE tactic is seen as a useful method for studying the diversity of Legionella community. The method is rapid and provided sequence information for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:28166249

  17. Diversity of Aquatic Pseudomonas Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogenic Oomycete Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Rzeszutek, Elzbieta; van der Voort, Menno; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Thoen, Even; Skaar, Ida; Bulone, Vincent; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of several chemical control measures, new sustainable methods are needed to mitigate Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Here, PhyloChip-based community analyses showed that the Pseudomonadales, particularly Pseudomonas species, represent one of the largest bacterial orders associated with salmon eggs from a commercial hatchery. Among the Pseudomonas species isolated from salmon eggs, significantly more biosurfactant producers were retrieved from healthy salmon eggs than from Saprolegnia-infected eggs. Subsequent in vivo activity bioassays showed that Pseudomonas isolate H6 significantly reduced salmon egg mortality caused by Saprolegnia diclina. Live colony mass spectrometry showed that strain H6 produces a viscosin-like lipopeptide surfactant. This biosurfactant inhibited growth of Saprolegnia in vitro, but no significant protection of salmon eggs against Saprolegniosis was observed. These results indicate that live inocula of aquatic Pseudomonas strains, instead of their bioactive compound, can provide new (micro)biological and sustainable means to mitigate oomycete diseases in aquaculture.

  18. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    PubMed

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-02

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  19. Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances

    SciTech Connect

    Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-04-01

    This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

  20. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection method development in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates findi...

  1. Protecting sediment-sensitive aquatic species inmountain streams through the application of biologically based streambed sediment criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated several lines of evidence to identify bedded fine sediment levels that should protect and maintain self-sustaining populations of native sediment-sensitive aquatic species in the western US. To identify these potential criterion values for streambed sediments ≤0.06 ...

  2. Use of chemical communication in the management of freshwater aquatic species that are vectors of human diseases or are invasive.

    PubMed

    Corkum, Lynda D; Belanger, Rachelle M

    2007-01-01

    Chemical communication occurs when both originator (signaller) and one or more receiver(s) possess specializations for chemical exchange of information. Chemical information can be used by a wide variety of species to locate food and mates, avoid predators and engage in social interactions. In this review, we focus on chemical signalling between mates or cues from nest sites or hosts by selected aquatic pest species and indicate how chemical information can be used to manage pests. The pests are vectors of disease (blood-sucking insects) or invasive species (crayfishes and fishes) that have exhibited detrimental effects on indigenous species. Pheromones released by females attract and stimulate males in some taxa (insects, crayfish, goldfish, and crucian carp), whereas pheromones released by males attract females in others (round goby, sea lamprey). Other chemicals (e.g., habitat odours or odours given off by developmental stages of conspecifics) can affect oviposition decisions of pest species. In areas of aquatic environments where other cues may be limited (e.g., visual), freshwater organisms may rely solely on chemical signals or in concert with environmental cues for reproduction. Once the chemical structure of odour attractants are identified and shown to lure conspecifics to traps, odorants or their blends can be used to control the aquatic pests. There is promise for the application of pheromone traps to control the malarian vector (Anopheles gambiae) or invasive species such as signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) by disrupting the reproductive behaviours of these species.

  3. Plasticizer endocrine disruption: Highlighting developmental and reproductive effects in mammals and non-mammalian aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Mathieu-Denoncourt, Justine; Wallace, Sarah J; de Solla, Shane R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-08-01

    Due to their versatility, robustness, and low production costs, plastics are used in a wide variety of applications. Plasticizers are mixed with polymers to increase flexibility of plastics. However, plasticizers are not covalently bound to plastics, and thus leach from products into the environment. Several studies have reported that two common plasticizers, bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, induce adverse health effects in vertebrates; however few studies have addressed their toxicity to non-mammalian species. The aim of this review is to compare the effects of plasticizers in animals, with a focus on aquatic species. In summary, we identified three main chains of events that occur in animals exposed to BPA and phthalates. Firstly, plasticizers affect development by altering both the thyroid hormone and growth hormone axes. Secondly, these chemicals interfere with reproduction by decreasing cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Lastly, exposure to plasticizers leads to the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, the increase of fatty acid oxidation, and the reduction in the ability to cope with the augmented oxidative stress leading to reproductive organ malformations, reproductive defects, and decreased fertility.

  4. Coupling ecological and social network models to assess "transmission" and "contagion" of an aquatic invasive species.

    PubMed

    Haak, Danielle M; Fath, Brian D; Forbes, Valery E; Martin, Dustin R; Pope, Kevin L

    2017-04-01

    Network analysis is used to address diverse ecological, social, economic, and epidemiological questions, but few efforts have been made to combine these field-specific analyses into interdisciplinary approaches that effectively address how complex systems are interdependent and connected to one another. Identifying and understanding these cross-boundary connections improves natural resource management and promotes proactive, rather than reactive, decisions. This research had two main objectives; first, adapt the framework and approach of infectious disease network modeling so that it may be applied to the socio-ecological problem of spreading aquatic invasive species, and second, use this new coupled model to simulate the spread of the invasive Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a reservoir network in Southeastern Nebraska, USA. The coupled model integrates an existing social network model of how anglers move on the landscape with new reservoir-specific ecological network models. This approach allowed us to identify 1) how angler movement among reservoirs aids in the spread of B. chinensis, 2) how B. chinensis alters energy flows within individual-reservoir food webs, and 3) a new method for assessing the spread of any number of non-native or invasive species within complex, social-ecological systems.

  5. Aquatic pollution may favor the success of the invasive species A. franciscana.

    PubMed

    Varó, I; Redón, S; Garcia-Roger, E M; Amat, F; Guinot, D; Serrano, R; Navarro, J C

    2015-04-01

    The genus Artemia consists of several bisexual and parthenogenetic sibling species. One of them, A. franciscana, originally restricted to the New World, becomes invasive when introduced into ecosystems out of its natural range of distribution. Invasiveness is anthropically favored by the use of cryptobiotic eggs in the aquaculture and pet trade. The mechanisms of out-competition of the autochthonous Artemia by the invader are still poorly understood. Ecological fitness may play a pivotal role, but other underlying biotic and abiotic factors may contribute. Since the presence of toxicants in hypersaline aquatic ecosystems has been documented, our aim here is to study the potential role of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in a congeneric mechanism of competition between the bisexual A. franciscana (AF), and one of the Old World parthenogenetic siblings, A. parthenogenetica (PD). For this purpose we carried out life table experiments with both species, under different concentrations of the toxicant (0.1, 1 and 5μg/l), and analyzed the cholinesterase inhibition at different developmental stages. The results evidence that both, AF and PD, showed an elevated tolerance to high ranges of chlorpyrifos, but AF survived better and its fecundity was less affected by the exposure to the pesticide than that of PD. The higher fecundity of AF is a selective advantage in colonization processes leading to its establishment as NIS. Besides, under the potential selective pressure of abiotic factors, such as the presence of toxicants, its higher resistance in terms of survival and biological fitness also indicates out-competitive advantages.

  6. Lability of heavy metal species in aquatic humic substances characterized by ion exchange with cellulose phosphate.

    PubMed

    Rocha, J C; Toscano, I A; Burba, P

    1997-01-01

    Labile metal species in aquatic humic substances (HSs) were characterized by ion exchange on cellulose phosphate (CellPhos) by applying an optimized batch procedure. The HSs investigated were pre-extracted from humic-rich waters by ultrafiltration and a resin XAD 8 procedure. The HS-metal species studied were formed by complexation with Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) as a function of time and the ratio ions to HSs. The kinetics and reaction order of this exchange process were studied. At the beginning (<3 min), the labile metal fractions are separated relatively quickly. After 3 min, the separation of the metal ions proceeds with uniform half-lives of about 12-14 min, revealing rather slow first-order kinetics. The metal exchange between HSs and CellPhos exhibited the following order of metal lability with the studied HSs: Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Cd. The required metal determinations were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  7. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1.25 μg), Novobiocin (5 μg), Penicilin (10 μg) and Chloramphenicol (10 μg) was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%), Kanamycin (5.7%), Gentamicin (5.7%) and Oxytetracycline (24.5%). Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  8. Assessment of environmental DNA for detecting presence of imperiled aquatic amphibian species in isolated wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mckee, Anna; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.; Spear, Stephen F.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Glenn, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging tool that allows low-impact sampling for aquatic species by isolating DNA from water samples and screening for DNA sequences specific to species of interest. However, researchers have not tested this method in naturally acidic wetlands that provide breeding habitat for a number of imperiled species, including the frosted salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum), reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), striped newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus), and gopher frog (Lithobates capito). Our objectives for this study were to develop and optimize eDNA survey protocols and assays to complement and enhance capture-based survey methods for these amphibian species. We collected three or more water samples, dipnetted or trapped larval and adult amphibians, and conducted visual encounter surveys for egg masses for target species at 40 sites on 12 different longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts. We used quantitative PCRs to screen eDNA from each site for target species presence. We detected flatwoods salamanders at three sites with eDNA but did not detect them during physical surveys. Based on the sample location we assumed these eDNA detections to indicate the presence of frosted flatwoods salamanders. We did not detect reticulated flatwoods salamanders. We detected striped newts with physical and eDNA surveys at two wetlands. We detected gopher frogs at 12 sites total, three with eDNA alone, two with physical surveys alone, and seven with physical and eDNA surveys. We detected our target species with eDNA at 9 of 11 sites where they were present as indicated from traditional surveys and at six sites where they were not detected with traditional surveys. It was, however, critical to use at least three water samples per site for eDNA. Our results demonstrate eDNA surveys can be a useful complement to traditional survey methods for detecting imperiled pond-breeding amphibians. Environmental DNA may be particularly useful in situations

  9. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  10. Clonal Plasticity of Aquatic Plant Species Submitted to Mechanical Stress: Escape versus Resistance Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Van Groenendael, Jan; Bornette, Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The plastic alterations of clonal architecture are likely to have functional consequences, as they affect the spatial distribution of ramets over patchy environments. However, little is known about the effect of mechanical stresses on the clonal growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clonal plasticity induced by mechanical stress consisting of continuous water current encountered by aquatic plants. More particularly, the aim was to test the capacity of the plants to escape this stress through clonal plastic responses. Methods The transplantation of ramets of the same clone in two contrasting flow velocity conditions was carried out for two species (Potamogeton coloratus and Mentha aquatica) which have contrasting clonal growth forms. Relative allocation to clonal growth, to creeping stems in the clonal biomass, number and total length of creeping stems, spacer length and main creeping stem direction were measured. Key Results For P. coloratus, plants exposed to water current displayed increased total length of creeping stems, increased relative allocation to creeping stems within the clonal dry mass and increased spacer length. For M. aquatica, plants exposed to current displayed increased number and total length of creeping stems. Exposure to current induced for both species a significant increase of the proportion of creeping stems in the downstream direction to the detriment of creeping stems perpendicular to flow. Conclusions This study demonstrates that mechanical stress from current flow induced plastic variation in clonal traits for both species. The responses of P. coloratus could lead to an escape strategy, with low benefits with respect to sheltering and anchorage. The responses of M. aquatica that may result in a denser canopy and enhancement of anchorage efficiency could lead to a resistance strategy. PMID:18854376

  11. Predicting the aquatic risk of realistic pesticide mixtures to species assemblages in Portuguese river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    Although pesticide regulatory tools are mainly based on individual substances, aquatic ecosystems are usually exposed to multiple pesticides from their use on the variety of crops within the catchment of a river. This study estimated the impact of measured pesticide mixtures in surface waters from 2002 and 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo') on primary producers, arthropods and fish by toxic pressure calculation. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), in combination with mixture toxicity models, were applied. Considering the differences in the responses of the taxonomic groups as well as in the pesticide exposures that these organisms experience, variable acute multi-substance potentially affected fractions (msPAFs) were obtained. The median msPAF for primary producers and arthropods in surface waters of all river basins exceeded 5%, the cut-off value used in the prospective SSD approach for deriving individual environmental quality standards. A ranking procedure identified various photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, with oxadiazon having the relatively largest toxic effects on primary producers, while the organophosphorus insecticides, chlorfenvinphos and chlorpyrifos, and the organochloride endosulfan had the largest effects on arthropods and fish, respectively. These results ensure compliance with European legislation with regard to ecological risk assessment and management of pesticides in surface waters.

  12. Tectonics, climate, and the rise and demise of continental aquatic species richness hotspots.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Thomas A; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Kroh, Andreas; Mandic, Oleg

    2015-09-15

    Continental aquatic species richness hotspots are unevenly distributed across the planet. In present-day Europe, only two centers of biodiversity exist (Lake Ohrid on the Balkans and the Caspian Sea). During the Neogene, a wide variety of hotspots developed in a series of long-lived lakes. The mechanisms underlying the presence of richness hotspots in different geological periods have not been properly examined thus far. Based on Miocene to Recent gastropod distributions, we show that the existence and evolution of such hotspots in inland-water systems are tightly linked to the geodynamic history of the European continent. Both past and present hotspots are related to the formation and persistence of long-lived lake systems in geological basins or to isolation of existing inland basins and embayments from the marine realm. The faunal evolution within hotspots highly depends on warm climates and surface area. During the Quaternary icehouse climate and extensive glaciations, limnic biodiversity sustained a severe decline across the continent and most former hotspots disappeared. The Recent gastropod distribution is mainly a geologically young pattern formed after the Last Glacial Maximum (19 ky) and subsequent formation of postglacial lakes. The major hotspots today are related to long-lived lakes in preglacially formed, permanently subsiding geological basins.

  13. Tectonics, climate, and the rise and demise of continental aquatic species richness hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Kroh, Andreas; Mandic, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Continental aquatic species richness hotspots are unevenly distributed across the planet. In present-day Europe, only two centers of biodiversity exist (Lake Ohrid on the Balkans and the Caspian Sea). During the Neogene, a wide variety of hotspots developed in a series of long-lived lakes. The mechanisms underlying the presence of richness hotspots in different geological periods have not been properly examined thus far. Based on Miocene to Recent gastropod distributions, we show that the existence and evolution of such hotspots in inland-water systems are tightly linked to the geodynamic history of the European continent. Both past and present hotspots are related to the formation and persistence of long-lived lake systems in geological basins or to isolation of existing inland basins and embayments from the marine realm. The faunal evolution within hotspots highly depends on warm climates and surface area. During the Quaternary icehouse climate and extensive glaciations, limnic biodiversity sustained a severe decline across the continent and most former hotspots disappeared. The Recent gastropod distribution is mainly a geologically young pattern formed after the Last Glacial Maximum (19 ky) and subsequent formation of postglacial lakes. The major hotspots today are related to long-lived lakes in preglacially formed, permanently subsiding geological basins. PMID:26305934

  14. THE TRUE IDENTITY OF COPELAND'S AQUATIC SCUTTLE FLY (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) FROM INDIANA AND RECOGNITION OF A SIBLING SPECIES FROM TEXAS.

    PubMed

    Disney, R Henry L; Copeland, Robert S; Murrell, Ebony

    2009-07-01

    Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).

  15. Metacommunity ecology meets biogeography: effects of geographical region, spatial dynamics and environmental filtering on community structure in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Alahuhta, Janne; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity. Third, we examined turnover and nestedness components of multiple-site beta diversity, and tested the best fit patterns of our datasets using the "elements of metacommunity structure" analysis. Our results showed that basin identity and local environmental variables were significant predictors of community structure, whereas within-basin spatial effects were typically negligible. In half of the organismal groups (diatoms, bryophytes, zooplankton), basin identity was a slightly better predictor of community structure than local environmental variables, whereas the opposite was true for the remaining three organismal groups (insects, macrophytes, fish). Both pure basin and local environmental fractions were, however, significant after accounting for the effects of the other predictor variable sets. All organismal groups exhibited high levels of beta diversity, which was mostly attributable to the turnover component. Our results showed consistent Clementsian-type metacommunity structures, suggesting that subgroups of species responded similarly to environmental factors or drainage basin limits. We conclude that aquatic communities across large scales are mostly determined by environmental and basin effects, which leads to high beta diversity and prevalence of Clementsian community types.

  16. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  17. Exploring new Routes for Identifying Phosphorus Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems with 31P NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergren, Johan; Persson, Per; Sundman, Annelie; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Giesler, Reiner; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    develop a new method to retrieve and characterize P components in water. By utilizing passive sampling with ion-exchange resin and subsequent analysis with solid state 31P MAS NMR we could identify various P-species extracted from the aquatic systems. By using this approach we can also study the dynamics of the absorption process at the resin as a function of P-species and temperature. This even enabled us to extract the fraction of bound versus free P as a function of temperature for different model P-components (manuscript in preparation). REFERENCES: Gilbert N. Nature 461 716-718 (2009) Vincent AG. et al., Biogeochemistry, 10.1007/s10533-011-9612-0 (2011). Vestergren J et al., Environ. Sci. Technol, 46, 3950-3956, (2012). Vincent AG et al., Plant Soil, 367, 149-162, (2013). Laudon H., et al., Water Resour. Res., 49, 7154-7158, (2013).

  18. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae (Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to <0.1 mg/L, Chlorodesmis sp. was able to reduce arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  19. Multiple origins of pyrethroid insecticide resistance across the species complex of a nontarget aquatic crustacean, Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Poynton, Helen C; Wellborn, Gary A; Lydy, Michael J; Blalock, Bonnie J; Sepulveda, Maria S; Colbourne, John K

    2013-10-08

    Use of pesticides can have substantial nonlethal impacts on nontarget species, including driving evolutionary change, often with unknown consequences for species, ecosystems, and society. Hyalella azteca, a species complex of North American freshwater amphipods, is widely used for toxicity testing of water and sediment and has frequently shown toxicity due to pyrethroid pesticides. We demonstrate that 10 populations, 3 from laboratory cultures and 7 from California water bodies, differed by at least 550-fold in sensitivity to pyrethroids. The populations sorted into four phylogenetic groups consistent with species-level divergence. By sequencing the primary pyrethroid target site, the voltage-gated sodium channel, we show that point mutations and their spread in natural populations were responsible for differences in pyrethroid sensitivity. At least one population had both mutant and WT alleles, suggesting ongoing evolution of resistance. Although nonresistant H. azteca were susceptible to the typical neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids, gene expression analysis suggests the mode of action in resistant H. azteca was not neurotoxicity but was oxidative stress sustained only at considerably higher pyrethroid concentrations. The finding that a nontarget aquatic species has acquired resistance to pesticides used only on terrestrial pests is troubling evidence of the impact of chronic pesticide transport from land-based applications into aquatic systems. Our findings have far-reaching implications for continued uncritical use of H. azteca as a principal species for monitoring and environmental policy decisions.

  20. Multiple origins of pyrethroid insecticide resistance across the species complex of a nontarget aquatic crustacean, Hyalella azteca

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Donald P.; Poynton, Helen C.; Wellborn, Gary A.; Lydy, Michael J.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Colbourne, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Use of pesticides can have substantial nonlethal impacts on nontarget species, including driving evolutionary change, often with unknown consequences for species, ecosystems, and society. Hyalella azteca, a species complex of North American freshwater amphipods, is widely used for toxicity testing of water and sediment and has frequently shown toxicity due to pyrethroid pesticides. We demonstrate that 10 populations, 3 from laboratory cultures and 7 from California water bodies, differed by at least 550-fold in sensitivity to pyrethroids. The populations sorted into four phylogenetic groups consistent with species-level divergence. By sequencing the primary pyrethroid target site, the voltage-gated sodium channel, we show that point mutations and their spread in natural populations were responsible for differences in pyrethroid sensitivity. At least one population had both mutant and WT alleles, suggesting ongoing evolution of resistance. Although nonresistant H. azteca were susceptible to the typical neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids, gene expression analysis suggests the mode of action in resistant H. azteca was not neurotoxicity but was oxidative stress sustained only at considerably higher pyrethroid concentrations. The finding that a nontarget aquatic species has acquired resistance to pesticides used only on terrestrial pests is troubling evidence of the impact of chronic pesticide transport from land-based applications into aquatic systems. Our findings have far-reaching implications for continued uncritical use of H. azteca as a principal species for monitoring and environmental policy decisions. PMID:24065824

  1. Predicting locations of rare aquatic species’ habitat with a combination of species-specific and assemblage-based models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Carlson, Douglas M.; Payne-Wynne, Molly L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Rare aquatic species are a substantial component of biodiversity, and their conservation is a major objective of many management plans. However, they are difficult to assess, and their optimal habitats are often poorly known. Methods to effectively predict the likely locations of suitable rare aquatic species habitats are needed. We combine two modelling approaches to predict occurrence and general abundance of several rare fish species. Location: Allegheny watershed of western New York State (USA) Methods: Our method used two empirical neural network modelling approaches (species specific and assemblage based) to predict stream-by-stream occurrence and general abundance of rare darters, based on broad-scale habitat conditions. Species-specific models were developed for longhead darter (Percina macrocephala), spotted darter (Etheostoma maculatum) and variegate darter (Etheostoma variatum) in the Allegheny drainage. An additional model predicted the type of rare darter-containing assemblage expected in each stream reach. Predictions from both models were then combined inclusively and exclusively and compared with additional independent data. Results Example rare darter predictions demonstrate the method's effectiveness. Models performed well (R2 ≥ 0.79), identified where suitable darter habitat was most likely to occur, and predictions matched well to those of collection sites. Additional independent data showed that the most conservative (exclusive) model slightly underestimated the distributions of these rare darters or predictions were displaced by one stream reach, suggesting that new darter habitat types were detected in the later collections. Main conclusions Broad-scale habitat variables can be used to effectively identify rare species' habitats. Combining species-specific and assemblage-based models enhances our ability to make use of the sparse data on rare species and to identify habitat units most likely and least likely to support those species

  2. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods used to describe aquatic communities for early detection of invasve fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize Type I and II detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identifi...

  3. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment.

  4. A simultaneous multiple species acute toxicity test comparing relative sensitivities of six aquatic organisms to HgCl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.E.; Heagler, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In the last few years there has been concern in the scientific community about observed declines in some amphibian species. These population declines could be reflecting a global phenomenon due to a general class sensitivity or may be part of a natural cycle. The suggestion of an overall greater sensitivity of amphibians is not supported. Studies show that amphibians, as a class, are neither more or less susceptible than fish to environmental conditions. Mercury has been found to be one of the most toxic of the heavy metals introduced into amphibian breeding waters. Six aquatic species were simultaneously exposed in a comparative acute toxicity test with mercury chloride: three amphibians, Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog), R. clamitans (green frog), and R. sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, formally classified as R. utricularia); two fish, Gambusia affinis (mosquitofish) and Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner); one aquatic aligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus (aquatic earthworm). The five test concentrations used were 1.4, 3.9, 12.0, 110.0, and 487.0 {micro}g Hg/L respectively. Ten organisms per species were randomly placed into the six test tanks (control and five concentrations), each species in a separate chamber. The resultant LC50-96hr values produced the following rank order: R. sphenocephala, 6.59 {micro}g Hg/L; R. clamitans, 14.7 {micro}g Hg/L; N. crysoleucas, 16.75 {micro}g Hg/L; L. variegatus, 43.72,ug Hg/L; G. affinis, 52.62 {micro}g Hg/L; R. catesbeiana, 63.36 {micro}g Hg/L. No general organism class sensitivity trend, for amphibians, was developed from this data, contrary to the implicit suggestions of some researchers.

  5. Influence of three aquatic macrophytes on mitigation of nitrogen species from agricultural runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural runoff containing nitrogen fertilizer is a major contributor to eutrophication in aquatic systems. One method of lowering amounts of nitrogen entering rivers or lakes is the transport of runoff through vegetated drainage ditches. Drainage ditch vegetation can enhance the mitigation of...

  6. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE HAZARD OF PHARMACEUTICAL MATERIALS TO AQUATIC SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a wide variety of existing ecotoxicity methods that may be used to address potential impacts of human pharmaceuticals on populations of aquatic organisms. Several key methods, using algae, invertebrates, or fish, focus upon measuring population-relevent effects (e.g. su...

  7. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (23rd) Held in West Palm Beach, Florida on 14-17 November 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    County Ponds Inksted with Hydrfi suafece Aovwgw DM fArm Dytk PorlFnd aa 4M Anderson River Park* 9/13/83 0.2 ND0# North Market Street I 9/2185 1.5 ND...North Market Street 11 9/23/WS 0.5 ND Shea Sand and Gravel 1 9/24/85 3.0 ND Shea Sand and Gravel 11 9/24/85 6.0 10 Fish and Game 8/27/86 10 8 Tenny 9...AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT This paper sets out a Plan of Study for establishing the value of aquatic plant management. Through the use of market and

  9. Flow regime in a restored wetland determines trophic links and species composition in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, E; Walton, M E M; Moghaddam, B; Vilas, C; Prieto, A; Kennedy, H A; Pedro Cañavate, J; Le Vay, L

    2015-01-15

    In a restored wetland (South of Spain), where different flow regimes control water exchange with the adjacent Guadalquivir estuary, the native Palaemon varians coexists with an exotic counterpart species Palaemon macrodactylus. This controlled m\\acrocosm offers an excellent opportunity to investigate how the effects of water management, through different flow regimes, and the presence of a non-native species affect the aquatic community and the trophic niche (by gut contents and C-N isotopic composition) of the native shrimp Palaemon varians. We found that increased water exchange rate (5% day(-1) in mixed ponds vs. 0.1% day(-1) in extensive ponds) modified the aquatic community of this wetland; while extensive ponds are dominated by isopods and amphipods with low presence of P. macrodactylus, mixed ponds presented high biomass of mysids, corixids, copepods and both shrimp species. An estuarine origin of nutrients and primary production might explain seasonal and spatial differences found among ponds of this wetland. A combined analysis of gut contents and isotopic composition of the native and the exotic species showed that: (1) native P. varians is mainly omnivorous (2) while the non-native P. macrodactylus is more zooplanktivorous and (3) a dietary overlap occurred when both species coexist at mixed ponds where a higher water exchange and high abundance of mysids and copepods diversifies the native species' diet. Thus differences in the trophic ecology of both species are clearly explained by water management. This experimental study is a valuable tool for integrated management between river basin and wetlands since it allows quantification of wetland community changes in response to the flow regime.

  10. Predicted no-effect concentrations for mercury species and ecological risk assessment for mercury pollution in aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Du, Meng; Wei, Dongbin; Tan, Zhuowei; Lin, Aiwu; Du, Yuguo

    2015-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) exists in different chemical forms presenting varied toxic potentials. It is necessary to explore an ecological risk assessment method for different mercury species in aquatic environment. The predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for Hg(II) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in the aqueous phase, calculated using the species sensitivity distribution method and the assessment factor method, were 0.39 and 6.5×10(-3)μg/L, respectively. The partition theory of Hg between sediment and aqueous phases was considered, along with PNECs for the aqueous phase to conduct an ecological risk assessment for Hg in the sediment phase. Two case studies, one in China and one in the Western Black Sea, were conducted using these PNECs. The toxicity of mercury is heavily dependent on their forms, and their potential ecological risk should be respectively evaluated on the basis of mercury species.

  11. Development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The microbial ecology facility in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is tasked with anticipation of potential microbial problems (and opportunities to exploit microorganisms) which may occur in partially closed systems such as space station/vehicles habitats and in water reclamation systems therein, with particular emphasis on the degradation of materials. Within this context, procedures for microbial biofilm research are being developed. Reported here is the development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species. Preliminary investigations have been completed. As procedures are refined, it will be possible to focus more closely on the elucidation of biofilm phenomena.

  12. Derivation of aquatic predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for 2,4-dichlorophenol: comparing native species data with non-native species data.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaowei; Zha, Jinmiao; Xu, Yiping; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthil

    2011-09-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is known as an important chemical intermediate and an environmental endocrine disruptor. There is no paper dealing with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 2,4-DCP, mainly due to shortage of chronic and site-specific toxicity data. In the present study, toxicity data was obtained from the tests using six Chinese native aquatic species. The HC(5) (hazardous concentration for 5% of species) was derived based on the constructed species sensitivity distribution (SSD), which was compared with that derived from literature toxicity data of non-native species. For invertebrates, the survival no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 0.05 and 1.00 mg L(-1) for Macrobrachium superbum and Corbicula fluminea, respectively. NOECs based on fishes' growth were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mg L(-1) for Mylopharyngodon piceus, Plagiognathops microlepis and Erythroculter ilishaeformis, respectively. For aquatic plant Soirodela polyrhiza, NOEC based on concentration of chlorophyll was 1.00 mg L(-1). A final PNEC calculated using the SSD approach with a 50% certainty based on different taxa ranged between 0.008 and 0.045 mg L(-1). There is no significant difference between HC(5) derived from native and that from non-native taxa.

  13. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  14. Aquatic nuisance species in the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems and the Great Lakes Basin: an economic and environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David

    2005-05-01

    A total of 154 aquatic alien species have invaded the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems and a total of 162 aquatic species have invaded the Great Lakes Basin. Some of these invasive species are causing significant damage and control costs in both aquatic ecosystems. In the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems, the nonindigenous species are causing an estimated 500 million dollars in economic losses each year. The economic and environmental situation in the Great Lakes Basin is far more serious from nonindigenous species, with losses estimated to be about 5.7 billion dollars per year. Commercial and sport fishing suffer the most from the biological invasions, with about 400 million dollars in losses reported for the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems and 4.5 billion dollars in losses reported for the Great Lakes Basin.

  15. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity d...

  16. Evaluation of in silico development of aquatic toxicity species sensitivity distributions (SSDs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard test species. This study assessed whether species sensitivity di...

  17. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED AQUATIC SPECIES WITH ACUTE TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to endangered and threatened (listed) species requires understanding of a species' sensitivity to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation...

  19. Determination of antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance profiles of some bacteria isolated from aquatic amphibian and reptile species.

    PubMed

    Hacioglu, Nurcihan; Tosunoglu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of antibiotic resistance patterns and distribution of heavy metal resistance of bacterial isolates from aquatic animals (Lissotriton vulgaris, Pelophylax ridibundus, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, and Natrix natrix) in Turkey (Kavak Delta). A total of 153 bacteria have been successfully isolated from cloaca and oral samples of the aquatic amphibians and reptilians which were found, namely, Aeromonas sp. (n = 29), Plesiomonas sp. (n = 7), Vibrio sp. (n = 12), Citrobacter sp. (n = 12), Enterobacter sp. (n = 11), Escherichia sp. (n = 22), Klebsiella sp. (n = 22), Edwardsiella sp. (n = 6), Hafnia sp. (n = 1), Proteus sp. (n = 19), Providencia sp. (n = 8), and Pseudomonas sp. (n = 4). In terms of antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 12 antibiotics and 4 metals. There was a high incidence of resistance to cefoxitin (46.40 %), ampicillin (44.44 %), erythromycin (35.29 %), and a low incidence of resistance to gentamicin (6.53 %), kanamycin (8.49 %), chloramphenicol (9.15 %), and cefotaxime (10.45 %). The multiple antibiotic resistance index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised amphibians and reptiles have been exposed to tested antibiotics, with results ranging from 0 to 0.58. Most isolates showed tolerance to different concentrations of heavy metals, and minimal inhibition concentrations ranged from100 to >3,200 μg/mL. According to these results, a significant occurrence of bacteria in the internal organs of reptiles and amphibians, with a high incidence of resistance against antibiotics and heavy metals, may risk aquatic animals and the public health. These data appoint the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environment protection programs for amphibian and reptile species.

  20. Low Frequency Vibrations Induce Malformations in Two Aquatic Species in a Frequency-, Waveform-, and Direction-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Stevenson, Claire; Levin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as industrial wastes, air particulates from machinery and transportation vehicles, and pesticide run-offs, as well as many chemicals, have been widely studied for their effects on human and wildlife populations. Yet other potentially harmful environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic pulses, noise and vibrations have remained incompletely understood. Because developing embryos undergo complex morphological changes that can be affected detrimentally by alterations in physical forces, they may be particularly susceptible to exposure to these types of pollutants. We investigated the effects of low frequency vibrations on early embryonic development of two aquatic species, Xenopus laevis (frogs) and Danio rerio (zebrafish), specifically focusing on the effects of varying frequencies, waveforms, and applied direction. We observed treatment-specific effects on the incidence of neural tube defects, left-right patterning defects and abnormal tail morphogenesis in Xenopus tadpoles. Additionally, we found that low frequency vibrations altered left-right patterning and tail morphogenesis, but did not induce neural tube defects, in zebrafish. The results of this study support the conclusion that low frequency vibrations are toxic to aquatic vertebrates, with detrimental effects observed in two important model species with very different embryonic architectures. PMID:23251546

  1. Bioassays with terrestrial and aquatic species as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon degradation.

    PubMed

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Ortega, Lina; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-09-01

    In this study chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests were applied for the assessment of a heavily hydrocarbon-contaminated soil prior and after the application of a remediation procedure that consisted in the stimulation of soil autochthonous populations of hydrocarbon degraders in static-ventilated biopiles. Terrestrial bioassays were applied in mixtures of test soils and artificial control soil and studied the survival and reproduction of Eisenia fetida and the avoidance response of E. fetida and Folsomia candida. Effects on aquatic organisms were studied by means of acute tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Daphnia magna performed on aqueous elutriates from test soils. The bioremediation procedure led to a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrocarbons (from 34264 to 3074 mg kg(-1), i.e., 91 % decrease) and toxicity although bioassays were not able to report a percentage decrease of toxicity as high as the percentage reduction. Sublethal tests proved the most sensitive terrestrial bioassays and avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails showed potential as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon remediation due to their high sensitivity and short duration. The concentrations of hydrocarbons in water extracts from test soils were 130 and 100 μg L(-1) before and after remediation, respectively. Similarly to terrestrial tests, most aquatic bioassays detected a significant reduction in toxicity, which was almost negligible at the end of the treatment. D. magna survival was the most affected by soil elutriates although toxicity to the crustacean was associated to the salinity of the samples rather than to the concentration of hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicity tests with aqueous soil elutriates proved less relevant in the assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils due to the low hydrosolubility of hydrocarbons and the influence of the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic medium.

  2. Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Bert; Nolet, Bart A; de Boer, Thijs; de Vries, Peter P; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    At least two distinct trade-offs are thought to facilitate higher diversity in productive plant communities under herbivory. Higher investment in defence and enhanced colonization potential may both correlate with decreased competitive ability in plants. Herbivory may thus promote coexistence of plant species exhibiting divergent life history strategies. How different seasonally tied herbivore assemblages simultaneously affect plant community composition and diversity is, however, largely unknown. Two contrasting types of herbivory can be distinguished in the aquatic vegetation of the shallow lake Lauwersmeer. In summer, predominantly above-ground tissues are eaten, whereas in winter, waterfowl forage on below-ground plant propagules. In a 4-year exclosure study we experimentally separated above-ground herbivory by waterfowl and large fish in summer from below-ground herbivory by Bewick's swans in winter. We measured the individual and combined effects of both herbivory periods on the composition of the three-species aquatic plant community. Herbivory effect sizes varied considerably from year to year. In 2 years herbivore exclusion in summer reinforced dominance of Potamogeton pectinatus with a concomitant decrease in Potamogeton pusillus, whereas no strong, unequivocal effect was observed in the other 2 years. Winter exclusion, on the other hand, had a negative effect on Zannichellia palustris, but the effect size differed considerably between years. We suggest that the colonization ability of Z. palustris may have enabled this species to be more abundant after reduction of P. pectinatus tuber densities by swans. Evenness decreased due to herbivore exclusion in summer. We conclude that seasonally tied above- and below-ground herbivory may each stimulate different components of a macrophyte community as they each favoured a different subordinate plant species.

  3. Relevance of risk predictions derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution with cadmium to aquatic populations and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Criteria to protect aquatic life are intended to protect diverse ecosystems, but in practice are usually developed from compilations of single-species toxicity tests using standard test organisms that were tested in laboratory environments. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) developed from these compilations are extrapolated to set aquatic ecosystem criteria. The protectiveness of the approach was critically reviewed with a chronic SSD for cadmium comprising 27 species within 21 genera. Within the data set, one genus had lower cadmium effects concentrations than the SSD fifth percentile-based criterion, so in theory this genus, the amphipod Hyalella, could be lost or at least allowed some level of harm by this criteria approach. However, population matrix modeling projected only slightly increased extinction risks for a temperate Hyalella population under scenarios similar to the SSD fifth percentile criterion. The criterion value was further compared to cadmium effects concentrations in ecosystem experiments and field studies. Generally, few adverse effects were inferred from ecosystem experiments at concentrations less than the SSD fifth percentile criterion. Exceptions were behavioral impairments in simplified food web studies. No adverse effects were apparent in field studies under conditions that seldom exceeded the criterion. At concentrations greater than the SSD fifth percentile, the magnitudes of adverse effects in the field studies were roughly proportional to the laboratory-based fraction of species with adverse effects in the SSD. Overall, the modeling and field validation comparisons of the chronic criterion values generally supported the relevance and protectiveness of the SSD fifth percentile approach with cadmium. ?? 2009 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Acute upper thermal limits of three aquatic invasive invertebrates: hot water treatment to prevent upstream transport of invasive species.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; De Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas (Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  5. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Proceedings Annual Meeting (28th) Held in Baltimore, Maryland on November 15-18, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    administration of a corn - Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE) as the prelmsive Corp-wide APC progrm Aquatic Plant Control Operations Support Center (APCOSC) in...and staff at the Diptera. Chironomid larvae were corn - Sino American Biological Control Laboratory, monly associated with the plants . A Chironomus...Miscellaneous Paper A9-ý June 1994 US Army Corps AD-A283 599 of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Aquatic Plant Control Resarch Program

  7. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-26

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability.

  8. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  9. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  10. Advancing capability for bioassessment using DNA metabarcoding: Application to aquatic invasive species monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterizing biological communities by their constituent species is fundamental to biological monitoring and ecological condition assessment. Finding and identifying rare species is a long-standing challenge for monitoring programs. Nevertheless, conducting surveys that can des...

  11. 78 FR 77705 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activity: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Sighting Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... information on more than 900 species of vertebrates, invertebrates, and vascular plants introduced since 1850... by many harmful non-native species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. More than...

  12. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  13. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  14. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  15. Subtle temperature differences may well determine who wins: a story of three submerged aquatic plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As temperatures increases globally, shifts in the distribution of plant species are expected, with unknown effects on invasive species abundance. It is then of value to understand the role increased temperature may have on invasive species. Although nonhomeothermic organisms are the mercy of environ...

  16. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  17. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database with a focus on the introduced fishes of the lower Tennessee and Cumberland drainages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Cannister, Matthew; Johansen, Rebecca; Estes, L. Dwayne; Hamilton, Steven W.; Barrass, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) functions as a national repository and clearinghouse for occurrence data for introduced species within the United States. Included is locality information on over 1,100 species of vertebrates, invertebrates, and vascular plants introduced as early as 1850. Taxa include foreign (exotic) species and species native to North America that have been transported outside of their natural range. Locality data are obtained from published and unpublished literature, state, federal and local monitoring programs, museum accessions, on-line databases, websites, professional communications and on-line reporting forms. The NAS web site provides immediate access to new occurrence records through a real-time interface with the NAS database. Visitors to the web site are presented with a set of pre-defined queries that generate lists of species according to state or hydrologic basin of interest. Fact sheets, distribution maps, and information on new occurrences are updated as new records and information become available. The NAS database allows resource managers to learn of new introductions reported in their region or nearby regions, improving response time. Conversely, managers are encouraged to report their observations of new occurrences to the NAS database so information can be disseminated to other managers, researchers, and the public. In May 2004, the NAS database incorporated an Alert System to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. Users can register to receive alerts based on geographic or taxonomic criteria. The NAS database was used to identify 23 fish species introduced into the lower Tennessee and Cumberland drainages. Most of these are sport fish stocked to support fisheries, but the list also includes accidental and illegal introductions such as Asian Carps, clupeids, various species popular in the aquarium trade, and Atlantic

  18. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a 'daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a 'three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  19. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a `daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a `three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (21st), Aquatic Plant Control Research Program Held in Mobile, Alabama on 17-21 November 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    weed species include hydrilla, giant cutgrass, Eurasian watermilfoil, waterhyacinth, and alligatorweed. Major aquatic plant control activities this year...involved: Hydrilla: 171 acres (Aquathol-k) in boat channels on 24 July 275 acres (SONR-SRP) on 16 October Giant Cutgrass: 550 acres (Rodeo...including waterlettuce. An egg was found on the leaf of panda plant, Kalanchoe tomentosa, although no feeding was observed. One egg was found on frogbit, one

  1. Amino Acid- vs. Peptide-Odorants: Responses of Individual Olfactory Receptor Neurons in an Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hassenklöver, Thomas; Pallesen, Lars P.; Schild, Detlev; Manzini, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are widely used waterborne olfactory stimuli proposed to serve as cues in the search for food. In natural waters the main source of amino acids is the decomposition of proteins. But this process also produces a variety of small peptides as intermediate cleavage products. In the present study we tested whether amino acids actually are the natural and adequate stimuli for the olfactory receptors they bind to. Alternatively, these olfactory receptors could be peptide receptors which also bind amino acids though at lower affinity. Employing calcium imaging in acute slices of the main olfactory epithelium of the fully aquatic larvae of Xenopus laevis we show that amino acids, and not peptides, are more effective waterborne odorants. PMID:23300867

  2. The impact of dehydration rate on the production and cellular location of reactive oxygen species in an aquatic moss

    PubMed Central

    Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Catalá, Myriam; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Branquinho, Cristina; Barreno, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica requires a slow rate of dehydration to survive a desiccation event. The present work examined whether differences in the dehydration rate resulted in corresponding differences in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore in the amount of cell damage. Methods Intracellular ROS production by the aquatic moss was assessed with confocal laser microscopy and the ROS-specific chemical probe 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The production of hydrogen peroxide was also quantified and its cellular location was assessed. Key Results The rehydration of slowly dried cells was associated with lower ROS production, thereby reducing the amount of cellular damage and increasing cell survival. A high oxygen consumption burst accompanied the initial stages of rehydration, perhaps due to the burst of ROS production. Conclusions A slow dehydration rate may induce cell protection mechanisms that serve to limit ROS production and reduce the oxidative burst, decreasing the number of damaged and dead cells due upon rehydration. PMID:22875812

  3. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  4. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  5. [Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction on aquatic species in middle reaches of Lancang River, Southwest China based on ESHIPPO model].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ming-Chun; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Li, Jin-Peng; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2013-02-01

    An investigation was conducted on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish at 8 sampling sections in the Manwan Reservoir before and after the construction of Xiaowan Hydropower Dam. The modified ESHIPPO model was applied to study the changes of the featured aquatic species, including endangered species, endemic specie, peis resource species, and native fish, aimed to make an ecological risk assessment of the dam construction on the aquatic species. The dam construction had definite ecological risk on the aquatic species, especially the endemic fish, in Langcang River, due to the changes of hydrological conditions. The endemic species including Bangia atropurpurea, Lemanea sinica, Prasiola sp., Attheyella yunnanensis, and Neutrodiaptomus mariadvigae were at high ecological risk, and thus, besides monitoring, protection measures were needed to be taken to lower the possibility of the species extinction. The widely distributed species of phytoplankton and zooplankton were at medium ecological risk, and protection measures besides monitoring should be prepared. Twelve kinds of native fish, including Barbodes huangchuchieni, Sinilabeo laticeps, Racoma lantsangensis, Racoma lissolabiatus, Paracobitis anguillioides, Schistura latifasciata, Botia nigrolineata, Vanmanenia striata, Homaloptera yunnanensis, Platytropius longianlis, Glyptothorax zanaensis, and Pseudecheneis immaculate, were at high ecological risk, and protection measures needed to be developed to prevent the possibility of the species loss and extinction.

  6. Aquatic Activities for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. David; And Others

    Designed to meet the diverse educational needs of youth groups, this aquatic program consists of eight individual lesson units, each devoted to one aspect of the aquatic world. Unit topics include: fish aquariums; raising earthworms; simulation of coastal planning; entomology and water; rope; calculating stream flow; saltwater aquariums; and fish…

  7. Membrane filtration studies of aquatic humic substances and their metal species: a concise overview. Part 2. Evaluation of conditional stability constants by using ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Nifant'eva, T I; Shkinev, V M; Spivakov, B Y; Burba, P

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of conditional stability constants of aquatic humic substance (HS) metal complexes is overviewed with special emphasis on the application of ultrafiltration methods. Fundamentals and limitations of stability functions in the case of macromolecular and polydisperse metal-HS species in aquatic environments are critically discussed. The review summarizes the advantages and application of ultrafiltration for metal-HS complexation studies, discusses the comparibility and reliability of stability constants. The potential of ultrafiltration procedures for characterizing the lability of metal-HS species is also stressed.

  8. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G

    2017-01-06

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  9. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    PubMed Central

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors. PMID:28059104

  10. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  11. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  12. Development of aquatic toxicity benchmarks for oil products using species sensitivity distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to spilled oil and chemically dispersed oil continues to be a significant challenge in spill response and impact assessment. We used standardized tests from the literature to develop species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of...

  13. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  14. Body size is a significant predictor of congruency in species richness patterns: a meta-analysis of aquatic studies.

    PubMed

    Velghe, Katherine; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity losses over the next century are predicted to result in alterations of ecosystem functions that are on par with other major drivers of global change. Given the seriousness of this issue, there is a need to effectively monitor global biodiversity. Because performing biodiversity censuses of all taxonomic groups is prohibitively costly, indicator groups have been studied to estimate the biodiversity of different taxonomic groups. Quantifying cross-taxon congruence is a method of evaluating the assumption that the diversity of one taxonomic group can be used to predict the diversity of another. To improve the predictive ability of cross-taxon congruence in aquatic ecosystems, we evaluated whether body size, measured as the ratio of average body length between organismal groups, is a significant predictor of their cross-taxon biodiversity congruence. To test this hypothesis, we searched the published literature and screened for studies that used species richness correlations as their metric of cross-taxon congruence. We extracted 96 correlation coefficients from 16 studies, which encompassed 784 inland water bodies. With these correlation coefficients, we conducted a categorical meta-analysis, grouping data based on the body size ratio of organisms. Our results showed that cross-taxon congruence is variable among sites and between different groups (r values ranging between -0.53 to 0.88). In addition, our quantitative meta-analysis demonstrated that organisms most similar in body size showed stronger species richness correlations than organisms which differed increasingly in size (radj(2) = 0.94, p = 0.02). We propose that future studies applying biodiversity indicators in aquatic ecosystems consider functional traits such as body size, so as to increase their success at predicting the biodiversity of taxonomic groups where cost-effective conservation tools are needed.

  15. Body Size Is a Significant Predictor of Congruency in Species Richness Patterns: A Meta-Analysis of Aquatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Velghe, Katherine; Gregory-Eaves, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity losses over the next century are predicted to result in alterations of ecosystem functions that are on par with other major drivers of global change. Given the seriousness of this issue, there is a need to effectively monitor global biodiversity. Because performing biodiversity censuses of all taxonomic groups is prohibitively costly, indicator groups have been studied to estimate the biodiversity of different taxonomic groups. Quantifying cross-taxon congruence is a method of evaluating the assumption that the diversity of one taxonomic group can be used to predict the diversity of another. To improve the predictive ability of cross-taxon congruence in aquatic ecosystems, we evaluated whether body size, measured as the ratio of average body length between organismal groups, is a significant predictor of their cross-taxon biodiversity congruence. To test this hypothesis, we searched the published literature and screened for studies that used species richness correlations as their metric of cross-taxon congruence. We extracted 96 correlation coefficients from 16 studies, which encompassed 784 inland water bodies. With these correlation coefficients, we conducted a categorical meta-analysis, grouping data based on the body size ratio of organisms. Our results showed that cross-taxon congruence is variable among sites and between different groups (r values ranging between −0.53 to 0.88). In addition, our quantitative meta-analysis demonstrated that organisms most similar in body size showed stronger species richness correlations than organisms which differed increasingly in size (radj2 = 0.94, p = 0.02). We propose that future studies applying biodiversity indicators in aquatic ecosystems consider functional traits such as body size, so as to increase their success at predicting the biodiversity of taxonomic groups where cost-effective conservation tools are needed. PMID:23468903

  16. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  17. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Canfield, T J; Mount, D R; Mayer, F L

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia--or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  18. Risk assessment and toxic effects of metal pollution in two cultured and wild fish species from highly degraded aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Zaghloul, Khalid H; Abdel-Khalek, Amr A; Abo-Hegab, S

    2013-11-01

    Lake Qaroun is an inland lake at the lowest part of El-Fayoum depression, Egypt. It receives agricultural and domestic non-treated drainage waters, which are also used for aquaculture in Qaroun area. The results of the present study aimed to provide comparable data between wild (collected from Lake Qaroun) and cultured (collected from Qaroun fish farms and the reference site) Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and mullet Mugil cephalus, as indicators of natural and anthropogenic impacts on aquatic ecosystem as well as to evaluate the human hazard index associated with fish consumption. Metal concentrations in fish tissues showed a species-specific bioaccumulation pattern. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean metal concentrations with lower bioavailability in M. cephalus compared with O. niloticus in internal vital organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) but much higher in external organs (gill and skin). Histopathological alterations and evident damages were observed in gill, liver, and kidney of both species collected from Lake Qaroun and Qaroun fish farms compared with those from the reference site. The results showed significant increase of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity as well as creatinine and uric acid concentration in both fish species from polluted locations. The human health hazard index showed that the cumulative risk greatly increases with increasing fish consumption rate, thus yielding an alarming concern for consumer health.

  19. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture. PMID:26805821

  20. Elucidating the Diversity of Aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma Species and Their Activity against the Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia diclina.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, Jos M; de Bruijn, Irene

    2016-01-21

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security. Due to the prohibition of several chemical control agents, novel sustainable measures are required to control Saprolegnia infections in aquaculture. Previously, fungal community analysis by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) revealed that the Ascomycota, specifically the genus Microdochium, was an abundant fungal phylum associated with salmon eggs from a commercial fish farm. Here, phylogenetic analyses showed that most fungal isolates obtained from salmon eggs were closely related to Microdochium lycopodinum/Microdochium phragmitis and Trichoderma viride species. Phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses showed both a quantitative and qualitative difference in Trichoderma population between diseased and healthy salmon eggs, which was not the case for the Microdochium population. In vitro antagonistic activity of the fungi against Saprolegnia diclina was isolate-dependent; for most Trichoderma isolates, the typical mycoparasitic coiling around and/or formation of papilla-like structures on S. diclina hyphae were observed. These results suggest that among the fungal community associated with salmon eggs, Trichoderma species may play a role in Saprolegnia suppression in aquaculture.

  1. Aquatic toxicity variability for fresh- and saltwater species in refinery wastewater effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, C.A.; Rabe, B.; Edgmon, S.J.; Fillingame, D.

    1995-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established test requirements for toxicity reduction or toxicity identification evaluations (TR/TIE) of wastewater effluents. Interpretations of test results are complicated by factors other than toxicity when essentially freshwater wastewaters flow into estuaries and the effluent permit requires marine organisms for testing. This paper reports the results of an investigation of potential freshwater surrogate species, and Microtox{reg_sign}, for use in such a TIE. Of the five species tested, mysid shrimp were found to be most sensitive to unidentified toxicants in petroleum refinery wastewater. No strong correlations of this sensitivity to that of other organisms, or to several wastewater constitutents, were identified. The two marine species specified in the effluent permit were more sensitive to the toxicants that were the freshwater species.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF DNA-BASED TOOLS FOR IDENTIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUATIC INTRODUCED SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Claims for potential applications of DNA taxonomy range from identification of unknown specimens and the discovery of new species to the study of biodiversity through comprehensive characterizations of complex biotic communities drawn from environmental samples. Recently, these a...

  3. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  4. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  5. Examining Ecological and Ecosystem Level Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species in Lake Michigan Using An Ecosystem Productivity Model, LM-Eco

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological and ecosystem-level impacts of aquatic invasive species in Lake Michigan were examined using the Lake Michigan Ecosystem Model (LM-Eco). The LM-Eco model includes a detailed description of trophic levels and their interactions within the lower food web of Lake Michiga...

  6. Can we say: There is a <5% chance a new fish has invaded the St. Louis River? Evolving aquatic invasive species early detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  7. Genetic diversity in three invasive clonal aquatic species in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elodea canadensis, Egeria densa and Lagarosiphon major are dioecious clonal species which are invasive in New Zealand and other regions. Unlike many other invasive species, the genetic variation in New Zealand is very limited. Clonal reproduction is often considered an evolutionary dead end, even though a certain amount of genetic divergence may arise due to somatic mutations. The successful growth and establishment of invasive clonal species may be explained not by adaptability but by pre-existing ecological traits that prove advantageous in the new environment. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure in the North Island of New Zealand using AFLPs and related the findings to the number of introductions and the evolution that has occurred in the introduced area. Results Low levels of genetic diversity were found in all three species and appeared to be due to highly homogeneous founding gene pools. Elodea canadensis was introduced in 1868, and its populations showed more genetic structure than those of the more recently introduced of E. densa (1946) and L. major (1950). Elodea canadensis and L. major, however, had similar phylogeographic patterns, in spite of the difference in time since introduction. Conclusions The presence of a certain level of geographically correlated genetic structure in the absence of sexual reproduction, and in spite of random human dispersal of vegetative propagules, can be reasonably attributed to post-dispersal somatic mutations. Direct evidence of such evolutionary events is, however, still insufficient. PMID:20565861

  8. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  9. Developing strategies for aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a webinar round-table discussion of invasive species and ballast water research, Dr. Trebitz will be giving a short overview of the research that she and co-PIs Jack Kelly, Joel Hoffman, and Greg Peterson are conducting in this area. Key findings from the 2005-2007 sam...

  10. Do varying aquatic plant species affect phytoplankton and crustacean responses to a nitrogen-permethrin mixture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulically connected wetland microcosms vegetated with either Typha latifolia or Myriophyllum aquaticum were amended with an NH4NO3 and permethrin mixture to assess the effectiveness of both plant species in mitigating ecological effects of the pollutant mixture on phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a...

  11. IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF STRESS TO NATIVE AQUATIC SPECIES USING A WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free-flowing Clinch and Powell River basin, located in southwestern Virginia, U.S.A., historically had one of the richest assemblages of native fish and freshwater mussels in the world. Nearly half of the species once residing here are now extinct, threatened or endangered....

  12. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    supply, navigation, and flood damage reduction projects; decrease water potability; diminish recreational opportunities; and degrade ecosystem ...decimated by overfishing and by sea lamprey predation (another invasive species from the east coast). Nuisance die-offs decreased sharply and surviving...invasion, once barriers are circumvented (e.g., the Erie and Welland Canals around Niagara Falls), and, with it, further transformation of ecosystem

  13. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  14. Predicting fine-scale distributions of peripheral aquatic species in headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeRolph, Christopher R.; Nelson, S.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Hain, Ernie F.

    2015-01-01

    Headwater species and peripheral populations that occupy habitat at the edge of a species range may hold an increased conservation value to managers due to their potential to maximize intraspecies diversity and species' adaptive capabilities in the context of rapid environmental change. The southern Appalachian Mountains are the southern extent of the geographic range of native Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta in eastern North America. We predicted distributions of these peripheral, headwater wild trout populations at a fine scale to serve as a planning and management tool for resource managers to maximize resistance and resilience of these populations in the face of anthropogenic stressors. We developed correlative logistic regression models to predict occurrence of brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout for every interconfluence stream reach in the study area. A stream network was generated to capture a more consistent representation of headwater streams. Each of the final models had four significant metrics in common: stream order, fragmentation, precipitation, and land cover. Strahler stream order was found to be the most influential variable in two of the three final models and the second most influential variable in the other model. Greater than 70% presence accuracy was achieved for all three models. The underrepresentation of headwater streams in commonly used hydrography datasets is an important consideration that warrants close examination when forecasting headwater species distributions and range estimates. Additionally, it appears that a relative watershed position metric (e.g., stream order) is an important surrogate variable (even when elevation is included) for biotic interactions across the landscape in areas where headwater species distributions are influenced by topographical gradients.

  15. Predicting fine-scale distributions of peripheral aquatic species in headwater streams

    SciTech Connect

    DeRolph, Christopher R.; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Hain, Ernie F.

    2014-12-09

    Headwater species and peripheral populations that occupy habitat at the edge of a species range may hold an increased conservation value to managers due to their potential to maximize intraspecies diversity and species' adaptive capabilities in the context of rapid environmental change. The southern Appalachian Mountains are the southern extent of the geographic range of native Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta in eastern North America. In this paper, we predicted distributions of these peripheral, headwater wild trout populations at a fine scale to serve as a planning and management tool for resource managers to maximize resistance and resilience of these populations in the face of anthropogenic stressors. We developed correlative logistic regression models to predict occurrence of brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout for every interconfluence stream reach in the study area. A stream network was generated to capture a more consistent representation of headwater streams. Each of the final models had four significant metrics in common: stream order, fragmentation, precipitation, and land cover. Strahler stream order was found to be the most influential variable in two of the three final models and the second most influential variable in the other model. Greater than 70% presence accuracy was achieved for all three models. The underrepresentation of headwater streams in commonly used hydrography datasets is an important consideration that warrants close examination when forecasting headwater species distributions and range estimates. Finally and additionally, it appears that a relative watershed position metric (e.g., stream order) is an important surrogate variable (even when elevation is included) for biotic interactions across the landscape in areas where headwater species distributions are influenced by topographical gradients.

  16. Predicting fine-scale distributions of peripheral aquatic species in headwater streams

    DOE PAGES

    DeRolph, Christopher R.; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Kwak, Thomas J.; ...

    2014-12-09

    Headwater species and peripheral populations that occupy habitat at the edge of a species range may hold an increased conservation value to managers due to their potential to maximize intraspecies diversity and species' adaptive capabilities in the context of rapid environmental change. The southern Appalachian Mountains are the southern extent of the geographic range of native Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta in eastern North America. In this paper, we predicted distributions of these peripheral, headwater wild trout populations at a fine scale to serve as a planning and management tool for resource managers to maximize resistancemore » and resilience of these populations in the face of anthropogenic stressors. We developed correlative logistic regression models to predict occurrence of brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout for every interconfluence stream reach in the study area. A stream network was generated to capture a more consistent representation of headwater streams. Each of the final models had four significant metrics in common: stream order, fragmentation, precipitation, and land cover. Strahler stream order was found to be the most influential variable in two of the three final models and the second most influential variable in the other model. Greater than 70% presence accuracy was achieved for all three models. The underrepresentation of headwater streams in commonly used hydrography datasets is an important consideration that warrants close examination when forecasting headwater species distributions and range estimates. Finally and additionally, it appears that a relative watershed position metric (e.g., stream order) is an important surrogate variable (even when elevation is included) for biotic interactions across the landscape in areas where headwater species distributions are influenced by topographical gradients.« less

  17. Predicting fine-scale distributions of peripheral aquatic species in headwater streams

    PubMed Central

    DeRolph, Christopher R; Nelson, Stacy A C; Kwak, Thomas J; Hain, Ernie F

    2015-01-01

    Headwater species and peripheral populations that occupy habitat at the edge of a species range may hold an increased conservation value to managers due to their potential to maximize intraspecies diversity and species' adaptive capabilities in the context of rapid environmental change. The southern Appalachian Mountains are the southern extent of the geographic range of native Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta in eastern North America. We predicted distributions of these peripheral, headwater wild trout populations at a fine scale to serve as a planning and management tool for resource managers to maximize resistance and resilience of these populations in the face of anthropogenic stressors. We developed correlative logistic regression models to predict occurrence of brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout for every interconfluence stream reach in the study area. A stream network was generated to capture a more consistent representation of headwater streams. Each of the final models had four significant metrics in common: stream order, fragmentation, precipitation, and land cover. Strahler stream order was found to be the most influential variable in two of the three final models and the second most influential variable in the other model. Greater than 70% presence accuracy was achieved for all three models. The underrepresentation of headwater streams in commonly used hydrography datasets is an important consideration that warrants close examination when forecasting headwater species distributions and range estimates. Additionally, it appears that a relative watershed position metric (e.g., stream order) is an important surrogate variable (even when elevation is included) for biotic interactions across the landscape in areas where headwater species distributions are influenced by topographical gradients. PMID:25628872

  18. Interactions among invaders: community and ecosystem effects of multiple invasive species in an experimental aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Olden, Julian D; Solomon, Christopher T; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-02-01

    With ecosystems increasingly supporting multiple invasive species, interactions among invaders could magnify or ameliorate the undesired consequences for native communities and ecosystems. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and Chinese mystery snails [Bellamya (=Cipangopaludina) chinensis] on native snail communities (Physa, Helisoma and Lymnaea sp.) and ecosystem attributes (algal chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations). Both invaders are widespread in the USA and commonly co-occur within northern temperate lakes, underscoring the importance of understanding their singular and joint effects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment revealed that while the two invaders had only weakly negative effects upon one another, both negatively affected the abundance and biomass of native snails, and their combined presence drove one native species to extinction and reduced a second by >95%. Owing to its larger size and thicker shell, adult Bellamya were protected from crayfish attack relative to native species (especially Physa and Lymnaea), suggesting the co-occurrence of these invaders in nature could have elevated consequences for native communities. The per capita impacts of Orconectes (a snail predator) on native snails were substantially greater than those of Bellamya (a snail competitor). Crayfish predation also had a cascading effect by reducing native snail biomass, leading to increased periphyton growth. Bellamya, in contrast, reduced periphyton biomass, likely causing a reduction in growth by native lymnaeid snails. Bellamya also increased water column N:P ratio, possibly because of a low P excretion rate relative to native snail species. Together, these findings highlight the importance of understanding interactions among invasive species, which can have significant community- and ecosystem-level effects.

  19. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy linked to exotic aquatic plants and a novel cyanobacterial species.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Susan B; Murphy, Thomas M; Hope, Charlotte P; Habrun, Sarah K; Kempton, Jason; Birrenkott, Anna; Wiley, Faith; Bowerman, William W; Lewitus, Alan J

    2005-06-01

    Invasions of exotic species have created environmental havoc through competition and displacement of native plants and animals. The introduction of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) into the United States in the 1960s has been detrimental to navigation, power generation, water intake, and water quality (McCann et al., 1996). Our field surveys and feeding studies have now implicated exotic hydrilla and associated epiphytic cyanobacterial species as a link to avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), an emerging avian disease affecting herbivorous waterbirds and their avian predators. AVM, first reported in 1994, has caused the death of at least 100 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and thousands of American coots (Fulica americana) at 11 sites from Texas to North Carolina (Thomas et al., 1998; Rocke et al., 2002). Our working hypothesis is that the agent of this disease is an uncharacterized neurotoxin produced by a novel cyanobacterial epiphyte of the order Stigonematales. This undescribed species covers up to 95% of the surface area of leaves in reservoirs where bird deaths have occurred from the disease. In addition, this species is rare or not found on hydrilla collected at sites where AVM disease has not been diagnosed. Laboratory feeding trials and a sentinel bird study using naturally occurring blooms of cyanobacteria on hydrilla leaves and farm-raised mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) induced the disease experimentally. Since 1994 AVM has been diagnosed in additional sites from Texas to North Carolina. Specific site characteristics that produce the disjunct distribution of AVM are unknown, but it is probable that the incidence of this disease will increase with the introduction of hydrilla and associated cyanobacterial species into additional ponds, lakes, and reservoirs.

  20. Aquatic tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, U.S.A., with the description of a new species of Thulinius (Tardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Bertolani, Roberto; Bartels, Paul J; Guidetti, Roberto; Cesari, Michele; Nelson, Diane R

    2014-02-05

    As part of the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org), an extensive survey of tardigrades has been conducted in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) in Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A., by Bartels and Nelson. Freshwater tardigrades include three species in the aquatic genus Thulinius (Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae). A new species, Thulinius romanoi, described from stream sediment, is distinguished from all other congeners by having a sculptured cuticle. In addition, the presence of Thulinius augusti (Murray, 1907) was verified by combined morphological and molecular analysis, and nine specimens of a third species, Thulinius cf. saltursus, were also found. Thulinius augusti is a new record for the United States. Thulinius saltursus (Schuster, Toftner & Grigarick, 1978) was previously recorded in California and Ohio, but our specimens vary slightly in morphology. The list of tardigrades from streams in the GSMNP was updated to a total of 44 species, 22 of which were predominantly or exclusively aquatic.

  1. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health.

  2. Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (17th) Held at Sacramento, California on 16-18 November 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Miscellaneous Paper A-77-3. PROGRAM PROJECTIONS - Due to the biological nature of the aquatic plant problem and the exponential growth rate of the main nuisance...endemic fungal plant pathogen. (2) Arzama densa (pickerelweed moth), native to the United States. IMPLEMENTING BIOCONTROL METHODS Collection of...describe the effects on the remaining plant community. This work was con-dAued by the Floridg)epartment of Natural Resources, Tallahassee. fi’Hydrology and

  3. DDT and Derivatives in Indicator Species of the Aquatic Food Web of Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Rohitrattana, J.; Thongkongowm, P.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of DDT and derivatives in the food web of freshwater ecosystems of Rangsit agricultural area, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand were investigated from June 2004 to May 2007. By using gas chromatography (GC) with micro electron capture detector (μ ECD), DDT and derivatives in water, sediment, and fifteen indicator species i.e., 2 producers; Eichhornia crassipes and plankton (phyto- and zoo- plankton), an herbivore; Trichogaster microlepis (3) 3 omnivores; Trichogaster trichopterus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Puntius gonionotus, 6 carnivores; Channa striatus, Oxyeleotris marmoratus, Macrognathus siamensis, Parambassis siamensis, Anabas testudineus, and Pristolepis fasciatus, and 3 detritivores; Macrobrachium lanchesteri, Pomacea sp., and Filopaludina mertensi were measured. Results show low concentration levels (part per billion) of DDT & derivatives in each food web compartment i.e. water, sediment, aquatic plant, plankton, fish, and invertebrates. Magnification patterns, i.e. bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, based on habitat and foraging behavior of selected freshwater species indicates that DDT & derivatives can accumulate and be magnified through the food chain from the lowest up to the highest trophic level. Therefore, the presence of residues and the evidence of magnification patterns can be observed as ecological indicators for evaluating ecological health risk. PMID:20161116

  4. QSTR modeling for predicting aquatic toxicity of pharmacological active compounds in multiple test species for regulatory purpose.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita

    2015-02-01

    High concentrations of pharmacological active compounds (PACs) detected in global drinking water resources and their toxicological implications in aquatic life has become a matter of concern compelling for the development of reliable QSTRs (qualitative/quantitative structure-toxicity relationships) for their risk assessment. Robust QSTRs, such as decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models implementing stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms were established by experimental toxicity data of structurally diverse PACs in daphnia using molecular descriptors for predicting toxicity of new untested compounds in multiple test species. Developed models were rigorously validated using OECD recommended internal and external validation procedures and predictive power tested with external data of different trophic level test species (algae and fish). Classification QSTRs (DTB, DTF) rendered accuracy of 98.73% and 97.47%, respectively in daphnia and 84.38%, 85.94% (algae), 78.46% and 79.23% (fish). On the other hand, the regression QSTRs (DTB, DTF) yielded squared correlation coefficient values of 0.831, 0.852 (daphnia), 0.534, 0.556 (algae) and 0.620, 0.637 (fish). QSTRs developed in this study passed the OECD validation criteria and performed better than reported earlier for predicting toxicity of PACs, and can be used for screening the new untested compounds for regulatory purpose.

  5. Uptake of heavy metals to the extracellular and intracellular compartments in three species of aquatic bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

    1999-09-01

    Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with NiCl(2) or EDTA), the intracellular compartment (subsequent extraction with cold dilute HNO(3)), and the particulate fraction (subsequent extraction with hot concentrated HNO(3)). In most cases more metal was taken up to the extracellular compartment than to the intracellular compartment, while particulate-fraction content was negligible. The relationship between metal concentration in the water and metal content in the extracellular compartment was well modeled with a Michaelis-Menten-type equation. Results suggest that in S. undulata extracellular cation-binding sites have a high metal affinity, while in F. polyphyllus it is relatively low. However, postincubation intracellular contents were highest in the latter species. The ranking of the six metals by amounts taken up into the intracellular compartment was the same for all three bryophyte species. Uptake of heavy metals led to considerable losses of intracellular K (probably due to effects on plasma membrane properties), and of extracellular Mg (probably due to displacement from cation-binding sites). Losses of intracellular K were most marked in S. undulata, followed by F. antipyretica. By contrast, S. undulata was the species from which losses of extracellular Mg were lowest.

  6. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic species from the Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Cai-hong; Luo, Xiao-jun; Yu, Mei; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Mai, Bi-xian; Zeng, Eddy

    2006-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in biota samples collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The concentrations of sigma10 PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183) in fish species (including Platycephalus indicus, Pseudosiaena crocea , Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus robustus, and Harpodon nehereus), shrimps (including Metapenaeus ensis and Metapenaeus affinis) and Squilla oratoria were from 37.8 ng x g(-1) to 407.1 ng x g(-1) (normalized to lipid), from 49.0 ng x g(-1) to 239.1 ng x g(-1) and from 142 ng x g(-1) to 444.5 ng x g(-1), respectively. BDE47 was the dominant congener in all biota samples, with a contribution to sigma10 PBDEs ranging from 53.7% to 66.9%. Differences in concentrations of PBDEs and PBDE patterns in different species may be related to the different feeding habit, living environment and uptaking or elimination rate. High ratios of concentrations of PBDEs in liver /muscle in fish species indicated that PBDEs tended to accumulate more in liver than in muscle.

  7. Differential endozoochory of aquatic invertebrates by two duck species in shallow lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Barrera, Luis; Gómez, Eulalia; Gil-Delgado, José Antonio; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Animal vectors are essential for the movement of invertebrate resting eggs between water bodies. However, differences in habitat preferences and feeding behaviour between bird species may result in variations in the dispersal of invertebrates via these birds, even if the different bird species live in the same lake. To test such effects, faecal samples from Anas platyrhynchos (collected in autumn and spring) and Tadorna tadorna (collected in spring) were cultured in water at 20° C and 12 L: 12 D conditions in order to quantify the resting eggs which could be internally transported by these birds. One half of each faecal sample was initially cultured at a conductivity of 0.6 mS cm-1 and the other half at 6 mS cm-1. 1054 invertebrates hatched from a total of 60 faecal samples, including cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, rotifers and ciliates, with a wide variability among faeces. Autumn yielded a low proportion of samples with hatchlings (12.5%) compared to spring (90%). Significant differences were observed between birds, but not between conductivity treatments. Thus, our results imply different hatching dynamics affected by disperser and season, but most species transported as resting eggs by birds seem to have a wide tolerance to hatch under variable salinity conditions. These differences may largery influence the metacommunity dynamics of lake networks, and could be a key factor to consider in wetland conservation planning.

  8. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages.

  9. Invaders in hot water: a simple decontamination method to prevent the accidental spread of aquatic invasive non-native species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy G; Dunn, Alison M; Rosewarne, Paula J; Stebbing, Paul D

    Watersports equipment can act as a vector for the introduction and spread of invasive non native species (INNS) in freshwater environments. To support advice given to recreational water users under the UK Government's Check Clean Dry biosecurity campaign and ensure its effectiveness at killing a range of aquatic INNS, we conducted a survival experiment on seven INNS which pose a high risk to UK freshwaters. The efficacy of exposure to hot water (45 °C, 15 min) was tested as a method by which waters users could 'clean' their equipment and was compared to drying and a control group (no treatment). Hot water had caused 99 % mortality across all species 1 h after treatment and was more effective than drying at all time points (1 h: χ(2) = 117.24, p < 0.001; 1 day χ(2) = 95.68, p < 0.001; 8 days χ(2) = 12.16, p < 0.001 and 16 days χ(2) = 7.58, p < 0.001). Drying caused significantly higher mortality than the control (no action) from day 4 (χ(2) = 8.49, p < 0.01) onwards. In the absence of hot water or drying, 6/7 of these species survived for 16 days, highlighting the importance of good biosecurity practice to reduce the risk of accidental spread. In an additional experiment the minimum lethal temperature and exposure time in hot water to cause 100 % mortality in American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), was determined to be 5 min at 40 °C. Hot water provides a simple, rapid and effective method to clean equipment. We recommend that it is advocated in future biosecurity awareness campaigns.

  10. Bioaccumulation dynamics and exposure routes of Cd and Cu among species of aquatic mayflies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of periphyton is a potentially important route of metal exposure to benthic invertebrate grazers. The present study examined the bioaccumulation kinetics of dissolved and dietary Cd and Cu in five species of mayflies (class Insecta). Artificial stream water and benthic diatoms were separately labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes to determine physiological rate constants used by a biokinetic bioaccumulation model. The model was employed to simulate the effects of metal partitioning between water and food, expressed as the bioconcentration factor (BCF), as well as ingestion rate (IR) and metal assimilation efficiency of food (AE), on the relative importance of water and food to metal bioaccumulation. For all test species, the contribution of dietary uptake of Cd and Cu increased with BCF. For a given BCF, the contribution of food to the body burden increased with kuf, the metal uptake rate constant from food that combined variation in IR and AE. To explore the relative importance of water and diet exposure routes under field conditions, we used estimated site-specific aqueous free-ion concentrations to model Cd and Cu accumulation from aqueous exposure, exclusively. The predicted concentrations accounted for less than 5% of the observed concentrations, implying that most bioaccumulated metal was acquired from food. At least for the taxa considered in this study, we conclude that consumption of metal-contaminated periphyton can result in elevated metal body burdens and potentially increase the risk of metal toxicity. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  11. Ecotoxicity of nitroaromatics to aquatic and terrestrial species at Army Superfund sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hovatter, P.S.; Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Ross, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds, including 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, tetryl, and associated degradation products, are released into the environment during the manufacturing, loading, packing, and assembling of munitions at US Army Ammunition Plants. With the exception of 2A46DNT, nitroaromatic compounds are more toxic to freshwater fishes than to freshwater invertebrates. Rainbow trout are the most sensitive test species with LC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.43 to 6.4 mg/L for TNT, RDX, and HMX. These compounds produce negative effects on reproductive endpoints in terrestrial mammals at doses >1 mg/kg/day. Limited data indicate that nitroaromatics are not toxic to terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates. Additional studies need to be undertaken to completely characterize the toxicity of these compounds; however, the criteria and screening benchmarks presented in this paper can be used to assess the risks to indigenous flora and fauna at Army Superfund sites.

  12. Evaluating the elimination of Brazilian entomopathogenic Bacillus by non-target aquatic species: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo C; Ramos, Felipe R; Miranda, Barbara C G; Muniz, Daphne H F; Monnerat, Rose G

    2014-10-01

    Ecotoxicity tests are key to predict environmental hazards resulting from chemical and biological pesticides in non-target species. In order to assess the effects of microbial pesticides it is important to determine if they cause infection in test organisms. At present the microbial elimination rate or clearance is not included in ecotoxicological regulatory protocols. This study evaluated the elimination of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus from fish and snails, after 30 days' exposure to commercial formulations of such entomopathogens. Data obtained showed that in clean water the tendency to eliminate microbial agents from the body of the exposed organisms is gradual over time but after 7 days the fish and snails were free of the two tested Bacillus spp.

  13. Pharmaceuticals May Disrupt Natural Chemical Information Flows and Species Interactions in Aquatic Systems: Ideas and Perspectives on a Hidden Global Change.

    PubMed

    Van Donk, Ellen; Peacor, Scott; Grosser, Katharina; De Senerpont Domis, Lisette N; Lürling, Miquel

    Pharmaceuticals consumption by humans and animals is increasing substantially, leading to unprecedented levels of these compounds in aquatic environments worldwide. Recent findings that concentrations reach levels that can directly have negative effects on organisms are important per se, but also sound an alarm for other potentially more pervasive effects that arise from the interconnected nature of ecological communities. Aquatic organisms use chemical cues to navigate numerous challenges, including the location of mates and food, and the avoidance of natural enemies. Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals can disrupt this "smellscape" of information leading to maladaptive responses. Furthermore, direct effects of pharmaceuticals on the traits and abundance of one species can cascade through a community, indirectly affecting other species. We review mechanisms by which pharmaceuticals in surface waters can disrupt natural chemical information flows and species interactions. Pharmaceuticals form a new class of chemical threats, which could have far-reaching implications for ecosystem functioning and conservation management.

  14. Staphylococcus argensis sp. nov., a novel staphylococcal species isolated from an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    A staphylocoagulase-negative, novobiocin-susceptible strain (M4S-6T) of a species of the genus Staphylococcus was isolated from the river Argen in Southern Germany. It was assigned to the genus Staphylococcus due to the presence of the fatty acids, ai-C15 : 0, i-C15 : 0, i-C17 : 0, ai-C17 : 0, and of menaquinone (MK-7) in the cytoplasmic membrane, which are typical of coagulase-negative staphylococci. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. Although the 16S gene sequence of strain M4S-6T revealed a 98% similarity with its closest relative, Staphylococcus pettenkoferi, it could be distinguished by several phenotypical and physiological markers. In contrast to S. pettenkoferi, M4S-6T was ornithine decarboxylase-positive, urease-negative and could use formiate and l-histidine as carbon-sources; nitrate was not reduced. Whereas S. pettenkoferi could grow with d(-)-mannitol, d-sorbitol, gluconic acid, l-proline, carboxymethylcellulose and lignosulfonate, M4S-6T was not able to grow with these substances. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and of phenotypic testing indicated that M4S-6T was a representative of a novel species for which the name Staphylococcus argensis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain M4S-6T (DSM 29875T = CIP 110904T).

  15. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  16. Arsenic species uptake and subcellular distribution in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara as influenced by aquatic pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C; Wu, Jianjun

    2014-04-01

    Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, a widely distributed submerged aquatic plant, is a promising species for arsenic (As) removal from contaminated water. We investigated the effects of pH on the accumulation, subcellular distribution and detoxification of As in V. natans. The results showed that the optimum pH for submerged V. natans growth is close to 7.0. The accumulation of As in the plant increased with the increase of pH (p < 0.05). This may have been due to arsenic/phosphate transporters with a higher affinity for the more highly electronegative AsO4 (3-) than for HAsO4 (2-) and H2AsO4 (-). After As(V) was accumulated by plants, more than 80 % was reduced to As(III), but As reduction decreased with increased pH. The majority of accumulated As and reduced As(III) (47 %-66 %) was found in the vacuoles. Higher As concentrations in vacuoles could be considered as an important mechanism for As detoxification in submerged plants.

  17. Heavy metals generate reactive oxygen species in terrestrial and aquatic ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed

    Rico, Daniel; Martín-González, Ana; Díaz, Silvia; de Lucas, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction by exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn) in diverse free-living ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena sp. and three strains of Colpoda steinii, isolated from freshwater and soils with different level of metal pollution) has been evaluated. Using specific fluorophores, such as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, hydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, and a fluorescence microscope with the program MetaMorph Imaging System 4.0, we have analyzed both the average fluorescence emission and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in control and treated cells. This is the first time that these fluorophores are used to detect ROS production in ciliated protozoa. All metals generate ROS, mainly superoxide and peroxides, showing a remarkable inter- and intra-specific variations. Likewise, resistance against each metal was also very diverse. Cu and specially Cd, the most toxic heavy metal for these ciliates, are the best oxidative stress inducers. However, a correlation between fluorescence emission intensity and cellular metal sensitivity for each strain cannot be established. Results are discussed and compared with similar findings previously published in other unicellular and pluricellular organisms.

  18. Impact of Environmentally Based Chemical Hardness on Uranium Speciation and Toxicity in Six Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-01-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO42–) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. PMID:25475484

  19. Oxidation of diclofenac with chlorine dioxide in aquatic environments: influences of different nitrogenous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingling; Liu, Haijin; Liu, Guoguang; Xie, Youhai; Ni, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and emerging water pollutant, with chlorine dioxide was investigated under simulated water disinfection conditions. The reaction kinetics as functions of the initial concentrations of DCF, different nitrogenous species, and different pE values were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that DCF reacted rapidly with ClO2, where more than 75 % of DCF (≤3.00 μM) was removed by 18.94 μM ClO2 within 60 s. All of the reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to DCF, and the rate constant, k obs, exhibited a significant decrease from 4.21 × 10(-2) to 8.09 × 10(-3) s(-1), as the initial DCF concentration was increased from 1.00 to 5.00 μM. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of DCF was clearly dependent on nitrogen-containing ion concentrations in the reaction solution. Ammonium and nitrite ions inhibited the DCF degradation by ClO2, whereas nitrate ion clearly initiated its promotion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of NO2 (-) was more robust than that of NH4 (+). When the values of pE were gradually increased, the transformation of NH4 (+) to NO2 (-), and subsequently to NO3 (-), would occur, the rate constants were initially decreased, and then increased. When NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) coexisted, the inhibitory effect on the DCF degradation was less than the sum of the partial inhibitory effect. However, when NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) coexisted, the actual inhibition rate was greater than the theoretical estimate. These results indicated that the interaction of NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) was antagonistic, while the coexistence of NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) was observed to have a synergistic effect in aqueous environments.

  20. Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-03-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:562-574. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  1. Effects of Anabaena spiroides (Cyanobacteria) aqueous extracts on the acetylcholinesterase activity of aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Monserrat, J M; Yunes, J S; Bianchini, A

    2001-06-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts from a cyanobacteria species, Anabaena spiroides, on fish (Odontesthes argentinensis), crab (Callinectes sapidus), and purified eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied. In vitro concentrations of A. spiroides aqueous extract that inhibited 50% of enzyme activity (IC50) were 23.0, 17.2, and 45.0 mg/L of lyophilized cyanobacteria for eel, fish, and crab AChE, respectively. Eel AChE inhibition follows pseudo-first-order kinetics, the same expected for organophosphorus pesticides. Inhibition of purified eel AChE using mixtures of bioxidized malathion and aqueous extract of A. spiroides showed a competitive feature (p < 0.05), suggesting that the toxin(s) could be structurally similar to an organophosphorus pesticide and that toxins present in the aqueous extract inhibit the active site of the enzyme. The inhibition recovery assays using 2-PAM (0.3 mM) showed that (1) bioxidized malathion inhibited 27.0 +/- 1.1% of crab and 36.5 +/- 0.1% of eel AChE activities; (2) with bioxidized malathion + 2-PAM the registered inhibition was 13.2 +/- 2.1% and 3.7 +/- 0.5% in crab and eel AChE, respectively; (3) the aqueous extract from A. spiroides inhibited 17.4 +/- 2.2% and 59.9 +/- 0.5% of crab and eel AChE activity, respectively; and (4) aqueous extract + 2-PAM inhibited 22.3 +/- 2.6 and 61.5 +/- 0.2% of crab and eel AChEs. The absence of enzyme activity recovery after 2-PAM exposure could imply that the enzyme aging process was extremely quick.

  2. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  3. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  4. Survey of aquatic macroinvertebrates and amphibians at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona, USA: An evaluation of selected factors affecting species richness in ephemeral pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral aquatic habitats in Wupatki National Monument vary from naturally formed pools in arroyos over 5000 years old, to constructed catchment basins with ages estimated at 60-1000+ years old, and borrow pits and stock ponds 30-60 years old. The different ages of these pools provide different histories of colonization by amphibians and aquatic invertebrates, especially temporary pool specialists such as spadefoot toads and branchiopod crustaceans. Ten pools of five different origins and ages were surveyed in August and/or September 1997 for aquatic organisms; a total of 13 surveys were conducted. Twenty-two taxa were found, with the number of species in a pool during any survey ranging from one to 10. Species composition of the communities changed from one sampling date to the next within individual pools. Community structure is an amalgam of species with different dispersal mechanisms that are influenced by different pool characteristics. Age appears to have little effect overall, but may have influenced branchiopod presence/absence. Distance to permanent water, frequency of disturbance, and current pool size were correlated with presence/absence of some species.

  5. SAP Minutes No.2015-03 for FIFRA meeting held 9/15-17/2015. A set of scientific issues being considered by the Environmental Protection Agency regarding development of a spatial aquatic model(SAM)for pesticide risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On September 15-17th, 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency convened a public meeting of the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to address scientific issues associated with the agency’s “Development of a Spatial Aquatic Model (SAM) for Pesticide Risk Assessment”. The goal of SAM is to impr...

  6. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species.

    PubMed

    Besser, J M; Wang, N; Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Ingersoll, C G

    2005-02-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at < or = 11 microg/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 microg/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern.

  7. Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems in aquatic species: carcinogen metabolism and biomarkers for carcinogen and pollutant exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, J J; Lech, J J

    1991-01-01

    High levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens commonly occur in aquatic systems where neoplasms arise in fish and other animals. Enzymes that transform PAHs can act in initiating these diseases and can indicate the contamination of fish by carcinogens and other pollutants. Cytochrome P-450 has similar roles in activating PAH carcinogens in fish and mammalian species. PAHs and many chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a form of cytochrome P-450 in fish that is the primary catalyst of PAH metabolism. The induction of this P-450 in fish can accelerate the disposition of hydrocarbons, but can also enhance the formation of carcinogenic derivatives of PAHs. Invertebrates have lower rates of PAH metabolism than fish. These rates are not obviously inducible by exposure to PAHs or PCBs. The lower rates of foreign compound metabolism contribute to higher pollutant residue levels in bivalve mollusks (clams, mussels, etc.) than in fish and may limit the involvement of some procarcinogens (requiring activation) in disease processes in invertebrates. The induction of P-450 forms can indicate the exposure of fish to PAHs, PCBs, and other toxic compounds. This is not restricted to carcinogens. Environmental induction has been detected in fish from contaminated areas by use of catalytic assay, antibodies to fish P-450, and cDNA probes that hybridize with P-450 messenger RNA. Application of these methods can provide sensitive biological monitoring tools that can detect environmental contamination of fish by some carcinogens and tumor promoters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050047

  8. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa)

    PubMed Central

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5′-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts. PMID:26283971

  9. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  10. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Buisson, Laëtitia

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future.

  11. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  12. The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworms of the genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand (Oligochaeta, Almidae) with re-descriptions of several species

    PubMed Central

    Chanabun, Ratmanee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworm genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand was investigated based on extensive recent collecting. The species in this genus were characterized by their external and internal morphological characters of the location of wings, genital openings, genital organ structures and their locations, as well as the dimensions of body length and number of segments. Several type specimens were compared with both previous and newly collected materials. Ten new species are described from several river systems in Thailand; as Glyphidrilus borealis sp. n., Glyphidrilus chaophraya sp. n., Glyphidrilus chiensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus huailuangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus kratuensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus quadratus sp. n., Glyphidrilus trangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus wararamensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus vangthongensis sp. n. and Glyphidrilus vesper sp. n. Each species is endemic to a single river system. All 26 previously described species are re-described, and eight lectotypes have been designated. An identification key and a morphological comparison summary are provided. PMID:23653518

  13. The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworms of the genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand (Oligochaeta, Almidae) with re-descriptions of several species.

    PubMed

    Chanabun, Ratmanee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2013-01-01

    The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworm genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand was investigated based on extensive recent collecting. The species in this genus were characterized by their external and internal morphological characters of the location of wings, genital openings, genital organ structures and their locations, as well as the dimensions of body length and number of segments. Several type specimens were compared with both previous and newly collected materials. Ten new species are described from several river systems in Thailand; as Glyphidrilus borealis sp. n., Glyphidrilus chaophraya sp. n., Glyphidrilus chiensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus huailuangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus kratuensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus quadratus sp. n., Glyphidrilus trangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus wararamensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus vangthongensis sp. n. and Glyphidrilus vesper sp. n. Each species is endemic to a single river system. All 26 previously described species are re-described, and eight lectotypes have been designated. An identification key and a morphological comparison summary are provided.

  14. Detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariant DNA in aquatic invertebrate species, sediment and other samples collected from the Georges River estuary, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Olivia; Paul-Pont, Ika; Whittington, Richard J

    2017-01-24

    Ostreid herpesvirus 1 microvariants (OsHV-1) present a serious threat to the Australian Crassostrea gigas industry. Of great concern is the propensity for mortality due to the virus recurring each season in farmed oysters. However, the source of the virus in recurrent outbreaks remains unclear. Reference strain ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 ref) and other related variants have been detected in several aquatic invertebrate species other than C. gigas in Europe, Asia and the USA. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence or absence of OsHV-1 in a range of opportunistically sampled aquatic invertebrate species inhabiting specific locations within the Georges River estuary in New South Wales, Australia. OsHV-1 DNA was detected in samples of wild C. gigas, Saccostrea glomerata, Anadara trapezia, mussels (Mytilus spp., Trichomya hirsuta), whelks (Batillaria australis or Pyrazus ebeninus) and barnacles Balanus spp. collected from several sites between October 2012 and April 2013. Viral loads in non-ostreid species were consistently low, as was the prevalence of OsHV-1 DNA detection. Viral concentrations were highest in wild C. gigas and S. glomerata; the prevalence of detectable OsHV-1 DNA in these oysters reached approximately 68 and 43%, respectively, at least once during the study. These species may be important to the transmission and/or persistence of OsHV-1 in endemically infected Australian estuaries.

  15. 76 FR 34746 - Species Proposals for Consideration at the Sixteenth Regular Meeting of the Conference of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and... with information and recommendations on animal and plant species that should be considered as... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or the Convention) at the upcoming sixteenth meeting of...

  16. Evaluation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic species of Suez Gulf water along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nabila A; Ahmed, Omayma E; Doheim, Mamdouh M

    2014-02-01

    The Egyptian Red Sea environment especially along El-Sokhna area to the Suez refineries (Suez) is severely contaminated with organic compounds, as well as overfishing. This may be well contributory to recent serious declines in fish stocks. Fish embryos are also particularly vulnerable to oil exposure, even at extremely low concentrations of less than one part per billion. Consequently, even traces of oil pollution at levels often considered safe for wildlife can cause severe damage to fish. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in ten fish species of aquatic species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples were measured in order to use them as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollutants in the studied region. The total content of these16 PAHs ranged from 399.616 up to 67,631.779 ng/g wet weight. The data show that these values are considered to be alarmingly high enough to cause lethal toxicity effect by accumulation. All studied aquatic species samples are characterized by relatively high concentrations of the six-membered ring PAHs. The origin of PAHs in the collected samples is either petrogenic, biogenic, or mixed petrogenic and biogenic.

  17. Conference on Professional Standards for Aquatic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This report on the 1970 meeting of the Aquatics Council of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation is divided into three sections reflecting the three phases of the Council's interest. Section One is devoted to basic aquatic education for the physical educator. Section Two concerns basic aquatic education for the…

  18. CDFISH: an individual-based, spatially-explicit, landscape genetics simulator for aquatic species in complex riverscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erin L. Landguth,; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Cost Distance FISHeries (CDFISH), a simulator of population genetics and connectivity in complex riverscapes for a wide range of environmental scenarios of aquatic organisms. The spatially-explicit program implements individual-based genetic modeling with Mendelian inheritance and k-allele mutation on a riverscape with resistance to movement. The program simulates individuals in subpopulations through time employing user-defined functions of individual migration, reproduction, mortality, and dispersal through straying on a continuous resistance surface.

  19. Mapping freshwater deltaic wetlands and aquatic habitats at multiple scales with high-resolution multispectral WorldView-2 imagery and Indicator Species Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C.; Liu, H.; Anenkhonov, O.; Autrey, B.; Chepinoga, V.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing technology has long been used in wetland inventory and monitoring though derived wetland maps were limited in applicability and often unsatisfactory largely due to the relatively coarse spatial resolution of conventional satellite imagery. The advent of high-resolution multispectral satellite systems presents new and exciting capabilities in mapping wetland systems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial detail. This research explores and evaluates the use of high-resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) multispectral imagery in identifying and classifying freshwater deltaic wetland vegetation and aquatic habitats in the Selenga River Delta, a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance that drains into Lake Baikal, Russia - a United Nations World Heritage site. A hybrid approach was designed and applied for WV2 image classification consisting of initial unsupervised classification, training data acquisition and analysis, indicator species analysis, and final supervised classification. A hierarchical scheme was defined and adopted for classifying aquatic habitats and wetland vegetation at genus and community levels at a fine scale, while at a coarser scale representing wetland systems as broad substrate and vegetation classes for regional comparisons under various existing wetland classification systems. Rigorous radiometric correction of WV2 images and orthorectification based on GPS-derived ground control points and an ASTER global digital elevation model resulted in 2- to 3-m positional accuracy. We achieved overall classification accuracy of 86.5% for 22 classes of wetland and aquatic habitats at the finest scale and >91% accuracy for broad vegetation and aquatic classes at more generalized scales. At the finest scale, the addition of four new WV2 spectral bands contributed to a classification accuracy increase of 3.5%. The coastal band of WV2 was found to increase the separation between different open water and aquatic habitats, while yellow, red-edge, and

  20. Comprehensive method for determination of aquatic butyltin and butylmethyltin species at ultratrace levels using simultaneous hydridization/extraction with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, C.L.; Bellama, J.M.; Olson, G.J.; Brinckman, F.E.

    1986-06-01

    An ultratrace method for the analysis of aquatic anthropogenic butyltin and mixed methylbutyltin species using simultaneous hydridization with sodium borohydride and extraction into dichloromethane is described. The detection limits for a 100-mL sample are 7 ng of Sn/L for tetrabutyltin, 7 ng of Sn/L for tributyltin, 3 ng of Sn/L for dibutyltin, and 22 ng of Sn/L for monobutyltin. Detection limits of approximately 1-2 ng of Sn/L for tri- and tetrabutyltin and less than 1 ng of Sn/L for dibutyltin species were achieved with 800-mL samples. The presence of tetrabutyltin in harbor waters is reported. 39 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Preliminary comparison of the uptake of chromium-51 and zinc-65 by three species of aquatic plants from Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Sklar, F.H.

    1980-12-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides was much greater for duckweed (Spirodela punctata) than for larger aquatic plants of slower growth (Bacopa caroliniana and Elodea canadensis). Higher specific activity (dpm/gm) was recorded in leaves than in stems. Chromium-51 accumulation factors ranged from a low of 66 for stems of E. canadensis to a high of 436 for S. punctata fronds. Zinc-65 accumulation factors were much higher: 142 for stems of B. caroliniana and 18,118 for fronds of S. punctata. Significant reductions in zinc-65 activity in the water surrounding growing S. punctata was detected within 10 minutes.

  2. Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism. A more detailed discussion of β-carotene follows, with a focus on factors impacting bioavailability and its conversion to vitamin A. Finally, the literature on how animals utilize β-carotene is reviewed individually for several species and classes of animals. We conclude that β-carotene conversion to vitamin A is variable and dependent on a number of factors, which are important to consider in the formulation and assessment of diets. Omnivores and herbivores are more efficient at converting β-carotene to vitamin A than carnivores. Absorption and accumulation of β-carotene in tissues vary with species and are poorly understood. More comparative and mechanistic studies are required in this area to improve the understanding of β-carotene metabolism. PMID:27833936

  3. Description of new species of Pterygorhabditis Timm, and Aspidonema (Sachs, ) Andrássy, (Nematoda: Bunonematoidea) in aquatic habitats from India.

    PubMed

    Tahseen, Q; Khan, R; Ahlawat, S

    2016-07-01

    The paper contains descriptions of two new species of the genera Pterygorhabditis Timm, 1957 and Aspidonema (Sachs, 1949) Andrássy, 1958 belonging to the families Pterygorhabditidae Goodey 1963 and Bunonematidae Micoletzky 1922, respectively. Species were procured from fixed samples, collected earlier from aquatic habitats. Pterygorhabditis punctata n. sp. is characterized by a cuticle with flattened hexagonal blocks arranged in eight longitudinal rows in both sexes; each metastegostomal plate with a minute denticle, and males with long, slender, fused spicules and nine pairs of post-cloacal, prominently setose genital papillae. Aspidonema formosa n. sp. is the first report of the genus from India. The species is characterized by the right side provided with 35-48 pairs of warts flanking a row of smooth membranous shields and surrounded by a well-developed network and an anisomorphic metastegostom without discernible armature. Species are compared with other congeners, together with the diagnoses of amended genera, and keys to the identification of species are provided.

  4. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  5. Aquatic Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  6. Application of species sensitivity distribution in aquatic probabilistic ecological risk assessment of cypermethrin: a case study in an urban stream in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-03-01

    A tiered ecological risk assessment was applied to quantitatively refine the overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, to aquatic organisms. These results were then validated through the bioassays using field water from an urban stream, Chebei Creek in Guangzhou, South China. Seventeen water samples were collected along Chebei Creek for evaluation. In total, 71% of the field waters were acutely toxic to Hyallela azteca and 24% of the waters caused 100% mortality. Toxic unit evaluation suggested that cypermethrin was one of the main contributors to toxicity. The tiered ecological risk assessment approach (deterministic quotient method and probabilistic methods, including joint probability curve and Monte Carlo Simulation) suggested that cypermethrin posed significant threats to aquatic ecology in this stream. The overall probabilistic risk of cypermethrin to aquatic species in Chebei Creek reached 66% when acute-to-chronic ratios were set at 125. An exceedance probability of cypermethrin in Chebei Creek that affected H. azteca as modeled using the joint probability curve method was 88%, suggesting that most sites were at risk due to cypermethrin exposure. This value was similar to the results obtained from acute toxicity tests (71% of field water samples were acutely toxic to H. azteca), indicating the effectiveness of the tiered approach to assess risk of cypermethrin in urban waterways. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a focused probabilistic evaluation of ecological risk for cypermethrin in a complex urban waterway environment. Despite uncertainties existing in the ecological risk assessment procedure, this approach provides a comprehensive assessment of ecological risk of cypermethrin, and subsequently, a foundation for further risk diagnosis and management in urban waterways.

  7. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Knopf, Burkhard; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfers, Christoph; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Schlekat, Chris; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic risk assessment for nickel (Ni) in the European Union is based on chronic species sensitivity distributions and the use of bioavailability models. To test whether a bioavailability-based safe threshold of Ni (the hazardous concentration for 5% of species [HC5]) is protective for aquatic communities, microcosms were exposed to 5 stable Ni treatments (6-96 μg/L) and a control for 4 mo to assess bioaccumulation and effects on phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton, and snails. Concentrations of Ni in the periphyton, macrophytes, and snails measured at the end of the exposure period increased in a dose-dependent manner but did not indicate biomagnification. Abundance of phytoplankton and snails decreased in 48 μg Ni/L and 96 μg Ni/L treatments, which may have indirectly affected the abundance of zooplankton and periphyton. Exposure up to 24 μg Ni/L had no adverse effects on algae and zooplankton, whereas the rate of population decline of the snails at 24 μg Ni/L was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore, the study-specific overall no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) is 12 μg Ni/L. This NOAEC is approximately twice the HC5 derived from a chronic species sensitivity distribution considering the specific water chemistry of the microcosm by means of bioavailability models. Thus, the present study provides support to the protectiveness of the bioavailability-normalized HC5 for freshwater communities.

  8. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.

  9. At random meetings to the creation of new species of Salamander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillant, Marie-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The pupils in final year of high school (15-18 years old) study the notion "species" and the creation of new species in various ways. Having studied genetic admixtures, this activity allows the pupils to build a scenario explaining the creation of a new species of Salamander in southern California from an ancestral population existing in northern Oregon. They can observe, on Google Earth, various populations of Salamander of the genus Ensatina. Salamanders of the genus Ensatina live in California around the Joaquin and Sacramento dry valleys. In this software, the pupils get information about the salamanders' environment and photographs of individuals and environments. During a migratory movement toward new territories to be colonized, these salamanders meet an inhospitable environment that they can not occupy. This population then splits up into two migratory branches, east and west, each overcoming the obstacles in different ways. The two groups gradually colonized southern territories but they avoided the too dry and hot San Joaquin plains. The two main branches of the original population gradually move away from each other, and genetic exchanges between them decrease over time. Eventually, we can find various populations of Salamander on both sides of the valleys, since the salamanders occupied new territories and diversified along the way. Among mutations that randomly occur, only those mutations that are best adapted in the origin were conserved in the genetic heritage of every population. When the individuals stemming from different western populations met, they were interfertile and give fertile hybrids, which was verified in the laboratory. Likewise, when individuals of the different eastern subspecies met accidentally, fertile hybrids also could arise from these crossings. The pupils can observe what happens in the overlap of various populations : interfertility or not. They also have geological, geographical and climatic information about the San Joaquin

  10. New species of aquatic insects from Europe (Insecta: Trichoptera): Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; MALICKY, HANS

    2016-01-01

    New species are described from the following genera: Consorophylax and Anisogamus, (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Additionally the larvae of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri nov. sp. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs distinctly from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, A. waringeri sp. nov. develops more slender superior appendages; a more rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on the 1st abdominal segment, a unique feature among Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The recovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess a biodiversity under threat of extinction that has yet to be fully described. PMID:25661619

  11. The first assess of the haplotypes from COI gene sequences in species of spittlebugs (Cicadomorpha: Hemiptera) and aquatic true bugs (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha: Hemiptera) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castanhole, M M U; Marchesin, S R C; Pereira, L L V; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Valério, J R; Itoyama, M M

    2013-11-07

    We made the first analysis of the COI gene sequences of 22 species of spittlebugs and aquatic true bugs sampled in São Paulo State (Brazil) and used this information to determine the variability within these groups. Considering each codon position, we observed that the third base was the most variable, and the first base was the most conserved. Among species, Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois flavopicta had the greatest genetic distance (0.181), and Notozulia entreriana and Mahanarva sp had the smallest distance (0.055), with an average variation of 0.119. In Gerromorpha, the greatest distance occurred between Halobatopsis platensis and Rhagovelia zela (0.401), while between Cylindrostethus palmaris and Brachymetra albinervis albinervis, the distance was only 0.187; the average value observed for the Gerromorpha was 0.265. In the Nepomorpha, the species Buenoa antigone antigone and Belostoma micantulum had the greatest genetic distance (0.337), while Martarega brasiliensis and B. a. antigone had the smallest (0.154). The average value observed for Nepomorpha was 0.203. In Cicadomorpha (Auchenorrhyncha) and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), the COI gene has been conserved; however, it is still useful for characterization of the different taxa. COI analysis was unable to resolve some of the Gerromorpha groups.

  12. Accurate Quantification of Lipid Species by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry — Meets a Key Challenge in Lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kui; Han, Xianlin

    2011-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has become one of the most popular and powerful technologies to identify and quantify individual lipid species in lipidomics. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis of lipid species by ESI-MS has also become a major obstacle to meet the challenges of lipidomics. Herein, we discuss the principles, advantages, and possible limitations of different mass spectrometry-based methodologies for lipid quantification, as well as a few practical issues important for accurate quantification of individual lipid species. Accordingly, accurate quantification of individual lipid species, one of the key challenges in lipidomics, can be practically met. PMID:22905337

  13. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  14. Multiparametric approach for assessing environmental quality variations in West African aquatic ecosystems using the black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) as a sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Awa; Sanchez, Wilfried; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Budzinski, Hélène; Palluel, Olivier; Diouf, Khady; Ndiaye, Papa; Panfili, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    The study highlights the potential of the black-chinned tilapia to be used as a sentinel to assess environmental contaminants based on the use of a set of biomarkers. The usefulness of fish species as sentinels for assessing aquatic environment contamination was tested using a set of biomarkers in Senegalese environments characterized by multi-pollution sources. The black-chinned tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) was selected as a sentinel because of its abundance, wide distribution in all coastal aquatic ecosystems and physiological properties. The potential influence of confounding factors such as salinity on biomarker in the tilapia has been examined. Individuals were sampled during two seasons (dry and wet) in eight sites characterized by various degrees of anthropogenic contamination and different salinities (from 0 to 102 psu). Biomarkers-including growth rate (GR), condition factor (CF), biotransformation enzymes such as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-were measured. Chemical contaminant [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)] levels showed different sources of contamination with relatively high concentrations of PAHs in the Hann Bay and Foundiougne locations. The most sensitive biomarker present in different sites according to the principal component analysis is EROD. Few variations of the AChE activity and TBARS levels were found. No clear relationship was found between biomarker responses and salinity, but GR and CF were lower in hypersaline conditions. Tilapia is responsive to environmental contaminants such as PAHs, OCPs and PCBs. The S. melanotheron multiparametric approach showed a better discrimination of sites.

  15. Utility of Niche Models in Developing Site Assessments Technologies Associated With Aquatic Nuisance Species Invasions at Corps Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    the study region, then a series of decision rules are developed that summa- rize the factors associated with the species presence in an area ( Feria ...online at http:// www.invasivespecies.gov/laws. Feria , T. P., and A. T. Peterson. 2002. Using point occurrence data and inferential algorithms to

  16. 76 FR 71023 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... estimation tools, aquatic plant toxicity, aquatic animal toxicity, statistics, species sensitivity..., other aquatic organisms, and aquatic plants. While there are differences in the effects characterization... effects of chemical stressors on aquatic animals and plants. 1. Use of Predictive Toxicology Tools...

  17. Cytogenetics Analysis and Testis Morphology of Aquatic Species of the Families Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Veliidae (Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vicente Pereira, Luis Lenin; Chaboli Alevi, Kaio Cesar; Urbanin Castanhole, Márcia Maria; Figueiredo Moreira, Felipe Ferraz; Freires Barbosa, Julianna; Massumi Itoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Heteroptera have holocentric chromosomes with kinetic activity restricted to the end of chromosomes. The first meiotic division is reductional for the autosomes and equational for the sexual. Only a few species of this suborder have been analyzed. In this study, we observed the morphologies of the testes of the Heteroptera species Belostoma anurum (Herrich-Schäffer, 1948), Belostoma micantulum (Stal, 1858), Gelastocoris angulatus (Melin, 1929), Gelastocoris flavus flavus (Guérin-Méneville, 1844), Rheumatobates crassifemur crassifemur (Esaki, 1926), Buenoa amnigenus (White, 1879), Buenoa unguis (Truxal, 1953), Martarega brasiliensis (Truxal, 1949), Martarega membranácea (White, 1879), Martarega uruguayensis (Berg, 1883), Rhagovelia tenuipes (Champion, 1898) and Rhagovelia zela (Drake, 1959). We found that the testes of these species can be round, round/spiral, or elongated/spiral. The size of the prophase I cells was found to vary, with the smallest ones being detected in B. micantulum and Rha. zela, the largest in G. f. flavus, and ones of intermediate size in R. c. crassifemur and M. brasiliensis. With respect to the chromosome complement, we verified the presence of 2n = 16 (14A+XY, B. micantulum and G. angulatus), 21 (20A+X0, R. c. crassifemur), 23 (22A+X0, Rha. zela and Rha. tenuipes), 25 (24A+X0, Bu. amnigenus and Bu. unguis; 22A+2m+X0, M. membranacea), 27 (24A+2m+X0, M. brasiliensis and M. uruguayensis), 29 (26A+X1X2Y, B. anurum), and 35 (30A+X1X2X3X4Y, G. f. flavus). We found that the features of spermatogenesis in these species are similar to those of other previously described Heteroptera species, differing only in testicular morphology, chromosome number, and sex chromosome system. PMID:25797798

  18. Cytogenetics analysis and testis morphology of aquatic species of the families Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Veliidae (Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Vicente Pereira, Luis Lenin; Chaboli Alevi, Kaio Cesar; Urbanin Castanhole, Márcia Maria; Figueiredo Moreira, Felipe Ferraz; Freires Barbosa, Julianna; Massumi Itoyama, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The Heteroptera have holocentric chromosomes with kinetic activity restricted to the end of chromosomes. The first meiotic division is reductional for the autosomes and equational for the sexual. Only a few species of this suborder have been analyzed. In this study, we observed the morphologies of the testes of the Heteroptera species Belostoma anurum (Herrich-Schäffer, 1948), Belostoma micantulum (Stal, 1858), Gelastocoris angulatus (Melin, 1929), Gelastocoris flavus flavus (Guérin-Méneville, 1844), Rheumatobates crassifemur crassifemur (Esaki, 1926), Buenoa amnigenus (White, 1879), Buenoa unguis (Truxal, 1953), Martarega brasiliensis (Truxal, 1949), Martarega membranácea (White, 1879), Martarega uruguayensis (Berg, 1883), Rhagovelia tenuipes (Champion, 1898) and Rhagovelia zela (Drake, 1959). We found that the testes of these species can be round, round/spiral, or elongated/spiral. The size of the prophase I cells was found to vary, with the smallest ones being detected in B. micantulum and Rha. zela, the largest in G. f. flavus, and ones of intermediate size in R. c. crassifemur and M. brasiliensis. With respect to the chromosome complement, we verified the presence of 2n =  16: (14A+XY, B. micantulum and G. angulatus), 21: (20A+X0, R. c. crassifemur), 23: (22A+X0, Rha. zela and Rha. tenuipes), 25: (24A+X0, Bu. amnigenus and Bu. unguis; 22A+2m+X0, M. membranacea), 27: (24A+2m+X0, M. brasiliensis and M. uruguayensis), 29: (26A+X1X2Y, B. anurum), and 35: (30A+X1X2X3X4Y, G. f. flavus). We found that the features of spermatogenesis in these species are similar to those of other previously described Heteroptera species, differing only in testicular morphology, chromosome number, and sex chromosome system.

  19. Subfossils of extinct and extant species of Simuliidae (Diptera) from Austral and Cook Islands (Polynesia): anthropogenic extirpation of an aquatic insect?

    PubMed

    Craig, Douglas A; Porch, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Subfossil head capsules of Simuliidae larvae have been recovered from swamps on Tubuai and Raivavae of the Austral Islands, and Atiu and Mangaia of the southern Cook Islands. For Tubuai and Raivavae it is likely that the simuliids are extinct, but a single simuliid species is extant on nearby Rurutu. For Atiu and Mangaia, extant simuliids have not been reported, but are known on Rarotonga. Well-preserved head capsules indicate that the Cook Islands subfossils are those of Sinulitin (Inseliellumn) teruananga Craig and Craig, 1986. For the Austral Islands, the simuliid from Tubuai is considered a variant of Simudiunt (Inseliellumn) rurutuense Craig and Joy, 2000. That from Raivavae is morphologically distinct and is described here as a new species, Simuliun (Inseliellumn) raivavaense Craig and Porch. Humans arrived in Eastern Polynesia ca. 1,000 years ago resulting in the widespread destruction of lowland forest and conversion of wetlands to agriculture with implied consequences for the indigenous biota of these habitats. Here we consider that one such result was loss of freshwater aquatic biodiversity.

  20. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) fauna of Greek holiday islands (Rhodes, Crete and Corfu) with first records of three species from Europe and Greece.

    PubMed

    Csabai, Zoltán; Soós, Nándor; Berchi, Gavril Marius; Cianferoni, Fabio; Boda, Pál; Móra, Arnold

    2017-02-09

    A comprehensive survey on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of three Greek holiday islands, Rhodes, Crete and Corfu, was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at 237 localities. In this paper, hundreds of detailed records for 30 taxa in nine families are given. The occurrences of Rhagovelia infernalis africana Lundblad, 1936 and Velia mariae Tamanini, 1971 are confirmed and recorded for the first time from Europe sensu stricto. Additionally, some notes on morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the European species of Rhagovelia and Velia are also given, Velia mariae is recorded for the first time not only from several Greek islands, but from continental Greece and Bulgaria as well. Gerris asper (Fieber, 1860), a common European species, was also found for the first time in Greece. Furthermore, new occurrence data are given for endemic taxa; Sigara nigrolineata mendax Heiss & Jansson, 1986 and Velia rhadamantha rhadamantha Hoberlandt, 1941 (whose distribution is restricted to Crete and small adjacent islands) are very common throughout Crete, whereas Ilyocoris cimicoides jonicus (Lindberg, 1922) apparently is rare in Corfu.

  1. Morphology informed by phylogeny reveals unexpected patterns of species differentiation in the aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides s.l.

    PubMed

    Hutsemékers, Virginie; Vieira, Cristiana C; Ros, Rosa María; Huttunen, Sanna; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2012-02-01

    Bryophyte floras typically exhibit extremely low levels of endemism. The interpretation, that this might reflect taxonomic shortcomings, is tested here for the Macaronesian flora, using the moss species complex of Rhynchostegium riparioides as a model. The deep polyphyly of R. riparioides across its distribution range reveals active differentiation that better corresponds to geographic than morphological differences. Morphometric analyses are, in fact, blurred by a size gradient that accounts for 80% of the variation observed among gametophytic traits. The lack of endemic diversification observed in R. riparioides in Macaronesia weakens the idea that the low rates of endemism observed in the Macaronesian bryophyte flora might solely be explained by taxonomic shortcomings. To the reverse, the striking polyphyly of North American and European lineages of R. riparioides suggests that the similarity between the floras of these continents has been over-emphasized. Discriminant analyses point to the existence of morphological discontinuities among the lineages resolved by the molecular phylogeny. The global rate of error associated to species identification based on morphology (0.23) indicates, however, that intergradation of shape and size characters among species in the group challenges their identification.

  2. Biological invasion by a benthivorous fish reduced the cover and species richness of aquatic plants in most lakes of a large North American ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Beck, Marcus W; Cross, Timothy K; Koch, Justine D; Bartodziej, William M; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-12-01

    Biological invasions are projected to be the main driver of biodiversity and ecosystem function loss in lakes in the 21st century. However, the extent of these future losses is difficult to quantify because most invasions are recent and confounded by other stressors. In this study, we quantified the outcome of a century-old invasion, the introduction of common carp to North America, to illustrate potential consequences of introducing non-native ecosystem engineers to lakes worldwide. We used the decline in aquatic plant richness and cover as an index of ecological impact across three ecoregions: Great Plains, Eastern Temperate Forests and Northern Forests. Using whole-lake manipulations, we demonstrated that both submersed plant cover and richness declined exponentially as carp biomass increased such that plant cover was reduced to <10% and species richness was halved in lakes in which carp biomass exceeded 190 kg ha(-1) . Using catch rates amassed from 2000+ lakes, we showed that carp exceeded this biomass level in 70.6% of Great Plains lakes and 23.3% of Eastern Temperate Forests lakes, but 0% of Northern Forests lakes. Using model selection analysis, we showed that carp was a key driver of plant species richness along with Secchi depth, lake area and human development of lake watersheds. Model parameters showed that carp reduced species richness to a similar degree across lakes of various Secchi depths and surface areas. In regions dominated by carp (e.g., Great Plains), carp had a stronger impact on plant richness than human watershed development. Overall, our analysis shows that the introduction of common carp played a key role in driving a severe reduction in plant cover and richness in a majority of Great Plains lakes and a large portion of Eastern Temperate Forests lakes in North America.

  3. Induction of a C(4)-like mechanism of CO(2) fixation in Egeria densa, a submersed aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Casati, P; Lara, M V; Andreo, C S

    2000-08-01

    The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) in Egeria densa leaves was studied under low temperature and light (LTL) following incubation under high temperature and light (HTL), conditions previously shown to induce high and low CO(2) compensation points, respectively. Transfer from LTL to HTL conditions induced increases in the activities and amounts of both enzymes. One NADP-ME isoform was observed in induced and uninduced samples. Two isoforms of PEPC were expressed, with the lower M(r) isoform being induced by HTL. NADP-ME showed properties similar to those of the isoform in C(3) species. The inducible PEPC isoform has a low K(m) for both substrates. PEPC kinetic and regulatory properties (V(max) and K(m) for phosphoenolpyruvate, and I(50) for L-malate) are different in samples taken in the dark from those in the light, indicating that some modification of PEPC may be occurring during the day. Finally, abscisic acid induced the expression of PEPC and NADP-ME in a manner similar to temperature induction, except that the activities of both PEPC isoforms were increased. A different signaling system may exist in this species in response to high temperature or abscisic acid, both of which induce changes in photosynthetic metabolism.

  4. Induction of a C4-Like Mechanism of CO2 Fixation in Egeria densa, a Submersed Aquatic Species1

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Paula; Lara, María V.; Andreo, Carlos S.

    2000-01-01

    The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) in Egeria densa leaves was studied under low temperature and light (LTL) following incubation under high temperature and light (HTL), conditions previously shown to induce high and low CO2 compensation points, respectively. Transfer from LTL to HTL conditions induced increases in the activities and amounts of both enzymes. One NADP-ME isoform was observed in induced and uninduced samples. Two isoforms of PEPC were expressed, with the lower Mr isoform being induced by HTL. NADP-ME showed properties similar to those of the isoform in C3 species. The inducible PEPC isoform has a low Km for both substrates. PEPC kinetic and regulatory properties (Vmax and Km for phosphoenolpyruvate, and I50 for l-malate) are different in samples taken in the dark from those in the light, indicating that some modification of PEPC may be occurring during the day. Finally, abscisic acid induced the expression of PEPC and NADP-ME in a manner similar to temperature induction, except that the activities of both PEPC isoforms were increased. A different signaling system may exist in this species in response to high temperature or abscisic acid, both of which induce changes in photosynthetic metabolism. PMID:10938377

  5. Aquatic Species Responses to Changes in Streamflow and Stream Temperature in the Willamette River Basin of Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Psaris, A. M.; Strecker, A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate models project less summer precipitation and hotter temperatures in the Pacific Northwest. These changes will bring earlier snowmelt and reduced summer flow, which will increase stream temperature. Many cold water species will be adversely affected by such changes. However, the spatial and temporal extent of how each stream responds to climate change and how fish species respond to varying degrees of changes in flow and stream temperature across multiple streams has not been thoroughly studied. Using a combination of representative downscaled climate data, a watershed hydrologic model, and regression analysis, we projected future changes in streamflow and temperature and the responses of fish habitat to these changes for several tributaries of the Willamette River basin that exhibits distinct hydrologic landscape regions. Our simulation results suggest that streams located in the High Cascades where groundwater input is high will experience less warming and less flow reduction, thus more resilient to warming. In contrast, streams in transient areas where snow cover is projected to decline substantially will experience the most declines in fish diversity as a result of reduction in flow and highest rise in stream temperature. Our results suggest spatially targeted adaptive management strategies for fishes in a large heterogeneous river basin will be necessary in a rapidly changing climate.

  6. Proceedings of Annual Meeting (26th) Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, Held in Dallas, Texas on 18-22 November, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    in the Piney Woods area of east Texas. We may well need the Many of you may wonder what type of help of WES and the Texas Parks and Wild - aquatic...on D. L. 1978. Reproductive requirements vegetation and water quality in three cen- and likelihood for naturalization of es- tral Florida lakes...during the year where the field data do a plant growth module for waterhyacinth and not. INSECT allows the researcher to isolate a biocontrol agent module

  7. Proceedings, 15th Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Planning and Operations Review, held 17-20 November 1980, Savannah, Georgia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    D. Schardt and Larry E. Nall. .......... .......................... . 302 Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl by Roy Land . ......... . 325 Water Quality...Valley Authority Fisheries & Aquatic Ecology Branch Muscle Shoals, AL 35630 Gordon Baker S. Florida Water Management Dist. P. 0. Box V West Palm Beach, FL...Vicksburg, MS 39180 Les Bitting, Sr. Old Plantation Water Control District 8800 N. New River Canal Rd Plantation, FL 33324 R. P. Blakeley Old Plantation

  8. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Silver nanoparticles induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species and alteration of antioxidant systems in the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Sheng; Qiu, Xiao-Ni; Li, Gen-Bao; Li, Wei; Yin, Li-Yan

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used commercially because of their antibacterial properties. Oxidative stress is known to be involved in the toxicity of AgNPs to bacteria, animals, and algae. The authors used Spirodela polyrhiza to investigate whether AgNPs can induce oxidative stress in higher plants. Results showed that there was a dose-dependent increase in levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, and the antioxidant glutathione content in 6-nm AgNP treatments. Catalase activity and malondialdehyde content in 6-nm AgNP treatments was significantly higher than the control at silver concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) . Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and antioxidant glutathione and malondialdehyde content were not significantly different at 10 mg L(-1) of AgNPs (6 nm and 20 nm). Treatment with 20 µg L(-1) Ag(+) (the amount almost equal to 10 mg L(-1) AgNPs released) did not change the reactive oxygen species level or antioxidant enzymes activity. Micron-sized Ag particles had no effect on S. polyrhiza. Transmission electron microscopy showed that, compared with the control, chloroplasts in S. polyrhiza treated with 6-nm and 20-nm AgNPs accumulated starch grains and had reduced intergranal thylakoids. These results clearly indicate that AgNPs are able to cause oxidative stress and affect the chloroplast structure and function of S. polyrhiza, and this effect was not caused by Ag(+) released from particles.

  10. Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Michael J; Barron, Mace G; Greene, Richard M

    2011-10-01

    The present study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, South Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach used consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispersants, including Corexit 9500A, the predominant dispersant applied during the DeepWater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Static acute toxicity tests were performed using two Gulf of Mexico estuarine test species, the mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) and the inland silversides (Menidia beryllina). Dispersant-only test solutions were prepared with high-energy mixing, whereas water-accommodated fractions of LSC and chemically dispersed LSC were prepared with moderate energy followed by settling and testing of the aqueous phase. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the dispersant-only tests were calculated using nominal concentrations, whereas tests conducted with LSC alone and dispersed LSC were based on measured total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. For all eight dispersants in both test species, the dispersants alone were less toxic (LC50s: 2.9 to >5,600 µl/L) than the dispersant-LSC mixtures (0.4-13 mg TPH/L). Louisiana sweet crude oil alone had generally similar toxicity to A. bahia (LC50: 2.7 mg TPH/L) and M. beryllina (LC50: 3.5 mg TPH/L) as the dispersant-LSC mixtures. The results of the present study indicate that Corexit 9500A had generally similar toxicity to other available dispersants when tested alone but was generally less toxic as a mixture with LSC.

  11. Cross-species evaluation of molecular target sequence and structural conservation as a line of evidence for identification of susceptible taxa to inform derivation of aquatic life criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1985 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidelines for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC) require acute and chronic toxicity testing with a fixed list of taxa that cover aquatic organisms from vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. In considering Guideline revision...

  12. An Eco-tank system containing microbes and different aquatic plant species for the bioremediation of N,N-dimethylformamide polluted river waters.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jibo; Chu, Shuyi; Tian, Guangming; Thring, Ronald W; Cui, Lingzhou

    2016-12-15

    An Eco-tank system of 10m was designed to simulate the natural river. It consisted of five tanks sequentially connected containing microbes, biofilm carriers and four species of floating aquatic plants. The purification performance of the system for N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) polluted river water was evaluated by operating in continuous mode. DMF was completely removed in Tanks 1 and 2 at influent DMF concentrations between 75.42 and 161.05mg L(-1). The NH4(+)-N concentration increased in Tank 1, followed by a gradual decrease in Tanks 2-5. Removal of NH4(+)-N was enhanced by aeration. The average effluent NH4(+)-N concentration of Tank 5 decreased to a minimum of 0.89mg L(-1), corresponding to a decrease of 84.8% when compared with that before aeration. TN concentration did not decrease significantly as expected after inoculation with denitrifying bacteria. The average effluent TN concentration of the system was determined to be 4.58mg L(-1), still unable to satisfy the Class V standard for surface water environmental quality. The results of this study demonstrated that the Eco-tank system is an efficient process in removing DMF, TOC, and NH4(+)-N from DMF polluted river water. However, if possible, alternative technologies should be adopted for controlling the effluent TN concentration.

  13. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae: Annual report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a lipid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 33 figs.

  14. Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape.

    PubMed

    Pilliod, David S; Arkle, Robert S; Robertson, Jeanne M; Murphy, Melanie A; Funk, W Chris

    2015-09-01

    Amphibian species persisting in isolated streams and wetlands in desert environments can be susceptible to low connectivity, genetic isolation, and climate changes. We evaluated the past (1900-1930), recent (1981-2010), and future (2071-2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. We developed a predictive model of current climate suitability and used it to predict the historic and future distribution of suitable climates. We then modeled changes in surface water availability at each time period. Finally, we quantified connectivity among existing populations on the basis of hydrology and correlated it with interpopulation genetic distance. We found that the area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined by approximately 49% over the last century and will likely continue to decline under future climate scenarios. Climate conditions at currently occupied locations have been relatively stable over the last century, which may explain persistence at these sites. However, future climates at these currently occupied locations are predicted to become warmer throughout the year and drier during the frog's activity period (May - September). Fall and winter precipitation may increase, but as rain instead of snow. Earlier runoff and lower summer base flows may reduce connectivity between neighboring populations, which is already limited. Many of these changes could have negative effects on remaining populations over the next 50-80 years, but milder winters, longer growing seasons, and wetter falls might positively affect survival and dispersal. Collectively, however, seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation, and stream flow patterns could reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for frogs and possibly other aquatic species inhabiting streams in this arid region.

  15. Regulation of enzymes involved in C(4) photosynthesis and the antioxidant metabolism by UV-B radiation in Egeria densa, a submersed aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Casati, Paula; Lara, María V; Andreo, Carlos S

    2002-01-01

    Egeria densa, a submersed aquatic species, was exposed to different treatments under UV-B radiation, and the response of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) was determined. Exposure to UV-B radiation for 4 h per day over 7-16 days caused an increase in both enzymes, together with an increase in the activity of some isoforms of several enzymes involved in the antioxidant metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). The content of chlorophylls and carotenoids was considerably decreased, suggesting that degradation or repression of the synthesis of these molecules may be occurring after UV-B exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also required for UV-B induction of PEPC and NADP-ME, as the addition of ascorbic acid before UV-B treatment prevented the induction of these enzymes, while salicylic acid was not effective in inducing NADP-ME but increased the expression of the lower molecular mass isoform of PEPC. On the other hand, damage to the photosynthetic machinery may be occurring after exposure to UV-B radiation for 8 per day over 1-2 days, as indicated by a decrease in the levels of Rubisco, PEPC and NADP-ME. Some of the enzymes involved in the antioxidant metabolism, such as CAT and APX, were also sensitive to continuous exposure, evidenced by a decrease in their activity. In this way, in E. densa, several enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways showed a distinct response, depending on the UV-B treatment.

  16. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  17. Effects of changing climate on aquatic habitat and connectivity for remnant populations of a wide-ranging frog species in an arid landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Robertson, Jeanne M; Murphy, Melanie; Funk, W. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian species persisting in isolated streams and wetlands in desert environments can be susceptible to low connectivity, genetic isolation, and climate changes. We evaluated the past (1900–1930), recent (1981–2010), and future (2071–2100) climate suitability of the arid Great Basin (USA) for the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) and assessed whether changes in surface water may affect connectivity for remaining populations. We developed a predictive model of current climate suitability and used it to predict the historic and future distribution of suitable climates. We then modeled changes in surface water availability at each time period. Finally, we quantified connectivity among existing populations on the basis of hydrology and correlated it with interpopulation genetic distance. We found that the area of the Great Basin with suitable climate conditions has declined by approximately 49% over the last century and will likely continue to decline under future climate scenarios. Climate conditions at currently occupied locations have been relatively stable over the last century, which may explain persistence at these sites. However, future climates at these currently occupied locations are predicted to become warmer throughout the year and drier during the frog's activity period (May – September). Fall and winter precipitation may increase, but as rain instead of snow. Earlier runoff and lower summer base flows may reduce connectivity between neighboring populations, which is already limited. Many of these changes could have negative effects on remaining populations over the next 50–80 years, but milder winters, longer growing seasons, and wetter falls might positively affect survival and dispersal. Collectively, however, seasonal shifts in temperature, precipitation, and stream flow patterns could reduce habitat suitability and connectivity for frogs and possibly other aquatic species inhabiting streams in this arid region.

  18. DNA barcodes for assessment of the biological integrity of aquatic ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality regulations and aquatic ecosystem monitoring increasingly rely on direct assessments of biological integrity. Because these aquatic “bioassessments” evaluate the incidence and abundance of sensitive aquatic species, they are able to measure cumulative ecosystem eff...

  19. OVERVIEW OF THE DRAFT METHODOLOGY FOR CONDUCTING BIOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC LIFE CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the draft methodology used in developing biological evaluations of aquatic life criteria specifically addressing aquatic and aquatic-dependent threatened and endangered species.

  20. Determination of nanomolar levels of reactive oxygen species in microorganisms and aquatic environments using a single nanoparticle-based optical sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yura; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jinhee; Kang, Taewook; Choi, Inhee

    2017-05-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are strong oxidants, and have attracted considerable attention in both biological and environmental fields. Although various methods for ROS detection, including optical and electrochemical techniques, have been developed, they still face challenging issues in terms of poor sensitivity, reproducibility, stability, and in vivo applicability. Here, we present a sensitive and selective optical sensor for ROS detection, based on single plasmonic nanoprobes and redox-active cytochrome c (Cyt c)-mediated plasmon resonance energy transfer. By measuring the spectral changes of plasmonic nanoprobes, derived from the unique molecular absorption of Cyt c in accordance with the redox state, calibration curves for H2O2, a representative ROS, in various media were obtained over a wide concentration range from 100 mM to 1 nM. Limit of detection and limit of quantification in accordance with the used medium were determined from 8.3 to 12.8 nM and from 27.6 to 42.7 nM, respectively. Selectivity coefficients for major interfering solutes were much lower than 0.1 indicating a good selectivity for ROS. From the dynamic spectral changes, we sensitively monitored ROS generated in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) exposed to graphene oxide. Based on the calibration curves, we also determined ROS levels in various aquatic environments, such as river streams and a small pond, as a way of environmental monitoring. We believe that our approach could provide an avenue for achieving dynamic and sensitive monitoring of ROS in toxicological, biological, and environmental fields in the future.

  1. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  2. Zebrafish as a model for zoonotic aquatic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Hannah M.; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic habitats harbor a multitude of bacterial species. Many of these bacteria can act as pathogens to aquatic species and/or non-aquatic organisms, including humans, that come into contact with contaminated water sources or colonized aquatic organisms. In many instances, the bacteria are not pathogenic to the aquatic species they colonize and are only considered pathogens when they come into contact with humans. There is a general lack of knowledge about how the environmental lifestyle of these pathogens allows them to persist, replicate and produce the necessary pathogenic mechanisms to successfully transmit to the human host and cause disease. Recently, the zebrafish infectious disease model has emerged as an ideal system for examining aquatic pathogens, both in the aquatic environment and during infection of the human host. This review will focus on how the zebrafish has been used successfully to analyze the pathogenesis of aquatic bacterial pathogens. PMID:24607289

  3. The effect of organism density on bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediment in three aquatic test species: a case for standardizing to sediment organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, J L; Poirier, D G; Solomon, K R; Sibley, P K

    2011-05-01

    Laboratory methods for measuring bioaccumulation of organic contaminants from sediment into aquatic organisms continue to improve, but some aspects are still in need of standardization. From a review of published methods, we noted that the loading density of organisms was determined inconsistently and was primarily based on either sediment volume or total organic carbon (TOC). The rationale mainly expressed for standardizing to TOC was to minimize the depletion of sediment contaminants. However, even when density was standardized to TOC, the relative amount of TOC provided (i.e., ratio of TOC to organism dry weight [dw]) was highly variable. In this study, we examined the effect of organism density (standardized to sediment TOC or volume) on bioaccumulation in three freshwater organisms. The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, mayfly nymph Hexagenia spp., and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas were exposed for 28 days to two field-contaminated sediments that varied in concentration of PCBs and TOC. Densities tested were 50:1 and 27:1 ratios of TOC to organism dw and 140 ml sediment/g wet weight (ww) biomass, yielding low to high organism densities. Bioaccumulation in Hexagenia spp. was significantly higher at the lowest organism density compared with the highest organism density when exposed to site 2 sediment (1.1% TOC) but only with tissue concentrations expressed on a ww basis. Otherwise, there was no significant effect of density on bioaccumulation in organisms exposed to sediments from site 1 (12% TOC) or site 2. Survival of Hexagenia spp. was adversely affected at the highest organism density when the relative amount of TOC was low. The results of this study support the recommendation of standardizing organism density relative to a particular amount of TOC for invertebrate species. A 27:1 ratio of TOC:organism dw was selected as a standard organism density for a new bioaccumulation method because survival, growth, and bioaccumulation were not impacted

  4. When species' ranges meet: assessing differences in habitat selection between sympatric large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Rauset, Geir Rune; Mattisson, Jenny; Andrén, Henrik; Chapron, Guillaume; Persson, Jens

    2013-07-01

    Differentiation in habitat selection among sympatric species may depend on niche partitioning, species interactions, selection mechanisms and scales considered. In a mountainous area in Sweden, we explored hierarchical habitat selection in Global Positioning System-collared individuals of two sympatric large carnivore species; an obligate predator, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a generalist predator and scavenger, the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Although the species' fundamental niches differ widely, their ranges overlap in this area where they share a prey base and main cause of mortality. Both lynx and wolverines selected for steep and rugged terrain in mountainous birch forest and in heaths independent of scale and available habitats. However, the selection of lynx for their preferred habitats was stronger when they were forming home ranges and they selected the same habitats within their home ranges independent of home range composition. Wolverines displayed a greater variability when selecting home ranges and habitat selection also varied with home range composition. Both species selected for habitats that promote survival through limited encounters with humans, but which also are rich in prey, and selection for these habitats was accordingly stronger in winter when human activity was high and prey density was low. We suggest that the observed differences between the species result primarily from different foraging strategies, but may also depend on differences in ranging and resting behaviour, home range size, and relative density of each species. Our results support the prediction that sympatric carnivores with otherwise diverging niches can select for the same resources when sharing main sources of food and mortality.

  5. Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, J.L.; Pratchett, M.S.; Messmer, V.; Coker, D.J.; Tobin, A.J.; Hoey, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries. PMID:26345733

  6. Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J L; Pratchett, M S; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Tobin, A J; Hoey, A S

    2015-09-08

    Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries.

  7. 77 FR 34025 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... help NMFS determine if existing measures are the best means of achieving certain management objectives... inclusion in a proposed Amendment, and solicited public comment on the objectives and management options... Species Fishery Management Plan, which will focus on management issues related to Atlantic bluefin tuna....

  8. More Cercospora Species Infect Soybeans across the Americas than Meets the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Paula Gomes; Guillin, Eduardo A.; Borges, Leandro Luiz; da Silva, Amanda C. T.; de Almeida, Álvaro M. R.; Grijalba, Pablo E.; Gottlieb, Alexandra M.; Bluhm, Burton H.; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of soybean caused by Cercospora spp. are endemic throughout the world’s soybean production regions. Species diversity in the genus Cercospora has been underestimated due to overdependence on morphological characteristics, symptoms, and host associations. Currently, only two species (Cercospora kikuchii and C. sojina) are recognized to infect soybean; C. kikuchii causes Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) and purple seed stain (PSS), whereas C. sojina causes frogeye leaf spot. To assess cryptic speciation among pathogens causing CLB and PSS, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed with isolates from the top three soybean producing countries (USA, Brazil, and Argentina; collectively accounting for ~80% of global production). Eight nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene were partially sequenced and analyzed. Additionally, amino acid substitutions conferring fungicide resistance were surveyed, and the production of cercosporin (a polyketide toxin produced by many Cercospora spp.) was assessed. From these analyses, the long-held assumption of C. kikuchii as the single causal agent of CLB and PSS was rejected experimentally. Four cercosporin-producing lineages were uncovered with origins (about 1 Mya) predicted to predate agriculture. Some of the Cercospora spp. newly associated with CLB and PSS appear to represent undescribed species; others were not previously reported to infect soybeans. Lineage 1, which contained the ex-type strain of C. kikuchii, was monophyletic and occurred in Argentina and Brazil. In contrast, lineages 2 and 3 were polyphyletic and contained wide-host range species complexes. Lineage 4 was monophyletic, thrived in Argentina and the USA, and included the generalist Cercospora cf. flagellaris. Interlineage recombination was detected, along with a high frequency of mutations linked to fungicide resistance in lineages 2 and 3. These findings point to cryptic Cercospora species as underappreciated global considerations for

  9. More Cercospora Species Infect Soybeans across the Americas than Meets the Eye.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula Gomes; Guillin, Eduardo A; Borges, Leandro Luiz; Silva, Amanda C T da; Almeida, Álvaro M R de; Grijalba, Pablo E; Gottlieb, Alexandra M; Bluhm, Burton H; Oliveira, Luiz Orlando de

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of soybean caused by Cercospora spp. are endemic throughout the world's soybean production regions. Species diversity in the genus Cercospora has been underestimated due to overdependence on morphological characteristics, symptoms, and host associations. Currently, only two species (Cercospora kikuchii and C. sojina) are recognized to infect soybean; C. kikuchii causes Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) and purple seed stain (PSS), whereas C. sojina causes frogeye leaf spot. To assess cryptic speciation among pathogens causing CLB and PSS, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed with isolates from the top three soybean producing countries (USA, Brazil, and Argentina; collectively accounting for ~80% of global production). Eight nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene were partially sequenced and analyzed. Additionally, amino acid substitutions conferring fungicide resistance were surveyed, and the production of cercosporin (a polyketide toxin produced by many Cercospora spp.) was assessed. From these analyses, the long-held assumption of C. kikuchii as the single causal agent of CLB and PSS was rejected experimentally. Four cercosporin-producing lineages were uncovered with origins (about 1 Mya) predicted to predate agriculture. Some of the Cercospora spp. newly associated with CLB and PSS appear to represent undescribed species; others were not previously reported to infect soybeans. Lineage 1, which contained the ex-type strain of C. kikuchii, was monophyletic and occurred in Argentina and Brazil. In contrast, lineages 2 and 3 were polyphyletic and contained wide-host range species complexes. Lineage 4 was monophyletic, thrived in Argentina and the USA, and included the generalist Cercospora cf. flagellaris. Interlineage recombination was detected, along with a high frequency of mutations linked to fungicide resistance in lineages 2 and 3. These findings point to cryptic Cercospora species as underappreciated global considerations for soybean

  10. Using solid (13)C NMR coupled with solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Wang, Hao; He, Zhongqi; Guo, Wenjing; Song, Fanhao; Giesy, John P

    2017-01-01

    Forms and labilities of plant-derived organic matters (OMs) including carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) were fundamental for understanding their release, degradation and environmental behaviour in lake ecosystems. Thus, solid (13)C and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize biomass of six aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China. The results showed that carbohydrates (61.2% of the total C) were predominant C functional group in the solid (13)C NMR spectra of plant biomass, which may indicate high lability and bioavailability of aquatic plants-derived organic matter in lakes. There was 72.6-103.7% of the total P in aquatic plant biomass extracted by NaOH-EDTA extracts. Solution (31)P NMR analysis of these NaOH-EDTA extracts further identified several molecular species of P including orthophosphate (50.1%), orthophosphate monoesters (46.8%), DNA (1.6%) and pyrophosphate (1.4%). Orthophosphate monoesters included β-glycerophosphate (17.7%), hydrolysis products of RNA (11.7%), α-glycerophosphate (9.2%) and other unknown monoesters (2.1%). Additionally, phytate, the major form of organic P in many lake sediments, was detected in floating plant water poppy. These inorganic P (e.g. orthophosphate and pyrophosphate) and organic P (e.g. diester and its degradation products) identified in plant biomass were all labile and bioavailable P, which would play an important role in recycling of P in lakes. These results increased knowledge of chemical composition and bioavailability of OMs derived from aquatic plants in lakes.

  11. The aquatic ecotoxicology of triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    Triazine herbicides control plant growth by inhibiting photophosphorylation, but typically do not cause permanent cell damage or death. Effects on aquatic plants are reversible; photosynthesis resumes when the herbicide disappears from the water, and sometimes even while it is still present. Effects on aquatic plant communities are further ameliorated by species replacements, so the communities as a whole are less sensitive than their most sensitive species. Atrazine, a representative triazine herbicide, is toxic to aquatic plants (algae and macrophytes) at concentrations in the range of 20 to 200 {mu}g/L or less. Aquatic invertebrates and fish are much less sensitive than plants, with acute toxicity occurring at 1000 {mu}g/L or higher. Ecologically significant effects in aquatic ecosystems are likely only if plant communities are severely damaged by prolonged exposure to high atrazine concentrations.

  12. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  13. Incidence and Management Costs of Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species at Projects Operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    water hyacinths , hydrilla, common reed, sea lamprey, and the zebra mussel are especially notorious for their costly impacts on freshwater services...problem at two of the flood control reservoirs. Of the nuisance vascular plants, hydrilla, water hyacinth , and Eurasian watermilfoil were most often...Large aquatic plants 13 10.5 Hydrilla 4 3.2 Water hyacinth 3 2.4 Eurasian watermilfoil 3 2.4 Common reed 2 1.6 Curly leaf pondweed 2 1.6 Purple

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (18th) Held at Raleigh, North Carolina on 14-17 November 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Limnology, Vol 1, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Hutchinson, G . E. 1970. "The Chemical Ecology of Three Species of Myriophyllum (Angiospermae...ENVIR.. JUN 84 UNCLASSIFIED WES/MPR-84-4 F/ G 616 NLs/I//IIII/IIII E/EEEEEEIIEEEEm/I/IEEE//EEI EEIIIIIIIIII EEEEEEIIE/I EIII IImEm 42.2 SIM 11111.O 1...Vicksburg, Miss. The organizational activities were carried out and presentations by WES personnel were prepared under the general supervision of Dr. John

  15. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past.

  16. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  17. Evaluation of invasions and declines of submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, P.A.; Barko, J.W.; Smith, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past 60 yr, sightings of aquatic macrophyte species in geographic regions where they had previously not been found have occurred with increasing frequency, apparently due to both greater dispersal of the plants as a result of human activities as well as better documentation of plant distribution. Intercontinental invasions, such as Myriophyllum spicatum and Hydrilla into North America, Elodea canadensis into Europe and Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa and Cabomba caroliniana into Japan, have generally been well documented. However, the spread of an exotic species across a continent after its initial introduction (e.g., Potamogeton crispus in North America) or the expansion of a species native to a continent into hitherto unexploited territory (e.g.,the expansion of the North American native Myriophyllum heterophyllum into New England) have received little attention. Natural declines in aquatic macrophyte communities have also received little scientific study although there are many accounts of macrophyte declines. The best-documented example comes from the marine literature where extensive declines of eelgrass (Zostera) occurred in the 1930s along the Atlantic coast due to a pathogenic marine slime mold (''wasting disease''). The aim of this workshop was to identify examples of invasions or natural declines of aquatic macrophyte species throughout the world and assess the importance of environmental factors in their control. Forty-five scientists and aquatic plant managers from ten countries participated in the workshop. Eleven of the participants contributed written evaluations of species invasions and declines in their geo-graphic region. These were distributed to registered participants prior to the meeting and served as the starting-point of workshop discussions. To address the topics raised in the working papers, the participants divided into four working groups to evaluate: 1. Environmental controls of species invasions. 2. Biotic controls of species

  18. Experiences of countries with new aquatic industries: the development of aquaculture in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaby, M

    2008-04-01

    Although caviar is the most significant and famous fishery product of Iran, in recent years the country has gained a lot of experience and had some significant success with other fishery and aquaculture products. Iranian fisheries and aquaculture production reached 522,000 metric tons in 2005, of which 75% originated from capture fishery and 25% from aquaculture activities. Various fishery and aquaculture activities take place in Iran to help meet domestic demand for aquaculture products and to maintain the existing level of natural resources in seas and rivers (restocking natural sources). The ways in which Iran has been able to make progress in developing aquaculture--which could serve as a model for other countries in the region and for developing countries--are as follows: a) optimising the use of climatic diversity in raising various aquatic species; b) establishing the required governmental and nongovernmental organisations for raising aquatic animals, and planning and creating appropriate relationships between those organisations and entities; c) training skilful manpower and educating specialists in the field of aquatic animal health and diseases; d) increasing per capita consumption of fishery products through sensitising public opinion; and e) meeting the requirements for raising the rate of aquatic animal culture and developing the export of fishery products, i.e. by supplying eyed eggs, feed, broodstock, etc.

  19. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-03-17

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a non-significant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting, and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    PubMed

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  1. Aquatic Therapy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  2. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Visser, I K; van Bressem, M F; Barrett, T; Osterhaus, A D

    1993-01-01

    Infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. Two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in Europe and Siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (PDV-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2) respectively. PDV-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (CDV), whereas PDV-2 most probably is a strain of CDV. Morbilliviruses were also isolated from porpoises--porpoise morbillivirus (PMV)--and dolphins--dolphin morbillivirus (DMV)--which had stranded on the coasts of Europe. PMV and DMV proved to be closely related to, but distinct from 2 ruminant morbilliviruses, rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Serological surveys carried out among pinniped and cetacean species in the seas of Europe and North America indicated that infections with these newly discovered morbilliviruses or closely related viruses commonly occur among aquatic mammal species.

  3. Basic Fishing. Aquatic Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, this module of the Aquatic Skills Series introduces the basics of sport fishing using spin-casting equipment. The instructor may modify the module to meet the individual needs of class members based on age, experience…

  4. Axial allometry in a neutrally buoyant environment: effects of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on vertebral scaling.

    PubMed

    Jones, K E; Pierce, S E

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa.

  5. Quantifying aquatic invasion patterns through space and time

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of my study was to quantify the apparent spatio-temporal relationship between anthropogenic introduction pathway intensity and non-native aquatic species presence throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. Non-native aquatic species early detection programs are based pr...

  6. Aquatic Plant Control and Environmental Consequences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    4), insects, and plant pathogens (2,3), but biological control reivains only a potential tool for large-scale control of aquatic weeds. Researchers in...fishes often do not feed selectively, yet there is no requirement for specific food selection by them. Use of Plant Pathogens k. Lack of information...on aquatic plant pathogens . Most work on plant pathogens , such as fungi, has been done on terrestrial species. Little is known with regard to methods

  7. 50 CFR 453.05 - Committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.05 Committee meetings. (a) The committee shall meet at the call of...

  8. 50 CFR 453.05 - Committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.05 Committee meetings. (a) The committee shall meet at the call of...

  9. 50 CFR 453.05 - Committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.05 Committee meetings. (a) The committee shall meet at the call of...

  10. 50 CFR 453.05 - Committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.05 Committee meetings. (a) The committee shall meet at the call of...

  11. 50 CFR 453.05 - Committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS ENDANGERED SPECIES EXEMPTION PROCESS ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE § 453.05 Committee meetings. (a) The committee shall meet at the call of...

  12. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  13. The "Marinated" Classroom. A Sourcebook of Aquatic Activities for the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    This handbook is designed to meet the aquatic education needs of Minnesota secondary teachers and students (aquatic education referring to the study of freshwater systems). The handbook is divided into three parts. Part 1 (an introduction) provides an overview of aquatic education, a description of the use of the handbook, and two indices to…

  14. The "Marinated" Classroom. A Sourcebook of Aquatic Activities for the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.

    This handbook is designed to meet the aquatic education needs of Minnesota elementary teachers and students (aquatic education referring to the study of freshwater systems). The handbook is divided into three parts. Part 1 (an introduction) provides an overview of aquatic education, a description of the use of the handbook, and two indexes to…

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  16. [Influence of two different species of aquatic plant communities on the concentration of various nitrogen forms in sediment of Lake Taihu].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiu-Yuan; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Li, Zhen-Guo; Xu, Kuan; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Jia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the spatial distribution of nitrogen in the sediment from both internal and external sites of Potamogeton malaianus and Limnanthemun nymphoides communities, levels of various forms of nitrogen were quantified in sediment samples collected from Gonghu Bay, the southern region and the intermediate area between East and West mountains of Lake Taihu in June 2012. The results showed that: (1) Within the algae-type region in Gonghu Bay, the contents of organic (Org-N) and total nitrogen (TN) in the internal sediment (0-25 cm) from P. malaianus communities were higher than those of the external sediment, by 38.06% and 25.65%, respectively. (2) In the non-algal region, the contents of TN, Org-N, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-) -N in the internal sediments from P. malaianus communities were lower by 43.29%, 50.78%, 7.09% and 10.86% compared to those in the external sediments; for L. nymphoides communities, the contents of TN, Org-N, NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N in the external sediments were lower by 4.65%, 4.63%, 5.01% and 2.76% compared to the internal sediments. These values suggested that the promotion in reducing sedimentary nitrogen was more effective by the P. malaianus community than by the L. nymphoides community. (3) A significant positive correlation (P < 0.05, n = 24) was found between pH and TN within the external sediments and between pH and NO3(-) -N within the internal sediments (P < 0.05, n = 24), while a significant negative correlation (P < 0.05, n = 24) was found between pH and NH4(+)-N of both aquatic plant communities. The redox potential (Eh) was also found to be significantly positively correlated with TN in both the internal and external sediments of P. malaianus communities (GMN, P < 0.01, R = 0.922 8 * *; NMN, P < 0.01, R = 0.827 7 * *; GMW, P < 0.05, R = 0.748 9 *; NMW, P < 0.05, R = 0.663 7 *). It is therefore concluded that the presence of aquatic plant communities could impact the physical and chemical properties of the sediments.

  17. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo, new species (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) and other aquatic Polyphaga from a small habitat patch in a highly urbanized landscape of Metro Manila, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven species of Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae and Elmidae are recorded from temporary freshwater habitats at the Ateneo de Manila University Campus in the metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. They were identified as Enochrus (Lumetus) fragiloides d’Orchymont, Helochares (Hydrobaticus) lepidus d’Orchymont, Helochares (Helochares) pallens (MacLeay), Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) scabra d’Orchymont, Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) palawanensis Freitag & Jäch (new record for Luzon Island), Stenelmis sp. A further hydraenid species was unknown to science and is newly described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) ateneo Freitag, sp. n. Aedeagus, gonocoxite, spermatheca, and female tergite X are illustrated by computer-based line drawings. Habitus images of all three Hydraena Kugelann species recorded and a checklist of the Philippine Hydraena are provided. The presence of these seven species in the Ateneo campus is briefly discussed in regard to the area’s history. Measures to maintain and extend semi-natural islands of biodiversity in urban areas are suggested. PMID:24146550

  19. Identification of Pathogenic Vibrio Species by Multilocus PCR-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Its Application to Aquatic Environments of the Former Soviet Republic of Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A... Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae , and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA...members include Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera , and Vibrio para- haemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, which have been implicated in

  20. Aquatic hazard assessment of MON 0818, a commercial mixture of alkylamine ethoxylates commonly used in glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations. Part 1: Species sensitivity distribution from laboratory acute exposures.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jose L; Prosser, Ryan; Poirier, David; Lissemore, Linda; Thompson, Dean; Hanson, Mark; Solomon, Keith R

    2017-02-01

    The sensitivity of 15 aquatic species, including primary producers, benthic invertebrates, cladocerans, mollusks, and fish, to MON 0818, a commercial surfactant mixture of polyoxyethylene tallow amines, was evaluated in standard acute (48-96-h) laboratory tests. In addition, the potential for chronic toxicity (8 d) was evaluated with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Exposure concentrations were confirmed. No significant effects on any endpoint were observed in the chronic test. A tier-1 hazard assessment was conducted by comparing species sensitivity distributions based on the generated data, as well as literature data, with 4 exposure scenarios. This assessment showed moderate levels of hazard (43.1% of the species exposed at or above median effective concentration levels), for a chosen worst-case scenario-unintentional direct over-spray of a 15-cm-deep body of water with the maximum label application rate for the studied formulations (Roundup Original, Vision Forestry Herbicide; 12 L formulation ha(-1) , equivalent to 4.27 kg acid equivalent [a.e.] ha(-1) ). The hazard decreased to impairment of 20.9% of species under the maximum application rate for more typical uses (6 L formulation ha(-1) , 2.14 kg a.e. ha(-1) ), and down to 6.9% for a more frequently employed application rate (2.5 L formulation ha(-1) , 0.89 kg a.e. ha(-1) ). Finally, the percentage (3.8%) was less than the hazardous concentration for 5% of the species based on concentrations of MON 0818 calculated from maximum measured concentrations of glyphosate in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:501-511. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Nitrous oxide emission by aquatic macrofauna

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Brix, Hans; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    A large variety of aquatic animals was found to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide when nitrate was present in the environment. The emission was ascribed to denitrification by ingested bacteria in the anoxic animal gut, and the exceptionally high N2O-to-N2 production ratio suggested delayed induction of the last step of denitrification. Filter- and deposit-feeding animal species showed the highest rates of nitrous oxide emission and predators the lowest, probably reflecting the different amounts of denitrifying bacteria in the diet. We estimate that nitrous oxide emission by aquatic animals is quantitatively important in nitrate-rich aquatic environments like freshwater, coastal marine, and deep-sea ecosystems. The contribution of this source to overall nitrous oxide emission from aquatic environments might further increase because of the projected increase of nitrate availability in tropical regions and the numeric dominance of filter- and deposit-feeders in eutrophic ecosystems. PMID:19255427

  2. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system.

  3. Finfish and aquatic invertebrate pathology resources for now and the future✩

    PubMed Central

    Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Bowser, Paul R.; Cheng, Keith C.; Cooper, Keith R.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Frasca, Salvatore; Groman, David B.; Harper, Claudia M.; (Mac) Law, Jerry M.; Marty, Gary D.; Smolowitz, Roxanna M.; Leger, Judy St.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of finfish and aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has grown dramatically in recent decades. Likewise the aquaculture of finfish and invertebrates has expanded rapidly worldwide as populations of some aquatic food species and threatened or endangered aquatic species have plummeted due to overharvesting or habitat degradation. This increasing intensive culture and use of aquatic species has heightened the importance of maintaining a sophisticated understanding of pathology of various organ systems of these diverse species. Yet, except for selected species long cultivated in aquaculture, pathology databases and the workforce of highly trained pathologists lag behind those available for most laboratory animals and domestic mammalian and avian species. Several factors must change to maximize the use, understanding, and protection of important aquatic species: 1) improvements in databases of abnormalities across species; 2) standardization of diagnostic criteria for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions; and 3) more uniform and rigorous training in aquatic morphologic pathology. PMID:18948226

  4. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  5. Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-04-01

    Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes.

  6. Population approaches to aquatic toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, M.B.

    1981-10-01

    Field studies in which age-specific survivorship and fecundity are measured can provide data for the validation of laboratory studies conducted to assess the effects of toxic materials on aquatic species. Comparison of the variability of age-specific survivorship and fecundity in polluted versus nonpolluted areas would provide insight into the consequences of pollution at the population level. Techniques which permit prediction of population structure and growth from age-specific survivorship and fecundity schedules are described. These techniques include the life table and the Leslie matrix. Examples of population studies in which these techniques may be applied are given.

  7. Map showing bathymetry and aquatic plants of Lake Waramaug, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, Kenneth P.

    1981-01-01

    The Bathymetry of Lake Waramaug is shown at 5-foot intervals, and the location and identification of significant concentrations of aquatic plants is indicated. The bathymetry shows the lake to be relatively steep-sided and flat-bottomed, with a maximum depth of between 40 and 45 feet. Aquatic plants were confined to the edges of the lake in depths of less than 15 feet. Nine species of aquatic plants occcur in significant numbers in the lake. Lake bathymetric data were collected using a recording fathometer and sounding rod; aquatic plant data were collected by visual survey; and the collection of samples using a weed rake. (USGS)

  8. A comparison of the rates of methylation of mercury(II) species in aquatic media by various organotin and organosilicon moieties.

    PubMed

    Bellama, J M; Jewett, K L; Manders, W F; Nies, J D

    1988-07-01

    Metals can be methylated in environmental aqueous media by a variety of organotin and organosilicon compounds. Main group metals and metalloids were surveyed for the identification of species that can either donate or accept methyl groups. The methylation of mercury(II) by trimethyltin cation was found to be a bimolecular reaction, the reaction rate of which decreased with increasing chloride concentration. Kinetic investigations using NMR techniques showed that the most important pairs of reactants were (CH3)3Sn+ + HgCl2, (CH3)3SnCl + HgCl2, and (CH3)3SnCl + HgCl-3. Sodium 2,2,3,3-tetradeutero-3-(trimethylsilyl)propionate (TSP) and sodium 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate (DSS) were found to methylate mercury(II). Organylsilatranes were found to transfer their organic groups readily to mercury(II) to produce organomercury compounds.

  9. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V; Lenat, David R

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphellapuccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X-XI, and spermathecae in XII-XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidriluspocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X-XIII. Stylodriluscoreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  10. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X-XI, and spermathecae in XII-XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidrilus pocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X-XIII. Stylodrilus coreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts.

  11. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. and two additional new species of aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculidae, Clitellata) from poorly-known lotic habitats in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Lumbriculidae were collected from floodplain seeps and small streams in southeastern North America. Some of these habitats are naturally acidic. Sylphella puccoon gen. n., sp. n. has prosoporous male ducts in X–XI, and spermathecae in XII–XIII. Muscular, spherical atrial ampullae and acuminate penial sheaths distinguish this monotypic new genus from other lumbriculid genera having similar arrangements of reproductive organs. Cookidrilus pocosinus sp. n. resembles its two subterranean, Palearctic congeners in the arrangement of reproductive organs, but is easily distinguished by the position of the spermathecal pores in front of the chaetae in X–XIII. Stylodrilus coreyi sp. n. differs from congeners having simple-pointed chaetae and elongate atria primarily by the structure of the male duct and the large clusters of prostate cells. Streams and wetlands of Southeastern USA have a remarkably high diversity of endemic lumbriculids, and these poorly-known invertebrates should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:25493045

  12. Using solid 13C NMR coupled with solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to investigate molecular species and lability of organic carbon and phosphorus from aquatic plants in Tai Lake, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic plants are involved in the storage and release capacity for organic matter and nutrients. In this study, solid 13C and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the biomass samples of six aquatic plants. Solid 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the domin...

  13. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  14. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akoto, Lawrence; Stellaard, Frans; Irth, Hubertus; Vreuls, René J J; Pel, Roel

    2008-04-04

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. strain MRI without any sample preparation steps. It is shown that the technique can be useful in the identification of lipid markers in food-web as well as environmental studies. For instance, new mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids were found in the C(16) and C(18) regions of the green algae S. acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. strain MRI samples. These fatty acids have not, to our knowledge, been detected in the conventional one-dimensional (1D) GC analysis of these species due to either co-elution and/or their presence in low amounts in the sample matrix. In GC x GC, all congeners of the fatty acids in these microorganisms could be detected and identified due to the increased analyte detectability and ordered structures in the two-dimensional separation space. The combination of direct thermal desorption (DTD)-GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS) promises to be an excellent tool for a more accurate profiling of biological samples and can therefore be very useful in lipid biomarker research as well as food-web and ecological studies.

  15. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Killgore, K.J.; Payne, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is developing field techniques to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics that influence the treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy is considered a quantitative determination of the extent and duration of changes in problem aquatic plant populations attributable to the use of a treatment method (i.e., chemical, mechanical, biological, environmental). Depending on the plant species, efficacy can be determined or indicated by changes in biomass, areal distribution, or height of an aquatic plant in response to treatment. Aquatic plant biomass is sampled with a WES aquatic biomass sampler; areal distribution of aquatic plants is determined by aerial photography or with an electronic positioning system; and submersed aquatic plant height is measured with a fathometer (depth recorder) used with an electronic positioning and repositioning system (AGNAV). The APCRP has also developed field techniques to determine site characteristics that influence efficacy using commercially available instrumentation. This instrumentation can be used to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics simultaneously.

  16. Using occupancy modelling to compare environmental DNA to traditional field methods for regional-scale monitoring of an endangered aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Schmelzle, Molly C; Kinziger, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring approaches promise to greatly improve detection of rare, endangered and invasive species in comparison with traditional field approaches. Herein, eDNA approaches and traditional seining methods were applied at 29 research locations to compare method-specific estimates of detection and occupancy probabilities for endangered tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi). At each location, multiple paired seine hauls and water samples for eDNA analysis were taken, ranging from two to 23 samples per site, depending upon habitat size. Analysis using a multimethod occupancy modelling framework indicated that the probability of detection using eDNA was nearly double (0.74) the rate of detection for seining (0.39). The higher detection rates afforded by eDNA allowed determination of tidewater goby occupancy at two locations where they have not been previously detected and at one location considered to be locally extirpated. Additionally, eDNA concentration was positively related to tidewater goby catch per unit effort, suggesting eDNA could potentially be used as a proxy for local tidewater goby abundance. Compared to traditional field sampling, eDNA provided improved occupancy parameter estimates and can be applied to increase management efficiency across a broad spatial range and within a diversity of habitats.

  17. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  18. Developing a Collegiate Aquatics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for departments of health, physical education, and recreation that are planning to develop their own aquatics programs, focusing on: the prevalence of collegiate aquatics programs; course offerings in an aquatics minor; practicums and internships; graduate programs in aquatics; cross-disciplinary appeal; marketing the aquatics…

  19. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, K.J.

    1980-02-01

    The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

  20. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  1. 40 CFR 158.243 - Experimental use permit data requirements for terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... toxicity R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 850.1010 Acute toxicity freshwater invertebrates R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 6, 7, 11 850.1300 Aquatic invertebrate life cycle (freshwater) NR R R NR NR NR... aquatic organisms. 7. Data are required on one freshwater aquatic invertebrate species. 8. Data...

  2. 40 CFR 158.243 - Experimental use permit data requirements for terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... toxicity R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 850.1010 Acute toxicity freshwater invertebrates R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 6, 7, 11 850.1300 Aquatic invertebrate life cycle (freshwater) NR R R NR NR NR... aquatic organisms. 7. Data are required on one freshwater aquatic invertebrate species. 8. Data...

  3. 40 CFR 158.243 - Experimental use permit data requirements for terrestrial and aquatic nontarget organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... toxicity R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 5, 6, 11 850.1010 Acute toxicity freshwater invertebrates R R R NR NR NR TGAI, TEP 1, 2, 6, 7, 11 850.1300 Aquatic invertebrate life cycle (freshwater) NR R R NR NR NR... aquatic organisms. 7. Data are required on one freshwater aquatic invertebrate species. 8. Data...

  4. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds.

    PubMed

    Van Tuinen, M; Butvill, D B; Kirsch, J A; Hedges, S B

    2001-07-07

    Aquatic birds exceed other terrestrial vertebrates in the diversity of their adaptations to aquatic niches. For many species this has created difficulty in understanding their evolutionary origin and, in particular, for the flamingos, hamerkop, shoebill and pelecaniforms. Here, new evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicates extensive morphological convergence and divergence in aquatic birds. Among the unexpected findings is a grouping of flamingos and grebes, species which otherwise show no resemblance. These results suggest that the traditional characters used to unite certain aquatic groups, such as totipalmate feet, foot-propelled diving and long legs, evolved more than once and that organismal change in aquatic birds has proceeded at a faster pace than previously recognized.

  5. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds.

    PubMed Central

    Van Tuinen, M.; Butvill, D. B.; Kirsch, J. A.; Hedges, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic birds exceed other terrestrial vertebrates in the diversity of their adaptations to aquatic niches. For many species this has created difficulty in understanding their evolutionary origin and, in particular, for the flamingos, hamerkop, shoebill and pelecaniforms. Here, new evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization data indicates extensive morphological convergence and divergence in aquatic birds. Among the unexpected findings is a grouping of flamingos and grebes, species which otherwise show no resemblance. These results suggest that the traditional characters used to unite certain aquatic groups, such as totipalmate feet, foot-propelled diving and long legs, evolved more than once and that organismal change in aquatic birds has proceeded at a faster pace than previously recognized. PMID:11429133

  6. Measuring titratable alkalinity by single versus double endpoint titration: An evaluation in two cyprinodont species and implications for characterizing net H+ flux in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Wood, Chris M; Grosell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    effectively zero in both species at pH 4.5. However, significant differences between the double endpoint (no net H(+) transport at low pH) and single endpoint titrations (net H(+) uptake at low pH) remain to be explained.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water... fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water... fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water... fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which... Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water... fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 122 - Criteria for Determining a Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aquatic animals in either of the following categories: (a) Cold water fish species or other cold water... fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which... Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production Facility (§ 122.24) C Appendix C to Part 122 Protection of...

  12. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  13. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  14. Freshwater biodiversity and aquatic insect diversification.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Monaghan, Michael T; Pauls, Steffen U

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than 1% of Earth's surface but harbor more than 6% of all insect species: Nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are highly susceptible to environmental change and exhibit marked ecological gradients. Standing waters appear to harbor more dispersive species than running waters, but there is little understanding of how this fundamental ecological difference has affected diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bioindicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification.

  15. Current status of aquatic species biologics.

    PubMed

    Haskell, Scott R R; Carberry-Goh, Karen; Payne, Michael A; Smith, Stephen A

    2004-11-15

    No vaccine is a substitute for good management and diligent biosecurity in an aquaculture facility. It is always important to ensure the best water quality possible, provide quality nutrition, avoid overcrowding of tanks and raceways, remove dead fish to prevent pathogen buildup and spread, and reduce or eliminate unnecessary stress on fish. Use of a preventive medicine vaccine program and improved management can help ensure good health in a fish population and reduce the industries' use of therapeutic agents.

  16. Science to support aquatic animal health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Harris, M. Camille

    2016-10-18

    Healthy aquatic ecosystems are home to a diversity of plants, invertebrates, fish and wildlife. Aquatic animal populations face unprecedented threats to their health and survival from climate change, water shortages, habitat alteration, invasive species and environmental contaminants. These environmental stressors can directly impact the prevalence and severity of disease in aquatic populations. For example, periodic fish kills in the upper Chesapeake Bay Watershed are associated with many different opportunistic pathogens that proliferate in stressed fish populations. An estimated 80 percent of endangered juvenile Puget Sound steelhead trout die within two weeks of entering the marine environment, and a role for disease in these losses is being investigated. The introduction of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) into the Great Lakes—a fishery worth an estimated 7 billion dollars annually—resulted in widespread fish die-offs and virus detections in 28 different fish species. Millions of dying sea stars along the west coast of North America have led to investigations into sea star wasting disease. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are assisting managers with these issues through ecological investigations of aquatic animal diseases, field surveillance, and research to promote the development of mitigation strategies.

  17. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  18. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  19. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  20. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  1. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  2. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  3. Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods for Aquatic Resource Assessment (MARA) project consists of three main activities in support of assessing the conditions of the nation’s aquatic resources: 1) scientific support for EPA Office of Water’s national aquatic resource surveys; 2) spatial predications of riv...

  4. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  5. Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eye.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2007-06-01

    The eye of aquatic mammals demonstrates several adaptations to both underwater and aerial vision. This study offers a review of eye anatomy in four groups of aquatic animals: cetaceans (toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed with particular reference to aquatic specializations for underwater versus aerial vision. Aquatic mammals display emmetropia (i.e., refraction of light to focus on the retina) while submerged, and most have mechanisms to achieve emmetropia above water to counter the resulting aerial myopia. As underwater vision necessitates adjusting to wide variations in luminosity, iris muscle contractions create species-specific pupil shapes that regulate the amount of light entering the pupil and, in pinnipeds, work in conjunction with a reflective optic tapetum. The retina of aquatic mammals is similar to that of nocturnal terrestrial mammals in containing mainly rod photoreceptors and a minor number of cones (however, residual color vision may take place). A characteristic feature of the cetacean and pinniped retina is the large size of ganglion cells separated by wide intercellular spaces. Studies of topographic distribution of ganglion cells in the retina of cetaceans revealed two areas of ganglion cell concentration (the best-vision areas) located in the temporal and nasal quadrants; pinnipeds, sirenians, and sea otters have only one such area. In general, the visual system of marine mammals demonstrates a high degree of development and several specific features associated with adaptation for vision in both the aquatic and aerial environments.

  6. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    PubMed

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  7. SETI meets a social intelligence: Dolphins as a model for real-time interaction and communication with a sentient species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzing, Denise L.

    2010-12-01

    In the past SETI has focused on the reception and deciphering of radio signals from potential remote civilizations. It is conceivable that real-time contact and interaction with a social intelligence may occur in the future. A serious look at the development of relationship, and deciphering of communication signals within and between a non-terrestrial, non-primate sentient species is relevant. Since 1985 a resident community of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins has been observed regularly in the Bahamas. Life history, relationships, regular interspecific interactions with bottlenose dolphins, and multi-modal underwater communication signals have been documented. Dolphins display social communication signals modified for water, their body types, and sensory systems. Like anthropologists, human researchers engage in benign observation in the water and interact with these dolphins to develop rapport and trust. Many individual dolphins have been known for over 20 years. Learning the culturally appropriate etiquette has been important in the relationship with this alien society. To engage humans in interaction the dolphins often initiate spontaneous displays, mimicry, imitation, and synchrony. These elements may be emergent/universal features of one intelligent species contacting another for the intention of initiating interaction. This should be a consideration for real-time contact and interaction for future SETI work.

  8. Aquatic versus mammalian toxicology: applications of the comparative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    The large body of literature and techniques generated by mammalian toxicity studies provides a conceptual and technical framework within which the absorption, fate, and disposition of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms can be studied. This review emphasizes the similarities and differences between mammalian and aquatic systems, e.g., lung vs. gill as site of absorption and toxicity. These must be taken into consideration when designing aquatic toxicity studies. Studies of phenol red in dogfish shark as an example show physiologic-based pharmacokinetic modeling to be a useful tool for investigating and eventually predicting species differences in xenobiotic disposition and drug differences within the same species. This discussion demonstrates that both laboratory and modeling procedures are now available to carry out sophisticated studies of xenobiotic fate and disposition in fish. Such studies are needed to pinpoint sites and mechanisms of pollutant toxicity in aquatic organisms.

  9. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals.

  10. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  11. Sediment quality and aquatic life assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J. ); Kimerle, R.A.; Barnettt, J.W. Jr. )

    1992-10-01

    The protection of aquatic resources has assumed national and global prominence. Oil spills, medical wastes, and plastic debris presence on beaches, ocean incineration, ocean disposal of garbage and dredged materials, pesticide and fertilizer runoff, contaminated harbors, and diminishing fisheries have focused public attention on the need to adequately protect marine and freshwater resources-including sediments. Sediments are repositories for physical debris and [open quotes]sinks[close quotes] for a wide variety of chemicals. The concern associated with the chemicals sorbed to sediments is that many commercial species and food chain organisms spend a major portion of their life-cycle living in or on aquatic sediments. This provides a pathway for these chemicals to be consumed by higher aquatic life and wildlife, including avian species as well as humans. Direct transfer of chemicals from sediments to organisms is now considered to be a major route of exposure for many species. Concern has increased over the number of incidences of tumors being observed in many species of fish, especially those that have direct contact with sediments. These issues are focusing attention on sediment contamination and highlight the fact that sediments are an important resource. The purposes of this article are to provide background information on the status of sediment assessment in the United States, a review of the existing methods available for assessing sediment quality, an analysis of the complexity and uncertainty of the sediment assessment methodologies, and a proposed approach that utilizes the unique attributes of many of these methods in a tiered sediment assessment strategy. The authors hope that this sediment assessment strategy will help provide a mechanism for achieving cleaner sediments and wate rin the nation's aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-24

    132 5. Ecological strategies predict associations between aquatic and genetic connectivity for dryland amphibians...amphibian and aquatic invertebrate species with contrasting life histories were investigated. How species’ ecological strategies affect the regional...and Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)]. These species characterize a range of ecological strategies, driven primarily by

  13. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    132 5. Ecological strategies predict associations between aquatic and genetic connectivity for dryland amphibians...amphibian and aquatic invertebrate species with contrasting life histories were investigated. How species’ ecological strategies affect the regional...and Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)]. These species characterize a range of ecological strategies, driven primarily by

  14. The Spemann organizer meets the anterior-most neuroectoderm at the equator of early gastrulae in amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Takanori; Ito, Kenta; Nishihara, Akiha; Minamino, Reika; Mori, Shoko; Sumida, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Chikara

    2015-04-01

    The dorsal blastopore lip (known as the Spemann organizer) is important for making the body plan in amphibian gastrulation. The organizer is believed to involute inward and migrate animally to make physical contact with the prospective head neuroectoderm at the blastocoel roof of mid- to late-gastrula. However, we found that this physical contact was already established at the equatorial region of very early gastrula in a wide variety of amphibian species. Here we propose a unified model of amphibian gastrulation movement. In the model, the organizer is present at the blastocoel roof of blastulae, moves vegetally to locate at the region that lies from the blastocoel floor to the dorsal lip at the onset of gastrulation. The organizer located at the blastocoel floor contributes to the anterior axial mesoderm including the prechordal plate, and the organizer at the dorsal lip ends up as the posterior axial mesoderm. During the early step of gastrulation, the anterior organizer moves to establish the physical contact with the prospective neuroectoderm through the "subduction and zippering" movements. Subduction makes a trench between the anterior organizer and the prospective neuroectoderm, and the tissues face each other via the trench. Zippering movement, with forming Brachet's cleft, gradually closes the gap to establish the contact between them. The contact is completed at the equator of early gastrulae and it continues throughout the gastrulation. After the contact is established, the dorsal axis is formed posteriorly, but not anteriorly. The model also implies the possibility of constructing a common model of gastrulation among chordate species.

  15. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  16. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  17. Cytochemical and ultrastructural aspects of aquatic carnivorous plant turions.

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Swiątek, Piotr; Kamińska, Iwona

    2014-11-01

    Turions, which are modified shoot apices, are vegetative, dormant overwintering organs produced by perennial aquatic plants. In this study, the turion cytochemistry and ultrastructure of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Utricularia vulgaris and U. stygia were compared with particular emphasis placed on storage substances. These three aquatic, rootless carnivorous plant species were studied at the end of their winter dormancy. At this stage, the turions of all species had starch as their main storage material. In contrast with A. vesiculosa, Utricularia turions were rich in protein storage vacuoles, and proteins were also accumulated as crystalline inclusions in the nuclei. All examined species accumulated lipid droplets in cells of epidermal glands.

  18. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  20. Suitability of seagrasses and submerged aquatic vegetation as indicators of eutrophication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rooted submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) encompasses a large diversity of species that range from obligate halophytes such as, seagrasses, to euryhaline species and freshwater obligates. All seagrass and SAV provide key biological functions within the enclosed bays, estuaries, a...

  1. Regionalizing aquatic ecosystems based on the river subbasin taxonomy concept and spatial clustering techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Chen, Jiongfeng; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Jiahu

    2011-11-01

    Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  2. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    PubMed

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior.

  3. Chemical contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young; Yamauchi, Masanobu; Inoue, Suguru; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    The 21st Century's Center of Excellence (COE) Program "Coastal Marine Environmental Research" in Ehime University, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan, started its activities in October 2002. One of the core projects of the COE Program in Ehime University is "studies on environmental behavior of hazardous chemicals and their toxic effects on wildlife". This core project deals with studies of the local and global distribution of environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, retrospective analysis of such chemicals, their toxicokinetics in humans and wildlife, molecular mechanisms to determine species-specific reactions, and sensitivity of chemically induced effects, and with the development of methodology for risk assessment for the conservation of ecological and species diversity. This presentation describes our recent achievements of this project, including research on contamination by arsenic and organohalogen pollutants in the Mekong River basin and molecular mechanisms of morphologic deformities in dioxin-exposed red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. We established the Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) in Ehime University in 2004, archiving approximately 100000 cryogenic samples containing tissues of wildlife and humans that have been collected for the past 40 years. The CMES homepage offers details of samples through online database retrieval. The es-BANK facility was in operation by the end of 2005.

  4. Characterization factors for thermal pollution in freshwater aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Verones, Francesca; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Pelletier, Gregory J; Koehler, Annette

    2010-12-15

    To date the impact of thermal emissions has not been addressed in life cycle assessment despite the narrow thermal tolerance of most aquatic species. A method to derive characterization factors for the impact of cooling water discharges on aquatic ecosystems was developed which uses space and time explicit integration of fate and effects of water temperature changes. The fate factor is calculated with a 1-dimensional steady-state model and reflects the residence time of heat emissions in the river. The effect factor specifies the loss of species diversity per unit of temperature increase and is based on a species sensitivity distribution of temperature tolerance intervals for various aquatic species. As an example, time explicit characterization factors were calculated for the cooling water discharge of a nuclear power plant in Switzerland, quantifying the impact on aquatic ecosystems of the rivers Aare and Rhine. The relative importance of the impact of these cooling water discharges was compared with other impacts in life cycle assessment. We found that thermal emissions are relevant for aquatic ecosystems compared to other stressors, such as chemicals and nutrients. For the case of nuclear electricity investigated, thermal emissions contribute between 3% and over 90% to Ecosystem Quality damage.

  5. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  6. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes.

  7. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  8. Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rabalais, Nancy N

    2002-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems respond variably to nutrient enrichment and altered nutrient ratios, along a continuum from fresh water through estuarine, coastal, and marine systems. Although phosphorus is considered the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in freshwater systems, the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and its contribution to acidification of fresh waters can be detrimental. Within the estuarine to coastal continuum, multiple nutrient limitations occur among nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon along the salinity gradient and by season, but nitrogen is generally considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton biomass accumulation. There are well-established, but nonlinear, positive relationships among nitrogen and phosphorus flux, phytoplankton primary production, and fisheries yield. There are thresholds, however, where the load of nutrients to estuarine, coastal and marine systems exceeds the capacity for assimilation of nutrient-enhanced production, and water-quality degradation occurs. Impacts can include noxious and toxic algal blooms, increased turbidity with a subsequent loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, oxygen deficiency, disruption of ecosystem functioning, loss of habitat, loss of biodiversity, shifts in food webs, and loss of harvestable fisheries.

  9. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  10. Tool use by aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  11. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  12. Evaluation of seven aquatic sampling methods for amphibians and other aquatic fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunzburger, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    To design effective and efficient research and monitoring programs researchers must have a thorough understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their sampling methods. Few direct comparative studies exist for aquatic sampling methods for amphibians. The objective of this study was to simultaneously employ seven aquatic sampling methods in 10 wetlands to compare amphibian species richness and number of individuals detected with each method. Four sampling methods allowed counts of individuals (metal dipnet, D-frame dipnet, box trap, crayfish trap), whereas the other three methods allowed detection of species (visual encounter, aural, and froglogger). Amphibian species richness was greatest with froglogger, box trap, and aural samples. For anuran species, the sampling methods by which each life stage was detected was related to relative length of larval and breeding periods and tadpole size. Detection probability of amphibians varied across sampling methods. Box trap sampling resulted in the most precise amphibian count, but the precision of all four count-based methods was low (coefficient of variation > 145 for all methods). The efficacy of the four count sampling methods at sampling fish and aquatic invertebrates was also analyzed because these predatory taxa are known to be important predictors of amphibian habitat distribution. Species richness and counts were similar for fish with the four methods, whereas invertebrate species richness and counts were greatest in box traps. An effective wetland amphibian monitoring program in the southeastern United States should include multiple sampling methods to obtain the most accurate assessment of species community composition at each site. The combined use of frogloggers, crayfish traps, and dipnets may be the most efficient and effective amphibian monitoring protocol. ?? 2007 Brill Academic Publishers.

  13. Transfer of Foreign DNA into Aquatic Animals by Electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas T.; Chen, Maria J.; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Lu, J. K.

    Aquatic animals into which a foreign gene or a non-coding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and integrated in their genomes are called transgenic aquatic animals. Since 1985, a wide range of transgenic aquatic animal species have been produced mainly by microinjecting or electroporating homologous or heterologous transgenes into newly fertilized or unfertilized eggs and sometimes, sperm (for review, Chen and Powers, 1990; Hackett, 1993; Chiou et al., 2005). To produce a desired transgenic aquatic animal species, several factors should be considered. First, could the reproduction cycle of the aquatic animal species under consideration be completed in captivity? Second, a specific gene construct must be designed based on the special requirements of each study. For example, the gene construct may contain an open reading frame encoding a gene product of interest and regulatory elements that regulate the expression of the gene in a temporal, spatial and/or devel opmental manner. Third, an efficient method for delivering the transgene construct needs to be identified. Fourth, since not all instances of gene transfer are efficient, a screening method must be adopted for identifying transgenic individuals.

  14. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  15. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S

    1998-10-01

    Morbillivirus infections which were not documented in aquatic mammals until 1988, have caused at least five epizootics in these species during the last 10 years. Affected populations include European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 1998, Baikal seals (Phoca siberica) in Siberia from 1987-1988, striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea from 1990-1992 and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the eastern coast of the United States from 1987-1988 and in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-1994. Clinical signs and lesions in affected animals were similar to those of canine distemper. Lesions were mainly seen in lung, central nervous and lymphoid tissues and included formation of intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Syncytia were commonly found in lung and lymphoid tissues of cetaceans but not of pinnipeds. Antigenic and molecular biological studies indicate that a newly discovered morbillivirus, termed phocine distemper virus, and canine distemper virus were responsible for recent pinniped epizootics; cetacean die-offs were caused by strains of a second, newly recognized cetacean morbillivirus. Serological evidence of morbillivirus infection has been identified in a broad range of marine mammal populations and recent epizootics probably resulted from transfer of virus to immunologically-naive populations.

  16. Waving of Aquatic Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Richards, K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the fluid-structure interaction between submerged flexible grass stems and unidirectional flow in a channel. The stems deform in response to the drag force imposed by the flow. The drag, however, varies non-linearly with the fluid velocity and it's angle of incidence with the stems' axis. An increase in fluid velocity increases drag that consequently decelerates the fluid, but also bends the stems further and reduces drag. Such a drag-induced feedback mechanism between the plant structures and water results in an instability that is responsible for the synchronous waving of aquatic grasses in a flow field that is initially uniform. We construct a model for this phenomenon to explore its dependence on parameters. Experiments are also in progress. We further propose to test the applicability of similar mechanisms to sediment transport over deformable beds.

  17. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  18. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal...

  19. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Kagami, Maiko; Miki, Takeshi; Takimoto, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 10(1) to 10(9) spores L(-1). When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the "mycoloop," may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans.

  20. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  1. Freshwater ecosystems and aquatic insects: a paradox in biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Fenoglio, Stefano; Bonada, Núria; Guareschi, Simone; López-Rodríguez, Manuel J; Millán, Andrés; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Biological invasions have increased significantly in response to global change and constitute one of the major causes of biodiversity loss. Insects make up a large fraction of invasive species, in general, and freshwaters are among the most invaded ecosystems on our planet. However, even though aquatic insects dominate most inland waters, have unparalleled taxonomic diversity and occupy nearly all trophic niches, there are almost no invasive insects in freshwaters. We present some hypotheses regarding why aquatic insects are not common among aquatic invasive organisms, suggesting that it may be the result of a suite of biological, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Such specific knowledge introduces a paradox in the current scientific discussion on invasive species; therefore, a more in-depth understanding could be an invaluable aid to disentangling how and why biological invasions occur.

  2. A pre-vegetated mat technique for the restoration of submersed aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Communities of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) provide critical habitat for wintering waterfowl and many commercially important fish species. Submersed aquatic vegetation also helps minimize storm damage by reducing wave action and stabilizing sediments, and they improve water quality by sequestering nutrients and contaminants (Zieman and Zieman 1989).

  3. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  4. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  5. Aquatic phytoremendiation: Algae and aquatic plants for removal of toxic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A study to test several species of plants for heavy metal bioremoval is very briefly described. Adsorption isotherms were determined for cadmium, zinc, lead, nickel, and copper by measuring the amounts adsorbed by the biomass over a range of residual metal concentrations. Numerical results presented include adsorption characteristics of aquatic plants at pH 5 and specific adsorption of cadmium onto various biomass. The two best species were Phormidium, a blue-green alga, and Myriophyllum spicatum, water milfoil. The maximum metal ion absorbed the the minimal residual metal concentrations achieved allow estimation of the amount of biomass required to achieve a desired treatment level.

  6. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    remote sensing methods for identification and assessment of expanses of aquatic plants. Both materials and techniques are examined for cost effectiveness and capability to sense aquatic plants on both the local and regional scales. Computer simulation of photographic responses was employed; Landsat, high-altitude photography, side-looking airborne radar, and low-altitude photography were examined to determine the capabilities of each for identifying and assessing aquatic plants. Results of the study revealed Landsat to be the most cost effective for regional surveys,

  7. Aquatic Invertebrate Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, D.

    1985-01-01

    Little definitive evidence exists to show that gravity plays a major role in embyrogenesis of aquatic invertebrates. Two reasons for this may be: (1) few studies have been done that emphasize the role of gravity; and (2) there simply may not be any gravity effect. The buoyant nature of the aquatic environment could have obscured any evolutionary effect of gravity. The small size of most eggs and their apparent lack of orientation suggests reduced gravitational influence. Therefore, it is recommended that the term development, as applied to aquatic invertebrates, be loosely defined to encompass behavioral and morphological parameters for which baseline data already exist.

  8. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased.

  9. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  10. Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of pesticides in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    detoxification and bioactivation. Hydrophobic pesticides that are expected to be highly stored in tissues would not be bioconcentrated if susceptible to biotic transformation by aquatic organisms to more rapidly metabolized to hydrophilic entities are generally less toxic. By analogy, pesticides that are metabolized to similar entities by aquatic species surely are les ecotoxicologically significant. One feature of fish and other aquatic species that makes them more relevant as targets of environmental studies and of regulation is that they may not only become contaminated by pesticides or other chemicals, but that they constitute and important part of the human diet. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the enzymes that are capable of metabolizing or otherwise assisting in the removal of xenobiotics from aquatic species. Many studies have been performed on the enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics. In addition to the use of conventional biochemical methods, such studies on enzymes are increasingly being conducted using immunochemical methods and amino acid or gene sequences analysis. Such studies have been performed in algae, in some aquatic macrophytes, and in bivalva, but less information is available for other aquatic species such as crustacea, annelids, aquatic insecta, and other species. Although their catabolizing activity is often lower than in mammals, oxidases, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, play a central role in transforming pesticides in aquatic organisms. Primary metabolites, formed from such initial enzymatic action, are further conjugated with natural components such as carbohydrates, and this aids removal form the organisms. The pesticides that are susceptible to abiotic hydrolysis are generally also biotically degraded by various esterases to from hydrophilic conjugates. Reductive transformation is the main metabolic pathway for organochlorine pesticides, but less information on reductive enzymology processes is available. The

  11. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  12. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  13. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  14. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  15. Migratory Waterfowl Habitat Selection in Relation to Aquatic Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    composition. Aquatic vegetation is a critical food source for many migratory waterfowl, and numerous studies have shown that water bodies with abundant...also provide better habitat for invertebrate recruitment, an important supplemental food source for many waterfowl species (Keast 1984). Conversely

  16. Relationships Between Fish and Aquatic Plants: A Plan of Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    has been used to de- fine differences in plant distribution, abundance, and species composition (Forsberg 1959; Edwards and Moore 1975; Cassani and...McCreary. 1985. Effects of fish nests on pattern and zonation of submersed macrophytes in a softwater lake. Aquat. Bot. 22:21-32. Cassani , J. R., and W

  17. Marine invasions by non-sea snakes, with thoughts on terrestrial-aquatic-marine transitions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John C

    2012-08-01

    Few species of snakes show extensive adaptations to aquatic environments and even fewer exploit the oceans. A survey of morphology, lifestyles, and habitats of 2552 alethenophidian snakes revealed 362 (14%) that use aquatic environments, are semi-aquatic, or aquatic; about 70 (2.7%) of these are sea snakes (Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae). The ancient and aquatic family Acrochordidae contains three extant species, all of which have populations inhabiting brackish or marine environments, as well as freshwater. The Homalopsidae have the most ecologically diverse representatives in coastal habitats. Other families containing species exploiting saline waters with populations in freshwater environments include: the Dipsadidae of the western hemisphere, the cosmopolitan Natricidae, the African Grayinae, and probably a few Colubridae. Species with aquatic and semi-aquatic lifestyles are compared with more terrestrial (fossorial, cryptozoic, and arboreal) species for morphological traits and life histories that are convergent with those found in sea snakes; this may provide clues to the evolution of marine snakes and increase our understanding of snake diversity.

  18. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  19. Aquatic Remediation of Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Virginia M.

    1985-01-01

    A 10-day aquatics program for learning disabled children with hand-eye coordination problems and low self-esteem is described. Activities for each session (including relaxation exercises) are listed. (CL)

  20. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  1. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  2. Montsechia, an ancient aquatic angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Bernard; Daviero-Gomez, Véronique; Coiffard, Clément; Martín-Closas, Carles; Dilcher, David L

    2015-09-01

    The early diversification of angiosperms in diverse ecological niches is poorly understood. Some have proposed an origin in a darkened forest habitat and others an open aquatic or near aquatic habitat. The research presented here centers on Montsechia vidalii, first recovered from lithographic limestone deposits in the Pyrenees of Spain more than 100 y ago. This fossil material has been poorly understood and misinterpreted in the past. Now, based upon the study of more than 1,000 carefully prepared specimens, a detailed analysis of Montsechia is presented. The morphology and anatomy of the plant, including aspects of its reproduction, suggest that Montsechia is sister to Ceratophyllum (whenever cladistic analyses are made with or without a backbone). Montsechia was an aquatic angiosperm living and reproducing below the surface of the water, similar to Ceratophyllum. Montsechia is Barremian in age, raising questions about the very early divergence of the Ceratophyllum clade compared with its position as sister to eudicots in many cladistic analyses. Lower Cretaceous aquatic angiosperms, such as Archaefructus and Montsechia, open the possibility that aquatic plants were locally common at a very early stage of angiosperm evolution and that aquatic habitats may have played a major role in the diversification of some early angiosperm lineages.

  3. [Policies, operational framework and guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health].

    PubMed

    Martínez, B; Tella, S Koloffon; McGladdery, S; Enríquez, R

    2008-04-01

    The Americas are home to a large population of aquatic animals, most of which are used in aquaculture. Production systems are diverse and are distributed over a wide and varied geographical area. This presents a challenge for the region, which must be able to meet food safety requirements for aquatic animals traded in the international market. The authors describe the creation of the Inter-American Committee on Aquatic Animal Health (IAC-AAH), as well as its composition, operation, objectives, the activities of the groups that form the Committee and the various activities conducted so far.

  4. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Marczakiewicz, Piotr; Lachmann, Lars; Grzywaczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola), which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days). Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of habitat management.

  5. Improving Aquatic Warbler Population Assessments by Accounting for Imperfect Detection

    PubMed Central

    Oppel, Steffen; Marczakiewicz, Piotr; Lachmann, Lars; Grzywaczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola), which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional ‘full count’ approach (175 observer days). Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of habitat management

  6. Aquatic insect community of lake, Phulbari anua in Cachar, Assam.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Susmita; Narzary, Rupali

    2013-05-01

    An investigation on the water quality and aquatic insect community of an oxbow lake (Phulbari anua) of south Assam, North-East India was carried out during February to April, 2010. Aquatic insect community of the oxbow lake was represented by 9 species belonging to 9 families and 4 orders during the study period. Order Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera were found to be dominant. Record of 5 species and 5 families from the order Hemiptera showed that this is the largest order in terms of aquatic insect diversity of the lake. Computation of dominance status of different species of aquatic insects of the lake based on Engelmann's Scale revealed that Anisops lundbladiana and Cloeon sp. were eudominant in the system. The Shannon- Weiner's Diversity Index (H') and Shannon evenness values (J') were found to range from 0.3-0.69 and 0.53 -0.97, respectively indicating perturbation of the system. Again in terms of physico-chemical properties of water the lake is in a satisfactory condition where all the parameters are well within the range of IS 10500. The DO values were found to range from 6.8 to 14.8 mgl(-1). Free CO2 fluctuated from 1 to 4.98 mgl(-1) and nitrate in water ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 mgl(-1). Margalef's water quality index values of most of the samplings also indicated clean water condition of the lake. Correlation coefficient analyses of the environmental variables, aquatic insect diversity and density of the lake revealed that aquatic insect diversity of the lake is mainly governed by dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and free carbon dioxide.

  7. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  8. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  9. METHODOLOGY FOR THE EVALUATION OF CUMULATIVE EPISODIC EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL STRESSORS IN AQUATIC RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecological risk assessment method was developed to evaluate the magnitude, duration, and episodic nature of chemical stressors on aquatic communities. The percent of an ecosystem's species at risk from a designated chemical exposure scenario is generated. In effects assessment...

  10. A simple technique for trapping Siren lacertina, Amphiuma means, and other aquatic vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.A.; Barichivich, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a commercially-available funnel trap for sampling aquatic vertebrates. The traps can be used in heavily vegetated wetlands and can be set in water up to 60 cm deep without concern for drowning the animals. They were especially useful for capturing the aquatic salamanders Siren lacertina and Amphiuma means, which have been difficult to capture with traditional sampling methods. They also were effective for sampling small fishes, particularly centrarchids, and larval anurans. In total, 14 species of amphibians, nine species of aquatic reptiles, and at least 32 fish species were captured. The trap we describe differs significantly from traditional funnel traps (e.g., minnow traps) and holds great promise for studies of small, aquatic vertebrates, in particular Siren and Amphiuma species.

  11. Chemical residence time and hydrological conditions influence fipronil reduction in vegetated aquatic mesocosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fipronil, a phenyl-pyrazole insecticide and its metabolites (Fipronil sulfone, sulfide and desulfinyl) is often used in rice production agriculture with elevated runoff concentrations and loads having potential toxicological effects on downstream aquatic environments. This study evaluated two specie...

  12. Effects of acidification on aquatic primary producers and decomposers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1981-06-01

    Acidification of nutrient-poor, clearwater lakes and streams is associated with a variety of changes in communities of aquatic organisms. While acidification may eliminate fish, it does not kill the lake. Some species become very abundant in acidified waters and the balance among organisms, which provide stability to the aquatic ecosystem, is lost. This is reflected in accumulations of algae and dead plant litter. While these kinds of changes are observed, studies which quantitatively link the effects of acidification at one ecological level to changes in some other level are lacking. One can only surmise that such links are significant to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  13. The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    'Management' refers to controlling nuisance aquatic species and to restoring or restructing aquatic plant communities. Producing stable, diverse, aquatic plant communities containing a high percentage of desirable species is a primary management goal. There are a variety of techniques including harvesting, herbicides, water-level fluctuation, sediment alteration, nutrient limitation, light alteration, and biological controls which can be used for managing macrophytes. These techniques are briefly reviewed along with discussions of biological considerations important to the efficacy of the technique and the environmental impacts of the technique. There is a growing interest in restoring and restructing aquatic plant communities. Techniques for community restoration are discussed as are emerging management technologies using growth regulators and bioengineering. New management technologies will probably be limited by costs and environmental impacts. In the near future, better macrophyte management will come through better planning and more effective use of present technology. The challenge is to make current planning and management techniques more effective through increased biological inputs. The potential for biological input ranges from subcellular biology to species biology, to community and ecosystem biology. Some information needs are identified. ?? 1991.

  14. Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus

    2015-12-15

    Terrestrial inputs into freshwater ecosystems are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving ecosystem. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic ecosystems with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial ecosystem. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the current state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial ecosystems are affected by propagation of aquatic ecosystem alterations. To fill

  15. Aquatic ecological biochemical investigations in the Lake Baikal region

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kozhova, O.M.

    1986-07-01

    The authors maintain that at the current level of investigations a constructive solution of the problem of protecting aquatic ecosystems is possible only on the basis of a thorough study of biochemical mechanisms of the interaction of biota and pollutants. They believe that in the program of investigations in the Baikal region, with consideration of the easy vulnerability of the aquatic ecosystems, ecological biochemical investigations should occupy one of the leading places. The authors suggest a method for the screening of xenobiotics, consisting of xenobiotics; chemical investigations; biochemical investigations of the properties of xenobiotics, and toxicological investigations of xenobiotics. The differences in the elimination of xenobiotics are considerable due to the species and biochemical characteristics of hydrophytes and chemical structure of the investigated toxicants. The results obtained in experiments with cyanide compounds are of considerable interest, since cyanides, the strongest poisons of animals, prove to be little toxic for higher aquatic plants and algae.

  16. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  17. BIOMONITORING USING AQUATIC VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  18. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying

    PubMed Central

    Touchon, Justin C.; Worley, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction. PMID:25948689

  19. Oviposition site choice under conflicting risks demonstrates that aquatic predators drive terrestrial egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin C; Worley, Julie L

    2015-06-07

    Laying eggs out of water was crucial to the transition to land and has evolved repeatedly in multiple animal phyla. However, testing hypotheses about this transition has been difficult because extant species only breed in one environment. The pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, makes such tests possible because they lay both aquatic and arboreal eggs. Here, we test the oviposition site choices of D. ebraccatus under conflicting risks of arboreal egg desiccation and aquatic egg predation, thereby estimating the relative importance of each selective agent on reproduction. We also measured discrimination between habitats with and without predators and development of naturally laid aquatic and arboreal eggs. Aquatic embryos in nature developed faster than arboreal embryos, implying no cost to aquatic egg laying. In choice tests, D. ebraccatus avoided habitats with fish, showing that they can detect aquatic egg predators. Most importantly, D. ebraccatus laid most eggs in the water when faced with only desiccation risk, but switched to laying eggs arboreally when desiccation risk and aquatic predators were both present. This provides the first experimental evidence to our knowledge that aquatic predation risk influences non-aquatic oviposition and strongly supports the hypothesis that it was a driver of the evolution of terrestrial reproduction.

  20. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.