Science.gov

Sample records for meeting materials vaccines

  1. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for... Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine information materials that all health.... CDC seeks written comment on proposed new vaccine information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES...

  2. 76 FR 30722 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee; Vaccine Safety Working Group AGENCY... Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the Vaccine Safety Working Group (VSWG) of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting. The meeting is open to the...

  3. 75 FR 34141 - National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Vaccine Advisory Committee Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department... National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold two teleconference meetings. The meetings are open to....'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Salmon, National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health...

  4. 75 FR 25259 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting. The meeting is... 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health and Human...

  5. [Vaccination counselling: The meeting point is possible].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro Pérez, Roi; Hernández Martín, Diego; Carro Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; de la Parte Cancho, María; Casado Verrier, Esther; Galán Arévalo, Sonsoles; Carabaño Aguado, Iván

    2017-06-01

    There are recommendations for decision-making as regards parents who do not vaccinate their children, but there are few publications analysing this problem. In November 2014, a pioneer medical clinic opened in Spain, for counselling on immunisation practices. The aim of this study is to determine the success of the recommendations of the American and Spanish Paediatrics Associations according to the number of parents who finally accept vaccination. A descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective and single-centre study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2016. Children under the age of 16 not properly vaccinated, according to the immunisation schedule of the region where the study was conducted, were included after signing informed consent. A total of 20 families were counselled. The median age of the children was 2 years, and 80% of them received no vaccine. Absolute non-acceptance of vaccination was practiced by 45% of parents. The main reasons for not vaccinating were: 100% thimerosal-containing, 90% risk of autism, 85% aluminium-containing, 70% presence of other stabilisers and preservatives, and 65% risk of anaphylaxis. The immunisation advice was said to be helpful by 90% of parents. Vaccination was accepted by 90% of parents (45% completely). Anti-vaccination ideologies are strong and hard to change. Paediatricians not denying medical care to parents who endanger the lives of their own children are also hard to find. The meeting point is possible, and society needs it. Active listening, empathy, and good quality information were the keys to our results. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 52532 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Public Health and... (HHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a meeting...., Washington, DC 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health...

  7. 76 FR 30722 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a... Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20201. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: National Vaccine Program...

  8. 76 FR 53134 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Human Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will...: National Vaccine Program Office, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Room 715-H, Hubert H...

  9. 76 FR 2910 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Services (DHHS) is hereby giving notice that the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) will hold a... CONTACT: National Vaccine Program Office, Department of Health and Human Services, Room 715-H, Hubert H...

  10. Principles of malaria vaccine trials: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The Scientific Working Groups on Immunology of Malaria and on Applied Field Research in Malaria of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases held a joint meeting at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4-8 February 1985 to consider the current status of malaria vaccine research. Although experience with vaccines against bacterial and viral infections provides valuable information, the advanced stages of development of malaria vaccines pose entirely new problems calling for the elaboration of guidelines for preclinical studies and vaccine trials. The principal purpose of this meeting was to establish such guidelines.

  11. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  12. Pandemic influenza vaccines: meeting the supply, distribution and deployment challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2009-07-01

    An influenza pandemic will place an enormous strain on the world's vaccine production, distribution and administration systems. Following a pandemic declaration, industry's priority will be to deliver as much vaccine in as short a timeframe as possible. In respect to this challenge, manufacturers have successfully developed antigen-sparing strategies and significantly increased production capacity, with further growth planned assuming ongoing rising demand for seasonal vaccines. The combination of these factors has the potential to closer meet global needs for vaccine supply than ever before through increased availability of pandemic and pre-pandemic vaccines. The demonstration of cross-clade reactivity with H5N1 viruses makes the concept of pre-pandemic stockpiling and vaccination a reality for this subtype. Ensuring these vaccines are made available in a timely fashion to those who need them will present significant challenges. For local authorities, national governments and international organisations this means defining vaccine allocation and procurement processes as well as strengthening, and where necessary establishing, the critical health systems and infrastructure required for vaccine deployment. For vaccine producers this means addressing the technical and logistical issues associated with supply. This includes working with regulators to streamline key procedures, including generic labelling and batch release, while establishing flexibility in supply formats, including bulk and finished products, to maximise the speed of delivery. Similarly, the deployment of large quantities of vaccines in an emergency situation requires appropriate transport infrastructure and the distribution of associated medical supplies. As well as addressing these issues, specific consideration must be given to the logistics and storage aspects associated with stockpiling pre-pandemic vaccines. Finally, mutually agreed contractual arrangements between manufacturers and governments

  13. 75 FR 8727 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  14. Schistosome Materials for Vaccine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    OCT 2 1 19811 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on rtvtrme eld* It neceeeery *nd Identity by block number) Schistosoma mansoni ;Biomphalariaglabrata...Identity by block number) Parasite materials (S. mansoni ) were supplied to investigators at the National Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda... schistosomiasis , is part- icularly difficult due to the limited quantity of schistosomal materials available to most lab- oratories. It has been

  15. 77 FR 70169 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  16. 75 FR 27797 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines (ACCV). Date and Time: June 10, 2010, 1 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. EDT... meeting will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  17. 76 FR 27651 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice (DOJ), National Vaccine...

  18. Frederick National Lab Rallies to Meet Demand for Zika Vaccine | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research’s Vaccine Pilot Plant, part of the Vaccine Clinical Materials Program (VCMP), is helping researchers produce investigational Zika vaccines for a new round of clinical trials. The plant has been

  19. 2015 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 2015 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting was held April 6-10 in San Francisco, CA. The scientific sessions...included many emergent areas of materials research as well as some well-established ones. The frequent occurring overlap of topics among the various...clusters is a manifestation of the inter- and cross-disciplinary of contemporary materials science and engineering. Symposium FF brought together

  20. Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 10: Virus-like particle and nano-particle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Effio, Christopher Ladd; Hubbuch, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Session 10 of the Virus-like Particle and Nano-Particle Vaccines meeting 2014 focused on new methods in vaccine technology to accelerate process development, manufacturing and quality control. The session presented new ways of quantifying and characterizing particle samples. In addition platform approaches for production and purification of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines were highlighted.

  1. 76 FR 13646 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. In the...

  2. 77 FR 52041 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...

  3. 78 FR 60884 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological... of Retroviruses and Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines...

  4. 76 FR 44016 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center...

  5. 75 FR 46952 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... will include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC...

  6. 77 FR 31624 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  7. 75 FR 47605 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological..., Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends to...

  8. 78 FR 14311 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... will include, but are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  9. 76 FR 67198 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... include, but are not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  10. 75 FR 61768 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice...

  11. 76 FR 45583 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... not limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of...

  12. Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN): engaging to step up for vaccine discovery and access. Meeting report 2012.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Makhoana, Morena; Datla, Mahima; Leite, Luciana; Hendriks, Jan; Gholami, Alireza; Huang, Weidan; Gao, Yongzhong; Jadhav, Suresh; Harshavardhan, Gutla V J A; Wu, Yonglin; Suhardono, Mahendra; Homma, Akira

    2013-06-28

    At the annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) members renewed their engagement and cooperative spirit in pursuing the mission of increasing the quality and availability of affordable vaccines for all people. Thirteen years after its establishment, DCVMN moves into the Decade of Vaccines with renewed dynamism and synergy to create greater impact and shape the global and regional vaccination landscape, while supporting national growth. The DCVMN is growing: 12 new members joined in 2012, making a total of 37 members from 14 countries; 9 of these 37 manufacturers make WHO-prequalified vaccines. More than one hundred and forty delegates from 23 countries attended the annual general meeting, representing 24 vaccine manufacturers and leaders of 20 major global health institutions. Over the course of two days, delegates exchanged information and ideas on how to jointly achieve the common goal of protecting people against known and emerging infectious diseases. In an increasingly complex environment of new technologies, demanding regulatory requirements, higher cost of production, and a growing number of legal and intellectual property issues, it is observed that many manufacturers and stakeholders are engaged in technology transfer initiatives. This well-attended meeting highlighted the growing impact and important contributions of developing country vaccine manufacturers in shaping the global vaccine landscape. The successful introduction of the first ever vaccine against hepatitis E and of a new vaccine against meningitis A, tailored for African meningitis belt countries, illustrate the innovative capacity of DCVMN members. An increase in the variety of collaborations, partnerships and alliances between DCVM and various institutions was observed. Interestingly, bilateral technology transfer partnerships between DCVMs themselves are on the rise.

  13. 75 FR 41872 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    .... Discussions will surround the draft interim influenza vaccine information materials developed by the Centers... providers in the United States to all seasonal influenza vaccine recipients (or to parents or legal... of vaccination for the upcoming influenza season (41 CFR 102- 3.150(b)). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. 77 FR 71426 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Vaccines, December 6, 2012, in the Parklawn Building (and via audio conference call), Conference Rooms 10... audio conference only. The ACCV will meet on Thursday, December 6, from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. (EDT). The public can join the meeting via audio conference call by dialing 1-800-369-3104 on December 6 and...

  15. Division of Materials Science (DMS) meeting presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.F.; Weber, M.J.

    1982-11-08

    Materials preparation techniques are listed. Materials preparation capabilities are discussed for making BeF/sub 2/ glasses and other materials. Materials characterization techniques are listed. (DLC)

  16. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting

    PubMed Central

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Greenwood, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it. PMID:21893549

  17. Quality vaccines for all people: Report on the 16th annual general meeting of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network, 05-07th October 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana

    2016-06-30

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed.

  18. Challenges and opportunities in RSV vaccine development: Meeting report from FDA/NIH workshop.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jeffrey N; Graham, Barney S; Karron, Ruth A; Munoz, Flor M; Falsey, Ann R; Anderson, Larry J; Marshall, V; Kim, Sonnie; Beeler, Judy A

    2016-09-22

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious acute lower respiratory illness in infants and young children and a significant cause of disease burden in the elderly and immunocompromised. There are no licensed RSV vaccines to address this significant public health need. While advances in vaccine technologies have led to a recent resurgence in RSV vaccine development, the immune correlates of protection against RSV and the immunology of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) remain poorly understood. FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) and NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) organized and co-sponsored an RSV Vaccines Workshop in Bethesda, Maryland on June 1 and 2, 2015. The goal of the conference was to convene scientists, regulators, and industry stakeholders to discuss approaches to RSV vaccine development within the context of three target populations - infants and children, pregnant women, and individuals >60years of age. The agenda included topics related to RSV vaccine development in general, as well as considerations specific to each target population, such as clinical and serological endpoints. The meeting focused on vaccine development for high income countries (HIC), because issues relevant to vaccine development for low and middle income countries (LMIC) have been discussed in other forums. This manuscript summarizes the discussion of clinical, scientific, and regulatory perspectives, research gaps, and lessons learned.

  19. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-MRS Spring Meeting - Nanophotonic Materials Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    MEETING SYMPOSIUM A2 Thursday, May 27, 2004 Morning Joint Session Symposium A1, A2: Silicon -based nanophotonics Session chairs: P. Fauchet...EUROPEAN MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY Strasbourg (France) E-MRS Spring Meeting 2004 May 24-28, 2004 SYMPOSIUM A2 Nanophotonic ...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-04-1-5025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE E-MRS Spring Meeting - Nanophotonic Materials Session 5c

  1. Development of vaccines against shigellosis: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Endemic shigellosis is a worldwide problem, with a high morbidity rate in most developing countries; substantial mortality may also occur, especially with disease caused by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. The limited efficacy of current measures to control this infection makes the development of vaccines for the prevention of shigellosis particularly important. This Memorandum describes the clinical features of and immunity to shigellosis, summarizes the present status of efforts to develop suitable vaccines, and lists the topics that should be given priority in research. PMID:3495364

  2. 78 FR 52923 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    .../nvpo/nvac , email nvpo@hhs.gov , or call 202-690-5566 and provide name, organization, and email address...., Washington, DC 20201. Phone: (202) 690-5566; Fax: (202) 690-4631; email: nvpo@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... submit written statements should email or fax their comments to the National Vaccine Program Office at...

  3. 77 FR 27061 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac , email nvpo@hhs.gov , or call 202-690-5566 and provide name, organization, and email address. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 5-6, 2012. The meeting times and agenda... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20201. Phone: (202) 690-5566; Fax: (202) 690-4631; email: nvpo@hhs.gov...

  4. 77 FR 51536 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac , email nvpo@hhs.gov or call 202-690-5566 and provide name, organization, and email address. DATES: The meeting will be held on September 11-12, 2012. The meeting times and... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20201. Phone: (202) 690-5566; Fax: (202) 690-4631; email: nvpo@hhs.gov...

  5. Thermal stability of self-assembled peptide vaccine materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Han, Huifang; Hudalla, Gregory A; Wen, Yi; Pompano, Rebecca R; Collier, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    The majority of current vaccines depend on a continuous "cold chain" of storage and handling between 2 and 8°C. Vaccines experiencing temperature excursions outside this range can suffer from reduced potency. This thermal sensitivity results in significant losses of vaccine material each year and risks the administration of vaccines with diminished protective ability, issues that are heightened in the developing world. Here, using peptide self-assemblies based on the fibril-forming peptide Q11 and containing the epitopes OVA323-339 from ovalbumin or ESAT651-70 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the chemical, conformational, and immunological stability of supramolecular peptide materials were investigated. It was expected that these materials would exhibit advantageous thermal stability owing to their adjuvant-free and fully synthetic construction. Neither chemical nor conformational changes were observed for either peptide when stored at 45°C for 7days. ESAT651-70-Q11 was strongly immunogenic whether it was stored as a dry powder or as aqueous nanofibers, showing undiminished immunogenicity even when stored as long as six months at 45°C. This result was in contrast to ESAT651-70 conjugated to a protein carrier and adjuvanted with alum, which demonstrated marked thermal sensitivity in these conditions. Antibody titers and affinities were undiminished in mice for OVA323-339-Q11 if it was stored as assembled nanofibers, yet some diminishment was observed for material stored as a dry powder. The OVA study was done in a different mouse strain and with a different prime/boost regimen, and so it should not be compared directly with the study for the ESAT epitope. This work indicates that peptide self-assemblies can possess attractive thermal stability properties in the context of vaccine development. Almost all current vaccines must be maintained within a tight and refrigerated temperature range, usually between 2 and 8°C. This presents significant challenges for their

  6. Material Development and Meeting Learner's Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to show that learners' needs can be met using simple and cheap materials that can be found everywhere in 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. To this end, materials were developed using simple everyday life materials for 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. In the research, the project method was employed. The study was…

  7. Material Development and Meeting Learner's Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to show that learners' needs can be met using simple and cheap materials that can be found everywhere in 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. To this end, materials were developed using simple everyday life materials for 9th to 11th grade Chemistry courses. In the research, the project method was employed. The study was…

  8. Tenth Technical Advisory Group (TAG) meeting on vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    In march 1992, participants met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the 10th Meeting of the PAHO Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Immunization coverage for all vaccines exceeded 75%. In 1991, only 9 confirmed cases of wild poliovirus occurred out of 4000 stool specimens examined. These cases were in Colombia and Peru. Many national immunization days and mop-up operations complement routine immunization services and have contributed greatly to interruption of the wild poliovirus in the Americas. Social mobilization efforts and mass media campaigns have increased coverage rates nationally and regionally. Surveillance efforts continue to improve. Almost 20,000 health units in Latin America report each week on the existence or nonexistence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. TAG continues to prefer the oral polio vaccine for the eradication program in the Americas. Participants discussed issues pertaining to certification of polio eradication. Measles incidence in the Americas is still falling and intervals between outbreaks are growing. Some countries in the English-speaking Caribbean using a month long, mass vaccination strategy have apparently interrupted measles transmission. Since measles causes more deaths than any other vaccine preventable disease, PAHO's TAG places it as the highest priority. The proportion of neonatal tetanus cases that are being investigated is growing (1991=8% and 1990=35%). Participants challenged Venezuela and Panama to vaccinate 100% of reproductive age women in high risk areas before the next meeting. Inadequate data on pertussis prevents PAHO from measuring any changes in pertussis epidemiology. Some countries have set up systems to monitor adverse events associated with vaccination. Participants agreed that member nations should begin hepatitis B vaccination programs for high risk groups.

  9. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.

  10. 77 FR 3268 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... participate in the public comment session should register at http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac , email nvpo@hhs.gov or call (202) 690-5566 and provide name, organization, and email address. DATES: The meeting will be...., Washington, DC 20201. Phone: (202) 690-5566; Fax: (202) 690-4631; email: nvpo@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  11. 78 FR 4147 - Meeting of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... should register at http://www.hhs.gov/nvpo/nvac , email nvpo@hhs.gov , or call 202-690-5566 and provide name, organization, and email address. DATES: The meeting will be held on February 5-6, 2013. The...-4631; email: nvpo@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to Section 2101 of the Public Health...

  12. Granular crystals: Nonlinear dynamics meets materials engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the freedom to choose the size, stiffness, and spatial distribution of macroscopic particles in a lattice makes granular crystals easily tailored building blocks for shock-absorbing materials, sound-focusing devices, acoustic switches, and other exotica.

  13. Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-22

    Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 75 FR 82402 - Proposed Consolidated Vaccine Information Materials for Multiple Infant Vaccines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... from Vaccines: Vaccines are made with the same bacteria or viruses that cause disease, but they have... vaccinated? Your baby's first vaccines protect him from 8 serious diseases, caused by viruses and bacteria...

  15. Photochromic materials: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junji; Zou, Qi; Tian, He

    2013-01-18

    Photochromic materials are a family of compounds which can undergo reversible photo-switches between two different states or isomers with remarkably different properties. Inspired by their smart photo-switchable characteristics, a variety of light-driven functional materials have been exploited, such as ultrahigh-density optical data storage, molecular switches, logic gates, molecular wires, optic/electronic devices, sensors, bio-imaging and so on. This review commences with a brief description of exciting progress in this field, from systems in solution to modified functional surfaces. Further development of these photo-switchable systems into practical applications as well as existing challenges are also discussed and put in prospect. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 2013 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-18

    National University), who showed breakthrough results in nanowire solar cells and lasers. Tsenunobu Kimoto (Kyoto University) presented a comprehensive...band alignment between rutile and anatase TiO2 [D. O. Scanlon, et al., Nature Materials 12, 798 (2013)]. The photolysis of water on the surface of... TiO2 was first demonstrated in 1972, but the origin of the superior performance of mixed polymorph samples has remained elusive. Here state-of-the-art

  17. 2014 Materials Research Society (MRS) Fall Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of Faculty Supported Names of Under Graduate students supported Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees Names...in Bismuth Ferrite under Varying Epitaxial Strain States Michael Jablonski, Drexel University Ferroelectric materials find use in a number of...and Eric A. Armour and Balakrishnan Krishnan and Soo Min Lee and George D. Papasouliotis MRS Online Proceedings Library, Volume 1736, 2015, mrsf14-1736

  18. The Immunotherapeutics and Vaccine Summit - CHI's fifth annual meeting - novel vaccines: adjuvants and delivery systems: part 2.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan D

    2010-10-01

    The Fifth Annual Immunotherapeutics and Vaccine Summit (ImVacS), held in Boston, included topics covering new developments in the field of adjuvants and delivery systems for vaccines. This conference report highlights selected presentations on vaccines for infectious diseases, the use of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) for oral vaccination, modes of delivery for vaccines, and the strategy of DNA vaccination.

  19. Nanobiotechnology: synthetic biology meets materials science.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Michael C; Patolsky, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology, the area of science focused on the control of matter in the nanometer scale, allows ground-breaking changes of the fundamental properties of matter that are often radically different compared to those exhibited by the bulk counterparts. In view of the fact that dimensionality plays a key role in determining the qualities of matter, the realization of the great potential of nanotechnology has opened the door to other disciplines such as life sciences and medicine, where the merging between them offers exciting new applications, along with basic science research. The application of nanotechnology in life sciences, nanobiotechnology, is now having a profound impact on biological circuit design, bioproduction systems, synthetic biology, medical diagnostics, disease therapy and drug delivery. This special issue is dedicated to the overview of how we are learning to control biopolymers and biological machines at the molecular- and nanoscale. In addition, it covers far-reaching progress in the design and synthesis of nanoscale materials, thus enabling the construction of integrated systems in which the component blocks are comparable in size to the chemical and biological entities under investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of blue staining vaccine-derived material in inflammatory lesions using cultured canine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; LeBlanc, Casey J

    2015-03-01

    Vaccine reactions are described in cytology textbooks as having eosinophilic to magenta colored globules within and admixed with inflammatory cells. Recently, we have seen increased numbers of inflammatory lesions containing blue to blue-gray globular material, with historical information suggesting an association with rabies vaccination. The purpose of the study was to confirm the blue-gray and the eosinophilic material observed microscopically in some inflammatory lesions as being vaccine-derived. Three different vaccines were cytocentrifuged and Wright stained. Vaccine aliquots were also added to the culture media of canine-derived macrophages for 24 hours and the cells subsequently harvested, cytocentrifuged, and Wright stained. The globular material present in both preparations was compared to that observed in vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions. Morin staining was used to identify metal within vaccine material in both in vitro- and in vivo-derived cytology samples. Vaccine-derived material has a characteristic color and appearance. Appearance of the material was consistent in cytologic samples, in cells incubated with the vaccine, and in cytocentrifuged preparations of the vaccine vial contents. The blue-gray globules stained positively for Morin stain, while the eosinophilic material did not stain. Vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions may contain blue to blue-gray or magenta stained globular material. Blue-gray material was associated with administration of rabies vaccine Imrab 3 TF and the observed material may be metal-containing adjuvant. Magenta material was associated with other vaccines and negative for Morin stain, suggesting a metal-free adjuvant. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Meeting on flows of granular materials in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Passman, S.L.; Fukushima, E.; Evans, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The International Energy Agency Fossil Fuel Multiphase Flow Sciences Agreement has been in effect since 1986. The traditional mechanism for the effort has been information exchange, effected by the inclusion of scientists in annual Executive committee meetings, by exchange of reports and papers, and by visits of scientists to one another`s institutions. In a sequence of informal meetings and at the 1993 Executive committee meeting, held in Pittsburgh, US in March 1994, it was decided that more intensive interactions could be productive. A candidate for such interactions would be specific projects. Each of these would be initiated through a meeting of scientists in which feasibility of the particular project was decided, followed by relatively intense international co-operation in which the work would be done. This is a report of the first of these meetings. Official or unofficial representatives from Canada, italy, japan, mexico, the United Kingdom, and the US met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, to consider the subject Flows of Granular Materials in Complex Geometries. Representatives of several other countries expressed interest but were unable to attend this meeting. Sixteen lectures were given on aspects of this topic. It was decided that a co-operative effort was desirable and possible. The most likely candidate for the area of study would be flows in bins and hoppers. Each of the countries wishing to co-operate will pursue funding for its effort. This report contains extended abstracts of the sixteen presentations and a transcription of the final discussion.

  2. Development of vaccines against cholera and diarrhoea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    This Memorandum summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology of cholera and diarrhoea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and outlines the results of recent research to develop an effective oral vaccine against cholera. The meeting reviewed current research on the protective antigens of ETEC and made a number of recommendations with the aim of stimulating further efforts towards the development of vaccines against disease caused by ETEC. PMID:2203550

  3. Cross Reactive Material 197 glycoconjugate vaccines contain privileged conjugation sites

    PubMed Central

    Möginger, Uwe; Resemann, Anja; Martin, Christopher E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi; Govindan, Subramanian; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Broecker, Felix; Suckau, Detlev; Pereira, Claney Lebev; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Kolarich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Production of glycoconjugate vaccines involves the chemical conjugation of glycans to an immunogenic carrier protein such as Cross-Reactive-Material-197 (CRM197). Instead of using glycans from natural sources recent vaccine development has been focusing on the use of synthetically defined minimal epitopes. While the glycan is structurally defined, the attachment sites on the protein are not. Fully characterized conjugates and batch-to-batch comparisons are the key to eventually create completely defined conjugates. A variety of glycoconjugates consisting of CRM197 and synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes was characterised using mass spectrometry techniques. The primary structure was assessed by combining intact protein MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS middle-down and LC-ESI-MS bottom-up approaches. The middle-down approach on CNBr cleaved glycopeptides provided almost complete sequence coverage, facilitating rapid batch-to-batch comparisons, resolving glycan loading and identification of side products. Regions close to the N- and C-termini were most efficiently conjugated. PMID:26841683

  4. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders.

  5. Integration of Novel Materials and Advanced Genomic Technologies into New Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenzhen; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Gao, Liqian; Lee, Su Seong; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Han; Yang, Zhaogang; Liu, Zhaoyu; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Designing new vaccines is one of the most challenging tasks for public health to prevent both infectious and chronic diseases. Even though many research scientists have spent great efforts in improving the specificity, sensitivity and safety of current available vaccines, there are still much space on how to effectively combine different biomaterials and technologies to design universal or personalized vaccines. Traditionally, vaccines were made based on empirical approaches designed to mimic immunity induced by natural infection. Either live attenuated or killed whole microorganisms were used as vaccines. With the development of biomaterial science, DNA/RNA, recombinant vector, adjuvant and nanoparticles greatly expand the category of vaccines. More importantly, with the tremendous advances of new technologies including genomics, proteomics and immunomics, the paradigm of vaccine design has shifted from microbiological to sequence-based approaches. This ever-growing large amount of genomic data and new genomic approaches such as comparative genomics, reverse vaccinology and pan-genomics, will play critical roles in novel vaccine design and enable development of more effective vaccines to cure and control both chronic and infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize current various vaccine materials, advanced technologies and combinational strategies to integrate biomaterials and advanced technologies for vaccine design, which we hope will provide some very useful guidelines and perspectives for the vaccine design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. 75 FR 48707 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United... allergies. Children with minor illnesses, such as a cold, may be vaccinated. But children who are moderately... Papillomavirus Vaccine Information Statement (Gardasil) HPV (Human Papillomavirus Virus) Vaccine (Gardasil...

  7. Report from the World Health Organization's third Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) meeting, Geneva, 8-10th June 2016.

    PubMed

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Vekemans, Johan; Nava, Samantha; Kaslow, David C; Moorthy, Vasee

    2017-03-02

    The third meeting of WHO's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was held in June 2016, with a remit to revisit the pathogen areas for which significant progress has occurred since recommendations from the 2015 meeting, as well as to consider new advances in the development of vaccines against other pathogens. Since the previous meeting, significant progress has been made with regulatory approvals of the first malaria and dengue vaccines, and the first phase III trials of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate has started in the elderly and pregnant women. In addition, PDVAC has also supported vaccine development efforts against important emerging pathogens, including Middle Eastern Coronavirus (MERS CoV) and Zika virus. Trials of HIV and tuberculosis vaccine candidates are steadily progressing towards pivotal data points, and the leading norovirus vaccine candidate has entered a phase IIb efficacy study. WHO's Immunization, Vaccine and Biologicals (IVB) department is actively working in several pathogen areas on the recommendation of PDVAC, as well as continuing horizon scanning for advances in the development of vaccines that may benefit low and middle income countries (LMICs), such as the recent licensure of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in China. Following on from discussions with WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization, PDVAC will also look beyond licensure and consider data needs for vaccine recommendation and implementation to reduce the delay between vaccine approval and vaccine impact.

  8. Meeting Materials for OECD Expert Meeting on Categorization of Manufactured Nanomaterials on September 17-19, 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Here are materials for the OECD Working Party on Nanomanufactured Materials Expert Meeting on Categorization of Nanomaterials (developing nanomaterial categories) took place on September 17-19, 2014 in Washington, D.C hosted by U.S. EPA.

  9. 78 FR 34677 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... pellet-cladding interaction during anticipated operational occurrences for Pressurized Water...

  10. 78 FR 3474 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  11. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels.... Cayetano Santos, Chief, Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING...

  12. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  13. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  14. 78 FR 56756 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  15. 76 FR 24540 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  16. WHO consultation on group B Streptococcus vaccine development: Report from a meeting held on 27-28 April 2016.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miwako; Schrag, Stephanie J; Alderson, Mark R; Madhi, Shabir A; Baker, Carol J; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Kaslow, David C; Smith, Peter G; Moorthy, Vasee S; Vekemans, Johan

    2016-12-22

    Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants in the first 90days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at increased risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing part, but not all, of the GBS disease burden in many high income countries (HICs). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), IAP use is low. Immunization of pregnant women with a GBS vaccine represents an alternative strategy to protecting newborns and young infants, through transplacental antibody transfer and potentially by reducing new vaginal colonization. This vaccination strategy was first suggested in the 1970s and several potential GBS vaccines have completed phase I/II clinical trials. During the 2015 WHO Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee meeting, GBS was identified as a high priority for the development of a vaccine for maternal immunization because of the major public health burden posed by GBS in LMICs, and the high technical feasibility for successful development. Following this meeting, the first WHO technical consultation on GBS vaccines was held on the 27th and 28th of April 2016, to consider development pathways for such vaccines, focused on their potential role in reducing newborn and young infant deaths and possibly stillbirths in LMICs. Discussion topics included: (1) pathophysiology of disease; (2) current gaps in the knowledge of global disease burden and serotype distribution; (3) vaccine candidates under development; (4) design considerations for phase III trials; and (5) pathways to licensure, policy recommendations and use. Efforts to address gaps identified in each of these areas are needed to establish the public health need for, the development and deployment of, efficacious GBS vaccines. In particular, more work is required to understand the global disease burden of GBS-associated stillbirths, and to develop quality-assured standardized antibody assays to

  17. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... materials and metallurgy. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with the...

  18. South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccinesMeeting report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Narendra; Santosham, Mathuram

    2016-01-01

    Despite the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in the US and other Western countries for over 14 years, as of September 2014 only 4 South Asian countries were using PCV in their universal immunization program. To generate momentum toward addressing this issue a “South Asia symposium on pneumococcal disease and the promise of vaccines” was organized just prior to the 9th international symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases held in India recently. Leading scientists, program managers, and decision makers including ministry officials from the region participated in the meeting. The participants discussed available data on pneumococcal disease burden in South Asia, surveillance methods, efficacy and safety of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), the status of PCV introduction, programmatic challenges in introducing PCV and available data on the impact of PCV in South Asia and globally. There was a strong consensus that available data on disease burden and the global experience with PCV justified the introduction PCV in all Asian countries in order to accelerate the gains in child survival in the region. PMID:27026150

  19. Meeting vaccination quality measures for hepatitis A and B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jennifer R; Hachem, Christine Y; Kanwal, Fasiha; Mei, Minghua; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2011-01-01

    Coinfection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has identified HAV and HBV vaccination as a priority area for quality measurement in HCV. It is unclear to what extent patients with HCV meet these recommendations. We used national data from the Department of Veterans Affairs HCV Clinical Case Registry to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of meeting the quality measure (QM) of receiving vaccination or documented immunity to HAV and HBV in patients with chronic HCV. We identified 88,456 patients who had overall vaccination rates of 21.9% and 20.7% for HBV and HAV, respectively. The QM rates were 57.0% and 45.5% for HBV and HAV, respectively. Patients who were nonwhite or who had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels, cirrhosis, or human immunodeficiency virus were more likely to meet the HBV QM. Factors related to HCV care were also determinants of meeting the HBV QM. These factors included receiving a specialist consult, genotype testing, or HCV treatment. Patients who were older, had psychosis, and had a higher comorbidity score were less likely to meet the HBV QM. With a few exceptions, similar variables were related to meeting the HAV QM. The incidence of superinfection with acute HBV and HAV was low, but it was significantly lower in patients who received vaccination than in those who did not. Quality measure rates for HAV and HBV are suboptimal for patients with chronic HCV. In addition, several patient-related factors and receiving HCV-related care are associated with a higher likelihood of meeting QMs. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part I. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Rustan, Rahman; Huang, Weidan; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) brought together nearly 220 senior representatives of governmental and non-governmental global health organizations, as well as corporate executives of emerging vaccine manufacturers, from 26 countries for a two-day tailored lectures, Q&A sessions, CEOs panel discussion and networking opportunities, followed by a vaccine-technology symposium and visit to manufacturing facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants included representatives of 38 vaccine manufacturers, as well as international partners and collaborating research institutions, with 39% female participants. The Vice-Minister of Health to Vietnam commended the speakers and participants to this Annual General Meeting, devoted to achieve our common goal of protecting people against infectious diseases with better vaccines, for a healthier life. He reminded the audience that the first vaccine produced in Vietnam was oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the early 1960s and contributed to polio eradication in Vietnam, in 2000. Through its manufacturing resources, Vietnam eliminated neonatal tetanus in 2005, and has controlled measles and hepatitis B spread. The Ministry of Health hopes that by sharing experiences, delegates at this conference will foster international cooperation and partnerships among organizations. CEOs elaborated on challenges and opportunities for emerging countries.

  1. 78 FR 11903 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...: Name: Site Visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Northwestern University, also called the Multifunctional Nanoscale Material Structures Materials Research... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...

  2. How many published cases of serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination meet Brighton Collaboration diagnostic criteria?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roger E; Spragins, Wendy; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2013-12-16

    To perform a systematic review of all serious adverse events (SAEs) after yellow fever vaccination and to assess them according to Brighton Collaboration criteria. Nine electronic databases were searched with the terms "yellow fever vaccine" and "adverse events" to 10 July 2013 (no language/date limits). Two reviewers independently assessed studies, entered data, and assessed cases with Brighton Collaboration criteria. One hundred and thirty-one cases met Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylaxis, 41 neurologic (one death), 56 viscerotropic (24 deaths), and 2 both neurologic and viscerotropic criteria. All SAEs occurred following first yellow fever (YF) vaccination. Two additional cases which met Brighton Collaboration criteria were proven due to wild virus. An additional 345 cases were presented with insufficient detail to meet Brighton Collaboration criteria:173 neurological, 68 viscerotropic (24 deaths), 67 anaphylaxis, and 34 cases from a UK database and 3 from a Swiss database described as "serious adverse events" but not further classified into neurologic or viscerotropic. A further 253 cases were excluded as presenting insufficient data to be regarded as yellow fever vaccine (YFV) related SAEs. One hundred and thirty-one cases met Brighton Collaboration criteria for serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination. Another 345 cases did not meet Brighton criteria and 253 were excluded as presenting insufficient data to be regarded as serious adverse events after YFV. There are likely to be cases in areas that are remote or with insufficient diagnostic resources that are neither correctly assessed nor not published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  4. 76 FR 57082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to September 21, 2011, ACRS Meeting; Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels is...

  5. 76 FR 72451 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72452] [FR Doc No: 2011-30238] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting on December 15,...

  6. 76 FR 76442 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to December 15, 2011, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels scheduled to be held...

  7. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC): Vaccine effectiveness study designs: Accelerating the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines and reducing the global burden of enteric fever. Report from a meeting held on 26-27 October 2016, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Meiring, James E; Gibani, Malick

    2017-09-12

    Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) has convened a working group to review the evidence on TCVs and produce an updated WHO position paper for all typhoid vaccines in 2018 that will inform Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance's future vaccine investment strategies for TCVs. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) has been formed through a $36.9 million funding program from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate the introduction of TCVs into Gavi-eligible countries. In October 2016, a meeting was held to initiate planning of TCV effectiveness studies that will provide the data required by policy makers and stakeholders to support decisions on TCV use in countries with a high typhoid burden. Discussion topics included (1) the latest evidence and data gaps in typhoid epidemiology; (2) WHO and Gavi methods and data requirements; (3) data on TCV efficacy; (4) cost effectiveness analysis for TCVs from mathematical models; (5) TCV delivery and effectiveness study design. Specifically, participants were asked to comment on study design in 3 sites for which population-based typhoid surveillance is underway. The conclusion of the meeting was that country-level decision making would best be informed by the respective selected sites in Africa and Asia vaccinating children aged from 9-months to 15-years-old, employing either an individual or cluster randomized design with design influenced by population characteristics

  8. Physicians' current use and preferences for male HPV vaccine-related patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Kasting, Monica L; Lake, Paige; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2017-05-09

    Understanding physician preferences for educational materials to support male HPV vaccination is critical to improving vaccine uptake. Pediatric (Peds) and Family Medicine (FM) physicians in Florida completed a survey from May-August 2014 assessing current use of male-specific HPV vaccination patient education materials, and preferences for materials to increase HPV vaccination uptake. Peds and FM responses were compared with chi-squared or nonparametric tests. Most participants were FM (53.2%), White (66.6%), non-Hispanic (74.1%), and provided male patients/parents with HPV educational materials (59.1%). More than half (55.5%) provided a CDC factsheet for parents. Peds were more likely to indicate they provide educational materials (p<0.0001) than FM. The preferred source was the CDC (77.8%). Peds preferred using a factsheet as the medium of information more often than FM (85.6% vs. 68.0%; p<0.0001). When asked about preferences for targeted materials, 74.8% of providers indicated they would prefer materials targeted towards patients, 63.2% preferred information targeted towards parents, and 20.7% indicated they prefer non-targeted materials. Future research should focus on the development and testing of new HPV vaccine-specific materials and communication strategies for Peds and FM physicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccines

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...

  10. 77 FR 2096 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at... Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139. Type of Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Charles Ying, Program Director, Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials...

  11. 75 FR 59729 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... for protective antigen-based anthrax vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using the... anthrax vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using the animal rule. Persons attending FDA's...

  12. 77 FR 3780 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2012 to 2013 influenza season. On February 29, 2012, the committee will discuss licensure pathways for pandemic influenza vaccines. FDA intends...

  13. 78 FR 5465 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2013- 2014 influenza season. FDA intends to...

  14. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... circovirus type 1 (PCV 1) in Rotarix, a U.S. licensed vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and indicated...

  15. 75 FR 2876 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2010 - 2011 influenza season. FDA...

  16. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... immunogenicity of an Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. On November 15...

  17. 77 FR 10756 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Vaccines (ACCV). Dates and Times: March 8, 2012, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. March 9, 2012, 9 a.m. to 12:30 p.m... are not limited to: Updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), the Department of...

  18. 76 FR 9030 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... Vaccines (ACCV). Date And Time: March 3, 2011, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. EDT, March 4, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. EDT... limited to: updates from the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation (DVIC), Department of Justice...

  19. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Paillot, Romain; Rash, Nicola L; Garrett, Dion; Prowse-Davis, Leah; Montesso, Fernando; Cullinane, Ann; Lemaitre, Laurent; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Wittreck, Sonia; Dancer, Agnes

    2016-11-25

    Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift.

  20. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Rash, Nicola L.; Garrett, Dion; Prowse-Davis, Leah; Montesso, Fernando; Cullinane, Ann; Lemaitre, Laurent; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Wittreck, Sonia; Dancer, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift. PMID:27897990

  1. Meeting Materials for the December 4-6, 2013 Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Meeting Materials for the December 4-6, 2013 Scientific Advisory Panel on Scientific Uncertainties Associated with Corn Rootworm Resistance Monitoring for Bt Corn Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs)

  2. Report of the 7th meeting on Evaluation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines in Clinical Trials, World Health Organization, Geneva, 17-18 February 2011.

    PubMed

    Girard, Marc P; Katz, Jacqueline M; Pervikov, Yuri; Hombach, Joachim; Tam, John S

    2011-10-13

    On February 17-18, 2011, the World Health Organization convened the 7th meeting on "The Evaluation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines in Clinical Trials" to review the progress made on pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines and the evaluation of their effectiveness in the field, especially in children less than 3 years of age and in pregnant women. Other topics to be addressed included a comparison of egg- and cell culture-based influenza vaccines, technical issues related to vaccine strain development and vaccine potency, and the status of development of prototype influenza vaccines using new technologies. Pandemic A (H1N1) vaccines were safe in young children, pregnant women and immunocompromized individuals. Overall effectiveness of inactivated A (H1N1) vaccines for all ages was found to vary between 72% and 100% in different countries and with different vaccine preparations. Effectiveness of pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 live attenuated vaccine was estimated to be approximately 80% in pediatric populations in the USA. A single dose of inactivated vaccine adjuvanted with AS03, MF59 or AF03 induced protective immunity in young children and pregnant women. However, unadjuvanted vaccines as well as low dose adjuvanted vaccines (1.9 μg HA) required two doses to elicit protective antibody levels in these populations. Clinical trials of influenza vaccines developed using new technologies showed they were well tolerated and induced antibody and/or T cell immune responses to viral proteins. Further studies are warranted to validate novel immunological criteria for evaluation and licensing of such new influenza vaccine concepts. On the regulatory side, work should be undertaken to harmonize the results of serological tests used to evaluate the immunogenicity of traditional influenza vaccines.

  3. Adventitious agents and live viral vectored vaccines: Considerations for archiving samples of biological materials for retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Robertson, James S; Condit, Richard C; Seligman, Stephen J; Laderoute, Marian P; Sheets, Rebecca; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Gurwith, Marc; Kochhar, Sonali; Chapman, Louisa; Carbery, Baevin; Mac, Lisa M; Chen, Robert T

    2016-12-12

    Vaccines are one of the most effective public health medicinal products with an excellent safety record. As vaccines are produced using biological materials, there is a need to safeguard against potential contamination with adventitious agents. Adventitious agents could be inadvertently introduced into a vaccine through starting materials used for production. Therefore, extensive testing has been recommended at specific stages of vaccine manufacture to demonstrate the absence of adventitious agents. Additionally, the incorporation of viral clearance steps in the manufacturing process can aid in reducing the risk of adventitious agent contamination. However, for live viral vaccines, aside from possible purification of the virus or vector, extensive adventitious agent clearance may not be feasible. In the event that an adventitious agent is detected in a vaccine, it is important to determine its origin, evaluate its potential for human infection and pathology, and discern which batches of vaccine may have been affected in order to take risk mitigation action. To achieve this, it is necessary to have archived samples of the vaccine and ancillary components, ideally from developmental through to current batches, as well as samples of the biological materials used in the manufacture of the vaccine, since these are the most likely sources of an adventitious agent. The need for formal guidance on such vaccine sample archiving has been recognized but not fulfilled. We summarize in this paper several prior major cases of vaccine contamination with adventitious agents and provide points for consideration on sample archiving of live recombinant viral vector vaccines for use in humans.

  4. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... room. Dated: June 7, 2011 Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee...

  5. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels..., Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  6. 76 FR 55718 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting... (RES) initiative on quantitatively ensuring ``extremely low (XLPR) probability of rupture'' for...

  7. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor...: March 15, 2011. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on...

  8. 75 FR 58449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting... inconvenience. Dated: September 17, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee...

  9. An overview on the role of silica-based materials in vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tovar, Gabriela; Palestino, Gabriela; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Although vaccination has prevented millions of deaths, the development of highly immunogenic subunit vaccines is still required. Since the number of adjuvants approved for human use is limited, the new paths for the development of delivery vehicles offered by nanotechnology are of key relevance. Areas covered: Herein, the potential of silica nanoparticles (SP) as both adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles is discussed based on the analysis of the current biomedical literature. Expert commentary: SP are reported not only as biodegradable and biocompatible material but also as easy to modify and with a low production cost. Additionally, several reports suggest that SP enhance the immune response. Therefore, SP are a promising delivery vehicle and/or adjuvant in vaccines. However, knowledge on the industrial production and specific aspects of immunity are still required.

  10. April 2013 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations from the meeting on April 30th of 2013 include a focus on the next version of MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), evaluating proposed data sources and analysis methods, and commenting on or suggesting features or enhancements.

  11. September 2016 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations from the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on Sep. 14th of 2016 include MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) updates; data regarding vehicle populations and activity, PM speciation, and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. July 2012 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on 31 July 2012 began with a summary of the work group's focus, which included the next version of MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator), and its data sources and analysis methods.

  13. December 2016 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOVES Model Review Work Group meeting on December 7th, 2016 included plans for updating running exhaust criteria pollutant emission rates for heavy-duty diesel vehicles, emission rates for extended idle and auxiliary power units, onroad vehicle population.

  14. March 2017 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOVES Model Review Work Group meeting on March 201 included plans for updating running exhaust criteria pollutant emission rates for heavy-duty diesel vehicles, emission rates for extended idle and auxiliary power units, onroad vehicle population.

  15. Meeting Materials from the 5th ESA Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its federal partners, Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, held a meeting for stakeholder suggestions for refining some of the interim scientific methods used in the recently released draft.

  16. July 2013 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations from the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on July 9th of 2013 include MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) updates; data regarding vehicle populations and activity, PM speciation, and hazardous air pollutants.

  17. Meeting the Preteen Vaccine Law: A Pilot Program in Urban Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chuanroong, Lynda; Deaver, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the efforts, outcomes, and recommendations from an urban California school district's pilot program for vaccinating preteens in two diverse urban middle schools. Barriers and strategies included staff inexperience, educating students, informing parents, tracking vaccinations, coping with language diversity, and creating individualized…

  18. Frederick National Lab Rallies to Meet Demand for Zika Vaccine | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research is producing another round of Zika vaccine for ongoing studies to determine the best delivery method and dosage. This will lay the groundwork for additional tests to see if the vaccine prevents i

  19. Meeting the Preteen Vaccine Law: A Pilot Program in Urban Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Chuanroong, Lynda; Deaver, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the efforts, outcomes, and recommendations from an urban California school district's pilot program for vaccinating preteens in two diverse urban middle schools. Barriers and strategies included staff inexperience, educating students, informing parents, tracking vaccinations, coping with language diversity, and creating individualized…

  20. Meeting EFL Learners Halfway by Using Locally Relevant Authentic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The author defines and describes authentic materials and discusses their benefits--citing the Input Hypothesis and the Output Principle in support of such materials--as well as some challenges of using authentic materials. Five categories of authentic materials are presented, and sources for materials and ways to use them in the EFL classroom are…

  1. [Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Graubner, U B; Liese, J; Belohradsky, B H

    2001-09-01

    Vaccination has been an important part of antiinfectious prophylaxis in pediatric oncology comprising immunizations with special indication like varicella vaccine and follow-up of routine immunizations after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Studies from the last decade demonstrate a loss of long term immunity to immunization preventable disease in most patients with chemotherapy and BMT who had received appropriate immunization before. So far routine vaccination programs following intensive chemotherapy have not been studied prospectively. Immunization programs following BMT have shown that immunizations with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, inactivated poliovirus vaccine and influenza vaccine - given at least 12 months after transplantation - are safe and effective. Vaccination with live attenuated trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella in patients without chronic "graft versus host disease" (GVHD) and without ongoing immunosuppressive therapy, performed 24 months after transplantation, proved to be safe too. Recommendations have been published by 5 different official groups: (1.) "Ständige Impfkommission" (STIKO) and (2.) "Deutsche Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Infektiologie" (DGPI) recommend varicella vaccine für children with leukemia in remission for at least 12 months, for children with solid tumors and for patients getting an organ transplantation. Both societies do not comment on the schedule of booster vaccinations (with live attenuated vaccines) after the end of chemotherapy and after BMT. (3.) "Qualitätssicherungsgruppe" der "Gesellschaft für pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie" (QS-GPOH) recommends immunization with nonliving vaccines when the patient is off therapy for at least 3 months and immunization with live attenuated vaccines when he is off therapy for at least 6 months. This group does not comment on varicella vaccine which has been controversial among pediatric oncologists. (4.) The " Infectious

  2. Role of non-human primates in malaria vaccine development: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the coordination and standardization of malaria vaccine research in non-human primates to encourage optimum use of the available animals in experiments that are fully justified both scientifically and ethically. The requirements for experimentation in non-human primates, the availability of suitable animals for malaria vaccine studies, and the criteria for testing candidate vaccines are considered. The policy and legislation relevant to the use of non-human primates in biomedical research are also briefly discussed. The Memorandum concludes with eight recommendations. PMID:3266112

  3. Meeting the preteen vaccine law: a pilot program in urban middle schools.

    PubMed

    Boyer-Chuanroong, L; Deaver, P

    2000-02-01

    California, the most populous state in the nation, is one of many states that implemented vaccination requirements for preteens. While kindergarten requirements are well-established and accepted by parents, implementation of preteen vaccination requirements requires inter- and intra-institutional adjustments, educational and public relations efforts, and an augmentation of vaccination delivery systems. This article describes a pilot program in two middle schools in an urban school district and offers planning strategies and practical tools to assist school nurses and health providers to implement preteen requirements.

  4. Vaccinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... be spread from animals to people. For example, rabies is a serious, often fatal, disease that can ... animals to people. By vaccinating your pets for rabies, you are protecting your family as well as ...

  5. AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. Report from a UNAIDS/WHO/NIID meeting Tokyo, 28-30 October 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-07-30

    A meeting was organized by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Japanese National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) with the following objectives: (i) to discuss public health and economic rationale to accelerate the development and evaluation of HIV vaccines suitable for use in Asia; (ii) to review ongoing preclinical HIV vaccine research in Asia; (iii) to review the Asian experience in conducting clinical trials of HIV candidate vaccines; (iv) to explore possibilities for international collaboration between countries in the region and with other countries and institutions; and (v) to discuss issues related to availability of future effective HIV vaccines. The meeting was attended by participants from Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The HIV epidemic in Asia is rapidly spreading and has already resulted in a total of 7 million HIV infections in the region. The epidemic already has a significant public health and economic impact, which may be worse in the future, unless effective intervention programmes are successfully implemented. A safe, effective, and affordable vaccine should be considered as the best hope for a long-term solution to the HIV epidemic in Asia. Asian scientists and institutions have established a number of international collaborations to isolate and characterize prevalent HIV-1 strains (mostly belonging to subtypes C and E) and are developing candidate vaccines based on these subtypes. In the region, phase I/II clinical trials of preventative HIV candidate vaccines have been conducted in Australia, China and Thailand. Since 1993, a comprehensive National AIDS Vaccine Plan has allowed Thailand to conduct phase I/II trials of six different preventative or therapeutic candidate vaccines, and the first phase III preventative efficacy trial has been approved. The meeting

  6. Use of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Complex Emergencies: What Next? Summary Report of an Expert Meeting and Recommendations of WHO

    PubMed Central

    Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Monti, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Two meetings of the World Health Organization (WHO)—in 1999 and 2002—had examined the potential use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as an additional public-health tool for the control of cholera. In the light of the work accomplished since 2002, WHO convened a third meeting to reexamine with a group of experts the role that OCVs might play in preventing potential outbreaks of cholera in crisis situations and to discuss the use of OCVs in endemic settings. The aim of the meeting was to agree a framework for the recommendations of WHO on these subjects and to consider the pertinence of further demonstration projects in endemic settings. The meeting addressed key issues, including currently-available vaccines, surveillance, and cholera-control measures in complex emergencies, and past experiences of using OCVs. More than 40 participants took part in the discussions, representing cholera-prone countries, humanitarian organizations, scientific institutions, United Nations agencies, and WHO. The experts agreed that when considering the use of OCVs in emergencies, a multidisciplinary approach is essential and that the prevention and control of cholera should be envisaged within the larger context of public-health priorities in times of crisis. As for the use of OCVs in endemic settings, all participants acknowledged that further data need to be collected before a clear definition of endemicity and potential vaccination strategies can be established. Results of further studies on the vaccines per se are also awaited. Recommendations relating to the use of OCVs (a) in complex emergencies and (b) in endemic settings were elaborated, and a decision-making tool for assessing the pertinence of use of OCVs in emergency settings was drafted. The document was finalized by an ad-hoc working group convened in Geneva on 1 March 2006 and is now available for field-testing. After testing, that should be carried out with the involvement of WHO and feedback from field partners, the

  7. 78 FR 20663 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... DNA Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics... evidence or arguments they wish to present, the names and addresses of proposed participants, and...

  8. 76 FR 3639 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... selection of strains to be included in the influenza virus vaccine for the 2011-2012 influenza season. The committee will also hear an update on Pandemic Influenza Surveillance. FDA intends to make background...

  9. 76 FR 55397 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... evaluation of Gullian- Barre Syndrome after Influenza Vaccine among Medicare population, 2010- 2011. The...Committees/Calendar/default.htm . Scroll down to the appropriate advisory committee link. Procedure: On...

  10. Transfer of technology for production of rabies vaccine: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The important challenge of prevention and control of rabies in the world will require international efforts to increase the availability and use of high quality cell-culture rabies vaccines for use in man and animals. An important aspect of activities to ensure such availability is transfer of technologies to developing countries for production of these vaccines. This article, which is based on the report of a WHO Consultation, outlines the technical options for vaccine production. The principles and economic aspects of technology transfer are considered, and a WHO assistance programme is outlined. It is concluded that technology transfer should be mediated through a framework of national institutes, expert panels, WHO collaborating centres, production and control laboratories, and other relevant institutions. On this basis, recommendations are made concerning the mechanisms of technology transfer for production of cell-culture rabies vaccines.

  11. Oral hepatitis B vaccine candidates produced and delivered in plant material.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    Hepatitis B is a major global health problem; approximately two billion people are infected with the virus worldwide, despite the fact that safe and efficacious vaccines have been developed and used for nearly 20 years. Prohibitive costs for vaccine purchase and administration restrict uptake in many developing nations. Agencies such as the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization are helping to make current vaccines more available, but reduced costs would greatly aid this effort. Oral delivery is an option to reduce the expense of administering hepatitis B vaccines. It may also improve compliance, and orally delivered vaccines may be more efficacious among poor responders to current vaccines. However, to induce protective efficacy, oral administration may require encapsulation of antigen and delivery of large doses. Plant-based expression systems offer an oral delivery alternative with low production costs, and they also encapsulate the antigen. Some plant-based systems also stabilize antigen and therefore reduce storage and distribution costs. The hepatitis B major surface antigen has been expressed in several plant systems. A variety of regulatory sequences and subcellular targets have been used to achieve expression suitable for early stage clinical trials. However, further increase in expression will be necessary for practical and efficacious products. Appropriate processing can yield palatable products with uniform antigen concentration. The antigen expressed in plant systems shows extensive disulphide cross-linking and oligomerization and forms virus-like particles. Oral delivery of the antigen in plant material can induce a serum antibody response, prime the immune system for a subsequent injection of antigen and give a boosted response to a prior injection. Small scale clinical trials in which the antigen has been delivered orally in edible plant material indicate safety and immunogenicity.

  12. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact.

  13. Immune responses to viral antigens in man and their relevance to vaccine development: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A meeting of an informal working group on immune responses to viral antigens was convened in Amsterdam on 15-18 November 1982 to discuss recent developments in this field and to formulate proposals for international collaborative studies relevant to the needs of the WHO Programme on Vaccine Development. The meeting concluded that the time was ripe for collaborative studies on a wide range of aspects of the immune responses to viral antigens in man. Areas for collaborative effort were defined. These included (a) the role of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in virus clearance following infection, (b) correlation of changes in natural killer cells and virus replication, virus virulence, and induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte, (c) induction of interferons and other mediators of immune responses, and (d) role of individual viral antigens in immune responses. This Memorandum summarizes the discussions and recommendations of the group. PMID:6609010

  14. 78 FR 49275 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Adobe Connect Pro. The ACCV will meet on Thursday, September 5 from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (EDT). The...) Connecting to the ACCV Adobe Connect Pro Meeting using the following URL: https://hrsa.connectsolutions.com... you have never attended an Adobe Connect meeting, please test your connection using the following URL...

  15. 78 FR 29143 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Adobe Connect Pro. The ACCV will meet on Friday, June 07 from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (EDT). The public...) Connecting to the ACCV Adobe Connect Pro Meeting using the following URL: https://hrsa.connectsolutions.com... you have never attended an Adobe Connect meeting, please test your connection using the following URL...

  16. 78 FR 69699 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Call and Adobe Connect Pro. The ACCV will meet on Thursday, December 5, from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.... (Visual Portion) Connecting to the ACCV Adobe Connect Pro Meeting using the following URL: https://hrsa... be set up. If you have never attended an Adobe Connect meeting, please test your connection using the...

  17. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  18. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  19. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  20. 77 FR 65857 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., first serve basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yvette.Springer... Committee members, the materials should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The... meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813....

  1. 77 FR 42482 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ..., first serve basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yvette.Springer... Committee members, the materials should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The... remaining portions of the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer...

  2. 77 FR 19362 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of...

  3. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  4. 45 CFR 614.3 - Materials relating to closed portions of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 614.3 Section 614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD § 614.3 Materials relating to closed portions of meetings. If a portion or portions of any meeting of the National...

  5. 75 FR 14426 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    .... Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later than April 1, 2010. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via e-mail. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813...

  6. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the... of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Type of Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Thomas Rieker, Program Director, Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room...

  7. Proceedings of the Consensus Day Meeting: Implications for Rotavirus Vaccination in the 2014 Apulian Lifetime Immunization Schedule. Foggia, 17 April 2015.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, D; Fortunato, F; Cappelli, M G; Gallone, M S; Tafuri, S; Prato, R

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations for vaccination against rotavirus (RV) were issued in Apulia in 2006; the vaccine was free of charge to children who entered day care or nursery school by 1 year of age or those affected by chronic diseases for which diarrhea caused by rotavirus can increase the risk of complications and hospitalization. In 2014, vaccination became available to all healthy children with only a copayment. However, there has not been a significant increase in vaccination coverage. On April 17, 2015, Apulian public health physicians and paediatricians met to share strategies to promote the RV vaccine indications provided in the regional immunization schedule. During the meeting, presentation of data reports were interspersed with discussions that were led with a "bottom-up" approach. The discussants responded to pre-planned questions raised by the participants and encouraged by the discussion.

  8. Meeting Materials for the November 28-30, 2017 Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Meeting Materials for the November 28-30, 2017 Scientific Advisory Panel on Continuing Development of Alternative High-Throughput Screens to Determine Endocrine Disruption, Focusing on Androgen Receptor, Steroidogenesis, and Thyroid Pathways.

  9. Introducing cholera vaccination in Asia, Africa and Haiti: a meeting report.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert H; Sack, David A

    2015-01-15

    Orally-administered cholera vaccine (OCV) has been increasingly examined as an additional tool to intervene against endemic and epidemic cholera. In 2013, short- and long-term field experience with OCV under nine distinctive field settings was reported from India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Guinea, Haiti, and Thailand. Lead investigators from each of these projects presented their findings at a symposium chaired by Drs. David A. Sack and Robert H. Hall at the Vaccines for Enteric Diseases (VED) Conference in Bangkok on November 7, 2013. The objective of the symposium was to describe the unique features of each setting and project, share field experience of implementing cholera vaccination, discuss results, and identify constraints to the wider use of OCV. The VED provided a forum where >200 attendees engaged with this exciting and potentially decisive new development in the cholera field.

  10. Research priorities for diarrhoeal disease vaccines: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Diarrhoeas caused by rotaviruses, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represent a major health burden in developing countries, and have stimulated much effort towards vaccine development in order to protect against these four disease agents. This Memorandum describes the state of the art and points the way to future research and test trials in this area. PMID:1664785

  11. Research priorities for diarrhoeal disease vaccines: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Diarrhoeas caused by rotaviruses, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) represent a major health burden in developing countries, and have stimulated much effort towards vaccine development in order to protect against these four disease agents. This Memorandum describes the state of the art and points the way to future research and test trials in this area.

  12. Report on the first WHO integrated meeting on development and clinical trials of influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses: Hong Kong SAR, China, 24-26 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Girard, Marc P; Tam, John S; Pervikov, Yuri; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2013-08-20

    On January 24-26, 2013, the World Health Organization convened the first integrated meeting on "The development and clinical trials of vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses" to review the current status of development and clinical evaluation of novel influenza vaccines as well as strategies to produce and deliver vaccines in novel ways. Special attention was given to the development of possible universal influenza vaccines. Other topics that were addressed included an update on clinical trials of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines in high-risk groups and vaccine safety, as well as regulatory issues.

  13. 78 FR 5505 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...: Name: Site Visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Yale University, also called Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, by NSF Division of... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...

  14. 77 FR 21592 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting: Correction SUMMARY: The National Science... for the Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, 1203. This notice is to correct the ending time...

  15. Organometallic chemistry meets crystal engineering to give responsive crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Pelagatti, P

    2016-01-25

    Dynamically porous crystalline materials have been obtained by engineering organometallic molecules. This feature article deals with organometallic wheel-and-axle compounds, molecules with two relatively bulky groups (wheels) connected by a linear spacer. The wheels are represented by half-sandwich Ru(ii) moieties, while the spacer can be covalent or supramolecular in character. Covalent spacers are obtained using divergent bidentate ligands connecting two [(arene)RuX2] groups. Supramolecular spacers are instead obtained by exploiting the dimerization of COOH or C(O)NH2 groups appended to N-based ligands. A careful choice of ligand functional groups and X ligands leads to the isolation of crystalline materials with remarkable host-guest properties, evidenced by the possibility of reversibly capturing/releasing volatile guests through heterogenous solid-gas reactions. Structural correlations between the crystalline arrangement of the apohost and the host-guest compounds allow us to envisage the structural path followed by the system during the exchange processes.

  16. Animal models and antibody assays for evaluating candidate SARS vaccines: summary of a technical meeting 25-26 August 2005, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anjeanette; Wood, John; Subbarao, Kanta; Ferguson, Morag; Wood, David; Cherian, Thomas

    2006-11-30

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in the Guangdong province of China in late 2002 and spread to 29 countries. By the end of the outbreak in July 2003, the CDC and WHO reported 8437 cases with a 9.6% case fatality rate. The disease was caused by a previously unrecognized coronavirus, SARS-CoV. Drawing on experience with animal coronavirus vaccines, several vaccine candidates have been developed and evaluated in pre-clinical trials. Available data suggest that vaccines should be based on the the 180kDa viral spike protein, S, the only significant neutralization antigen capable of inducing protective immune responses in animals. In the absence of clinical cases of SARS, candidate vaccines should be evaluated for efficacy in animal models, and although it is uncertain whether the United States Food and Drug Administration's "animal rule" would apply to licensure of a SARS vaccine, it is important to develop standardized animal models and immunological assays in preparation for this eventuality. This report summarizes the recommendations from a WHO Technical Meeting on Animal Models and Antibody Assays for Evaluating Candidate SARS Vaccines held on 25-26 August 2005 in South Mimms, UK, provides guidance on the use of animal models, and outlines the steps to develop standard reagents and assays for immunological evaluation of candidate SARS vaccines.

  17. Developmental biology meets materials science: Morphogenesis of biomineralized structures.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Fred H

    2005-04-01

    Biomineralization is the process by which metazoa form hard minerals for support, defense, and feeding. The minerals so formed, e.g., teeth, bones, shells, carapaces, and spicules, are of considerable interest to chemists and materials scientists. The cell biology underlying biomineralization is not well understood. The study of the formation of mineralized structures in developing organisms offers opportunities for understanding some intriguing aspects of cell and developmental biology. Five examples of biomineralization are presented: (1) the formation of siliceous spicules and frustules in sponges and diatoms, respectively; (2) the structure of skeletal spicules composed of amorphous calcium carbonate in some tunicates; (3) the secretion of the prism and nacre of some molluscan shells; (4) the development of skeletal spicules of sea urchin embryos; and (5) the formation of enamel of vertebrate teeth. Some speculations on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support biomineralization, and their evolutionary origins, are discussed.

  18. The Immunotherapeutics & Vaccine Summit--CHI's fourth annual meeting. Preclinical/clinical development of immunotherapies and vaccines. 17-19 August 2009, Providence, RI, USA.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2009-10-01

    The Immunotherapeutics & Vaccine Summit held in Providence, RI, USA included topics covering new preclinical and clinical developments in the field of immunotherapies and vaccines. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the iSBTc-FDA-NCI taskforce findings on immunotherapy biomarkers, clinical assay development and optimization, and bioassays to measure immune responses. Investigational vaccines discussed include a fusion protein adjuvant vaccine (Research by Discovery), a novel intradermal particle delivery device (Université de Sherbrooke) and a Hsp-based vaccine for meningitis (ImmunoBiology Ltd).

  19. Vaccination of health care workers against pertussis: meeting the need for safety within hospitals.

    PubMed

    Heininger, U

    2014-08-27

    Pertussis outbreaks in hospitals are reason for substantial concern as they do cause significant morbidity amongst patients and physical and emotional stress and absence from work amongst affected staff. Further, there is a substantial financial burden for the concerned institution. For these reasons, health care institutions should implement prophylactic measures, i.e. pertussis immunisation for their staff. Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis component combination vaccines with reduced antigen content ("Tdap") have a proven acceptable tolerability with reactogenicity and safety profiles not substantially different from Td vaccines without the pertussis component. Further, excellent immunogenicity after a single dose with an estimated duration of protection for 10 years has been shown in adults. In high risk situations, e.g. in pregnant health care workers and those in contact with infants <6 months of age, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be recommended to previously immunised, pertussis exposed health care workers. Local programmes based on education, conviction and common sense should be implemented for health care workers rather than mandatory pertussis immunisation. In addition, health care workers need to be informed and regularly reminded about the impact of exposure to pertussis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 42319 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... p.m. Location: FDA White Oak Campus, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Building 31 Conference Center, the..., 2012, the committee will meet in open session to discuss consideration of the appropriateness of cell.... Those individuals interested in making formal oral presentations should notify the contact person and...

  1. WHO consultation on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development Report from a World Health Organization Meeting held on 23-24 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Giersing, Birgitte; Kaslow, David C; Smith, Peter G; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2016-01-04

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a globally prevalent cause of lower respiratory infection in neonates and infants. Despite its disease burden, a safe and effective RSV vaccine has remained elusive. In recent years, improved understanding of RSV biology and innovations in immunogen design has resulted in the advancement of multiple vaccine candidates into the clinical development pipeline. Given the growing number of vaccines in clinical trials, the rapid pace at which they are being tested, and the likelihood that an RSV vaccine will reach the commercial market in the next 5-10 years, consensus and guidance on clinical development pathways and licensure routes are needed now, before large-scale efficacy trials commence. In pursuit of this aim, the World Health Organization convened the first RSV vaccine consultation in 15 years on the 23rd and 24th of March, 2015 in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting's primary objective was to provide guidance on clinical endpoints and development pathways for vaccine trials with a focus on considerations of low- and middle-income countries. Meeting participants reached consensus on candidate case definitions for RSV disease, considerations for clinical efficacy endpoints, and the clinical development pathway for active and passive immunization trials in maternal and pediatric populations. The strategic focus of this meeting was on the development of high quality, safe and efficacious RSV preventive interventions for global use and included: (1) maternal/passive immunization to prevent RSV disease in infants less than 6 months; (2) pediatric immunization to prevent RSV disease in infants and young children once protection afforded by maternal immunization wanes.

  2. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the remediation material management unit is an oil-water or organic-water separator, then you control... meet for my affected remediation material management units? 63.7886 Section 63.7886 Protection of... meet for my affected remediation material management units? (a) For each remediation...

  3. Ingredients of Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... contain no thimerosal or only trace amounts. Reference Materials Vaccine ingredients sorted by vaccine [3 pages] U.S. ... of the latest information, continue to reference these materials. To report a health problem that followed vaccination ...

  4. 76 FR 30950 - Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...- 10, 2011, in the Parklawn Building (and via audio conference call), Conference Rooms G & H, 5600... p.m., EDT; June 10, 2011, 9 a.m. to 11 a.m., EDT. In the Place section, correct to read via audio... 10 from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. (EDT). The public can join the meeting via audio conference call only, by...

  5. 77 FR 29696 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Chicago by the Division of Materials.... June 8, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-3:00 p.m. Place: University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Type of Meeting: Part open... and recommendations concerning further support of the MRSEC at the University of Chicago....

  6. 77 FR 14441 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times: April 19, 2012; 7:45 a.m.-6:15 p.m.; April 20, 2012; 8 a.m.-3:30 p.m. Place: New York University, New York, NY. Type of Meeting... and recommendations concerning further support of the MRSEC at New York University. Agenda:...

  7. 75 FR 18240 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... University by NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Date and Time: Thursday, April 29, 2010; 8:30 a.m.-5 p.m. ] Place: Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. Type of Meeting: Part-open. Contact Person... the MRSEC at Brandeis University. Agenda: Thursday April 29, 2010: 8:30 a.m.-9:30 a.m....

  8. 77 FR 8807 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than March 13, 2012. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: February 9, 2012. Yvette Springer,...

  9. 78 FR 42754 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than August 13, 2013. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: July 11, 2013. Yvette Springer, Committee...

  10. 78 FR 63161 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than October 29, 2013. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: October 18, 2013. Yvette...

  11. 77 FR 42483 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than July 31, 2012. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: July 13, 2012. Yvette Springer, Committee...

  12. 77 FR 65857 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than November 6, 2012. A limited number of seats will be... materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with... more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: October 24, 2012. Yvette...

  13. 78 FR 13625 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than March 19, 2013. A limited number of seats will be... presentation materials prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for... public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: February 25, 2013....

  14. 77 FR 61432 - Proposal Review for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  15. 77 FR 61433 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National...

  16. 77 FR 20852 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National...

  17. 78 FR 39017 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230...

  18. 78 FR 19535 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting... Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science...

  19. 75 FR 9001 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at...

  20. 75 FR 4047 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ..., first serve basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc... Committee members, the materials should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via e-mail. The... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: January 19, 2010. Yvette Springer, Committee...

  1. 76 FR 3612 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ..., first serve basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc... Committee members, the materials should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: January 13, 2011. Yvette Springer,...

  2. WHO working group on standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines--report of a meeting held on 16-17 March 2006, St. Albans, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Xing, D K L; Corbel, M J; Dobbelaer, R; Knezevic, I

    2007-04-12

    This report reflects the discussion and conclusions of a WHO group of experts from national regulatory authorities, national control laboratories, vaccine industry and other relevant institutions involved in standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines, held on 16-17 March 2006, in St. Albans, UK. Following previous discussions (Bethesda, 2000; Ferney-Voltaire, 2003; Geneva, 2005) and collection of relevant data for quality control, on the one hand, and clinical evaluation of acellular pertussis vaccines, on the other, this meeting was intended to review the scientific basis for the revision of WHO guidelines adopted in 1996 [Guidelines for the production and control of the acellular pertussis component of monovalent or combined vaccines. In: WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation. Forty-seventh report. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 1998 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 878), Annex 2]. The discussion on animal protection models, immunogenicity and toxicity testing was focused on three main aspects: value of the assay for the purpose of licensing and/or lot release; validity criteria and potential optimisation of the assays. The group agreed that establishment of JNIH-3 as a potential International Standard (IS) for modified intra-cerebral challenge assay should be under consideration. It was suggested that the inclusion of a reference vaccine, such as JNIH-3 in the intra-nasal challenge model could improve the standardisation of this assay. It was proposed that the development of stable reference vaccines for immunogenicity testing should be encouraged. Further collection of the data from the countries with established lot release of acellular pertussis vaccines will be undertaken to prepare a solid basis for recommendations on toxicity tests. In the context of recommendations for clinical assessment of new vaccines, the group emphasised the importance of comparability studies with antigens that have already undergone efficacy

  3. Using the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on nasopharyngeal carriage to aid licensing and vaccine implementation; a PneumoCarr meeting report March 27-28, 2012, Geneva.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, David; Ramakrishnan, Meena; O'Brien, Katherine

    2013-12-17

    An international consultation was convened in March 2012 to provide feedback on the Case for Carriage, a summary statement by the Pneumococcal Carriage Consortium (PneumoCarr) proposing nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization as a supplementary or alternative endpoint in vaccine licensure. PneumoCarr members provided information to vaccine manufacturers, regulators and the WHO on the evidence for NP carriage as a precursor to pneumococcal disease, standardization of laboratory methods for the detection of multiple serotype carriage, definition and estimation of pneumococcal vaccine efficacy against carriage (VE-col), and the direct and indirect impact of vaccination on carriage. Manufacturers and regulators had the opportunity to respond to the information compiled by PneumoCarr and share their perspectives. VE-col as a licensure endpoint may be more useful for the next generation pneumococcal vaccine products, particularly those for which the immunological correlate of protection is not established, whereas it may be less needed for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines which have an established licensure pathway. The consultation supported the importance of NP carriage data as a critical element linking vaccine impact on the individual direct risk of disease to the population-level impact: indirect effects such as herd protection and serotype replacement. The indirect effects of vaccination, however, are not currently established as part of the licensure process and to include them would be a paradigm shift for regulatory agencies who currently consider this information in the post-licensure setting. More discussion and consensus-building is needed around the rationale and optimal mechanism to include carriage data in the licensure pathway for new pneumococcal vaccines. The WHO and national advisory groups on immunization policy may have an important role in considering the evidence for the indirect benefit of vaccination as informed by its impact on NP carriage.

  4. The Subsequent Dissemination of Material Presented in Sessions of the Metallurgical Society at the 96th AIME Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Studies of 255 authors of program material at the Metallurgical Society session of the 96th American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) Annual Meeting yielded data on the subsequent dissemination of presented material during the year following the meeting. Data showed that three-fourths of the authors who made…

  5. 40 CFR 60.1095 - What must I include in the public meeting on my revised materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meeting on my revised materials separation plan? 60.1095 Section 60.1095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1095 What must I include in the public meeting on my...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1080 - Where and when must I hold a public meeting on my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meeting on my draft materials separation plan? 60.1080 Section 60.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1080 Where and when must I hold a public meeting on...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1080 - Where and when must I hold a public meeting on my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meeting on my draft materials separation plan? 60.1080 Section 60.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1080 Where and when must I hold a public meeting on...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1095 - What must I include in the public meeting on my revised materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meeting on my revised materials separation plan? 60.1095 Section 60.1095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1095 What must I include in the public meeting on my...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1080 - Where and when must I hold a public meeting on my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meeting on my draft materials separation plan? 60.1080 Section 60.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1080 Where and when must I hold a public meeting on...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1095 - What must I include in the public meeting on my revised materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meeting on my revised materials separation plan? 60.1095 Section 60.1095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1095 What must I include in the public meeting on my...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1095 - What must I include in the public meeting on my revised materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meeting on my revised materials separation plan? 60.1095 Section 60.1095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1095 What must I include in the public meeting on my...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1095 - What must I include in the public meeting on my revised materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meeting on my revised materials separation plan? 60.1095 Section 60.1095 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1095 What must I include in the public meeting on my...

  13. 40 CFR 60.1080 - Where and when must I hold a public meeting on my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meeting on my draft materials separation plan? 60.1080 Section 60.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1080 Where and when must I hold a public meeting on...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1080 - Where and when must I hold a public meeting on my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meeting on my draft materials separation plan? 60.1080 Section 60.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... Preconstruction Requirements: Materials Separation Plan § 60.1080 Where and when must I hold a public meeting on...

  15. Journal Publication of Material Presented at the 1967 Annual Meeting of the Geophysical Union During the Year Following the Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The April 1967 Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union was the subject of an investigation of scientific information exchange among geophysicists. The study focused on meeting presentation papers and drew a sample of 240 of the 800 presentation authors. The results of the meeting study demonstrated the currency of the work reported by…

  16. Journal Publication of Material Presented at the 1967 Annual Meeting of the Geophysical Union During the Year Following the Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    The April 1967 Annual Meeting of the American Geophysical Union was the subject of an investigation of scientific information exchange among geophysicists. The study focused on meeting presentation papers and drew a sample of 240 of the 800 presentation authors. The results of the meeting study demonstrated the currency of the work reported by…

  17. 78 FR 30342 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: June 13, 2013, 7:15 a.m.-6:45 p.m. Place: Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Type of Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Sean L... support of the MRSEC at Duke University. Agenda: Thursday, June 13, 2013. 7:15 a.m.-9:00 a.m....

  18. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-08-26

    Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8-11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6-9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  20. Meeting Report: WHO consultation on considerations for regulatory expectations of Zika virus vaccines for use during an emergency.

    PubMed

    Vannice, K S; Giersing, B K; Kaslow, D C; Griffiths, E; Meyer, H; Barrett, A; Durbin, A P; Wood, D; Hombach, J

    2016-12-01

    On 1 February 2016, in the context of the ongoing Zika virus epidemic, the WHO declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In response, WHO in collaboration with UNICEF and a working group of independent subject matter experts developed a Zika virus vaccine Target Product Profile (TPP) for use in an emergency, or in a future outbreak scenario. The drafting process of the Zika virus vaccine TPP included the opportunity for public comment, as well as consultation with epidemiologists, flavivirus vaccine subject matter experts, vaccine developers and global regulators to consider the regulatory expectations and potential emergency use pathways for a vaccine with the characteristics described in the TPP. This report summarizes an expert consultation held 6-7 June 2016 on the regulatory considerations for a Zika vaccine for emergency use.

  1. University contributions to the HPV vaccine and implications for access to vaccines in developing countries: addressing materials and know-how in university technology transfer policy.

    PubMed

    Crager, Sara E; Guillen, Ethan; Price, Matt

    2009-01-01

    , materials and knowledge, vaccines have the potential to be evaluated efficiently and cost-effectively via a pathway parallel to establishing bioequivalence for generic small molecule drugs. A new paradigm is needed that addresses the additional barriers that exist, outside of simply patent protection, to the generic production of vaccines and other biologics. One possible framework, which builds upon previous work on prize funds and patent pools, is discussed here: a Patents, Materials, and Know-how Pool (PMK Pool), based on the patent pool model such as those outlined in the Essential Medical Inventions Licensing Agency and proposals recently put forth by the governments of Barbados and Bolivia. University approaches to licensing vaccines and other biologics need to ensure access not only to patents, knowledge, and materials covered by intellectual property, but must also address the problem of access to materials and know-how that are often proprietary trade secrets. Universities should actively participate in the creation of this and other novel mechanisms, and in the meantime use currently available technology transfer mechanisms to ensure low-cost access to medicines in developing countries.

  2. Report on the second WHO integrated meeting on development and clinical trials of influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses: Geneva, Switzerland, 5-7 May 2014.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nancy J; Hickling, Julian; Jones, Rebecca; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Lambert, Linda C; Boslego, John; Rudenko, Larisa; Yeolekar, Leena; Robertson, James S; Hombach, Joachim; Ortiz, Justin R

    2015-11-27

    On 5-7 May 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened the second integrated meeting on "influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses". Around 100 invited experts from academia, the vaccine industry, research and development funders, and regulatory and public health agencies attended the meeting. Areas covered included mechanisms of protection in natural influenza-virus infection and vaccine-induced immunity, new approaches to influenza-vaccine design and production, and novel routes of vaccine administration. A timely focus was on how this knowledge could be applied to both seasonal influenza and emerging viruses with pandemic potential such as influenza A (H7N9), currently circulating in China. Special attention was given to the development of possible universal influenza vaccines, given that the Global Vaccine Action Plan calls for at least one licensed universal influenza vaccine by 2020. This report highlights some of the topics discussed and provides an update on studies published since the report of the previous meeting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterising the material properties at the interface between skin and a skin vaccination microprojection device.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Michael L; Archer-Jones, Cameron; Meliga, Stefano; Edwards, Grant; Martin, Darren; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F

    2016-05-01

    The rapid emergence of micro-devices for biomedical applications over the past two decades has introduced new challenges for the materials used in the devices. Devices like microneedles and the Nanopatch, require sufficient strength to puncture skin often with sharp-slender micro-scale profiles, while maintaining mechanical integrity. For these technologies we sought to address two important questions: 1) On the scale at which the device operates, what forces are required to puncture the skin? And 2) What loads can the projections/microneedles withstand prior to failure. First, we used custom fabricated nanoindentation micro-probes to puncture skin at the micrometre scale, and show that puncture forces are ∼0.25-1.75mN for fresh mouse skin, in agreement with finite element simulations for our device. Then, we used two methods to perform strength tests of Nanopatch projections with varied aspect ratios. The first method used a nanoindenter to apply a force directly on the top or on the side of individual silicon projections (110μm in length, 10μm base radius), to measure the force of fracture. Our second method used an Instron to fracture full rows of projections and characterise a range of projection designs (with the method verified against previous nanoindentation experiments). Finally, we used Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy to visualise projections in situ in the skin to confirm the behaviour we quantified, qualitatively. Micro-device development has proliferated in the past decade, including devices that interact with tissues for biomedical outcomes. The field of microneedles for vaccine delivery to skin has opened new material challenges both in understanding tissue material properties and device material. In this work we characterise both the biomaterial properties of skin and the material properties of our microprojection vaccine delivery device. This study directly measures the micro-scale puncture properties of skin, whilst demonstrating clearly how

  4. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special Programs...

  5. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special Programs...

  6. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special Programs...

  7. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special Programs...

  8. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of..., shall be served upon the Director, Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation, Office of Special Programs...

  9. [Advice of the French Superior Council on Public Health (section on transmissible diseases) relative to vaccination by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevanar). Meeting of March 8, 2002].

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    This article is the full-length text (including arguments and recommendations) written by the Conseil Supérieur d'Hygiène Publique de France, in its session of march 8th 2002, expressing its opinion on the immunization policy with the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar).

  10. PREFACE: 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño, Ely Dannier V.

    2013-11-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 2nd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology, 2nd IMRMPT, which was held from February 27 to March 2, 2013 at the Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga-UPB and Santander and Industrial - UIS Universities, Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by research groups from GINTEP-UPB, FITEK-UIS. The IMRMPT, was the second version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The three-day scientific program of the 2nd IMRMPT consisted in 14 Magisterial Conferences, 42 Oral Presentations and 48 Poster Presentations, with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, France, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru, Mexico, United States, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish scientific cooperation in the field of materials science and plasma technology; introduce new techniques of surface treatment of materials to improve properties of metals in terms of the deterioration due to corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, abrasion, hardness, among others; and establish cooperation agreements between universities and industry. The topics covered in the 2nd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Characterization of Materials, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion / Oxidation, Modeling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Biomedical Coatings and Surface Treatments, Non Destructive Evaluation and Online Process Control, Surface Modification (Ion Implantation, Ion Nitriding, PVD, CVD). The editors hope that those interested in the are of materials science and plasma technology, enjoy the reading that reflect a wide range of topics. It is a pleasure to thank the sponsors and all the participants and contributors for

  11. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  12. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  13. Vaccination against bovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    De Vos, A J; Bock, R E

    2000-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is an important disease caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. Solid immunity develops after infection and this feature has been exploited with the use of live attenuated organisms as immunogens. Attributes of live vaccines include a durable immunity to heterologous challenge after one vaccination. To overcome disadvantages relating to poor quality control (risk of contamination and adverse reactions), production procedures have been modified to meet the requirements of codes of good manufacturing practice. This includes development of methods to allow production of cryopreserved vaccine and limit antigenic drift. Killed vaccines have also been used on a limited basis and consist of antigens extracted from cultured material or blood of infected calves, and given with adjuvant. The degree and duration of immunity against heterologous challenge is not well documented. Attempts are being made to develop subunit vaccines but the progress has been slow. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the expression of protective immunity against Babesia spp will aid in the identification of protective antigens.

  14. Evaluation and redesign of manual material handling in a vaccine production centre's warehouse.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yaniel; Viña, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a warehouse at a vaccine production centre where improvement to existing storage and working conditions were sought through the construction of a new refrigerated store section (2-8C°). Warehousing tasks were videotaped and ergonomics analysis tools were used to assess the risk of developing MSDs. Specifically, these tools were the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and the NIOSH equation. The current plant layout was sketched and analyzed to find possible targets for improvement trough the application of general work space design and ergonomics principles. Seven of the eight postures evaluated with REBA had a total score between 8 and 10, meaning a high risk, and only one was at a medium risk level. Nine of the eleven manual material handling tasks analyzed with the NIOSH equation had a Lifting Index between 1.14 and 1.80 and two had a recommended weight limit of 0 kg, indicating a need for job redesign. Solutions included the redesign of shelves, the design of a two-step stair and a trolley with adjustable height; also, changes in work methods were proposed by introducing a two-workers lifting strategy and job rotation, and, finally, a restructuring of plant layout was completed.

  15. Meeting report: WHO consultation on Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccine development, Geneva, 25-26 April 2016.

    PubMed

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Karron, Ruth A; Vekemans, Johan; Kaslow, David C; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2017-03-14

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) account for approximately 99% of the global mortality estimates in this population, with up to 200,000 RSV deaths per year. The vaccine product development pipeline is diverse with the most advanced clinical candidate currently in phase III efficacy testing in pregnant women. In addition, a long-acting RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) to be administered at birth to prevent serious RSV-related respiratory disease is in late stage clinical development, as are additional conventional mAb for use in high-risk infants. Thus, there is a realistic possibility that an effective new intervention to prevent RSV disease will be available in the next 5-10year horizon. In anticipation of this outcome, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts for Immunization (SAGE), WHO's vaccine policy recommendation body, reviewed the status of RSV vaccine and monoclonal antibody development in April 2016. Although substantial progress towards licensure has broadened the research agenda to consider intervention impact and cost effectiveness, significant gaps remain in the data that will be needed to inform and support a policy recommendation for implementation. These aspects were the focus of WHO's second consultation on RSV vaccines and single dosage extended half-life mAb for prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017.

  16. Vaccines and global health

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. The important contribution that development of more effective veterinary vaccines could make to global health was also addressed. Some of the social and financial challenges to the development and deployment of new vaccines were reviewed. The latter issues were also discussed at a subsequent satellite meeting, ‘Accelerating vaccine development’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre. Delegates at this meeting considered challenges to the more rapid development and deployment of both human and veterinary vaccines and how these might be addressed. Papers based on presentations at the discussion meeting and a summary of the main conclusions of the satellite meeting are included in this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PMID:21893534

  17. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried

  19. 75 FR 67347 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later than... should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via e-mail. The Assistant Secretary for... portions of the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202)...

  20. 76 FR 21331 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later than May 5, 2011. A limited... the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with the... meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813....

  1. 75 FR 22553 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later... should be forwarded prior to the meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for... remaining portions of the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at...

  2. 78 FR 70598 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ..., 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public... the meeting that are open to the public. Detailed procedures for the conduct of and participation in... Doc. 2013-28326 Filed 11-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ...

  3. Meeting the need for advocacy, social mobilisation and communication in the introduction of three new vaccines in South Africa - successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Baleta, Adele F; van den Heever, Johann; Burnett, Rosemary J

    2012-09-07

    Advocacy, social mobilisation and communication are key components of the successful introduction of new vaccines into childhood immunisation schedules. The development of many new vaccines and the innovation of finance mechanisms, means more efficacious vaccines are becoming available to children in developing countries. At the same time, communication technology is developing at a rapid rate, and with the dramatic decrease in vaccine-preventable diseases over the past few decades, the public have become increasingly exposed to confusing and conflicting information about the need for vaccination. The science of vaccines has become more complex, making effective, clear and consistent communication for healthcare workers and caregivers critical to the uptake of and adherence to life-saving vaccination. The introduction of two new vaccines, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the rotavirus vaccine together with the new pentavalent vaccine, which includes inactivated polio vaccine and replaced the former combination vaccine with four antigens, into the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation over a short period of time, has been met with a number of challenges, some of which led to a lowering of confidence in the Department of Health to deliver on its promises. Had consistent advocacy, social mobilisation and communication efforts not been in place, efforts to make an impact on the burden of disease may not have been as successful. This paper focuses on the lessons learned about effective advocacy with decision makers, social mobilisation, communication with parents and caregivers, and training healthcare workers regarding the introduction of the new vaccines.

  4. Report and Papers of the Expert Group Meeting on the Translation of Population Materials (Bangkok, Thailand, December 8-12, 1975). Asian Population Studies Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This publication is the report of a meeting by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to discuss the translation of population materials. The goals of the meeting were to review the current status of translating population materials into languages appropriate to various nations and to develop guidelines for the…

  5. Scientific consultation on the safety and containment of new poliovirus strains for vaccine production, clinical/regulatory testing and research. Report of a meeting held at NIBSC, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK, 6/7th July 2016.

    PubMed

    Minor, Philip D; Lane, Blanche; Mimms, South; Bar, Potters

    2017-07-01

    When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance and supportive applied and academic research must all continue. Most laboratories do not currently comply with GAPIII and could not do so in the short term without disruption of essential activities including vaccine supply. The development and use of safer strains is raised in GAPIII and the meeting considered the strains available and the uses to which they could be put to facilitate compliance with the aims of GAPIII. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PREFACE Surface Modifications of Diamond and Related Materials (Session D, E-MRS Spring Meeting)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-11-01

    This special issue contains selected papers which were presented at the E-MRS Symposium BIOMATERIALS, SENSORS & SURFACES, D: 'Surface modifications of diamond and related materials' which was held on 7-9 June 2010 in Strasbourg (France). With about 54 oral and poster presentations given from teams all over the world it was a very interesting, dense and lively meeting. The symposium focused on chemical modifications applied to graft surfaces of diamond, nano-diamond particles, diamond-like carbon, graphene, graphite and carbon nano-tubes with linker molecular layers for realization of bio-sensors, bio-markers, separation techniques, and switchable chemical links. Presented techniques span spontaneous bonding to photo-chemical attachment, electrochemical modifications, to Suzuki-coupling of aryl molecules. Special attention was drawn to mechanisms driving bonding kinetics such as electron transfer reactions, hydrogen cleavage reactions by nucleophilic molecules and growths schemas which vary from correlated two-dimensional chain reactions to three-dimensional cross polymerization. Hydrogen terminations, surface defects, surface roughness and atomic arrangements of surface carbon atoms were of interest to elucidate bonding mechanisms. In addition, bonding stability, either of linker molecules or of complex functionalized surfaces with DNA, proteins and enzymes was discussed by several speakers as well as details of the electronic interfaces between solid transducers and bio-layers. Here the characterization of surface and interface defect densities, of Fermi level pinning and of electron transfer rates was a major topic. Miniaturization of sensor area and application of new detection schemas was discussed. Diamond nano-particles which are increasingly used as biomarkers in drug delivery experiments also attracted attention. The organizers express our gratitude to the international members of the scientific committee who actively contributed to ensure an attractive

  7. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. View from... JSAP Spring Meeting: A marriage of materials and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2017-04-01

    A laser-annealing technique for increasing the dopant concentration in semiconductors, the creation of a glass with second-order optical nonlinearity and the realization of optical topological insulators were highlights at the Japan Society of Applied Physics Spring Meeting.

  9. 76 FR 68128 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    .... Yvette Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than November 10, 2011. A limited number of... meeting to Ms. Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with the concurrence of the... information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated: October 31, 2011. Yvette Springer,...

  10. 76 FR 9001 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... basis. To join the conference, submit inquiries to Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later.... Springer via e-mail. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with the concurrence of the delegate of... the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202)...

  11. 75 FR 44227 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Ms. Yvette Springer at Yspringer@bis.doc.gov no later than August 5, 2010. A limited number of seats... meeting to Ms. Springer via e-mail. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with the concurrence of... will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at (202) 482-2813. Dated:...

  12. 77 FR 58871 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... information; financial data, such as salaries and personal information concerning individuals associated with... Meeting: To provide advice and recommendations concerning operations and further support of the CHESS..., 2012 8 a.m.-3:30 p.m. Closed--Executive session, Draft and Review Report Reason for Closing: The...

  13. 78 FR 11903 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... information; financial data, such as salaries and personal information concerning individuals associated with... Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230, Telephone (703) 292-2986. Purpose of Meeting: To provide advice...--Review of the Wisconsin MRSEC 4:15 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Closed--Executive Session Reason for Closing: The...

  14. 78 FR 42753 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Springer at Yvette.Springer@bis.doc.gov , no later than August 1, 2013. A limited number of seats will be.... Springer via email. The Assistant Secretary for Administration, with the concurrence of the delegate of the... remaining portions of the meeting will be open to the public. For more information, call Yvette Springer at...

  15. 75 FR 34769 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation announces the following meeting: Name: Site Visit review of the Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC) at the University of...

  16. Research and Technology Advisory Committee on Materials and Structures: Report of meeting, February 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on Materials and Structures is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic materials research: (2) fracture control: (3) aerospace vehicle dynamics and control: and (4) tramp elements in fuels and alloys.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Neil; Jenkins, Adrian; Martin, Javier; Davis, Clare; Wood, David; Schild, Geoffrey; Bottiger, Margareta; Holmes, Harvey; Minor, Philip; Almond, Neil

    2005-02-25

    Inoculation of live experimental oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV CHAT) during the 1950s in central Africa has been proposed to account for the introduction of HIV into human populations. For this to have occurred, it would have been necessary for chimpanzee rather than macaque kidney epithelial cells to have been included in the preparation of early OPV materials. Theoretically, this could have led to contamination with a progenitor of HIV-1 derived from a related simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVCPZ). In this article we present further detailed analyses of two samples of OPV, CHAT 10A-11 and CHAT 6039/Yugo, which were used in early human trials of poliovirus vaccination. Recovery of poliovirus by culture techniques confirmed the biological viability of the vaccines and sequence analysis of poliovirus RNA specifically identified the presence of the CHAT strain. Independent nested sets of oligonucleotide primers specific for HIV-1/SIVCPZ and HIV-2/SIVMAC/SIVSM phylogenetic lineages, respectively, indicated no evidence of HIV/SIV RNA in either vaccine preparation, at a sensitivity of 100 RNA equivalents/ml. Analysis of cellular substrate by the amplification of two distinct regions of mitochondrial DNA (D-loop control region and 12S ribosomal sequences) revealed no evidence of chimpanzee cellular sequences. However, this approach positively identified rhesus and cynomolgus macaque DNA for the CHAT 10A-11 and CHAT 6039/Yugo vaccine preparations, respectively. Analysis of multiple clones of mtDNA 12S rDNA indicated a relatively high number of nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (numts) in the CHAT 10A-11 material, but confirmed the macaque origin of cellular substrate used in vaccine preparation. These data reinforce earlier findings on this topic providing no evidence to support the contention that poliovirus vaccination was responsible for the introduction of HIV into humans and sparking the AIDS pandemic.

  18. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mee, Edward T; Preston, Mark D; Minor, Philip D; Schepelmann, Silke

    2016-04-12

    Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4-14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 4876 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... a.m.-4:45 p.m. Place: Georgia Tech University, Atlanta, GA. Type of Meeting: Part-open. Contact... concerning progress of the MRSEC at Georgia Tech. Agenda Tuesday March 2, 2010 7:30 a.m.-9:15 a.m. Closed--Executive Session. 9:15 a.m.-3:45 a.m. Open--Review of Georgia Tech MRSEC. 3:45 a.m.-4:45 a.m....

  20. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; ...

  1. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  2. Next generation vaccines.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  3. Reports of Public Scoping Meetings for the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Designation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites in Eastern Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide summaries of the scoping meetings as part of the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) process for the designation of dredged material disposal sites in Eastern Long Island Sound.

  4. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Tech by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times: Feb. 20, 2012; 7:45 a.m. -6 p.m., Feb. 21, 2012; 8 a.m.-3:30 p.m. Place: Georgia Tech, School of Material Science in Atlanta, Georgia... provide advice and recommendations concerning further support of the MRSEC at Georgia Tech. Agenda:...

  5. Meeting Student Needs: Bookstore Display in a University Curriculum Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbakoff, Sondra

    This paper describes the present shelf arrangement of instructional materials in the Curriculum Materials Center (CMC) located in Swirbul Library on the Garden City, Long Island campus of Adelphi University. The CMC is a special library resource supporting the curriculum of the School of Education at Adelphi, and graduate and undergraduate…

  6. Meeting Curriculum, Learning and Settlement Needs: Teachers' Use of Materials in Courses for Adult Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wette, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how four teachers of ESOL selected and used instructional materials in courses for adult refugees and new migrants. To date, scholarly literature on this topic has largely comprised advice about the principles of teaching and second language learning on which materials should be based, and on-going debate about the merits and…

  7. Successful induction of protective antibody responses against Haemophilus influenzae type b and diphtheria after transcutaneous immunization with the glycoconjugate polyribosyl ribitol phosphate-cross-reacting material 197 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Peyre, Marisa; Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Frost, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Muller, Sylviane; Sesardic, Dorothea; Partidos, Charalambos D

    2004-09-15

    We examined the antibody responses elicited in rats after transcutaneous immunization (TCI) with the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) glycoconjugate vaccine coadministered with cholera toxin or mutants of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTK63 and LTR72) as adjuvants. The glycoconjugate vaccine was immunogenic, eliciting high antibody responses to the capsular polysaccharide of Hib and to diphtheria toxin. Passively transferred immune serum protected infant rats against challenge with the Hib Eagan strain and exhibited strong neutralizing activity against diphtheria toxin both in vitro and in vivo. The finding that TCI of rats can elicit antibody responses surpassing the minimum levels required for protective immunity against Hib and diphtheria suggests that this immunization strategy holds a lot of promise for future pediatric use. However, further studies are required to confirm the potential of TCI with glycoconjugate vaccines in humans.

  8. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. TSE risk assessment for starting materials used during, or in the manufacture of vaccines for human use--a consultant's view of the commercial approach.

    PubMed

    Bradley, R

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination is an essential tool to protect humans from many infectious diseases. Materials derived from bovine tissues are used in, or during the manufacture of, most vaccines. Following the occurrence of BSE in cattle in three continents since 1986, the need to ensure the TSE safety of vaccines is vital. Various actions have been taken to ensure safety targets are reached. This paper shows that selecting starting tissues used in vaccine manufacture on the basis of their inherent TSE risk is of prime importance and is more secure than using geography as the primary criterion of a safe origin. Other approaches can also contribute to safety assurance. These include avoiding, where possible, tissues from animals, risk tissues and tissues of unknown or uncertain provenance. It is essential to ensure tissues are collected and processed appropriately and detailed records are kept. The risk assessment approach, based on the main safety factors of Source, Process and Use, coupled with these additional features, combine to establish that the TSE safety of vaccines is ensured, despite the challenge resulting from the occurrence of BSE.

  10. Critical and strategic materials proceedings of the laboratory study group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    These Proceedings serve to identify the appropriate role for the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program concerning critical and strategic materials, identify and articulate high priority DOE-BES-DMS target areas so as to maximize programmatic responsiveness to national needs concerning critical and strategic materials, and identify research, expertise, and resources (including Collaborative Research Centers) that are relevant to critical and strategic materials that is either underway or in place under the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program. Laboratory statements of collaborative research are given.

  11. Neutron and X-ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium at the 143rd TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, George

    2015-02-05

    The Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This annual symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 100 high-level technical talks were delivered over the course of the four day event. In addition, the large number of students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. The science surrounding the utilization of neutrons and x-rays to study advanced materials is becoming increasingly important in increasing the understanding of how the exceptional materials properties of such materials arise. In particular, x-rays and neutrons can be used to visualize material structures at an extremely high resolution and in some cases, three dimensions—allowing unprecedented insights into the mechanisms governing certain materials properties such as strength and toughness. Moreover, some of these techniques allow materials to be visualized without damaging the material, approaches known as non-destructive evaluation or “NDE”. This allows materials to be studied in 3 dimensions while undergoing change in real time which represents an important (and long sought-after) advancement in materials science. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators and students with technical interests in this field provides promise that the United

  12. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  13. DOE workshop meeting on the application of positron spectroscopy to materials sciences: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, C.H.

    1993-04-01

    Positron spectroscopy has advanced to the point where it is in the best interest of DOE to assess past progress and to identify research needs/opportunities that can be exploited to advance the understanding of materials problems important to DOE. Purpose of the workshop is to identify areas of materials science where positron spectroscopy can serve to advance goals of DOE in energy research: problem areas for which positron spectroscopy can serve as a unique or complementary tool for materials characterization and analysis, possible sources of positrons at high intensities and instrumentation, and possible applications (defect profiles at surfaces/interfaces, composite materials, superconductors). Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for the 23 papers.

  14. Using Federally Funded Curricular Materials to meet Next Geneartion Science Standards in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe teaching and learning goals for Earth system science at all levels of K-12, including elementary, middle school, and high school. Teachers must consider science and engineering practices, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. The National Science Foundation and other federal organizations have supported the development of reformed curricular materials at the K-12 level for many years. Although developed before the adoption of NGSS, many of these Earth system science resources are, in fact, NGSS congruent. Such resources include those developed by TERC, SERC, EDC, NASA, NOAA, USGS, and others. This session features NGSS congruent materials, carefully examining and dissecting the performance expectations that embody these materials. It also shares a process of tagging these materials via NSTA's, NGSS portal guidelines.

  15. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-06-19

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy.

  16. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C.; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:25964451

  17. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    More than Moore explores a new area of Silicon based microelectronics, which reaches beyond the boundaries of conventional semiconductor applications. Creating new functionality to semiconductor circuits, More than Moore focuses on motivating new technological possibilities. In the past decades, the main stream of microelectronics progresses was mainly powered by Moore's law, with two focused development arenas, namely, IC miniaturization down to nano scale, and SoC based system integration. While the microelectronics community continues to invent new solutions around the world to keep Moore's law alive, there is increasing momentum for the development of 'More than Moore' technologies which are based on silicon technologies but do not simply scale with Moore's law. Typical examples are RF, Power/HV, Passives, Sensor/Actuator/MEMS or Bio-chips. The More than Moore strategy is driven by the increasing social needs for high level heterogeneous system integration including non-digital functions, the necessity to speed up innovative product creation and to broaden the product portfolio of wafer fabs, and the limiting cost and time factors of advanced SoC development. It is believed that More than Moore will add value to society on top of and beyond advanced CMOS with fast increasing marketing potentials. Important key challenges for the realization of the 'More than Moore' strategy are: perspective materials for future THz devices materials systems for embedded sensors and actuators perspective materials for epitaxial approaches material systems for embedded innovative memory technologies development of new materials with customized characteristics The Hot topics covered by the symposium M (More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics) at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14-18 May 2012 have been: development of functional ceramics thin films New dielectric materials for advanced microelectronics bio- and CMOS compatible

  18. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  19. Treatment of mixed F006 contaminated material to meet the new EPA debris rule at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Diener, G.A.; Carroll, S.J.; Steingard, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has demonstrated a procedure to clean mixed (radioactive/hazardous) materials to meet the criteria in the recently promulgated Land Disposal Restrictions debris'' rule. The material was equipment (steel piping, transfer pumps valves) which had been used in industrial wastewater treatment facility to transfer listed F006 wastewater treatment plating line sludges to a RCRA storage tank complex. When the equipment needed to be replaced/repaired, it was concluded that the resulting debris would have to be managed as a mixed waste, due to the fact that the solid waste contained'' the listed hazardous waste.

  20. Treatment of mixed F006 contaminated material to meet the new EPA debris rule at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Diener, G.A.; Carroll, S.J.; Steingard, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has demonstrated a procedure to clean mixed (radioactive/hazardous) materials to meet the criteria in the recently promulgated Land Disposal Restrictions ``debris`` rule. The material was equipment (steel piping, transfer pumps valves) which had been used in industrial wastewater treatment facility to transfer listed F006 wastewater treatment plating line sludges to a RCRA storage tank complex. When the equipment needed to be replaced/repaired, it was concluded that the resulting debris would have to be managed as a mixed waste, due to the fact that the solid waste ``contained`` the listed hazardous waste.

  1. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    PubMed

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  2. When biomolecules meet graphene: from molecular level interactions to material design and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Wensi; Yu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zhenping; Su, Zhiqiang; Wei, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Graphene-based materials have attracted increasing attention due to their atomically-thick two-dimensional structures, high conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, and large specific surface areas. The combination of biomolecules with graphene-based materials offers a promising method to fabricate novel graphene-biomolecule hybrid nanomaterials with unique functions in biology, medicine, nanotechnology, and materials science. In this review, we focus on a summarization of the recent studies in functionalizing graphene-based materials using different biomolecules, such as DNA, peptides, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, and viruses. The different interactions between graphene and biomolecules at the molecular level are demonstrated and discussed in detail. In addition, the potential applications of the created graphene-biomolecule nanohybrids in drug delivery, cancer treatment, tissue engineering, biosensors, bioimaging, energy materials, and other nanotechnological applications are presented. This review will be helpful to know the modification of graphene with biomolecules, understand the interactions between graphene and biomolecules at the molecular level, and design functional graphene-based nanomaterials with unique properties for various applications.

  3. Laser and nonlinear optical materials; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19, 20, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Deshazer, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Topics discussed include frequency conversion materials; damage resistance and crystal growth of KDP; the application of urea crystals to nonlinear optics; the properties and uses of BaB/sub 2/O/sub 4/; and direct assessment of the phase matching properties of new nonlinear materials. Papers are presented on the growth of laser crystals and solid state lasers; the growth and characterization of Nd,Cr:GSGG laser crystals and Ti:Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crystals; oxide host crystals for unstable lasers; the use of the heat exchanger method to grow laser crystals; Faraday rotator materials for laser systems; and crystal growth, processing, and characterization of photorefractive BaTiO/sub 3/. Consideration is given to the application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements; the electron-paramagnetic resonance spectra in Ti-doped sapphire; electrical transport properties in garnets; the photoelastic properties of optical materials; thermal variation of the refractive index in optical materials; and the mechanical properties of single crystal ceramics.

  4. The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    PubMed

    Cook, Katherine M; Evans, Geoffrey

    2011-05-01

    The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 established the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program to compensate people thought to be injured by certain vaccines. The act's goals are to ensure an adequate supply of vaccines, to stabilize vaccine costs, and to establish and maintain an accessible and efficient setting for providing compensation to people found to have been injured by certain childhood vaccines. In addition, the legislation called for the reporting of adverse events after vaccination, the creation of vaccine-information materials that detail vaccine benefits and risks, and Institute of Medicine studies of possible vaccine-related injuries and encouraged research and development of new and safer vaccines. Over its 22-year history, the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program has been a key component in stabilizing the US vaccine market through liability protection to both vaccine companies and health care providers and by providing a forum for people, no matter what age, to seek compensation.

  5. 77 FR 6826 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... University of Colorado by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: March 12, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-8:30 p.m., March 13, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-3 p.m. Place: University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Type of... provide advice and recommendations concerning further support of the MRSEC at the University of...

  6. 78 FR 4464 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ....-9:00 p.m., February 12, 2013; 7:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m. Place: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Type of... Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  7. DNA sequencing by two-dimensional materials: As theoretical modeling meets experiments.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lijun; Shen, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhisen; Wang, Qi

    2017-03-15

    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, two-dimensional (2D) materials (mainly including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2 etc.) have stimulated exploding interests in sensor applications. 2D-material based nanoscale DNA sequencing is a single-molecule technique with revolutionary potential. In this paper, we review the methodology of DNA sequencing based on the measurements of ionic current, force peak, and transverse electrical currents etc. by 2D materials. The advantages and disadvantages of DNA sequencing by 2D materials are discussed. Besides the recent development of experiments, we will focus on the theoretical calculations of DNA sequencing, which have been played a critical role in the development of this field. Special emphasis will focus on the disagreements between experiments and theoretical calculations, and the explanations for the discrepancy will be highlighted. Finally, some new plausible sequencing methods from computational studies will be discussed, which may be applied in the realistic DNA sequencing experiments in future.

  8. 78 FR 5774 - Materials Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...-decisional changes to the Commerce Control List and the U.S. export control policies shall be exempt from the.... The Committee advises the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Export Administration with respect to technical questions that affect the level of export controls applicable to materials and related technology...

  9. WHO Working Group on revision of the Manual of Laboratory Methods for Testing DTP Vaccines-Report of two meetings held on 20-21 July 2006 and 28-30 March 2007, Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Michael J; Das, Rose Gaines; Lei, Dianliang; Xing, Dorothy K L; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Dobbelaer, Roland

    2008-04-07

    This report reflects the discussion and conclusions of a WHO group of experts from National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), National Control Laboratories (NCLs), vaccine industries and other relevant institutions involved in standardization and control of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccines (DTP), held on 20-21 July 2006 and 28-30 March 2007, in Geneva Switzerland for the revision of WHO Manual for quality control of DTP vaccines. Taking into account recent developments and standardization in quality control methods and the revision of WHO recommendations for D, T, P vaccines, and a need for updating the manual has been recognized. In these two meetings the current situation of quality control methods in terms of potency, safety and identity tests for DTP vaccines and statistical analysis of data were reviewed. Based on the WHO recommendations and recent validation of testing methods, the content of current manual were reviewed and discussed. The group agreed that the principles to be observed in selecting methods included identifying those critical for assuring safety, efficacy and quality and which were consistent with WHO recommendations/requirements. Methods that were well recognized but not yet included in current Recommendations should be taken into account. These would include in vivo and/or in vitro methods for determining potency, safety testing and identity. The statistical analysis of the data should be revised and updated. It was noted that the mouse based assays for toxoid potency were still quite widely used and it was desirable to establish appropriate standards for these to enable the results to be related to the standard guinea pig assays. The working group was met again to review the first drafts and to input further suggestions or amendments to the contributions of the drafting groups. The revised manual was to be finalized and published by WHO.

  10. Geometric phase Doppler effect: when structured light meets rotating structured materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ke, Yougang; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yachao; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-05-15

    We examine the geometric phase Doppler effect that appears when a structured light interacts with a rotating structured material. In our scheme the structured light possesses a vortex phase and the structured material works as an inhomogeneous anisotropic plate. We show that the Doppler effect manifests itself as a frequency shift which can be interpreted in terms of a dynamic evolution of Pancharatnam-Berry phase on the hybrid-order Poincaré sphere. The frequency shift induced by the change rate of Pancharatnam-Berry phase with time is derived from both the Jones matrix calculations and the theory of the hybrid-order Poincaré sphere. Unlike the conventional rotational Doppler effect, the frequency shift is proportional to the variation of total angular momentum of light beam, irrespective of the orbital angular momentum of input beams.

  11. 77 FR 25503 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... University of Nebraska Lincoln by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: May 21, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-8:30 p.m., May 22, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-3:00 p.m. Place: University of Nebraska Lincoln... University of Nebraska. Agenda Monday, May 21, 2012 7:15 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Open--Review of the MRSEC 5...

  12. 77 FR 55863 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: Sept 19, 2012; 6 p.m.-8:30 p.m.; Sept 20, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-6:45 p.m.; Sept 21, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Place: Princeton University... University. Agenda: Wednesday, September 19, 2012 6 p.m.-7 p.m. Closed--Briefing of panel 7 p.m.-8:30...

  13. ICALEO '90: Laser materials processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 4-9, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, S.L.; Dausinger, F.; Fujioka, Tomoo.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in high-power CO2 laser technology used in industrial materials processing are discussed in reviews and reports. Consideration is given to practical beam characterization parameters and a variety of measurement techniques for these lasers. Topics discussed include beam measurements and diagnostics, beam delivery and beam shaping, high-power rod and slab lasers, advances in laser drilling, the maturing of laser cutting, novel processes, laser welding, and surface modification.

  14. The Postmeeting Publication of Material Presented at the February 1968 Semiannual Meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Reported is a study of the subsequent dissemination of information by authors who presented material at a meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The results of the survey include the following: 57 percent of the authors submitted the material to journals, and, although some papers were…

  15. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Site Remediation General Compliance Requirements § 63.7936 What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer to... facility are controlled according to all applicable requirements in the subpart for an off-site...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7936 - What requirements must I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? 63.7936 Section 63.7936 Protection of... I meet if I transfer remediation material off-site to another facility? (a) If you transfer to... facility are controlled according to all applicable requirements in the subpart for an off-site...

  18. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine A A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  19. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... staff Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Polio Vaccine Polio Vaccine Share Print Polio Vaccine What is polio? Poliomyelitis (polio) is a serious ... each year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most ...

  20. Report from the World Health Organization's Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) meeting, Geneva, 7-9th Sep 2015.

    PubMed

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Kaslow, David C; Moorthy, Vasee S

    2016-06-03

    There are more vaccines in development, against a greater number of pathogens, than ever before. A challenge with this exceptional level of activity and investment is how to select and resource the most promising approaches to have the most significant impact on public health. The WHO Product Development for Vaccines Advisory Committee (PDVAC) was established in 2014 to provide strategic advice and recommendations to WHO for vaccines in clinical development that could have a significant impact on public health in low and middle income countries. On 7-9th September 2015, PDVAC was convened for the second time, when the committee reviewed vaccine developments in 24 disease areas. This report summarises the key recommendations from that consultation.

  1. Steel industry of the future: Meeting the material challenges of the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    For over a century, the US steel industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, steel industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US steel industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Steel Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operation and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Steel Manufacturers Association (SMA), industry leaders began by developing a unified vision for the next 20 years: to provide high-quality, value-added products to a wide array of customers in an environmentally friendly, cost-effective manner, while leading the world in innovation and technology. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. The steel industry vision provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate collaborative R and D on advanced processes and technologies for the steel industry.

  2. The United States pediatric vaccine stockpile program.

    PubMed

    Lane, Kimberly S; Chu, Susan Y; Santoli, Jeanne M

    2006-03-01

    The initial goal of the national vaccine stockpile program was to establish a 6-month supply of all recommended childhood vaccines, to meet national demands if a manufacturing process was interrupted. When the first vaccine stockpiles were created in 1983, the childhood immunization schedule was much less complicated than it is today, and the first stockpiles included only measles-mumps-rubella, poliovirus, and pertussis vaccines, as well as diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. However, today's vaccine needs are much greater, and current stockpiles do not include all recommended childhood vaccines, partially because inclusion of vaccines that are universally recommended, fully implemented, and produced by a single manufacturer has been made a priority. Future planning must also consider substantially higher vaccine costs, the development of new combination vaccines, a wide range of production times, and changes in immunization recommendations. Expansion and strengthening of the national vaccine stockpile program are critical to protect against future disruptions in vaccine supply.

  3. The roles of energy and material efficiency in meeting steel industry CO2 targets.

    PubMed

    Milford, Rachel L; Pauliuk, Stefan; Allwood, Julian M; Müller, Daniel B

    2013-04-02

    Identifying strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from steel production requires a comprehensive model of the sector but previous work has either failed to consider the whole supply chain or considered only a subset of possible abatement options. In this work, a global mass flow analysis is combined with process emissions intensities to allow forecasts of future steel sector emissions under all abatement options. Scenario analysis shows that global capacity for primary steel production is already near to a peak and that if sectoral emissions are to be reduced by 50% by 2050, the last required blast furnace will be built by 2020. Emissions reduction targets cannot be met by energy and emissions efficiency alone, but deploying material efficiency provides sufficient extra abatement potential.

  4. Vaccination against Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Roe, E. A.; Jones, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Klebsiella vaccine was prepared from strains of Klebsiella aerogenes with capsular types K1, K36, K44 and K Cross (a type which cross-reacts in vitro with sera from many klebsiella capsular types). The vaccine was extracted by dialysis and ultrafiltration from capsular material released during growth of the bacteria in a five-day batch culture. Mice given one dose of vaccine from K1a (1.0 microgram/mouse) survived lethal intraperitoneal challenge of 11/11 homologous klebsiella strains four days after vaccination; 14 days after vaccination protection against the same challenge strains had declined to 5/11 strains. Vaccines from K1a, b, c, K36, K44 and K Cross induced homologous protection and protected mice against different ranges of heterologous klebsiella capsular types. The protective response of the mice was greatly enhanced by administering three doses of the vaccines. Vaccines from K1, K36, K44 and K Cross protected mice against 14/20, 11/20, 10/20 and 9/20 homologous and heterologous klebsiella challenge strains respectively. None of the klebsiella vaccines was toxic for mice at the immunizing dose (1.0 microgram/mouse). Vaccine from K36 was the most lethal, killing mice at 10(3) immunizing doses. The least toxic vaccine was from K44, which killed mice at 10(4) immunizing doses. PMID:6389699

  5. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  6. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... component) of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by ...

  7. Photovoltaics and materials science: helping to meet the environmental imperatives of clean air and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moomaw, William R.

    1991-02-01

    Human activity is altering the composition of the atmosphere in unprecedented ways. Fossil fuel combustion, which currently releases 5.6 billion metric tons of carbon annually, in combination with deforestation, has increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide 25% above pre-industrial levels. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation from the earth altering its thermal balance. While carbon dioxide is anticipated to contribute about one-half of human induced global warming, the world energy sector is responsible for an estimated 57% of future global warming when contributions from additional combustion related pollutants are included. In order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide even at current elevated levels, computer models suggest the need to reduce emission rates by approximately 75%. Present patterns of energy use are also contributing to major air pollution problems. An analysis of policy options shows that a combination of vastly improved energy efficiency strategies and carbon free energy production technologies are essential to simultaneously slow the rate of global warming and improve air quality. This paper summarizes current knowledge of the greenhouse effect and its consequences, and examines how photovoltaic electricity can contribute to atmospheric stabilization goals. Some specific examples and strategies will be given that may accelerate the rate at which photovoltaic technologies can penetrate the market. Should these strategies succeed, it will have majot implications for materials science including increased attention to pollution problems associated with the manufacture of many promising photovoltaic technologies.

  8. WHO Working Group discussion on revision of the WHO recommendations for the production and control of poliomyelitis vaccines (oral): TRS Nos. 904 and 910. Report of Meeting held on 20-22 July 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Martin, Javier; Milne, Catherine; Minor, Philip; Chumakov, Konstantin; Baca-Estrada, Maria; Caruana, Jacqueline Fournier; Zhou, Tiequn

    2011-09-02

    Oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) is a critical part of the polio eradication programme. A high number of doses are administered each year with an impact on billions of citizens worldwide. It is therefore essential that written standards concerning OPV are up to date and widely available. The World Health Organization (WHO) publishes technical guidance on the quality, safety and efficacy of vaccines intended to assist national regulatory authorities (NRAs), national control laboratories (NCLs) and manufacturers. As part of its programme, on 20-22 July 2010 WHO convened a working group meeting to initiate the revision of the WHO recommendations on the production and control of OPV as presently outlined in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) issues Nos. 904 and 910 [1,2]. The attendees included experts from academia, NRAs/NCLs and industry involved in the study, manufacture, and authorization and testing/release of OPV from countries around the world including representatives from China, the European Union, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, and the USA. The objective was to review the state of knowledge concerning production and control of OPV, with a focus on neurovirulence testing, to determine how the existing guidelines should be updated and what recommendations should be made for the future. The outcomes of this meeting will be taken into consideration in future revision of the WHO TRS.

  9. The impact of administration of conjugate vaccines containing cross reacting material on Haemophilus influenzae type b antibody responses in infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Voysey, Merryn; Sadarangani, Manish; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Bolgiano, Barbara; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-07-25

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccine, induce immunological memory and longer lasting protection than plain polysaccharide vaccines. The most common proteins used as carriers are tetanus toxoid (TT) and cross reacting material-197 (CRM), a mutant form of diphtheria toxoid. CRM conjugate vaccines have been reported to suppress antibody responses to co-administered Hib-TT vaccine. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in which infants were randomised to receive meningococcal or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines along with Hib-TT. Trials of licensed vaccines with different carrier proteins were included for group C meningococcal (MenC), quadrivalent ACWY meningococcal (MenACWY), and pneumococcal vaccines. Twenty-three trials were included in the meta-analyses. Overall, administration of MenC-CRM in a 2 or 3 dose schedule resulted in a 45% reduction in Hib antibody concentrations (GMR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49-0.62). MenACWY-CRM boosted Hib antibody responses by 22% (GMR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41) whilst pneumococcal CRM conjugate vaccines had no impact on Hib antibody responses (GMR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68-1.22). The effect of CRM protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines on Hib antibody responses varies greatly between vaccines. Co-administration of a CRM conjugate vaccine can produce either positive or negative effects on Hib antibody responses. These inconsistencies suggest that CRM itself may not be the main driver of variability in Hib responses, and challenge current perspectives on this issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  11. Laser Materials and Laser Spectroscopy - A Satellite Meeting of IQEC '88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhiming

    1989-03-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Laser Materials * Laser Site Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Ions in Glass * Spectroscopy of Chromium Doped Tunable Laser Materials * Spectroscopic Properties of Nd3+ Ions in LaMgAl11O19 Crystal * Spectral Study and 2.938 μm Laser Emission of Er3+ in the Y3Al5O12 Crystal * Raman-infrared Spectra and Radiationless Relaxation of Laser Crystal NdAl3(BO3)4 * A Study on HB and FLN in BaFCl0.5Br0.5:Sm2+ at 77K * Pair-pumped Upconversion Solid State Lasers * CW Upconversion Laser Action in Neodymium and Erbium doped Solids * Ultra-high Sensitive Upconversion Fluorescence of YbF3 Doped with Trace Tm3+ and Er3+ * The Growth and Properties of NYAB and EYAB Multifunctional Crystal * Study on Fluorescence and Laser Light of Er3+ in Glass * Growth and Properties of Single Crystal Fibers for Laser Materials * A Study on the Quality of Sapphire, Ruby and Ti3+ Doped Sapphire Grown by Temperature Gradient Technique (TGT) and Czochralski Technique (CZ) * The Measurement of Output Property of Ti3+ Al2O3 Laser Crystal * An Xα Study of the Laser Crystal MgF2 : V2+ * Q-switched NAB Laser * Miniature YAG Lasers * Study of High Efficiency {LiF}:{F}^-_2 Color Center Crystals * Study on the Formation Conditions and Optical Properties of (F2+)H Color Center in NaCl:OH- Crystals * Novel Spectroscopic Properties of {LiF}:{F}^+_3 - {F}_2 Mixed Color Centers Laser Crystals * Terraced Substrate Visible GaAlAs Semiconductor Lasers with a Large Optical Cavity * The Temperature Dependence of Gain Spectra, Threshold Current and Auger Recombination in InGaAsP-InP Double Heterojunction Laser diode * Time-resolved Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer of Bound Excitons in GaP:N Crystals * Optical Limiting with Semiconductors * A Critical Review of High-efficiency Crystals for Tunable Lasers * Parametric Scattering in β - BaB2O4 Crystal Induced by Picosecond Pulses * Generation of Picosecond Pulses at 193 nm by Frequency Mixing in β - BaB2O4

  12. Workshop report: Schistosomiasis vaccine clinical development and product characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-02-17

    A schistosomiasis vaccine meeting was organized to evaluate the utility of a vaccine in public health programs, to discuss clinical development paths, and to define basic product characteristics for desirable vaccines to be used in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. It was concluded that clinical evaluation of a schistosomiasis vaccine is feasible with appropriate trial design and tools. Some basic Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for a human schistosomiasis vaccine and for a veterinary vaccine for bovine use were also proposed.

  13. [Travelers' vaccines].

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  14. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  15. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  16. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Noel, Joseph

    2016-07-12

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  17. Detection and Identification of Leachables in Vaccine from Plastic Packaging Materials Using UPLC-QTOF MS with Self-Built Polymer Additives Library.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Sun, Shuqi; Xing, Xuebin; Du, Zhenxia; Guo, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wenlian

    2016-07-05

    The direct contact of plastic parts with the medical products raises the possibility that plastic-related contaminants (leachables) may be present in the finished medical product. The leachable components from plastic materials may impact the safety and efficacy of the final medical product, so identification and determination of the leachables are essential for the safety assessment of medical products. A method to identify main leachables-polymer additives in medical products was developed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF MS) and a self-built library. The library contains 174 additives and the information on their names, formulas, structures, retention times, fragments, classifications, origin, and corresponding MS(E) and MSMS spectra. The reliability of the construction process of the library was guaranteed by the system stability and suitability test. Identification parameters of library application, such as mass error, retention times, fragments, and isotope pattern, were evaluated. Leachables in real vaccine and the intermediates were identified using automatic library searching. In vaccine, the peak m/z 239.0887 that could not be assigned by the library was identified as dimethyl 2-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylate using a series of elucidation tools. As a result, the concentrations of leachables in vaccine and the intermediates ranged from 0.85 to 21.91 μg/L.

  18. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria.

  19. Leptospirosis vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Węgrzyn, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968

  20. Rotavirus Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had a type of bowel blockage called "intussusception" should not get rotavirus vaccine. Babies who are ... of rotavirus vaccine.Severe problems following rotavirus vaccine:Intussusception is a type of bowel blockage that is ...

  1. The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination in the United States is a frequent source of controversy, with critics alleging failures by public health officials to adequately identify, monitor, and respond to risks associated with vaccines. In response to these charges, the case of RotaShield, a vaccine withdrawn in 1999 following confirmation of a serious adverse event associated with its use, is regularly invoked as evidence of the effectiveness of current vaccine safety activities. Methods This article examines the history of RotaShield, with particular attention paid to decision making regarding its use in the United States and internationally. I reviewed and analyzed federal advisory committee meeting transcripts, international conference reports, government and scientific publications, media coverage, and other primary and secondary source materials. I also conducted six semistructured interviews with former senior officials and advisory committee members at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who participated in decisions regarding the vaccine. Findings Decision making regarding RotaShield, including the ultimate withdrawal of its recommendation for use, was shaped significantly by government health officials’ concern for preserving public confidence in overall U.S. vaccination efforts amid several unrelated vaccine risk controversies ongoing at that time. This attention to public perception and external pressures occurred in tandem with the evaluation of the quantitative evidence regarding the magnitude and severity of the risk associated with the vaccine. The decisions made in the United States resulted in foreseen but unintended consequences for international use of the vaccine, including in nations where the profile of risks and potential benefits was dramatically different. Conclusions As enthusiasm for evidence-based decision making grows throughout medicine and public health, greater explicit attention should be directed to the processes by which decision

  2. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  3. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    PubMed

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  4. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Meloen, R H; Hamilton, W D; Casal, J I; Dalsgaard, K; Langeveld, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called 'edible vaccines'. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways. Using recombinant plantvirus, CPMV, it was shown that plants can produce massive amounts of chimaeric virus particles which protect after a single injection the target animal against disease. The final step, oral administration, is being addressed at present. Preliminary experiments by others suggest that this step may be solved sooner than expected.

  5. WHO informal consultation on quality, safety and efficacy specifications for live attenuated rotavirus vaccines Mexico City, Mexico, 8-9 February 2005.

    PubMed

    Wood, David

    2005-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are at an advanced stage of development but there are as yet no WHO recommendations on production and quality control to provide regulatory guidance. A meeting of experts was convened by WHO and PAHO/AMRO to review the scientific basis for production and quality control of rotavirus vaccines, and to discuss specific measures to assure the safety and efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. The meeting was attended by 25 experts from 14 countries, drawn from academia, public health, national regulatory authorities and vaccine producers. It was agreed that existing guidance for other live virus vaccines provides a very good basis for product characterization, especially for source materials and control of production. The basis for attenuation of current vaccines or vaccine candidates is not known but, at least for the vaccines based on the Jennerian approach of using animal (bovine) rotaviruses, is likely to be multigenic. The risk of intussusception in humans is influenced by genetic background and age. Recent analyzes of large vaccine safety trials found that certain strains of vaccine virus were not associated with intussusception, although in these trials the first dose of vaccine was not administered to children over 3 months of age. Since age is a risk factor for intussusception, this may suggest that early delivery of the first dose of vaccine is desirable. However, maternal antibodies may mitigate against early delivery of the first vaccine dose. Factors which could affect vaccine efficacy or safety include strain diversity, malnutrition, other enteric infections, parasitic infection or immune suppression. It was concluded that data from clinical trials conducted in one part of the world would not necessarily be predictive of vaccine efficacy in other places. It was agreed that in nonclinical evaluations there was a need to use oral dosing for toxicity studies and, because rotavirus is non-neurovirulent, that there was no need for an animal

  6. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume.

  7. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  8. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  9. Ontology representation and analysis of vaccine formulation and administration and their effects on vaccine immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A vaccine is a processed material that if administered, is able to stimulate an adaptive immune response to prevent or ameliorate a disease. A vaccination process may protect the host against subsequent exposure to an infectious agent and result in reduced disease or total prevention of the disease. Vaccine formulation and administration methods may affect vaccine safety and efficacy significantly. Results In this report, the detailed classification and definitions of vaccine components and vaccine administration processes are represented using OWL within the framework of the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Different use cases demonstrate how different vaccine formulations and routes of vaccine administration affect the protection efficacy, general immune responses, and adverse events following vaccination. For example, vaccinations of mice with Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 using intraperitoneal or intranasal administration resulted in different protection levels. As shown in the vaccine adverse event data provided by US FDA, live attenuated and nonliving vaccines are usually administered in different routes and have different local and systematic adverse effect manifestations. Conclusions Vaccine formulation and administration route can independently or collaboratively affect host response outcomes (positive protective immunity or adverse events) after vaccination. Ontological representation of different vaccine and vaccination factors in these two areas allows better understanding and analysis of the causal effects between different factors and immune responses. PMID:23256535

  10. DENGUE VACCINES.

    PubMed

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.

  11. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC.

    PubMed

    Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A; de la Fuente, José

    2016-02-24

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14-15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC).

  12. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14–15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC)....

  13. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  14. G-protein based ELISA as a potency test for rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chabaud-Riou, Martine; Moreno, Nadège; Guinchard, Fabien; Nicolai, Marie Claire; Niogret-Siohan, Elisabeth; Sève, Nicolas; Manin, Catherine; Guinet-Morlot, Françoise; Riou, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    The NIH test is currently used to assess the potency of rabies vaccine, a key criterion for vaccine release. This test is based on mice immunization followed by intracerebral viral challenge. As part of global efforts to reduce animal experimentation and in the framework of the development of Sanofi Pasteur next generation, highly-purified vaccine, produced without any material of human or animal origin, we developed an ELISA as an alternative to the NIH test. This ELISA is based on monoclonal antibodies recognizing specifically the native form of the viral G-protein, the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibody response to rabies virus. We show here that our ELISA is able to distinguish between potent and different types of sub-potent vaccine lots. Satisfactory agreement was observed between the ELISA and the NIH test in the determination of the vaccine titer and their capacity to discern conform from non-conform batches. Our ELISA meets the criteria for a stability-indicating assay and has been successfully used to develop the new generation of rabies vaccine candidates. After an EPAA international pre-collaborative study, this ELISA was selected as the assay of choice for the EDQM collaborative study aimed at replacing the rabies vaccine NIH in vivo potency test.

  15. The HPV vaccines--which to prefer?

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    This review presents an unbiased comparison between the two vaccines available against human papillomavirus (HPV). We conducted a PUBMED and Google search for the years 1998 to October 2008 using the terms: cervical cancer vaccine, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, and Cervarix; and also reviewed abstracts from international meetings. Both vaccines are intended to protect against cervical cancer and high-grade CIN caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18. Only the quadrivalent vaccine is designed to prevent condylomata acuminata and low-grade CIN caused by HPV 6 and HPV 11. It has been approved by the FDA for women aged 9 to 26 years against vulvar and vaginal cancer, and against cervical cancer and precancer. The adjuvant of the bivalent vaccine more significantly accelerates an immune reaction. Both vaccines demonstrate cross-protection, although against different HPV types. The bivalent vaccine is registered for above age 26 in Australia and Israel, and the quadrivalent vaccine in the Philippines and Ecuador. Time will verify claims and reveal differences. In the meantime, both vaccines are safe and effective for their approved indications and, recommendations should be based on individual patient characteristics. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the viral targets of the two HPV vaccines, explain the potential benefits of HPV vaccination to patients, and compare the data regarding the two HPV vaccines.

  16. History of influenza vaccination programs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yoshio; Kaji, Masaro

    2008-11-25

    In 1976, influenza mass vaccination among schoolchildren was started under the Preventive Vaccination Law, which was intended to control epidemics in the community. However, in the late 1980s, questions about this policy and vaccine efficacy arose, and a campaign against vaccination began. In 1994, influenza was excluded from the target diseases list in the Preventive Vaccination Law, without considering the immunization policy with respect to the common indications in high-risk groups. In 2001, the Law was again amended, specifying target groups, such as the elderly aged 65 or over, for influenza vaccination. In the 2005--2006 season, vaccine coverage among the elderly reached 52%. This shows that the need for vaccination has gradually become understood. However, the anti-vaccination campaign, which claims that the influenza vaccine has no efficacy, is still active. Vaccine efficacy studies that were not properly conducted are also being reported. In 2002, the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare organized a research group on vaccine efficacy consisting of epidemiologists. The present symposium, as part of the 9th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Vaccinology in 2005, was planned to further introduce epidemiological concepts useful in studying influenza vaccine efficacy.

  17. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Riedl, M.J.; Hale, R.R.; Parsonage, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  18. Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Edible vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Artnzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305

  20. Topical Meeting on Lasers in Material Diagnostics Held in Albuquerque, New Mexico on 11-12 February 1987. Technical Digest Series. Volume 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-31

    meeting treated all aspects of laer design, development and characterization. Lasers in Material Diagnostics: Laser and optical techniques are...FJSRL US AIR FORCE ACADEMY COLORADO S6, CO 80840 USA S DAHLHAUSER KARL j. VS AIR FORCE AFILIARBF KIRTLANO AFB, 6M 87117 USA S OALTON DONALD A. UNITED TECH...DREYFUS RUSSELL N. IBM T J WATSON RESEARCH CTR PO BOX 218 YKTONN HTS , NY 10598 USA L DUFFY PHILIP B. LLIL P0 BO 808, L-86 LIVERMORE, CA 94550 USA a

  1. [Antiviral vaccines].

    PubMed

    Girard, M

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination has been successful in controlling numerous diseases in man and animals. Smallpox has been eradicated and poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated. The traditional immunization arsenal includes vaccines using live, attenuated, and inactivated organisms. DNA recombinant technology has added two new types of vaccines, i.e. subunit vaccines based on purified antigens produced by genetic engineering in bacterial, yeast, or animal-cell cultures and live recombinant vaccines based on attenuated bacterial or viral vectors. Currently the best known examples of these new vaccines are those using poxvirus vectors (vaccinia virus, canarypox virus, or fowlpox virus) but new vectors are under development. Another application for genetic engineering in the field of vaccinology is the development of DNA vaccines using naked plasmid DNA. This technique has achieved remarkable results in small rodents but its efficacy, safety, and feasibility in man has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous studies are now under way to improve the process. In the field of synthetic vaccines, lipopeptides have shown promise for induction of cell immune response. Development of vaccines for administration by the oral or nasal route may one day revolutionize vaccination techniques. However, effective vaccines against hepatitis C and HIV have stalled in the face of the complexity and pathophysiology of these diseases. These are the greatest challenges confronting scientists at the dawn of the new millennium.

  2. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  3. Evaluation of the application of a thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine by community volunteers in the North West Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, C M E; Bisschop, S P R; Modise, K

    2007-09-01

    Participatory research on vaccination of village poultry against Newcastle disease (ND) was carried out in the village of Disaneng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Three application methods for ND Inkukhu vaccine were shown to induce sufficient levels of immunity in back-yard poultry when correctly administered. These are eye-droplet administration to individual fowls, in-feed and in-water administration to small flocks. After a community meeting and group discussion to select methods of vaccination, only 2 of the 3 methods were chosen; the individual administration of droplets into the eyes was considered to be too impractical because back-yard fowls are difficult to catch. Visual and practical training material was prepared and presented to volunteer vaccinators (n = 23). Vaccinators were then required to register all the poultry owners in their ward who wished to have poultry vaccinated. Once an indication of the number of chickens to be vaccinated had been made available, ND Nobilis Inkukhu vaccine was supplied to vaccinators free of charge. Community vaccinators were responsible for the organisation of the vaccination campaign, including storage and preparation of vaccine for application. All 9 wards in the village were initially involved with a total of 482 households, owning 6141 chickens, participating. This represented slightly in excess of 60 % of the fowls in the area. Involvement in a 2nd round of vaccinations, 1 month later, was far poorer with only 211 households owning a total of 1636 chickens participating. Serum samples were collected from vaccinated fowls using systematic random sampling and tested for circulating antibodies. The levels of protection varied, with no significant difference found between in-feed and in-water vaccine administration. Volunteer vaccinators were found to be unreliable, easily demotivated, did not keep good records and left the project when offered permanent employment. Contacting them to make arrangements

  4. Plant-based oral vaccines: results of human trials.

    PubMed

    Tacket, C O

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines consisting of transgenic plant-derived antigens offer a new strategy for development of safe, inexpensive vaccines. The vaccine antigens can be eaten with the edible part of the plant or purified from plant material. In phase 1 clinical studies of prototype potato- and corn-based vaccines, these vaccines have been safe and immunogenic without the need for a buffer or vehicle other than the plant cell. Transgenic plant technology is attractive for vaccine development because these vaccines are needle-less, stable, and easy to administer. This chapter examines some early human studies of oral transgenic plant-derived vaccines against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection, norovirus, and hepatitis B.

  5. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  6. Summary Report for the Technical Interchange Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical interchange meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.

  7. 76 FR 52668 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological... announced that a meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee would be held on...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act... the remediation material management unit is an oil-water or organic-water separator, then you...

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  10. Comparison of vaccine subpopulation selection, viral loads, vaccine virus persistence in trachea and cloaca, and mucosal antibody responses after vaccination with two different Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry -derived infectious bronchitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ndegwa, Eunice N; Toro, Haroldo; van Santen, Vicky L

    2014-03-01

    the inherent ability of some ArkDPI-derived vaccine viruses to be selected and persist in vaccinated chickens. Vaccine virus persistence may offer genetic material for recombination or may undergo mutations with the potential to result in increased virulence.

  11. Microalgal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Dabrowski, Konrad; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A variety of recombinant vaccines and vaccine delivery systems are currently under development as alternatives to vaccines produced in animals that are primarily administered by injections. These nonanimal alternatives do not transmit animal pathogens, are often rapid to develop, and can be produced on a large scale at low costs. Many of these new vaccine technologies are based on oral delivery systems and avoid the risks of disease transmission associated with the use of syringes for injectable vaccines. In addition, many of these novel systems have extended shelf life, often not requiring refrigeration and thus are applicable in developing countries or remote locations. Here we describe the development of microalgal-based immunization systems. Antigens expressed in the chloroplast or anchored to the surface of plasma membrane are shown to effectively immunize fish and rabbits. The effective oral delivery of antigens by microalgae provides a safe and inexpensive mechanism to immunize animals. The applications of microalgal vaccines are currently being investigated.

  12. Food and Drug Administration regulation and evaluation of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie; Baylor, Norman W

    2011-05-01

    The vaccine-approval process in the United States is regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the US Food and Drug Administration. Throughout the life cycle of development, from preclinical studies to after licensure, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight. Manufacturers must adhere to good manufacturing practices and control procedures to ensure the quality of vaccines. As mandated by Title 21 of the Code of Regulations, licensed vaccines must meet stringent criteria for safety, efficacy, and potency.

  13. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  14. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statements Vaccine Approvals Features: News & Video Free Resources Vaccines are safe, effective, and save lives. Find answers ... by science, on vaccine safety. Are your child’s vaccines up to date? Getting all recommended vaccines on ...

  15. Meeting the Dual Goals of Content Knowledge and English Language Learning: A Study of the CCUEI Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaodan; Trube, Barbara; Yi, Chunlan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study on the China-Canada-United States English Immersion (CCUEI) Moral Education and Social Studies (MESS) curriculum materials for elementary classes (Grades 3-6) with the aim of learning how the curriculum addressed the dual goals of MESS content and English language learning. An analysis comparing the CCUEI third grade…

  16. [HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed.

  17. Filovirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bradfute, Steven B; Dye, John M

    2011-01-01

    Filoviruses can cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Although there are currently no clinically proven treatments for filovirus disease, much progress has been made in recent years in the discovery of therapeutics and vaccines against these viruses. A variety of vaccine platforms have been shown to be effective against filovirus infection. This review summarizes the literature in this field, focusing on vaccines that have been shown to protect NHPs from infection. Furthermore, the uses of rodent models in vaccine development, as well as correlates of immunity, are discussed. PMID:21519188

  18. [Vaccination programmes].

    PubMed

    Varela, M Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Immunization is a highly cost-effective intervention that saves many lives. Its objective is to control and eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases (when the characteristics of the disease and the vaccine make it possible), resulting in improvements in the health of the population. In Spain, the first vaccination schedule was introduced in 1975 and currently coverages > 95% are achieved in children aged < 2 years of age. Before deciding to introduce a vaccination programme in a community or country, a series of aspects should be considered, including the disease burden in the population, the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the changes in the dynamics of the infection when the vaccine is introduced, the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, the theoretical potential of elimination/eradication of the disease and the existence of other preventive or therapeutic measures. Once the programme has been introduced it should be subject to evaluation, considering aspects such as the coverage, effectiveness, safety and the impact on the population. This work defines different vaccination strategies for three diseases for which efficacious and safe vaccines are available: hepatitis A, influenza and varicella.

  19. Intelligent processing of materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, Fall Meeting of the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, Indianapolis, IN, Oct. 2-5, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Eckhart, W. E., Jr.

    Current research on strategies of controlling product properties during processing is examined in reviews and reports. Problems discussed include predictive modeling, advanced sensing, and intelligent control. Particular attention is given to design and manufacturing of advanced materials and structures, intelligent control of carbon-carbon pyrolysis, computer simulation of crystal growth, modeling of phase change phenomena in boundary fitted coordinates, applications of optimization modeling techniques to materials processing, the effect of carbonization kinetics on in-process mechanical properties, nondestructive characterization and strength of solid-solid bond, and acoustic emission and ultrasonic sensing. Consideration is also given to collective learning systems for automatic control, a multicomponent knowledge base for spray casting process control, optimal control of microstructure during near-net shape processing, intelligent control of arc welding, and an intelligent control architecture for carbonization science.

  20. DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Branagan, D; Blue, C; Peter, B; Beardsley, B; Graeve, O; Aprigliano, L; Yang, N; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Lewandowski, J; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-21

    The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.

  1. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    The Expanded Program on Immunization was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1974 to ensure universal access to routinely recommended childhood vaccines. Six vaccine-preventable diseases initially were targeted: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles. In 1974, fewer than 5% of the world's infants were fully immunized; by 2005, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine (DTP3) was 79%, but many children, especially those living in poorer countries, still were not being reached. That year, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS), with the aim of decreasing vaccine-preventable disease--related morbidity and mortality by improving national immunization programs. One goal of GIVS was for all countries to achieve 90% national DTP3 coverage by 2010. This report summarizes the status of vaccination coverage globally and regionally in 2010 and progress toward meeting the GIVS goal. In 2010, 130 (67%) countries had achieved 90% DTP3 coverage, and an estimated 85% of infants worldwide had received at least 3 doses of DTP vaccine. However, 19.3 million children were not fully vaccinated and remained at risk for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis and other vaccine-preventable causes of morbidity and mortality; approximately 50% of these children live in India, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the overall improvement in vaccination coverage during the past 37 years, routine vaccination programs need to be strengthened globally, especially in countries with the greatest numbers of unvaccinated children.

  2. Structures and Materials Panel. Summary Record of the Panel Meeting (50th) held at War Museum, Athens, Greece Spring-1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Reference a. Manual on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines b. Dynamic Environmental Qualification Techniques - TX.87 c, Materials for Space Applications - T...together c. Mr F.O Carta reported progress in defining the Manual on Aeroelasticity in Turbomachinery to the Sub-Committee. France accepted to...before 1 August 1980. The Terms of Reference for this Manual are given in Attachment Sa. d. Dr Olsen reported to the Sub-Committee on the conclusions of

  3. ICALEO '91 - Laser materials processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Nov. 3-8, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzbower, Edward A.; Beyer, Eckhard; Matsunawa, Akira

    Consideration is given to new developments in LASERCAV technology, modeling of deep penetration laser welding, the theory of radiative transfer in the plasma of the keyhole in penetration laser welding, a synchronized laser-video camera system study of high power laser material interactions, laser process monitoring with dual wavelength optical sensors, new devices for on-line process diagnostics during laser machining, and the process development for a portable Nd:YAG laser materials processing system. Attention is also given to laser welding of alumina-reinforced 6061 aluminum alloy composite, the new trend of laser materials processing, optimization of the laser cutting process for thin section stainless steels, a new nozzle concept for cutting with high power lasers, rapid solidification effects during laser welding, laser surface modification of a low carbon steel with tungsten carbide and carbon, absorptivity of a polarized beam during laser hardening, and laser surface melting of 440 C tool steel. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  4. [Pretravel vaccination].

    PubMed

    Koch, Claus

    2005-10-17

    Vaccination is a simple and effective way to protect against certain infectious diseases and is nearly always to be recommended when one is travelling to countries with lesser hygienic standards. This report provides guidance on immunization concerns and describes the individual vaccines most commonly used in travel medicine.

  5. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  6. The Web-Based DNA Vaccine Database DNAVaxDB and Its Usage for Rational DNA Vaccine Design.

    PubMed

    Racz, Rebecca; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    A DNA vaccine is a vaccine that uses a mammalian expression vector to express one or more protein antigens and is administered in vivo to induce an adaptive immune response. Since the 1990s, a significant amount of research has been performed on DNA vaccines and the mechanisms behind them. To meet the needs of the DNA vaccine research community, we created DNAVaxDB ( http://www.violinet.org/dnavaxdb ), the first Web-based database and analysis resource of experimentally verified DNA vaccines. All the data in DNAVaxDB, which includes plasmids, antigens, vaccines, and sources, is manually curated and experimentally verified. This chapter goes over the detail of DNAVaxDB system and shows how the DNA vaccine database, combined with the Vaxign vaccine design tool, can be used for rational design of a DNA vaccine against a pathogen, such as Mycobacterium bovis.

  7. Formative research and development of an evidence-based communication strategy: the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination.

  8. Pneumococcal vaccine campaign based in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, P.; Friedman, E. H.; Banks, A.; Anderson, R.; Carman, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show whether a general practice setting is a practical and effective medium for increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine. DESIGN: Follow up study of responses of general practices (debriefing by questionnaire or small group session) and patients (questionnaire sent to 429 patients vaccinated in a two week period) to vaccination campaign. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Patients registered with general practices of one family health services authority. INTERVENTIONS: Pneumococcal vaccination campaign including clinical guidelines and support materials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine; proportion of patients at risk who were vaccinated between 1 May and 31 December 1995; number of splenectomised patients identified and vaccinated in same period; views of patients who were vaccinated. RESULTS: Proportion of general practitioners offering pneumococcal vaccine increased from 17% to 89% during the campaign. Estimated number of patients at risk who were vaccinated increased from 656 (4%) to 5982 (33%) during campaign. Of 61 splenectomised patients identified, 30 had been vaccinated previously and 27 were vaccinated during campaign. Practices in which a general practitioner took or shared the lead had higher vaccination rates and used vaccine up faster. Of the 384 patients whose questionnaires were used in analysis, only 35 had heard of pneumococcal vaccine before the campaign, 198 reported side effects (mostly minor and local, but systemic and severe local reactions were more common than expected), and 337 were pleased they had been vaccinated (only five expressed dissatisfaction). CONCLUSION: A practice based campaign is an effective method of increasing uptake of pneumococcal vaccine by high risk groups. PMID:9133894

  9. Nondestructive evaluation and material properties of advanced materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, TMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 17-21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, P.K.; Buck, O.; Wolf, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented in these proceedings include those on the high-frequency ultrasonic inspection of green and hipped silicon nitride cylindrical samples, an NDE characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Li alloys, modeling the interaction of ultrasound with pores, and elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites. Attention is also given to anisotropic elastic properties of SiC particulate reinforced aluminum composites, a nondestructive evaluation technology for metal matrix composite billets, ultrasonic techniques for monitoring texture, and the overload effects on fatigue crack growth characteristics of 2014-Al 20 percent SiC composite. Other papers are on dynamic fracture properties of Inco 625 braze joint, laser speckle correlation studies of compression-compression fatigue damage in thick composites, acoustic emission-fracture strength relations for Al/Gr composites, and computed tomography of advanced materials and processes.

  10. Applications and challenges of multivalent recombinant vaccines.

    PubMed

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-03-01

    The exceptional discoveries of antigen/gene delivery systems have allowed the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine candidates. The vaccine candidates employ various antigen-delivery systems, particularly recombinant viral vectors. Recombinant viral vectors are experimental vaccines similar to DNA vaccines, but they use attenuated viruses or bacterium as a carrier "vector" to introduce microbial DNA to cells of the body. They closely mimic a natural infection and therefore can efficiently stimulate the immune system. Although such recombinant vectors may face extensive preclinical testing and will possibly have to meet stringent regulatory requirements, some of these vectors (e.g. measles virus vectors) may benefit from the profound industrial and clinical experience of the parent vaccine. Most notably, novel vaccines based on live attenuated viruses combine the induction of broad, strong and persistent immune responses with acceptable safety profiles. We assess certain technologies in light of their use against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

  11. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker

  12. Why does the world need another rotavirus vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard L; McNeal, Monica M; Steele, A Duncan

    2008-01-01

    A “Meeting on Upstream Rotavirus Vaccines and Emerging Vaccine Producers” was held at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland on March 28–30, 2006. The purpose was to discuss, evaluate, and weigh the importance of additional rotavirus vaccine candidates following the successful international licensure of rotavirus vaccines by two major pharmaceutical companies (GlaxoSmithKline and Merck) that had been in development for many years. Both licensed vaccines are composed of live rotaviruses that are delivered orally as have been all candidate rotavirus vaccines evaluated in humans. Each is built on the experience gained with previous candidates whose development had either been discontinued or, in the case of the previously licensed rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine (Rotashield), was withdrawn by its manufacturer after the discovery of a rare association with intussusception. Although which alternative candidate vaccines should be supported for development and where this should be done are controversial topics, there was general agreement expressed at the Geneva meeting that further development of alternative candidates is a high priority. This development will help insure that the most safe, effective and economic vaccines are available to children in Third World nations where the vast majority of the >600,000 deaths due to rotavirus occur each year. This review is intended to provide the history and present status of rotavirus vaccines as well as a perspective on the future development of candidate vaccines as a means of promulgating plans suggested at the Geneva meeting. PMID:18728720

  13. Vaccine production, distribution, access, and uptake.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jon; Lipsitch, Marc; Almond, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-30

    For human vaccines to be available on a global scale, complex production methods, meticulous quality control, and reliable distribution channels are needed to ensure that the products are potent and effective at the point of use. The technologies used to manufacture different types of vaccines can strongly affect vaccine cost, ease of industrial scale-up, stability, and, ultimately, worldwide availability. The complexity of manufacturing is compounded by the need for different formulations in different countries and age-groups. Reliable vaccine production in appropriate quantities and at affordable prices is the cornerstone of developing global vaccination policies. However, to ensure optimum access and uptake, strong partnerships are needed between private manufacturers, regulatory authorities, and national and international public health services. For vaccines whose supply is insufficient to meet demand, prioritisation of target groups can increase the effect of these vaccines. In this report, we draw from our experience of vaccine development and focus on influenza vaccines as an example to consider production, distribution, access, and other factors that affect vaccine uptake and population-level effectiveness.

  14. Differences in vaccinations in European Union.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The European Union (EU) currently has 27 Member States, each with its own history, characteristics and habits. The National Health Services of most of these countries have different vaccination systems, different vaccine recommendations and different schedules of vaccine administration, which means that immunization is not considered in the same way and, at least for some antigens, vaccination coverage does not always meet changing medical needs. Together with a lack of political will concerning prevention in childhood, a poor understanding or false perceptions on the part of the general public (and even healthcare workers), and the inadequacies and heterogeneity of the vaccination systems can all be considered barriers to vaccinations in Europe. The most important limitations are those relating to the evaluation of vaccination coverage, the lack of active reminder systems to pick up patients who miss appointments, and the monitoring of adverse events. A common programme designed to overcome these limitations could be beneficial in promoting vaccinations everywhere, above all because active measures by the Health Authorities to demonstrate the importance they attribute to vaccination could convince still uncertain parents to have their children vaccinated.

  15. 'He is now like a brother, I can even give him some blood'--relational ethics and material exchanges in a malaria vaccine 'trial community' in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann; Imoukhuede, Babatunde; Pool, Robert

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores social relations within the 'trial community' (staff and volunteers) of a Malaria Vaccine Trial (MVT), implemented by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in The Gambia between 2001 and 2004. It situates ethical concerns with medical research within the everyday life of scientific fieldwork. Based upon discussions with volunteers and staff, we explore processes of mediation between scientific project and study population, and between formal ethics, local ethical debates and everyday practice. We observe that material contact and substantial transactions, notably of blood and medicine, are central to the construction of the MVT. These transactions are guided by a concrete and relational form of ethics, which contrasts with the abstract and vertical formal ethical principles underwriting the scientific study protocol. The success of the MVT owed much to these kinship-like ethics. One possible conclusion from these observations is that research ethics should be understood, not just as a quasi-legal frame but also as an open, searching movement, much in the same way that kinship is not merely a juridical institution and a prescriptive frame of rules, but a network made through relational work. However, this conclusion raises new problems: by contrasting formal, abstract principles to intimate, immediate relations, and economic justice to personal morality, we accept that the order of medical research is moved further out of the public and political, and into the domains of either quasi-legal claims or of private morality. Irrespective of the undeniable importance of clear-cut rules and of good face-to-face relations, a third essential foundation of medical research ethics is the democratically constituted public sphere, including equitable health services, and transparent institutions to facilitate open debate and regulate particular interests. Ultimately, the ethics of global science can rely neither on principles nor trust but requires citizenship

  16. Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 CRM197, a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bröker, Michael; Costantino, Paolo; DeTora, Lisa; McIntosh, E David; Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-07-01

    The biochemical and biological characteristics of CRM(197) are reviewed. Polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccines represent an important technological advancement that allowed for protection against dangerous diseases in vulnerable populations such as infants. The first carrier proteins, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, were chosen in the context of an extensive body of information describing their immunogenicity and safety profiles in clinical use. These carriers perform well, and they require detoxification. A non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, cross-reacting material 197 (CRM(197)), is a useful carrier protein with several manufacturing and other potential advantages over toxoids. For over a decade, several important and widely used routine childhood glycoconjugate vaccines against serious illnesses, including Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease, have employed CRM(197) as carrier protein. Additional clinical applications of CRM(197), as in chemotherapy, also exist.

  17. DNA vaccination of poultry: The current status in 2015.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Marine; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-04

    DNA vaccination is a promising alternative strategy for developing new human and animal vaccines. The massive efforts made these past 25 years to increase the immunizing potential of this kind of vaccine are still ongoing. A relatively small number of studies concerning poultry have been published. Even though there is a need for new poultry vaccines, five parameters must nevertheless be taken into account for their development: the vaccine has to be very effective, safe, inexpensive, suitable for mass vaccination and able to induce immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies (when appropriate). DNA vaccination should meet these requirements. This review describes studies in this field performed exclusively on birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys). No evaluations of avian DNA vaccine efficacy performed on mice as preliminary tests have been taken into consideration. The review first describes the state of the art for DNA vaccination in poultry: pathogens targeted, plasmids used and different routes of vaccine administration. Second, it presents strategies designed to improve DNA vaccine efficacy: influence of the route of administration, plasmid dose and age of birds on their first inoculation; increasing plasmid uptake by host cells; addition of immunomodulators; optimization of plasmid backbones and codon usage; association of vaccine antigens and finally, heterologous prime-boost regimens. The final part will indicate additional properties of DNA vaccines in poultry: fate of the plasmids upon inoculation, immunological considerations and the use of DNA vaccines for purposes other than preventing infectious diseases.

  18. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, ... a typhoid carrier. • Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot) • One dose ...

  19. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious disease. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach ... a typhoid carrier. Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Inactivated typhoid vaccine (shot)One dose provides ...

  20. Polio Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury ... state health department. Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): call 1-800-232-4636 ( ...

  1. Pharmacologically Triggered Hydrogel for Scheduling Hepatitis B Vaccine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Gübeli, Raphael J.; Schöneweis, Katrin; Huzly, Daniela; Ehrbar, Martin; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Urban, Stephan; Weber, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The simplification of current vaccine administration regimes is of crucial interest in order to further sustain and expand the high impact of vaccines for public health. Most vaccines including the vaccine against hepatitis B need several doses to achieve protective immunization. In order to reduce the amount of repetitive injections, depot-based approaches represent a promising strategy. We present the application of novobiocin-sensitive biohybrid hydrogels as a depot for the pharmacologically controlled release of a vaccine against hepatitis B. Upon subcutaneous implantation of the vaccine depot into mice, we were able to release the vaccine by the oral administration of the stimulus molecule novobiocin resulting in successful immunization of the mice. This material-based vaccination regime holds high promises to replace classical vaccine injections conducted by medical personnel by the simple oral uptake of the stimulus thereby solving a major obstacle in increasing hepatitis B vaccination coverage. PMID:24018943

  2. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Smallpox Vaccine The smallpox vaccine helps the body develop ... disease or may modify the severity of disease. Smallpox Vaccine Safety The smallpox vaccine is the best ...

  3. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  4. 77 FR 36564 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: HPV Vaccination as a Model Cancer Prevention Method: State of the... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... a meeting of the President's Cancer Panel. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  5. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics: news.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-10-01

    Infant rotavirus vaccination provides for herd immunity Nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine protects humans against malaria Personalized brain cancer vaccine enters phase 2 trial Novel implantable therapeutic cancer vaccine to be tested in humans Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate successful in phase 1 CDC reports strong uptake of HPV vaccine in boys Whooping cough outbreak in Texas.

  7. HPV Vaccinations in Lublin Region, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Grządziel, Anna

    2017-02-14

    Secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer consisting in cytology screening tests, despite its effectiveness, does not achieve the desired results. For several years, primary prophylaxis has been available in the form of protective vaccinations. At present, two vaccine preparations are available on the market, and studies conducted on these preparations confirm their almost 100% effectiveness in the prevention of types of HPV present in the vaccine. Analysis of the programmes of protective vaccinations against HPV carried out during the period 2008-2013 in the Lublin Region. The material used in the study was data obtained from the relevant organs of the territorial self-government concerning programmes of vaccinations against HPV, demographic data pertaining to girls aged 10-18 living in the Lublin Region, as well as data published by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (NIZP-PZH). The method applied in the study was analysis of records. During the period 2008-2013, in the Lublin Region a total of 5,496 girls were vaccinated within the health programmes. The mean immunization coverage in Lublin is 50%, and in Radzyń Podlaski 59%. The percentage contribution of vaccinations guaranteed free by the local authorities, with relation to the total number of vaccinations performed in the Lublin Region, was from 60 to 77%. The units of territorial self-government allocated the amount of PLN 5,125,359 for the performance of projects associated with execution of free vaccinations. Among the total number of girls vaccinated against HPV, a considerable percentage were those vaccinated within the prophylactic programmes carried out by the units of territorial self-government. The programmes of free protective vaccinations against HPV began in 4 cities in the Lublin Region, and are continued only in two (Lublin and Radzyń Podlaski). Long-term observation of girls subjected to vaccinations from the aspect of maintenance of the immune response

  8. Priorities for CMV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Krause, Philip R; Bialek, Stephanie R; Boppana, Suresh B; Griffiths, Paul D; Laughlin, Catherine A; Ljungman, Per; Mocarski, Edward S; Pass, Robert F; Read, Jennifer S; Schleiss, Mark R; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2013-12-17

    A multidisciplinary meeting addressed priorities related to development of vaccines against cytomegalovirus (CMV), the cause of congenital CMV (cCMV) disease and of serious disease in the immunocompromised. Participants discussed optimal uses of a CMV vaccine, aspects of clinical study design, and the value of additional research. A universal childhood CMV vaccine could potentially rapidly reduce cCMV disease, as infected children are sources of viral transmission to seronegative and seropositive mothers. A vaccine administered to adolescents or adult women could also reduce cCMV disease by making them immune prior to pregnancy. Clinical trials of CMV vaccines in women should evaluate protection against cCMV infection, an essential precursor of cCMV disease, which is a more practical and acceptable endpoint for assessing vaccine effects on maternal-fetal transmission. Clinical trials of vaccines to evaluate prevention of CMV disease in stem cell transplant recipients could use CMV viremia at a level triggering pre-emptive antiviral therapy as an endpoint, because widespread use of pre-emptive and prophylactic antivirals has rendered CMV-induced disease too rare to be a practical endpoint for clinical trials. In solid organ transplant patients, CMV-associated disease is sufficiently common for use as a primary endpoint. Additional research to advance CMV vaccine development should include identifying factors that predict fetal loss due to CMV, determining age-specific incidence and transmission rates, defining the mechanism and relative contributions of maternal reactivation and re-infection to cCMV disease, developing assays that can distinguish between reactivation and re-infection in seropositive vaccinees, further defining predictors of sequelae from cCMV infection, and identifying clinically relevant immune response parameters to CMV (including developing validated assays that could assess CMV antibody avidity) that could lead to the establishment of immune

  9. 75 FR 21628 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... for up-to-date information on this meeting. A notice in the Federal Register about last minute... the meeting. If ONC is unable to post the background material on its Web site prior to the meeting, it...

  10. Schistosome Materials for Vaccine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    mansoni : Conditions contributing to maximal erearial har-vests. ,Journal of Parasitology) The second area of research interest was in development of...Campbell1, D. L., Frappaolo, P. J. E., Stirewalt, M. A. and Dresden, M. 11. 1976. Schistosoia mansoni : partial characterization of enzyme(s) sceretedl...No. 2; Stirewvalt, M. and Lewvis, F. A. 1981. Schistosoma mansoni : effect of rotifers on cercar- ial output, motility and infectivity. International

  11. Schistosome Materials for Vaccine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Studies on the mechanism of acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni . Proceedings of the International Conference on Schistosomiasis , Cairo, Egypt...Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. International Conference on Schistosomiasis , Cairo, Egypt. Octo- ber 18-25, 1975. 15. Murrell, K. D., Vannier, W. E...strain) have been grown and infected each week in sufficient numbers to supply 4 million or more cercariae of Puerto Rican Schistosoma mansoni (Nmri

  12. Schistosome Materials for Vaccine Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-24

    Temperature and food being controlled at optimal levels, the presence of rotifers in the snail colonies was the most important factor in parasite...maintenance. Rotifer infestation of schistosome-infected snails was highly inimical to parasite development. With rotifer control, large numbers of

  13. Ensuring the willingness to vaccinate and be vaccinated.

    PubMed

    Baeyens, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-01

    Vaccination is one of the success stories in modern day medicine and has contributed to a reduced burden of childhood diseases and increased longevity. However, adult vaccination has not achieved the same level of success and it is now thought that more adults die from vaccine-preventable diseases each year than children. Many of the reasons given by adults for not getting vaccinated are based upon ignorance of the true facts, lack of support/notification from the healthcare system or unfounded fears. The key to addressing these issues is improving communication and this needs to involve healthcare professionals and public health/social workers. To effect change we must provide motivating educational material, which ensures that the benefits of vaccination are clearly emphasized and that issues related to inconvenience and adverse events are discussed and put into perspective. Transparency is important and so the information must be complete and accurate. In addition, we need to make the immunization process easy and convenient for the patient (particularly for house-bound individuals and those who live some distance from a general practitioner) and it needs to be proactive (e-mails, reminders and recalls). Only through a massive commitment to making it work, with the lead taken by key healthcare managers/personnel, will we improve vaccine coverage and integrate vaccination of older adults into a life-long healthy aging strategy.

  14. Leading Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Heynderickx, James

    Chapter 13 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers suggestions to help educators improve their performance in meetings, both as group leaders and as participants. Well-run meetings can rejuvenate an organization, leading to improved teamwork, communication, and morale. A poor meeting, on the other hand, can have a…

  15. Managing Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Meetings are a means of giving people a chance to contribute. Meetings are also the nursery where the people's skills of listening, speaking, and building good working relationships are honed. They are where people practice being courteously challenging and confident, and they are where people are fascinated and fascinating. Meetings are where…

  16. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination. In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:26215666

  17. The ring vaccination trial: a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design to evaluate vaccine efficacy and effectiveness during outbreaks, with special reference to Ebola.

    PubMed

    2015-07-27

    A World Health Organization expert meeting on Ebola vaccines proposed urgent safety and efficacy studies in response to the outbreak in West Africa. One approach to communicable disease control is ring vaccination of individuals at high risk of infection due to their social or geographical connection to a known case. This paper describes the protocol for a novel cluster randomised controlled trial design which uses ring vaccination.In the Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial, rings are randomised 1:1 to (a) immediate vaccination of eligible adults with single dose vaccination or (b) vaccination delayed by 21 days. Vaccine efficacy against disease is assessed in participants over equivalent periods from the day of randomisation. Secondary objectives include vaccine effectiveness at the level of the ring, and incidence of serious adverse events. Ring vaccination trials are adaptive, can be run until disease elimination, allow interim analysis, and can go dormant during inter-epidemic periods.

  18. HPV Vaccine Slashes Rates of Oral Infection.

    PubMed

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) reduces the prevalence of oral infection by an estimated 88% among young adults in the United States, a protection that could help reduce rates of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, according to data that will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL. However, the population-level benefit will remain low unless more people get vaccinated. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Analytics for vaccine economics and pricing: insights and observations.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results: in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection

  20. US/Japan collaborative program on fusion reactor materials: Summary of the tenth DOE/JAERI Annex I technical progress meeting on neutron irradiation effects in first wall and blanket structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1989-03-17

    This meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on March 17, 1989, to review the technical progress on the collaborative DOE/JAERI program on fusion reactor materials. The purpose of the program is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical behavior and dimensional stability of US and Japanese austenitic stainless steels. Phase I of the program focused on the effects of high concentrations of helium on the tensile, fatigue, and swelling properties of both US and Japanese alloys. In Phase II of the program, spectral and isotropic tailoring techniques are fully utilized to reproduce the helium:dpa ratio typical of the fusion environment. The Phase II program hinges on a restart of the High Flux Isotope Reactor by mid-1989. Eight target position capsules and two RB* position capsules have been assembled. The target capsule experiments will address issues relating to the performance of austenitic steels at high damage levels including an assessment of the performance of a variety of weld materials. The RB* capsules will provide a unique and important set of data on the behavior of austenitic steels irradiated under conditions which reproduce the damage rate, dose, temperature, and helium generation rate expected in the first wall and blanket structure of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  1. Cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H

    2015-04-22

    Cancer vaccines are designed to promote tumor specific immune responses, particularly cytotoxic CD8 positive T cells that are specific to tumor antigens. The earliest vaccines, which were developed in 1994-95, tested non-mutated, shared tumor associated antigens that had been shown to be immunogenic and capable of inducing clinical responses in a minority of people with late stage cancer. Technological developments in the past few years have enabled the investigation of vaccines that target mutated antigens that are patient specific. Several platforms for cancer vaccination are being tested, including peptides, proteins, antigen presenting cells, tumor cells, and viral vectors. Standard of care treatments, such as surgery and ablation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can also induce antitumor immunity, thereby having cancer vaccine effects. The monitoring of patients' immune responses at baseline and after standard of care treatment is shedding light on immune biomarkers. Combination therapies are being tested in clinical trials and are likely to be the best approach to improving patient outcomes.

  2. Nanoparticle vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Seth, Arjun; Wibowo, Nani; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Mitter, Neena; Yu, Chengzhong; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2014-01-09

    Nanotechnology increasingly plays a significant role in vaccine development. As vaccine development orientates toward less immunogenic "minimalist" compositions, formulations that boost antigen effectiveness are increasingly needed. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery and slow release. A number of nanoparticle vaccines varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use and the number of candidates is increasing. However, challenges remain due to a lack of fundamental understanding regarding the in vivo behavior of nanoparticles, which can operate as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. This review provides a broad overview of recent advances in prophylactic nanovaccinology. Types of nanoparticles used are outlined and their interaction with immune cells and the biosystem are discussed. Increased knowledge and fundamental understanding of nanoparticle mechanism of action in both immunostimulatory and delivery modes, and better understanding of in vivo biodistribution and fate, are urgently required, and will accelerate the rational design of nanoparticle-containing vaccines. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Specific aspects of vaccine manufacturing].

    PubMed

    Speck, D

    2009-05-01

    The industrial development of vaccine manufacturing expanded during the second half of the 20th century. Vaccines are medicines which target healthy people. The active principles of vaccines arise from live organisms and can be distinguished from standard pharmaceutical compounds by their extreme complexity. The properties of vaccines depend mainly of the manufacturing process and it common to state that "the process makes the product". The manufacturing is done in confined rooms because of the pathogenic characters of the organisms involved. Raw materials are subjected to rigorous controls to guarantee the integrity of products towards non-conventional agents like prion. The vaccine industry is characterized by the length of the manufacturing cycle. The complexity of the products implies heavy quality controls, which represent 75% of the total duration of the manufacture cycle. As a key element of public health, the vaccine production can be subjected to variations and adaptations, in particular in the context of outbreaks or bioterrorism. The vaccine industry must integrate the regulatory requirements, which are more and more pressing. The spectacular development of the quality assurance and quality control departments these last 15 years testifies to this evolution.

  4. [Testing of vaccines. The challenge of testing complex combination vaccines].

    PubMed

    Merkle, A; Lechner, H; Oppling, V; Meyer, H

    2014-10-01

    Vaccines are biologicals. This group of medicinal products is produced with a predefined variability based on the biological starting materials used. Vaccines are subject to official control authority batch release performed by the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI). To release batches to the market, experimental testing has to be conducted by an official medicines control laboratory as the PEI. It is the aim of this independent testing to demonstrate the conformity of quality criteria with conditions set in the marketing authorization for each lot produced. The testing is performed on the basis of vaccine specific batch release guideline and due to the difficult and time consuming testing procedures often run in parallel with manufacturers testing. If test results comply with the predefined criteria, the lot in question is released. This article describes the challenge of official control authority batch release testing of two complex combination vaccines.

  5. Consensus on the Development of Vaccines against Naturally Acquired Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Simon G.P.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Morici, Lisa A.; Brett, Paul J.; Dunachie, Susanna; Atkins, Timothy; Altmann, Daniel M.; Bancroft, Gregory; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Several candidates for a vaccine against Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causal bacterium of melioidosis, have been developed, and a rational approach is now needed to select and advance candidates for testing in relevant nonhuman primate models and in human clinical trials. Development of such a vaccine was the topic of a meeting in the United Kingdom in March 2014 attended by international candidate vaccine developers, researchers, and government health officials. The focus of the meeting was advancement of vaccines for prevention of natural infection, rather than for protection from the organism’s known potential for use as a biological weapon. A direct comparison of candidate vaccines in well-characterized mouse models was proposed. Knowledge gaps requiring further research were identified. Recommendations were made to accelerate the development of an effective vaccine against melioidosis. PMID:25992835

  6. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  7. H5N1 vaccines in humans

    PubMed Central

    Baz, Mariana; Luke, Catherine J; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Subbarao, Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses since 1997 and their virulence for poultry and humans has raised concerns about their potential to cause an influenza pandemic. Vaccines offer the most viable means to combat a pandemic threat. However, it will be a challenge to produce, distribute and implement a new vaccine if a pandemic spreads rapidly. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken to develop pandemic vaccines that use less antigen and induce cross-protective and long-lasting responses, that can be administered as soon as a pandemic is declared or possibly even before, in order to prime the population and allow for a rapid and protective antibody response. In the last few years, several vaccine manufacturers have developed candidate pandemic and pre-pandemic vaccines, based on reverse genetics and have improved the immunogenicity by formulating these vaccines with different adjuvants. Some of the important and consistent observations from clinical studies with H5N1 vaccines are as follows: two doses of inactivated vaccine are generally necessary to elicit the level of immunity required to meet licensure criteria, less antigen can be used if an oil-in-water adjuvant is included, in general antibody titers decline rapidly but can be boosted with additional doses of vaccine and if high titers of antibody are elicited, cross-reactivity against other clades is observed. Prime-boost strategies elicit a more robust immune response. In this review, we discuss data from clinical trials with a variety of H5N1 influenza vaccines. We also describe studies conducted in animal models to explore the possibility of reassortment between pandemic live attenuated vaccine candidates and seasonal influenza viruses, since this is an important consideration for the use of live vaccines in a pandemic setting. PMID:23726847

  8. Mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  9. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.

    PubMed

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-10-12

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation.

  10. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine experience

    PubMed Central

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation. PMID:21893547

  11. The Effects of Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories on Vaccination Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  12. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  13. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology PMID:24051387

  14. Outpatient-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Campaign and Survey of Perceptions about Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients and Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joon Young; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccine, vaccination rates are quite low in South Korea. This study was designed to assess perceptions and awareness about pneumococcal vaccines among subjects at risk and find strategies to increases vaccine coverage rates. Materials and Methods A cross sectional, community-based survey was conducted to assess perceptions about the pneumococcal vaccine at a local public health center. In a tertiary hospital, an outpatient-based pneumococcal vaccine campaign was carried out for the elderly and individuals with chronic co-morbidities from May to July of 2007. Results Based on the survey, only 7.6% were ever informed about pneumococcal vaccination. The coverage rates of the pneumococcal vaccine before and after the hospital campaign showed an increased annual rate from 3.39% to 5.91%. The most common reason for vaccination was "doctor's advice" (53.3%). As for the reasons for not receiving vaccination, about 75% of high risk patients were not aware of the pneumococcal vaccine, which was the most important barrier to vaccination. Negative clinician's attitude was the second most common cause of non-vaccination. Conclusion Annual outpatient-based campaigns early in the influenza season may improve pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates. Doctor's advice was the most important encouraging factor for vaccination. PMID:23364983

  15. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    REPORT DATE 11 MAR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immune interference after sequential alphavirus ...of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and...vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  16. [Aerosol vaccination against dangerous infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, A V; Marinin, L I; Vorob'ev, A A

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of development of the aerosol method, one of the mass ways of human vaccination. Analysis of materials suggests that Russia has designed highly effective live plague, tularemia, and anthrax vaccines that can be used to immunize in different ways: by epicutaneous and subcutaneous, and inhalation routes. The advantages and disadvantages of aerosol vaccination are shown. The correct use of this method provides a substantial effect when the epidemic situation is complicated and when there is a need for vaccination of large cohorts at the earliest possible time.

  17. Update on recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hales, Craig M; Harpaz, Rafael; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2014-08-22

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax [Merck & Co., Inc.]) was licensed in 2006 and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in 2008 for prevention of herpes zoster (shingles) and its complications among adults aged ≥60 years. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in 2011 for adults aged 50 through 59 years based on a large study of safety and efficacy in this age group. ACIP initially considered the use of herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged 50 through 59 years in June 2011, but declined to recommend the vaccine in this age group, citing shortages of Zostavax and limited data on long-term protection afforded by herpes zoster vaccine. In October 2013, ACIP reviewed the epidemiology of herpes zoster and its complications, herpes zoster vaccine supply, short-term vaccine efficacy in adults aged 50 through 59 years, short- and long- term vaccine efficacy and effectiveness in adults aged ≥60 years, an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, and deliberations of the ACIP herpes zoster work group, all of which are summarized in this report. No vote was taken, and ACIP maintained its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged ≥60 years. Meeting minutes are available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/meetings-info.html.

  18. Vaccines for Children: Reexamination of Program Goals and Implementation Needed to Ensure Vaccination. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    This report presents: (1) a review of the evidence that vaccine cost has prevented children from being immunized on time; (2) an evaluation of the implementation of the Vaccines For Children (VFC) program, including whether this program, as implemented, is likely to meet the needs of the under-immunized children; and (3) some options for improving…

  19. Nanotoxoid Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    To improve innate defense against diseases, vaccine formulations are routinely administered to mount immune responses against disease-causing organisms or their associated toxins. These formulations are typically prepared with weakened forms of microbes, their surface proteins, or their virulence factors, which can train the immune system to recognize and neutralize similar infectious threats in later exposures. Owing to many unique properties of nanoparticles in enhancing vaccine potency, nanoscale carriers are drawing increasing interest as a platform for developing safer and more effective vaccine formulations. Notably, a nanoparticle-based strategy was recently demonstrated to safely deliver intact, non-denatured protein toxins to mount a potent anti-toxin immune response. A biomimetic nanoparticle cloaked in biological membranes was used to sequester membrane-active toxins. Upon interaction with the nanoparticles, the toxins become retrained and lose their toxicity as they are precluded from interacting with cellular targets. The resulting particle/toxin complex adopts a nanoparticulate morphology that facilitates the toxins’ intracellular delivery. This sequestration approach has immense immunological implications owing to its ability in enabling structurally preserved toxins for immune processing. This technique offers opportunities in novel toxoid vaccine designs that promise more effective anti-toxin immune responses and contrasts the existing paradigm in toxoid preparation, in which toxins are antigenically altered to ensure virulence removal. The potent nanotoxoid formulations provide a viable anti-virulence measure in combating microbial infections that involve membrane-damaging toxins, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Group A streptococcal infections. PMID:25285152

  20. Replicating vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...

  1. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  2. AIDS Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Bolognesi, Dani P.

    1988-01-01

    Reveals that success of discovering vaccines is far from being assured although several candidates are being tested. States that the devious nature of the virus, the lack of a good animal model for the disease, and the difficulties of clinical trials inhibit the efforts of researchers. (RT)

  3. Vexing Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  4. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor.

  5. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  6. A Blueprint for Improving the Promotion and Delivery of Adult Vaccination in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine M; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Mattke, Soeren; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable disease continues to take a heavy toll on adults despite the widespread availability of effective vaccines. This article identifies where efforts to improve the delivery of adult vaccination have stalled and recommends targeted strategies that are supported by available evidence and build on existing infrastructure. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the published literature on adult immunization, a stakeholder workshop, and follow-up interviews with meeting participants and additional experts. They also partnered with an organization represented at the workshop to conduct a telephone survey of adults to learn about the relationship between influenza vaccination and beliefs about the safety of influenza vaccine. Findings include that office-based providers remain the primary source of vaccination, though a substantial proportion of physicians who treat adults appear not to vaccinate at all and adult vaccination is infrequently discussed at health care encounters. Adult practices also lack a strong business case to offer vaccination, as it entails substantial fixed costs. In addition, achieving substantial increases in adult vaccination will require persuading large numbers of individuals disinclined to be vaccinated. Vaccination stakeholders need to engage in a collaborative fashion to promote adult vaccination and the integration of advice about vaccination into routine office-based practice. Recommendations include strengthening evidence surrounding practice gaps and the economic value of promoting vaccination in office-based settings, improving guidance to providers about vaccinating adults, and formalizing procedures for referring patients to complementary vaccinators.

  7. Influenza Vaccines: From Surveillance Through Production to Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza is an important contributor to population and individual morbidity and mortality. The current influenza pandemic with novel H1N1 has highlighted the need for health care professionals to better understand the processes involved in creating influenza vaccines, both for pandemic as well as for seasonal influenza. This review presents an overview of influenza-related topics to help meet this need and includes a discussion of the burden of disease, virology, epidemiology, viral surveillance, and vaccine strain selection. We then present an overview of influenza vaccine—related topics, including vaccine production, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, influenza vaccine misperceptions, and populations that are recommended to receive vaccination. English-language articles in PubMed published between January 1, 1970, and October 7, 2009, were searched using key words human influenza, influenza vaccines, influenza A, and influenza B. PMID:20118381

  8. Trials with a live attenuated rubella virus vaccine, Cendehill strain

    PubMed Central

    Grant, L.; Belle, E. A.; Provan, G.; King, S. D.; Sigel, M. M.

    1970-01-01

    This report summarizes closed, family, and open studies conducted sequentially over a 10 month period with the Cendehill rubella virus vaccine in more than 16,000 children and adolescents. This strain of rubella was attenuated by serial propagation on primary rabbit kidney cell cultures. Inoculation of the Cendehill vaccine produced seroconversion in 97% of the 3589 susceptible (seronegative) vaccinated persons. There was no spread of the virus to susceptible controls living in close contact with those vaccinated. The vaccine was well tolerated. No arthritis or arthralgia occurred in 860 female subjects 13-18 years of age who were included in the study. The Cendehill vaccine would appear to meet the requirements of an acceptable vaccine. PMID:5272349

  9. The future of cell culture-based influenza vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Michael L; Arnold, Frank; Li, Sheng; Donabedian, Armen; Cioce, Vittoria; Warf, Thomas; Huebner, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Influenza vaccines have been prepared in embryonated chicken eggs and used for more than 60 years. Although this older technology is adequate to produce hundreds of millions of doses per year, most viral vaccines are now being produced in cell culture platforms. The question of whether egg-based influenza vaccines will continue to serve the needs of the growing influenza vaccine market is considered here. In 2006, the US government committed to support the development of cell-based influenza vaccines by funding advanced development and expansion of domestic manufacturing infrastructure. Funding has also been provided for other recombinant DNA approaches that do not depend on growth of influenza viruses. As the influenza vaccine industry expands over the next 5-10 years, it will be interesting to follow which of these various technologies are able to best meet the needs of a growing influenza vaccine market.

  10. Functional nanomaterials can optimize the efficacy of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Xu, Yingying; Tian, Yue; Chen, Chunying; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-11-01

    Nanoscale materials can improve the efficacy of vaccines. Herein we review latest developments that use nanomaterials for vaccines. By highlighting the relationships between the nanoscale physicochemical characteristics and working mechanisms of nanomaterials, this paper shows the current status of the developments where researchers employ functional nanomaterials as vector and/or immunoregulators for vaccines. It also provides us some clues for improving the design and application of nanomaterials to optimize the efficacy of vaccines.

  11. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  12. Prioritizing vaccines for developing world diseases.

    PubMed

    Saul, Allan; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2017-01-20

    A major disparity in the burden of health will need to be addressed to achieve the "Grand Convergence" by 2035. In particular people living in low and middle income countries have a much higher burden of infectious diseases. Although vaccines have been very effective in reducing the global burden of infectious disease, there are no registered vaccines to address 60% of the current burden of infectious disease, especially in developing countries. Thus there is a pressing need for new vaccines and for prioritizing vaccine development given that resources for developing new vaccines are strictly limited. As part of the GLOBAL HEALTH 2035: Mission Grand Convergence meeting one working group assessed the SMART vaccine algorithm as a mechanism for prioritizing vaccine development for diseases of priority in the developing world. In particular, the working group considered which criteria in the standard SMART set were considered "key" criteria and whether other criteria should be considered, when prioritizing vaccines for this important set of countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY: Office of... workshop on July 7, 2011, to discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the... children from anthrax. The meeting will be from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ET. ADDRESSES: Washington Plaza Hotel,...

  14. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  15. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  16. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  17. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 16.202 Section 16.202 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of...

  18. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  19. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  20. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

  1. The Evolution of the Meningitis Vaccine Project

    PubMed Central

    Tiffay, Kathleen; Jodar, Luis; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Socquet, Muriel; LaForce, F. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was tasked to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa. African public health officials emphasized that a vaccine price of less than US$0.50 per dose was necessary to ensure introduction and sustained use of this new vaccine. Methods. Initially, MVP envisioned partnering with a multinational vaccine manufacturer, but the target price and opportunity costs were problematic and formal negotiations ended in 2002. MVP chose to become a “virtual vaccine company,” and over the next decade managed a network of public–private and public–public partnerships for pharmaceutical development, clinical development, and regulatory submission. MVP supported the transfer of key know-how for the production of group A polysaccharide and a new conjugation method to the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, based in Pune, India. A robust staff structure supported by technical consultants and overseen by advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine would meet all international standards. Results. A robust project structure including a team of technical consultants and 3 advisory groups in Europe and Africa ensured that the MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed by the Drug Controller General of India and prequalified by the World Health Organization in June 2010. The vaccine was introduced in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger in December 2010. Conclusions. The development, through a public–private partnership, of a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa, PsA-TT, offers a new paradigm for the development of vaccines specifically targeting populations in resource-poor countries. PMID:26553666

  2. Considerations around the introduction of a cholera vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher B; Mogasale, Vittal; Bari, Tajul Islam A; Clemens, John D

    2014-12-12

    Cholera is an endemic and epidemic disease in Bangladesh. On 3 March 2013, a meeting on cholera and cholera vaccination in Bangladesh was convened by the Foundation Mérieux jointly with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the investment case for cholera vaccination as a complimentary control and prevention strategy. The performance of a new low cost oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, used in recent trials in Bangladesh, was also reviewed in the context of a potential large-scale public-sector vaccination program. Findings showed the oral vaccine to be highly cost-effective when targeting ages 1-14 y, and cost-effective when targeting ages 1+y, in high-burden/high-risk districts. Other vaccination strategies targeting urban slums and rural areas without improved water were found to be cost-effective. Regardless of cost-effectiveness (value), the budget impact (affordability) will be an important determinant of which target population and vaccination strategy is selected. Most importantly, adequate vaccine supply for the proposed vaccination programs must be addressed in the context of global efforts to establish a cholera vaccine stockpile and supply other control and prevention efforts.

  3. Hepatitis E vaccine: WHO position paper, May 2015--Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2016-01-12

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of hepatitis E vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on hepatitis E vaccines - May 2015 recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on hepatitis E vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only hepatitis E vaccine that is currently licensed. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its October 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2015 The World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Viruses, Vaccines and the Public

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N.; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health’s SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information. PMID:27524953

  5. Viruses, Vaccines and the Public.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles

    Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information.

  6. Guidance for Assessment of Poliovirus Vaccination Status and Vaccination of Children Who Have Received Poliovirus Vaccine Outside the United States.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Patel, Manisha; Oberste, Steve; Pallansch, Mark A

    2017-01-13

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3). In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a target of a polio-free world by 2018 (4). Of the three WPV types, type 2 was declared eradicated in September 2015. To remove the risk for infection with circulating type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV), which can lead to paralysis similar to that caused by WPV, all OPV-using countries simultaneously switched in April 2016 from tOPV to bivalent OPV (bOPV), which contains only types 1 and 3 polioviruses (5). This report summarizes current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for poliovirus vaccination and provides CDC guidance, in the context of the switch from tOPV to bOPV, regarding assessment of vaccination status and vaccination of children who might have received poliovirus vaccine outside the United States, to ensure that children living in the United States (including immigrants and refugees) are protected against all three poliovirus types. This guidance is not new policy and does not change the recommendations of ACIP for poliovirus vaccination in the United States. Children living in the United States who might have received poliovirus vaccination outside the United States should meet ACIP recommendations for poliovirus vaccination, which require protection against all three poliovirus types by age-appropriate vaccination with IPV or tOPV. In the absence of vaccination records indicating receipt of these vaccines, only vaccination or

  7. Immune interference after sequential alphavirus vaccine vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Liu, Ching-Tong; Cannon, Timothy L; Mangiafico, Joseph A; Gibbs, Paul H

    2009-08-06

    We compared the effect of order of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and western equine encephalitis (EEE and WEE) vaccines before live attenuated Venezuelan (VEE) vaccine had significantly lower rates of antibody response than those receiving VEE vaccine before EEE and WEE vaccines (66.7% vs. 80.6%; p=0.026). The odds of having a VEE antibody non-response among those initially receiving EEE and WEE vaccines, adjusted for gender, were significant (odds ratio [OR]=2.20; 95% CI=1.2-4.1 [p=0.0145]) as were the odds of non-response among females adjusted for group (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.2-2.7 [p=0.0037]). Antibody interference and gender effect have major implications for vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats.

  8. The development of mucosal vaccines for both mucosal and systemic immune induction and the roles played by adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the most successful immunological practice that improves the quality of human life and health. Vaccine materials include antigens of pathogens and adjuvants potentiating the effectiveness of vaccination. Vaccines are categorized using various criteria, including the vaccination material used and the method of administration. Traditionally, vaccines have been injected via needles. However, given that most pathogens first infect mucosal surfaces, there is increasing interest in the establishment of protective mucosal immunity, achieved by vaccination via mucosal routes. This review summarizes recent developments in mucosal vaccines and their associated adjuvants. PMID:28168169

  9. Vaccine preparation by radiation processing.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Gabriela; Martin, Diana; Togoe, Iulian; Tudor, Laurentiu; Manaila, Elena; Ighigeanu, Daniel; Matei, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    A new radiation biotechnology for the acquirement of a commercial vaccine, designed for prophylaxis of ruminant infectious pododermatitis (IP), produced by gram negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.), is presented. Two different processes for preparing F.n. vaccine are used: a) the inactivation of F.n. bacteria exotoxins by microwave (MW) or/and electron beams (EB) irradiation; b) the isolation of exotoxins from F.n. cultures irradiated with MW or/and EB and the inactivation of isolated F.n. exotoxins with formalin. The EB irradiation of F.n. cultures produced simultaneously with the cells viability decrease an increasing of exotoxin quantity released in the culture supranatant as compared with classical methods. The MW irradiation is able to reduce the cells viability to zero but without an increase of exotoxin quantity in cultures supranatant. Instead of this MW irradiation, for certain conditions, is able to induce an important stimulation degree of the F.n. proliferation in cultures, from two to three log10. Two vaccine types were prepared: A1 vaccine that contains whole cell culture irradiated with MW/EB and A2 vaccine that contains cell-free culture supernatant of an MW/EB irradiated F.n. strain producing exotoxins. Also, other two vaccines are prepared: B1 and B2 that contain the same materials as A1 and A2 respectively, but without using MW/EB exposure. The vaccine efficiency is tested in ruminant farms in which IP evolves. It is expected that this new vaccine to offer a better protection, more than 60%, which is the best presently obtained result in ruminant farms.

  10. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... get is safe. Make sure your vaccinations are up to date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? ... are recommended before pregnancy? It’s best to be up to date on all your routine adult vaccinations before you ...

  11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  12. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ... or her parents, and the doctor. Why the Vaccines Are Recommended Meningococcal disease is caused by a ...

  13. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  14. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  15. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: ... who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Immunization Schedule Vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended: ...

  16. Asian consortium on computational materials science theme meeting on ;first principles analysis & experiment: Role in energy research; 22-24 september 2016, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai, India (ACCMS-TM 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Ranjit; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this meeting was to provide a platform for theoreticians and experimentalists working in the area of materials to come together and carry out cutting edge research in the field of energy by showcasing their ideas and innovations. The theme meeting was successful in attracting young researchers from both fields, sharing common research interests. Participation of more than 250 researchers in ACCMS-TM 2016 has successfully paved the way towards exchange of mutual research insights and establishment of promising research collaborations. To encourage the young participants' research efforts, three best posters, each named as ;KAWAZOE PRIZE; in theoretical category and two best posters named ;ACCMS-TM 2016 POSTER AWARD; for experimental contributions was selected. A new award named ;ACCMS MID-CAREER AWARD; for outstanding scientific contribution in the area of Computational Materials Science was constituted.

  17. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  18. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of first-ever Dengue vaccine candidate in Phase 3 Agenus‘ brain cancer vaccine doubles survival rate in GBM patients New study: Rotavirus vaccines dramatically cut hospitalization rates in US children Therapeutic vaccines – from heart disease to cancer Agenus‘ genital herpes vaccine significantly reduces viral burden in Phase 2 The latest on PaxVax‘ and Gotovax AB’s cholera vaccine candidates ACIP ponders recommendation for Prevnar use in seniors PMID:25424916

  19. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  20. Vaccine Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-19

    for health needs of developing countries, some Members seek to increase access to existing vaccines and to spur development of affordable vaccines for...presence even after a vaccine is approved. It requires extensive testing of vaccines and all CRS-3 6In the United States, FDA — mostly within its Center...by increasing the distribution of vaccines and improving and clarifying the vaccine injury compensation program....” In fall 2004, in response to the

  1. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  2. [Vaccination against mouse pox].

    PubMed

    Mahnel, H

    1985-01-01

    Attenuated MVA-strain of vaccinia virus has been efficient in the control of enzootic mousepox and in prophylactic vaccination. The virus has been used as a live vaccine for prophylactic and emergency vaccinations as well as for sanitation of populations. More than 100 000 vaccinations were carried out safely. Even after suspension of the obligatory vaccination of humans against smallpox the MVA-vaccine can be employed without risk and danger.

  3. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Measles vaccination: Targeted and non-targeted benefits CDC reports: 2-dose regimen of chickenpox vaccine is a success Positive preliminary results from the CAPiTA study Seasonal flu vaccine associate with reduced stroke risk HPV vaccine shown to halve cervical abnormalities Global prize for mobile mast vaccine storage project Developmental pathway of potent HIV-neutralizing antibodies Burkholderia vaccine: US Dep of Defense collaborates with Bavarian Nordic

  4. Second meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centres on AIDS: Memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    The 2nd meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centers on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was held in Geneva on December 16-18, 1985. Participants reviewed the progress made since the 1st meeting in September 1985 and delineated a program for the further development of collaborative activities between WHO, its network of Collaborating Centers, and Member States. Specific recommendations were made in the following areas: information, education, and prevention; reference reagents and testing for antibodies against lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human T-lymphotropic virus type III (LAV/HTLV-III); epidemiologic assessment; and research on vaccines and antiviral agents. It is noted that technical cooperation and epidemiologic assessment should be individualized, based on differences in the prevalence of LAV/HTLV-III infection in a country and the different epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory capacities of countries. Consultation between WHO and Member States should lead to the establishment of surveillance and laboratory capabilities for assessing the prevalence of AIDS and LAV/HTLV-III infection on a continuing basis, identifying the risk factors for transmission, and assessing prevention activities. Each WHO region should have at least 1 collaborating center with the following tasks: assist in planning and conducting initial studies, provide technical expertise for the development of national laboratory diagnosis systems, assist in laboratory training, perform confirmatory serologic tests, conduct quality control testing, provide proficiency testing, provide reference materials and reagents, and assist in disseminating technical information. Research on the development of a simplified, reliable method for LAV/HTLV-III isolation and quantitation should be encouraged. Finally, appropriate testing systems in animals are urgently needed both for vaccine development and therapeutic intervention.

  5. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  6. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies.

  7. European Society for Clinical Virology - winter meeting.

    PubMed

    Westh, Henrik

    2004-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical Virology annual winter meeting mainly appeals to clinical virologists interested in human disease. Basic and clinical data were presented, highlighting a number of interesting findings. This report briefly describes options in HIV antiviral treatment, and focuses on fusion inhibitors, a new anti-HIV class of drugs. Recent improvements in experimental DNA vaccines are also presented.

  8. [Comparative clinical trial of vaccines against avian influenza].

    PubMed

    Zverev, V V; Katlinskiĭ, A V; Kostinov, M P; Zhirova, S N; Erofeeva, M K; Stukova, M A; Korovkin, S A; Mel'nikov, S Ia; Semchenko, A V; Mironov, A N

    2007-01-01

    Scientic-production association "Microgen" has finished 1st phase of clinical trials of candidate vaccines against avian influenza in order to assess their reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity. Two vaccines constructed from NIBRG-14 vaccine strain [A/Vietnam/1 194/2004 (H5N1)], obtained from World Health Organization, were studied: "OrniFlu" (inactivated subunit influenza vaccine adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide) and inactivated polymer-subunit influenza vaccine with polyoxydonium (IPSIV). Clinical trial of the vaccines with different quantity of antigen (15, 30, and 45 mcg of H5N1 virus hemagglutinin) was carried out in Influenza Research Institute (St. Petersburg) and in Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera (Moscow). Analysis of results allowed to conclude that both vaccines were safe, well tolerated and characterized by low reactogenicity. Two-doses vaccination schedule was needed to meet required seroconversion and seroprotection rates (> or =1:40 in > or =70% of vaccinated volunteers). "Orni-Flu" vaccine containing 15 mcg of hemagglutinin and optimal quantity of aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg) in one dose as well as IPSIV containing 45 mcg of hemagglutinin and 0.75 mg of polyoxydonium in one dose were most immunogenic after 2 doses - seroprotection rates in microneutralization assay were 72.2% and 77.0% respectively. Marked influence of aluminium hydroxide content on immunogenicity of the "OrniFlu" vaccine was confirmed in the study. Optimal quantity of adjuvant was 0.5 mg per dose. According to basic concept of vaccine development, preference is given to vaccine that under minimal quantity of antigen induces sufficient specific immune response and is safe in volunteers. "OrniFlu" vaccine containing 15 mcg of H5N1 virus hemagglutinin and optimal quantity of aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg) corresponded to these requirements that allowed researchers to recommend it for clinical trials of 2nd phase.

  9. Genetically engineered vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Wayne R; Hales, Belinda J; Smith, Wendy-Anne

    2005-05-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology to allergen research has provided the sequence information and genetic material to produce new types of allergy vaccines. One general strategy has been to use the knowledge to produce synthetic peptides that represent selected T-cell or B-cell epitopes. The production of genetically engineered allergens provides an alternative strategy to construct hypoallergenic vaccines, which can provide a better and less selected representation of the epitopes. Many strategies have been used to produce such hypoallergens, and their ability to reduce allergenicity has been amply demonstrated by skin and nasal provocation tests. The retention of T cell-stimulating activity has also been demonstrated, and a consistent feature of the vaccines has been, despite the reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding reactivity, the ability to induce anti-allergen IgG antibody. The lead hypoallergens have been polypeptide fragments and trimeric constructs of the birch allergen Bet v 1. A clinical trial with these medicaments has shown the ability to modify IgE and IgG antibody production, skin test reactivity, and symptom scores. This is the first trial of a recombinant allergy vaccine, and it has set a benchmark for further studies. A new generation of hypoallergens is now being produced based on the detailed knowledge of the tertiary structures of the allergens and of the T-cell and B-cell epitopes. The modifications have been made to change the topography of the allergens while retaining a stable, folding structure. In the case of Bet v 1, tertiary structures of hypoallergens have been determined. Structurally modeled hypoallergens have been produced for pollen, venom, food, and latex allergens, with promising characteristics from preclinical studies.

  10. Vaccination Coverage Among Adults With Diagnosed Diabetes: United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Maria A; Vahratian, Anjel

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey •Among adults aged 18 and over with diagnosed diabetes, 61.6% had an influenza vaccine in the past year. •A total of 52.6% of adults with diagnosed diabetes had a pneumococcal vaccine and 17.1% had the 3-dose vaccination schedule for hepatitis B at some point in the past. •Among adults aged 60 and over with diagnosed diabetes, 27.2% had ever had a shingles vaccine. •Among those with diagnosed diabetes, the vaccination coverage for influenza, pneumococcal, and shingles was lowest among poor adults, increased with age, and varied by race and ethnicity. •Hepatitis B vaccination coverage was lowest among poor adults, and it decreased with age. Persons with diabetes are at an increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable infections (1-3). Several vaccines are recommended for adults with diabetes, including annual vaccination for influenza and at least a one-time dose of pneumococcal vaccine, regardless of age; a shingles vaccine starting at age 60; and a hepatitis B vaccine soon after diabetes diagnosis among those aged 19-59, and based on clinical discretion thereafter (4). This report describes the receipt of select vaccinations among adults with diagnosed diabetes by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and poverty status. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. WHO position on the use of fractional doses - June 2017, addendum to vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever WHO: Position paper - June 2013.

    PubMed

    World Health Organization

    2017-10-13

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of fractional doses of yellow fever vaccines excerpted from the "Yellow fever vaccine: WHO position on the use of fractional doses - June 2017, Addendum to Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever WHO: Position Paper - June 2013″, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1,2]. This addendum to the 2013 position paper pertains specifically to use of fractional dose YF (fYF) vaccination (fractional dose yellow fever vaccination refers to administration of a reduced volume of vaccine dose, which has been reconstituted as usual per manufacturer recommendations) in the context of YF vaccine supply shortages beyond the capacity of the global stockpile. The current WHO position on the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is set out in the 2013 WHO position paper on vaccines and vaccination against YF and those recommendations are unchanged. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. Recommendations on the use of Yellow Fever vaccines were discussed by SAGE in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2016/October/presentations_background_docs/en/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Parents’ perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents’ preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents’ preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been “very strongly” recommended by their adolescent’s provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, <0.05 for all comparisons).  Receiving a very strong recommendation for HPV vaccines was associated with a higher likelihood of vaccine receipt (71% versus 39%, p<0.001), or among those not yet vaccinated, increased likelihood of positive vaccination intentions (82% vs. 60%, p = 0.015).  Nearly all parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent’s next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers’ current practice. PMID:27078515

  13. Parents' perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-06-02

    Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents' preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents' preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been "very strongly" recommended by their adolescent's provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, <0.05 for all comparisons).  Receiving a very strong recommendation for HPV vaccines was associated with a higher likelihood of vaccine receipt (71% versus 39%, p<0.001), or among those not yet vaccinated, increased likelihood of positive vaccination intentions (82% vs. 60%, p = 0.015).  Nearly all parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent's next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers' current practice.

  14. Vaccines and vaccinations. The strategic issues.

    PubMed

    Ford, R B

    2001-05-01

    The rapid proliferation of companion animal vaccines, advances in diagnostic and vaccine technology, and concerns over vaccine safety are clearly among the most important issues practicing veterinarians face as we enter the 21st century. Although many would argue that these are already issues, the future promises to be especially challenging as the vaccines we currently use and the protocols we recommend undergo unprecedented review.

  15. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  16. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices.

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Emiko; Bocchini, Joseph A; Hariri, Susan; Chesson, Harrell; Curtis, C Robinette; Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-27

    During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years. ACIP also recommends vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years and males aged 13 through 21 years not vaccinated previously. Vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for men who have sex with men and for immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) if not vaccinated previously. 9vHPV is a noninfectious, virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs. 9vHPV was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 2014, for use in females aged 9 through 26 years and males aged 9 through 15 years. For these recommendations, ACIP reviewed additional data on 9vHPV in males aged 16 through 26 years. 9vHPV and 4vHPV are licensed for use in females and males. Bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV), which contains HPV 16, 18 VLPs, is licensed for use in females. This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use.

  17. Considerations for setting the specifications of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Minor, Philip

    2012-05-01

    The specifications of vaccines are determined by the particular product and its method of manufacture, which raise issues unique to the vaccine in question. However, the general principles are shared, including the need to have sufficient active material to immunize a very high proportion of recipients, an acceptable level of safety, which may require specific testing or may come from the production process, and an acceptable low level of contamination with unwanted materials, which may include infectious agents or materials used in production. These principles apply to the earliest smallpox vaccines and the most recent recombinant vaccines, such as those against HPV. Manufacturing development includes more precise definitions of the product through improved tests and tighter control of the process parameters. Good manufacturing practice plays a major role, which is likely to increase in importance in assuring product quality almost independent of end-product specifications.

  18. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  19. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Marriott, Ian; Marchant, Arnaud; Selin, Liisa; Fish, Eleanor N; Prentice, Andrew M; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2011-03-16

    Vaccines have non-specific effects (NSE) on subsequent morbidity and mortality from non-vaccine related infectious diseases. Thus NSE refers to any effect that cannot be accounted for by the induction of immunity against the vaccine-targeted disease. These effects are sex-differential, generally being more pronounced in females than males. Furthermore, the NSE are substantial causing greater than fifty percent changes in all cause mortality in certain settings, yet have never been systematically tested despite the fact that millions of children receive vaccines each year. As we strive to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex-differential effects of vaccination, and explore plausible biological explanations. Herein we describe the contents of the meeting and the establishment of the 'Optimmunize' network aimed at raising awareness of this important issue among the wider scientific community.

  20. 76 FR 63904 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... the current meeting location, proposed agenda, and meeting briefing materials. SUPPLEMENTARY... to Order 1. Opening Remarks and Introductions 2. Roll Call 3. Executive Director's Report 4....

  1. Maintaining Vaccine Delivery Following the Introduction of the Rotavirus and Pneumococcal Vaccines in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L–1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L–124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm3/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L–187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L–13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm3/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on

  2. Distance Learning for Teacher Education. Report of a Technical Working Group Meeting (Islamabad, Pakistan, 4-16 November 1981). Volume III: Exemplar Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The third in a series on distance learning, this volume presents 11 exemplar instructional packages which are the output of a process of evaluation and selection in accordance with guidelines developed by the Technical Working Group at the Pakistan Meeting. It reflects an awareness of issues in the development, use, and renewal of distance…

  3. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  4. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  5. Harnessing Nanoparticles for Immunomodulation and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ariane C.; Mohsen, Mona; Bachmann, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    The first successful use of nanoparticles (NPs) for vaccination was reported almost 40 years ago with a virus-like particle-based vaccine against Hepatitis B. Since then, the term NP has been expanded to accommodate a large number of novel nano-sized particles engineered from a range of materials. The great interest in NPs is likely not only a result of the two successful vaccines against hepatitis B and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that use this technology, but also due to the versatility of those small-sized particles, as indicated by the wide range of applications reported so far, ranging from medicinal and cosmetics to purely technical applications. In this review, we will focus on the use of NPs, especially virus-like particles (VLPs), in the field of vaccines and will discuss their employment as vaccines, antigen display platforms, adjuvants and drug delivery systems. PMID:28216554

  6. A phase II study of an investigational tetravalent influenza vaccine formulation combining MF59®: adjuvanted, pre-pandemic, A/H5N1 vaccine and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Perona, Pamela; Borkowski, Astrid; Fragapane, Elena; Nicolay, Uwe; Clemens, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    An investigational tetravalent vaccine combining pre-pandemic, MF59®-adjuvanted A/H5N1 vaccine with non-adjuvanted, trivalent, seasonal influenza vaccine has been developed, which has the potential to be used for pre-pandemic priming and to improve levels of compliance and coverage. It is important to determine whether the safety and immunogenicity of the combination vaccine is equivalent to that of the two separate vaccines when administered concomitantly. Healthy adults (n=601) were randomly assigned to three vaccination groups to receive either: (1) tetravalent vaccine and placebo concomitantly (in separate arms) on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22; (2) A/H5N1 vaccine and placebo concomitantly on Day 1, followed by tetravalent vaccine on Day 22; or (3) A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines concomitantly on Day 1, followed by A/H5N1 vaccine on Day 22. Antibody responses were measured using single radial hemolysis (SRH), haemagglutination inhibition (HI), and microneutralization (MN) assays on Days 1, 22, and 43. Solicited adverse reactions were recorded for seven days after vaccination. Spontaneous adverse events were recorded throughout the study. The tetravalent vaccine elicited antibody titers equivalent to those for separate A/H5N1 and seasonal vaccines, and sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria against A/H5N1 and all three seasonal strains. Local and systemic reactions were mainly mild to moderate. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. These findings demonstrate that MF59-adjuvanted A/H5N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines had an acceptable safety profile and could be effectively administered as a tetravalent formulation, supporting the possibility of integrating pre-pandemic priming into seasonal influenza vaccination programs.

  7. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  8. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts. PMID:23596584

  9. Rural school employees' status, awareness, and perceptions of adult vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Thornton, Eli; Beckstrand, Renea L; Macintosh, Janelle; Lakin, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    As key members of the school environment, it is important for school employees to be vaccinated. Employees are in direct contact with children in close quarters for long periods of time and such an environment can easily serve as an outbreak center for vaccine-preventable communicable diseases such as measles. Despite the fact that most school employees believe vaccines are safe and effective and many school employees report they are up-to-date with their vaccines, a closer examination reveals discrepancy between belief and behavior. This research study evaluates the vaccination status, awareness, and perceptions of school employees located in a large rural school district in Utah. As a vaccine advocate, the school nurse can be influential in providing adult vaccination education for school employees, thus increasing awareness of the importance of adult vaccines and knowing one's vaccination status. Additionally, school nurses might need to meet with school district policy makers to promote vaccine mandates for school employees and to assist in the creation of containment plans in the event of a measles outbreak at school.

  10. Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys in Middle Dreib – Akkar, Lebanon: Comparison of Vaccination Coverage in Children Aged 12-59 Months Pre- and Post-Vaccination Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, Ramia; Rebeschini, Arianna; Hamadeh, Randa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the high proportion of refugee population throughout Lebanon and continuous population movement, it is sensible to believe that, in particular vulnerable areas, vaccination coverage may not be at an optimal level. Therefore, we assessed the vaccination coverage in children under 5 in a district of the Akkar governorate before and after a vaccination campaign. During the vaccination campaign, conducted in August 2015, 2,509 children were vaccinated. Materials and Methods We conducted a pre- and post-vaccination campaign coverage surveys adapting the WHO EPI cluster survey to the Lebanese MoPH vaccination calendar. Percentages of coverage for each dose of each vaccine were calculated for both surveys. Factors associated with complete vaccination were explored. Results Comparing the pre- with the post-campaign surveys, coverage for polio vaccine increased from 51.9% to 84.3%, for Pentavalent from 49.0% to 71.9%, for MMR from 36.2% to 61.0%, while the percentage of children with fully updated vaccination calendar increased from 32.9% to 53.8%. While Lebanese children were found to be better covered for some antigens compared to Syrians at the first survey, this difference disappeared at the post-campaign survey. Awareness and logistic obstacles were the primary reported causes of not complete vaccination in both surveys. Discussion Vaccination campaigns remain a quick and effective approach to increase vaccination coverage in crisis-affected areas. However, campaigns cannot be considered as a replacement of routine vaccination services to maintain a good level of coverage. PMID:27992470

  11. New challenges in assuring vaccine quality.

    PubMed Central

    Dellepiane, N.; Griffiths, E.; Milstien, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    In the past, quality control of vaccines depended on use of a variety of testing methods to ensure that the products were safe and potent. These methods were developed for vaccines whose safety and efficacy were based on several years worth of data. However, as vaccine production technologies have developed, so have the testing technologies. Tests are now able to detect potential hazards with a sensitivity not possible a few years ago, and an increasing array of physicochemical methods allows a much better characterization of the product. In addition to sophisticated tests, vaccine regulation entails a number of other procedures to ensure safety. These include characterization of starting materials by supplier audits, cell banking, seed lot systems, compliance with the principles of good manufacturing practices, independent release of vaccines on a lot-by-lot basis by national regulatory authorities, and enhanced pre- and post-marketing surveillance for possible adverse events following immunization. These procedures help assure vaccine efficacy and safety, and some examples are given in this article. However, some contaminants of vaccines that can be detected by newer assays raise theoretical safety concerns but their presence may be less hazardous than not giving the vaccines. Thus risk-benefit decisions must be well informed and based on scientific evidence. PMID:10743279

  12. Challenges and constraints to vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Alders, R G; Bagnol, B; Young, M P; Ahlers, C; Brum, E; Rushton, J

    2007-01-01

    The challenges and constraints to vaccinating poultry in areas where adequate infrastructure and human resources are lacking are addressed in both a technical and a socioeconomic framework. The key issues discussed are: (1) selection of an appropriate vaccine and vaccination technique, including the advantages and disadvantages of a combined vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease and addressing the differences between endemic disease and emergency disease control; (2) vaccine conservation and distribution; (3) evaluation of the flocks to be vaccinated in terms of their disease status, immunocompetence and production systems; (4) design of effective information, education and communication materials and methods with and for veterinary and extension staff as well as commercial and smallholder producers and community vaccinators in rural areas; (5) evaluation and monitoring systems for technical and socioeconomic factors that affect vaccination; (6) support and coordination of and by relevant public and private agencies; (7) the role of simultaneous implementation of other control activities in addition to vaccination; (8) the importance of assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of various approaches to the control of HPAI, including the prevention of other endemic killer diseases and options for cost-sharing; (9) evaluation of the incentives for poultry-holders, vaccinators and vaccine producers to contribute to and participate in effective vaccination campaigns; and (10) policy development and the organizational framework for short- and long-term implementation and communication to decision-makers.

  13. Meeting Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Addresses how a school district can use temporary classroom space to meet increasing student enrollment while additional space is being built. Provides examples of using portable facilities to supplement educational sites, including how to protect students who are in portable classrooms when tornadoes appear. (GR)

  14. Development of a Cost-Effective Educational Tool to Promote Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination by Hispanic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children.

  15. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  16. How will diagnostics create new opportunities for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines?: 2011 Phacilitate Vaccine Forum, Washington DC Day 2, afternoon plenary session—January 25, 2011.

    PubMed

    Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2011-06-01

    The Phacilitate Vaccine Forum in Washington DC (Jan 24-26, 2011) brought together vaccine stakeholders from industry, government and non-government organizations to discuss broad current issues covering the spectrum of vaccine policy, funding, research and clinical development, manufacturing, regulatory, and post marketing safety and surveillance. While the conference is held annually and the topics generally discussed reflect the emerging trends, case studies, and best practices of current interest to the vaccine industry, this year's meeting had a new plenary session focusing on the intersection of diagnostics and vaccine development. The session was chaired by Dr. Una Ryan (President and CEO, Diagnostics for All) with the provocative title "How will diagnostics create new opportunitites for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines?" and was followed by a panel discussion amongst industry leaders discussing the key diagnostic applications gaining interest in the vaccine industry. A common theme running through the session was the increasingly significant role of companion diagnostics and immune monitoring to facilitate and accelerate vaccine development. Indeed the recent examples from pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccine development where the developers and regulatory agencies have considered the use of diagnostic assays and immune markers to assess efficacy of the candidate vaccines in regards to licensure strategies for expanding the serotypes covered, can be considered as breakthrough events for the diagnostics developers. As such the meeting and the session was timely in presenting current progress and for soliciting a convergence of opinions amongst the vaccine industry and the regulatory agencies.

  17. Materials and optics for solar energy conversion and advanced lighting technology; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 19-21, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.; Holly, S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference encompasses topics in the fields of optical switching materials, photovoltaic materials, holographic films, and solar optical materials, as well as insolation and illumination testing and measurement technologies, light source hardware and applications, novel optical techniques in illumination and lighting, and the production of lighting effects in the entertainment industry. Attention is given to thermochromic and electrochromic materials for optical switching and energy-efficient windows, tin oxide antireflection coatings, holographic solar concentration and greenhouse lighting, long-lived glass mirrors for space, exposure testing of solar absorbers, optical projection equipment, medium and short arc metal halide lamps, and nonimaging optics for illumination.

  18. Live Eimeria vaccination success in the face of artificial non-uniform vaccine administration in conventionally reared pullets.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Hafeez, Mian A; Bulfon, Julia; Barta, John R

    2016-01-01

    Live Eimeria vaccines against coccidiosis in poultry initiate immunity using a vaccine dose containing few oocysts; protection is enhanced through subsequent faecal-oral transmission ("cycling") of parasites in the poultry house. Spray-administered Eimeria vaccines can permit wide variations in doses ingested by individual chicks; some chicks may receive no primary vaccination at all. Consequently, protective immunity for the entire flock depends on successful environmental cycling of vaccine progeny. Pullets missing primary vaccination at day of age can become protected from coccidial challenge through cycling of vaccine progeny oocysts from vaccinated (V) cage mates. This study tested whether 40% cage floor coverage (CFC) with a durable material could improve protection against challenge in these "contact-vaccinated" (CV) or successfully V pullets. The six treatment groups tested were CV, V or sham-vaccinated pullets cage-reared on either 0% or 40% CFC. Oocyst output was measured separately for each group for 30 days following vaccine administration. Lesion scores, body weights and total oocyst outputs were measured to quantify protection at 30 days of age against single or mixed Eimeria species challenge infections. Use of 40% CFC to promote low-level oocyst cycling impacted the flock in two ways: (1) more uniform flock immunity was achieved in the 40% CFC (CV similar to V pullets) compared with 0% CFC and (2) protection was enhanced in the 40% CFC compared with the 0% CFC. The use of CFC is an easily adopted means of improving live Eimeria vaccination of caged pullets.

  19. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  20. Obesity vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.

  1. 76 FR 46298 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... information on this meeting. A notice in the Federal Register about last minute modifications that impact a... is unable to post the background material on its Web site prior to the meeting, it will be made...

  2. 76 FR 28782 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... for up-to-date information on this meeting. A notice in the Federal Register about last minute... days prior to the meeting. If ONC is unable to post the background material on its Web site prior to...

  3. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... information on this meeting. A notice in the Federal Register about last minute modifications that impact a... later than two (2) business days prior to the meeting. If ONC is unable to post the background material...

  4. Influenza vaccination among veterans with spinal cord injury: Part 2. Increasing vaccination rates.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Frances M; Goldstein, Barry; Evans, Charlesnika T; Legro, Marcia W; LaVela, Sherri; Smith, Bridget; Miskevics, Scott; Hammond, Margaret C

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Influenza vaccination is effective in reducing the likelihood of contracting influenza and of subsequent respiratory complications, hospitalizations, and deaths. Historically, vaccination rates for veterans with SCI treated in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities have been low. The objective of this study was to increase vaccination rates in this population using a multipronged strategy. A quasi-experimental design involving 2,284 veterans treated at 8 VA SCI Centers was used. Patients at 4 centers received reminder letters and educational materials tailored to SCI. Provider education included mailed reminders and posters in SCI clinical areas. Clinical champions were identified at each site. Four other centers, matched to the study sites in program size and prior vaccination rates, served as comparison sites providing usual care. Vaccination rates were assessed using mailed surveys with telephone follow-up. The influenza vaccination rate was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparison group (60.5% vs 54.3%; P = 0.01 ). Vaccine recipients were older than nonrecipients (mean age 60.8 vs 53.1 years; P < 0.0001). Reasons for not receiving a vaccination included refusal, feeling that being vaccinated was not worth the trouble, and not believing that the vaccine would prevent influenza. Use of low-cost mailed reminders and educational materials resulted in significantly higher vaccination rates. Further efforts to reach targeted subgroups of nonrecipients, such as patients who are younger or from an ethnic minority, are warranted.

  5. DNA Vaccination in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Robust and sustainable development of poultry industry requires prevention of deadly infectious diseases. Vigorous vaccination of the birds is a routine practice; however, the live and inactivated vaccines that are used have inherent disadvantages. New-generation vaccines such as DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines. DNA vaccines, which encode an antigen of interest or multiple antigens in the target host, are stable, easy to produce and administer, do not require cold chain maintenance, and are not affected by the maternal antibodies. In addition, DNA vaccines can also be administered in ovo, and thus, mass vaccination and early induction of immune response can effectively be achieved. In this chapter, we focus on the development of DNA vaccines against important infectious viral as well as parasitic diseases of poultry.

  6. [Visibility of the vaccine cold chain in Spain].

    PubMed

    Tuells, J

    2013-09-06

    Over the last fifty years, the implementation of the vaccine cold chain in Spain has gone through different stages. Related published articles, from the first polio vaccination campaigns until the mid-eighties, show a rudimentary and proactive organization with limited resources. 1990 brought a stage of awareness, when national and regional healthcare authorities started to pay greater attention to appropriate material resources. Finally, the last twenty years represent a third period that has brought the modernization of resources, adoption of protocols, training of clinical personnel involved in the vaccination program, application of logistics and knowledge dissemination. Various studies and publications that have enhanced the acceptable visibility of the vaccine cold chain have been reviewed. It is after all the backbone of the vaccination programmes and though often consigned to the technicians, the vaccine cold chain requires constant training of the clinical staff that administers vaccines.

  7. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination.

  8. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 21-23, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Transparent heat mirror films are discussed, taking into account bandgap widening in heavily doped oxide semiconductors used as transparent heat-reflectors, the characterization of a low emissivity coating in large scale production, an exact analysis of radiative and conductive heat transfer through radiative gray films, and process control for sputter deposition of low emissivity films in large scale production. Other topics explored are related to optical switching materials, selective absorber coatings, general solar optical materials and instrumentation, and technical needs of the energy related coatings industry and the building sciences. Attention is given to electrochromic coatings for 'smart windows', materials for electrochromic windows, optical frequencies free electron scattering studies on electrochromic materials for variable reflectivity windows, progress on solar absorber selective paint research, complex index interference films on metal substrates, luminescent solar concentrator daylighting, and research on passive solar materials in Canada.

  9. Vaccination: An Act of Love

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefits of vaccines. For this reason, we created Vaccination Week in the Americas to get vaccines to ... and no one gets left behind. Help the vaccination teams when they come to your town, your ...

  10. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  11. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  12. Expression and immunogenic analysis of recombinant polypeptides derived from capsid protein VP1 for developing subunit vaccine material against hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Ok; Park, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ho; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, In Sik

    2014-08-01

    Three recombinant polypeptides, VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His, were produced by Escherichia coli expression system. Recombinant VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His were expressed as bands with molecular weights of 32, 38, and 30 kDa, respectively. These were purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA Fast-flow resin and/or ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose Fast-flow resin. Intraperitoneal immunizations of recombinant polypeptides successfully elicited the productions of VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His specific IgG antibodies (IgG subclass distribution of IgG1>IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG3) in sera and induced the secretions of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 in spleen cells. Sera from recombinant VP1-His-, VP1-3N-His-, and 3D2-His-immunized mice neutralized the propagation of HAV. The highest neutralizing activity was shown in sera from recombinant VP1-3N-His-immunized mice. These results suggest that recombinant VP1-3N-His can be a useful source for developing hepatitis A virus (HAV) subunit vaccine candidates.

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  18. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  19. Vaccines against poverty.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  20. Adult vaccination in 11 Central European countries - calendars are not just for children.

    PubMed

    Chlibek, Roman; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis; Čižman, Milan; Ivaskeviciene, Inga; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Perenovska, Penka; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Richter, Darko; Salman, Nuran; Šimurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Zavadska, Dace; Usonis, Vytautas

    2012-02-21

    As Europe's population ages, disease morbidity and treatment costs in the adult population are likely to rise substantially, making this a pertinent time to review and revise preventive strategies such as vaccination. Vaccine uptake remains a problem for adults and there is a lack of coordinated programmes for vaccination of adults. Countries in Western Europe have begun to identify the need to increase adult vaccination, but the situation in Central European countries remains poorly identified and inadequately described. This paper summarises the evidence to support the development of an adult vaccination calendar in the Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) member countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey). CEVAG recommends the introduction of an adult vaccination calendar, which should include vaccination against diseases that represent a large burden in adults in terms of mortality and morbidity. This calendar could be modified to meet the priorities of individual countries.