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Sample records for meetmed selle vhendamiseks

  1. Distributive Education. Selling. Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankford, Dave; Comte, Don

    Nineteen lesson plans on selling are presented in this performance-based curriculum unit for distributive education. This unit is self-contained and consists of the following components: introduction (provides overview of unit content and describes why mastery of the objectives is important); performance objectives; pre-assessment instrument…

  2. To Sell An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alan J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of Aurora University, a small university that not only raised money but established new links with donors, are described. The key to fund raising is selling an idea. As donors become more sophisticated, sentiment and traditional patterns play a less significant role in motivating donors. (MLW)

  3. SELL — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: sL-selectin, also known as SELL, is a cell surface adhesion molecule that belongs to a family of adhesion/homing receptors. SELL mediates the adherence of lymphocytes to endothelial cells of high endothelial venules in peripheral lymph nodes and promotes initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes in endothelia, facilitating their migration into secondary lymphoid organs and inflammation sites. SELL contains a C-type lectin-like domain, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain, and two short complement-like repeats. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.

  4. Advertising: To Get The Reader to Buy, Buy, Buy, You Must Sell, Sell, Sell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of advertising as it relates to student publications. Discusses what advertising is; what the consumer wants; the buyer and seller; creating a selling strategy; basic building blocks; advertising art; and text. Describes basic guidelines for designing an ad, outlines some assignments for students, and notes a few things not to…

  5. Is it time to sell?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals are purchasing physician practices at a rate not seen since the 1990s, and the action is widespread. Doctors all over the country--in practices large and small, successful and struggling--are jumping at the chance to leave the complexity, business risks, and stagnant economics of private practice for the perceived security of a larger organization. This article examines the trend and offers suggestions for physicians to determine whether or not selling is the right move.

  6. How to Sell a Career Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Making the job offer and selling the career opportunity it presents is a very important process of employment interviewing. To reduce the chance of failure to sell the candidate on his opportunity, the interviewer must understand the psychology of persuasion, borrowing some techniques from the professional salesman. (Author/BP)

  7. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  8. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  9. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  10. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  11. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  12. The Advanced Course in Professional Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott

    2014-01-01

    More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…

  13. Children and Host-Selling Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale

    This study explores children's understanding of television commercials that feature the same primary characters as those in the adjacent program content, a commercial technique known as "host-selling." Responses of children 4 to 5 and 7 to 8 years of age to identical commercials presented in both a host-selling and normal viewing…

  14. Children and Host-Selling Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that (1) both younger (four-five years) and older (seven-eight years) children were significantly less likely to discriminate commercial from program content when the host-selling format was viewed, and (2) older children are more favorably influenced by the same commercial content when it is seen in a host-selling presentation than in a…

  15. Selling Your Ideas to Your Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlatt, Harold

    2008-01-01

    If you've got an idea you want to sell, you need to do two things: scan your environment and use effective tactics. This guidebook explains how to scan your environment and provides a collection of tactics you can use to sell your idea. Using this systematic approach will make you more likely to accomplish your objective--solving a problem or…

  16. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals. PMID:15241956

  17. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  18. 13 CFR 120.431 - Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans? 120.431 Section 120.431 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Other Conveyances § 120.431 Which Lenders may sell, sell participations...

  19. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    PubMed

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way. PMID:25637083

  20. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  1. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  2. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  3. Teaching Written Communication Skills in Professional Selling: The Cover Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Vicki L.

    2006-01-01

    The selling process steps have been an integral part of professional selling courses and textbooks for years. Although slight changes have been made in their wording and format, most textbooks are consistent in the recommended process for an effective sales interaction. In an effort to combine teaching the selling process with the increased demand…

  4. 43 CFR 20.504 - Selling or soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selling or soliciting. 20.504 Section 20.504 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.504 Selling or soliciting. Employees and other persons are prohibited from selling or soliciting...

  5. 43 CFR 20.504 - Selling or soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selling or soliciting. 20.504 Section 20.504 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.504 Selling or soliciting. Employees and other persons are prohibited from selling or soliciting...

  6. 43 CFR 20.504 - Selling or soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selling or soliciting. 20.504 Section 20.504 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.504 Selling or soliciting. Employees and other persons are prohibited from selling or soliciting...

  7. 43 CFR 20.504 - Selling or soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selling or soliciting. 20.504 Section 20.504 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.504 Selling or soliciting. Employees and other persons are prohibited from selling or soliciting...

  8. 43 CFR 20.504 - Selling or soliciting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Selling or soliciting. 20.504 Section 20.504 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.504 Selling or soliciting. Employees and other persons are prohibited from selling or soliciting...

  9. 2 CFR 200.467 - Selling and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling and marketing costs. 200.467 Section 200.467 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... Cost § 200.467 Selling and marketing costs. Costs of selling and marketing any products or services...

  10. Strategies for selling and consolidating physician practices.

    PubMed

    Mancino, D M

    1997-01-01

    The changing dynamics of healthcare service delivery is forcing many physicians to consider selling their practices to hospitals or health plans or consolidating them with other practices. Besides being subject to the corporate and tax requirements that apply to the sale of any business, the sale of physician practices is also subject to Federal fraud and abuse and self-referral laws. Several sale strategies are available to physicians who desire to sell or consolidate their practices, including asset sales, stock sales, forward mergers, drop down consolidations, spinoffs, and statutory mergers. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages, but whichever strategy is chosen, both sellers and buyers must ensure that tax issues are addressed and that the transaction complies with the requirements of Federal anti-kickback and self-referral laws.

  11. Company sells mine by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1982-11-01

    An Ohio operator replaced 2 draglines with teams of wheel loaders and trucks, leading to easier reclamation logistics but requiring more precise control. Selling by-products of coal mining, such as limestone and fireclay, has proven profitable for Waterloo Coal Co. After blasting, the overburden is ripped with a Caterpillar 700-hp D10 tractor which significantly reduces blasting costs. Concludes that the truck/loader system is the best way to strip overburden while simultaneously complying with reclamation requirements of current regulations. Soil is analyzed and treated with lime and fertilizer before the planting of cover material and then permanent grasses to prepare the land for agricultural use.

  12. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  13. Nuts and bolts issues to consider when selling your practice.

    PubMed

    Schlager, D D; Miaoulis, G

    1995-01-01

    Ten issues are provided that will help physicians and administrators through the process of selling a practice. Those issues include determining the buyers reasons for buying, determine your reason for selling, finding the right people, how the buyer is valuing your practice, how you value your practice, preparing the selling package, employment agreements and compensation packages, negotiating the operating contract, tax consequences and knowing when to walk away from the deal. PMID:10151358

  14. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  15. To Sell or Not to Sell? Behavior of Shareholders During Price Collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    It is a common belief that the behavior of shareholders depends upon the direction of price fluctuations: if prices increase they buy, if prices decrease they sell. That belief, however, is more based on ``common sense'' than on facts. In this paper, we present evidence for a specific class of shareholders which shows that the actual behavior of shareholders can be markedly different. For instance, they may continue to buy despite a prolonged fall in prices or they may sell even though prices climb. A closer analysis shows that a substantial proportion of investors are more influenced by the ``general social climate'' than by actual price changes. The percentage of speculative investors who optimize their portfolio on a monthly basis can be estimated and turns out to be about 5 to 10%. The results presented in this paper can be of usefulness in order to test the assumptions or the results of market simulations and models.

  16. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of...

  17. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  18. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  19. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  20. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  1. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  2. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  3. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  4. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  5. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell...

  6. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selling costs. 31.205-38... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-38 Selling costs. (a) “Selling” is a generic term encompassing all efforts to market...

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selling costs. 31.205-38... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-38 Selling costs. (a) “Selling” is a generic term encompassing all efforts to market...

  9. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI...

  10. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  11. Buy-sell options for radiology: what works and why.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2006-12-01

    Buy-sell agreements for shareholders entering and leaving a radiology practice are different from those commonly used in other business endeavors. This paper explores the reasons for these differences, focusing on the culture of radiology and its unique influence on the buy-sell process. Buy-sell methodologies commonly used in most business transactions are described, and basic principles that influence these methodologies are discussed. The reasons these traditional methods are not applicable to most radiology groups are explored in depth. The paper concludes with a presentation of several workable buy-sell options for radiology practices. The strengths and weaknesses of these options are enumerated, so that each group can customize the option that best suits its needs. PMID:17412202

  12. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  13. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  14. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  15. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intended to promote sales by customers (including placing point-of-sale and other advertising materials... products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  16. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended to promote sales by customers (including placing point-of-sale and other advertising materials... products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  17. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended to promote sales by customers (including placing point-of-sale and other advertising materials... products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  18. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intended to promote sales by customers (including placing point-of-sale and other advertising materials... products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  19. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  20. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  1. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  2. Service Learning Inputs and Outcomes in a Personal Selling Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbuch, David J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the use of service learning in the marketing curriculum, Petkus (2000) recommended that future research focus on empirical studies of service learning in specific marketing courses. Personal selling represents a key component of marketing that is quite amenable to service learning, yet very little research has examined the use of…

  3. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  4. Why HPT Will Continue to Be a Hard Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlstein, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Most executives have not heard of human performance technology (HPT), but a recent Google search showed 25 times more Google hits for "lean six sigma" than for "human performance technology." This article describes five factors that make HPT a hard sell: (1) HPT is not part of standard business jargon, (2) organizational executives associate…

  5. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  6. 12 CFR 1805.403 - Authority to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to sell. 1805.403 Section 1805.403 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.403 Authority to...

  7. Commercialism in Schools: Supporting Students or Selling Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    1998-01-01

    This information brief discusses the impact of commercialism in schools. It asks the question of whether such advertising is supporting students or is simply selling access. It describes how children are a desirable market since they have most of their purchases ahead of them; they can also frequently convince parents to buy items. The brief…

  8. 48 CFR 1631.205-75 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Selling costs. 1631.205-75 Section 1631.205-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL..., Subchapter S2-3(f) ‘Controlling contacts between employees and carriers’)....

  9. Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole

    1985-01-01

    In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…

  10. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  11. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  12. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  13. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  14. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... livestock to any owner, officer, agent, employee, or any business in which such market agency, owner... business of selling livestock on a commission or agency basis shall sell the livestock consigned to it... consignor. (b) Purchases from consignment. No market agency engaged in the business of selling livestock...

  15. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... livestock to any owner, officer, agent, employee, or any business in which such market agency, owner... business of selling livestock on a commission or agency basis shall sell the livestock consigned to it... consignor. (b) Purchases from consignment. No market agency engaged in the business of selling livestock...

  16. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  17. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  18. 12 CFR 150.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 150.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  19. 29 CFR 779.348 - Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment. (b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section...

  20. 29 CFR 779.348 - Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment. (b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section...

  1. 29 CFR 779.348 - Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment. (b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section...

  2. 29 CFR 779.348 - Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment. (b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section...

  3. 29 CFR 779.348 - Goods must be made at the establishment which sells them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... establishment making the goods does not sell such goods but makes them for the purpose of selling them at other establishments the establishment making the goods is a factory and not a retail establishment. (b) Where the making or processing of the goods takes place away from the selling establishment, the section...

  4. Adolescents' lifetime experience of selling sex: development over five years.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents from a representative sample of Swedish high school students with a mean age 18.3 years. Of these adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had given sexual services for reimbursement and both male and female buyers existed. The adolescents who had sold sex had a poorer parent-child relationship during childhood and had fewer people to confide in about problems and worries. Changes over time were found especially regarding the Internet as a contact source and also immigrant background.

  5. Modified TAROT for cross-selling personal financial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn

    2014-09-01

    The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.

  6. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  12. 30 CFR 206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 206.52 Section 206.52 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT...

  13. 30 CFR 206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 206.102 Section 206.102 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural...

  15. The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Murray, Laura; Smith, Katherine M Clegg; Cohen, Joanna; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. Methods There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Results Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177–4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003–2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475–3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008–2.648). Conclusion There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies. PMID:23578589

  16. Short selling and intraday volatility: evidence from the Chinese market.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Keming; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of margin trading and securities lending mechanism offers us a unique circumstance to analyze the impact of short selling regulations in China. We define the addition events as the stocks are included to the designated securities list and therefore can be sold short. By focusing on the 30 trading days around the addition events, the results document statistically significant post-event increase in volatility relative to the overall market and absolute value of trading volume. Specifically, small-cap stocks experience the sharpest increase. The robustness is also performed to validate the results.

  17. Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Cohen, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.

  18. Palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus disease: selling sickness for future?

    PubMed

    Yudina, Ekaterina V; Ziganshina, Liliya E

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades Russia has gone through dramatic "democratic" changes resulting in unprecedented deterioration of health, loss of lives and extinction of population. The health system turned into a ridiculous monster of poorly organized business exploiting reminiscent social values of the past to build profits on selling sickness-for-all in consumer culture. We present facts and conclude that introduction of palivizumab into clinical practice for the most vulnerable patient category was done without confirmation of efficacy, without pharmacoeconomics evaluations, without any precautionary measures in a country with undeveloped pharmacovigilance system. The situation calls for immediate action of responsible authorities and the society as a whole.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital...

  3. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection. PMID:26059952

  4. Eleven essential steps to purchasing or selling a medical practice.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience in representing more than 100 doctors and medical specialists in practice sales and acquisitions, we have identified 11 key considerations important to a deal. There are several issues to consider while going through the process of buying or selling a practice including the implementation of a "letter of intent" as a first step rather than drafting a contract, securing a lease, and verifying the property is not in violation of the local zoning requirements. There are also considerations with regard to the patients, which range from how will the accounts receivable at the time of the closing be handled to who is responsible for the handling of continued treatment in an ongoing case after a deal is finalized. This article details these considerations and more. PMID:24873121

  5. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  6. Factors associated with selling price of cattle at livestock marts.

    PubMed

    Mc Hugh, N; Fahey, A G; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with selling price of animals at livestock marts around Ireland. Data consisted of four distinct maturity categories: calves (2 to 84 days of age, n = 53 838); weanlings (6 to 12 months of age, n = 19 972); post-weanlings (12 to 36 months of age, n = 93 081) and cows (>30 months to 12 years of age, n = 94 839); sold through livestock marts between 2000 and 2008. Factors associated with animal price were determined within each maturity category separately using mixed models; random effects were mart, date of sale nested within mart, and herd of origin nested within year of sale. Mean selling price was €157, €580, €655 and €592 for calves, weanlings, post-weanlings and cows, respectively. The greatest prices were paid for singleton crossbred male calves, weanlings and post-weanlings from older dams. With the exception of the Aberdeen Angus, beef breeds and their crosses consistently received higher prices than their dairy counterparts across all four maturity categories; increased proportion of Belgian Blue and Charolais was associated with greater prices compared with other beef breeds. When live-weight was included in the multiple regression models the association between price and all factors regressed toward zero but most factors remained associated with price. The highest price was recorded in the spring months for calves, post-weanlings and cows, and in the autumn months for weanlings. Results from this study may be used to help farmers make more informed management decisions, as well as provide information for bio-economic models for evaluating alternative production systems or estimating economic values. PMID:22444658

  7. Factors Influencing Farmers' Expectations to Sell Agricultural Land for Non-Agricultural Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Brett; Krannich, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we identify factors that influence farmers' expectations to sell some or all of their farming operation in areas where the increase in the conversion of agricultural land has been relatively rapid. Findings indicate that the following factors increase farmers' propensity to sell some or all of the agricultural operation for…

  8. Close It, Sell It, or Lease It: What to Do with That Old School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter

    Recommendations on leasing or selling a surplus school building that has been closed due to declining enrollment are offered. Questions which need to be addressed in deciding which option to pursue are presented including whether it would be better to use the building for community purposes than to lease or sell it. The advantages and…

  9. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  10. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  11. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  12. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  13. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  14. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  15. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded...

  16. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section...

  17. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section...

  18. 17 CFR 250.87 - Subsidiaries authorized to perform services or construction or to sell goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or sell goods to, associate companies thereof: (1) An approved mutual service company. (2) A... principally engaged in the business of an operating electric or gas utility company, or any business or businesses other than that of selling goods to associate companies, that of performing services...

  19. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  20. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  1. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  2. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  3. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  4. Adolescents' Lifetime Experience of Selling Sex: Development over Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…

  5. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  8. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  9. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between principals. 1.39 Section 1.39... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  10. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  11. Selling orthodontic need: innocent business decision or guilty pleasure?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Marc Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The principal objective for most patients seeking orthodontic services is a detectable improvement in their dentofacial appearance. Orthodontic treatment, in the mind of the patient, is something that makes you look better, feel better about yourself, and perhaps enhances your social possibilities, ie, to find a companion or make a positive impression during a job interview. Orthodontics, as a speciality, has collectively advanced the idea that enhanced occlusion (bite) improves the health and longevity of the dentition, and as a result many patients seeking orthodontic services affirm that their secondary goal of treatment is an oral health benefit. It would appear that there is some disparity between the end-user of orthodontic services and the orthodontic provider's perception of what constitutes orthodontic need. The aim of this paper is to examine two contrasting models that characterise how dentists 'sell' orthodontic services to patients and to discuss the conflict between professional ethics, practice management and evidence-based decision-making in orthodontic practice.

  12. Assembling cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine.

    PubMed

    Bode, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The paper discusses the many forms and representations of cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine, already mentioned in Caraka's Compendium (c. 200 CE). The medicine's compositions, applications, and meanings, change over time and from locality to locality. Cyavanaprāsh is, for example, a patriotic formula, a booster of the immune system, a modern geriatric drug, and one of the elements in canonical Ayurvedic treatments. In the beginning of the 19th century cyavanaprāsh was a patriotic formula for fortifying Indian bodies and the nascent Indian nation. Nowadays the medicine is a Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) and a money maker for Dabur India Ltd., the world largest Ayurvedic manufacturer. Instead of vitalising the nation its consumption now promises to make urban middle class consumers effectively modern. Branding and modern science must make Dabur Chyawanprash attractive in the eyes of these consumers. Ayurveda and cyavanaprāsh are also part of a global counter culture marked by neo-Orientalism and Ayurvedic medicines as facilitators of spirituality. The marketing of cyavanaprāsh by India's largest Ayurvedic manufacturer is used as a case study for discussing the proliferation of Ayurvedic brands and its critics. The imaging of Ayurvedic brands such as Dabur Chyawanprash threatens to obscure the fact that Ayurveda represents a unique way of looking upon health, disease and the human body. The proliferation of brands also makes Ayurvedic medicines more expensive and puts pressure on the natural environment as the main supplier of Ayurvedic ingredients.

  13. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    preference, one might expect "free markets" to value art in proportion to its aesthetic appeal, at least to some extent. To assess the role of value, a further test of preference was performed on a separate set of paintings recently sold at auction. Results showed that the selling price of these works showed no correlation with preference, while basic statistics were significantly correlated with preference. We conclude that selling price, which could be seen as a proxy for a painting's "value," is not predictive of preference, while shared preferences may to some extent be predictable based on image statistics. We also suggest that contextual and semantic factors play an important role in preference given that image content appears to lead to greater divergence between similarity and preference ratings for representational works, and especially for artwork that prominently depicts faces. The present paper paves the way for a more complete understanding of the relationship between shared human preferences and image statistical regularities, and it outlines the basic geometry of perceptual spaces for artwork.

  14. The Process of Selling a Community Evaluation to a Community: Cumberland County's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Rhode Yolanda Crago Alvarez; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Describes the efforts of one community to define, begin, and finally, embrace community evaluation in the evaluation of a Smart Start program in Cumberland, North Carolina. Lists lessons learned in "selling" the evaluation to the community. (SLD)

  15. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incurred in promotional, demonstrating, and selling activities, except by merchandising, the object of... expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work (§ 367.4160), or 930.1, General advertising...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1234-1 Options to buy or... privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset in the hands of...

  17. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  18. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  19. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  20. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  1. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  2. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  3. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  4. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  5. Determining optimal selling price and lot size with process reliability and partial backlogging considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tsu-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Chuan; Dye, Chung-Yuan; Ouyang, Liang-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we extend the classical economic production quantity (EPQ) model by proposing imperfect production processes and quality-dependent unit production cost. The demand rate is described by any convex decreasing function of the selling price. In addition, we allow for shortages and a time-proportional backlogging rate. For any given selling price, we first prove that the optimal production schedule not only exists but also is unique. Next, we show that the total profit per unit time is a concave function of price when the production schedule is given. We then provide a simple algorithm to find the optimal selling price and production schedule for the proposed model. Finally, we use a couple of numerical examples to illustrate the algorithm and conclude this article with suggestions for possible future research.

  6. An Inquiry Into the Role of the Aesthetic Nurse: "Should Nurses Sell?".

    PubMed

    Epstein, Iris

    2016-01-01

    I am a registered nurse, working for more than a decade. In the last few years, I decided to pursue my passion in the field of medical aesthetics. I invested in learning new skills through training and certification programs and was excited to attain employment in my chosen field. Yet, despite my qualifications, many employers were measuring my competency as an aesthetic nurse on the number of neuromodulators and dermal fillers I was able to inject or, to put it bluntly, able to sell. Many asked me to role-play exactly how and what I would say to "close the sale." These experiences caused me to reflect "Should nurses sell?" and "Is it ethical for nurses to sell?" In this article, I set out to explore these dilemmas and their implications on the role of the aesthetic nurse, using diverse perspectives in the current literature. PMID:27254239

  7. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    PubMed Central

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  8. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling…

  9. 41 CFR 102-38.340 - How may we sell personal property to State and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... property to State and local governments? 102-38.340 Section 102-38.340 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Provisions for State and Local Governments § 102-38.340 How may we sell personal property to State and local governments? You may sell Government personal property...

  10. 7 CFR 29.9405 - Issuance of marketing area opening date and selling schedules by the Secretary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of marketing area opening date and selling... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Markets § 29.9405 Issuance of marketing area opening date and selling schedules by the Secretary. (a)...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.295 - May we exchange or sell an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency? 102-33.295 Section 102-33.295... exchange or sell an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency? Yes, you may exchange or sell aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency if you have...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.295 - May we exchange or sell an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency? 102-33.295 Section 102-33.295... exchange or sell an aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency? Yes, you may exchange or sell aircraft through reimbursable transfer to another executive agency if you have...

  13. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  14. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... a swap execution facility who shall have at the same time both buying and selling orders...

  15. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... a swap execution facility who shall have at the same time both buying and selling orders...

  16. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  17. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What should the System institution do when it... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  18. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  19. Integrating the Concept of Customer Needs into an Undergraduate Professional Selling Course in a Marketing Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Vaughan C.

    This paper argues that professional selling within the context of a marketing curricula in a business school should be described and practiced in a manner compatible with the marketing concept, which emphasizes satisfaction of consumers' needs. The paper looks at textbook approaches to sales presentations to determine their congruency with the…

  20. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for...

  1. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for...

  2. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for...

  3. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for...

  4. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for...

  5. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  6. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  7. Selling and buying sex: a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E

    2012-06-01

    Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse, shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant predictors of trading sex (p < 0.05). Being happy at school was associated with lower selling of sex, and feeling part of school was associated with lower buying of sex even after controlling for demographics and risk factors (p < 0.05). Results indicate a need for early intervention for youth who experience sexual abuse or running away. Elements of school connectedness have a protective effect on selling and buying sex. Promoting school connectedness may advance public health goals.

  8. 17 CFR 242.105 - Short selling in connection with a public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short selling in connection with a public offering. 242.105 Section 242.105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS...

  9. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution. 242.102 Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER...

  10. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  11. 31 CFR 356.0 - What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities? 356.0 Section 356.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) General Information § 356.0 What authority does the Treasury have...

  12. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of...

  13. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information. 205.104 Section 205.104 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of...

  14. Standard and Poor's How to Invest. A Handbook for Buying and Selling Stocks and Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard & Poor's Corp., New York, NY.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school and college economic students, the handbook gives general information about investing in the stock market. Arranged into seven sections, the handbook discusses the typical shareholder, common and preferred stocks, buying and selling bonds, how to develop a personal…

  15. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  16. Both Sides of the Story--Buying and Selling; Business Education: 7705.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luksa, Cecelia

    Offering a study of records that deal with buying and selling at retail and wholesale levels, the course includes invoices, statements, charge sales, cash sales, sales taxes, and returns. Prerequisite skills include the objectives of Welcome to Recordkeeping and Money Records, and a pretest to aid in student placement is offered. Performance…

  17. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  18. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses. 367.9120 Section 367.9120 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... schools, preparing recipes, and related home service activities. (3) Exhibitions, displays, lectures,...

  19. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses. 367.9120 Section 367.9120 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... schools, preparing recipes, and related home service activities. (3) Exhibitions, displays, lectures,...

  20. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... or other property? (a) Unless the owner or known lien holder of the impounded livestock or...

  1. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 550.370 Section 550.370 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  2. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 550.370 Section 550.370 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  3. 12 CFR 150.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 150.370 Section 150.370 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  4. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 550.370 Section 550.370 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  5. 12 CFR 150.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? 150.370 Section 150.370 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on...

  6. 41 CFR 102-38.55 - What must we do when selling personal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selling personal property? 102-38.55 Section 102-38.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Responsibilities § 102-38.55 What must we do when...

  7. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... or other property? (a) Unless the owner or known lien holder of the impounded livestock or...

  8. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  9. Building Materials Technology and Selling, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    This manual on current building materials technology and selling, together with a separate answer key for the self-study assignments, contains detailed product information purchased from The Retail Lumber Dealers Foundation of Rochester, New York, teaching guidelines, behavioral objectives, and occupational information. Developed by means of a…

  10. Selling the "Electrical Dream" in the 1920s: A Case Study in the Manipulation of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Andrew

    To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates some of the…

  11. Writing Juvenile Stories and Novels: How to Write and Sell Fiction for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Phyllis A.

    Phyllis Whitney, author of more than 30 juvenile novels and 20 adult novels, offers specific advice to aspiring writers on how to write, and sell, fiction for young people. Telling a good story, entertaining the reader, is the most important factor in each of the four divisions of children's books. These divisions can be structured roughly…

  12. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  13. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  14. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide...

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.75 - How may we sell personal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may we sell personal property? 102-38.75 Section 102-38.75 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)...

  17. Memorandum on ground-water investigations in the Sells area, Papago Indian Reservation, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.

    1954-01-01

    From 1950 to the present date the Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, has been collecting data about the ground-water supply in the Sells area, at the request of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Papago Indian Agency.  The purpose of these studies has been to aid in locating and developing additional ground-water supplies for the community of Sells, the agency headquarters.  The work has been financed by and has been in cooperation with the Papago Indian Agency.  In addition to the author of this memorandum, the following personnel aided in collecting data: D. G. Metzger, H. E. Skibitzke, S.F. Turner, H. N. Wolcott, and C. B. Yost, Jr.

  18. Cogenerator to quit Con Ed by selling kWh to neighbor

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, N.

    1986-02-10

    Selling 125 kilowatts of electricity around the clock to a nearby supermarket will make cogeneration feasible for the Flagship Restaurant in White Plains, NY, allowing it to drop off Consolidated Edison's grid and pay for a necessary backup generator, according to John Prayias, the restaurant's owner. The ambitious $536,000 project, which will be financed conventionally with a commercial bank loan, will eliminate the Flagship's $70,000 electricity costs and the $7240 spent of heating and domestic hot water, Prayias said. By selling the power to the supermarket at 9 cents per kilowatt hour - 3 cents less than Con Ed's rate of 12 cents per kWh - the restaurant will collect $120,000 a year in revenues - just about enough to cover the cost of diesel fuel for the 350-kW system and pay for monitoring and maintenance.

  19. An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years. PMID:21647262

  20. Subscriptions to share: new way to sell content or help fundraising online.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2003-11-28

    While exploring business models for the newsletter we found a radically different way to sell information or help raise funds online. A system designed to encourage sharing allows subscribers or donors to use parts of their subscription to create new subscriptions for others, without the publisher's involvement--eliminating registration, reducing transaction costs, encouraging larger subscriptions or donations, and creating opportunities for bringing people together around an idea, purpose, or cause.

  1. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children. PMID:21349621

  2. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children.

  3. Gun carrying and drug selling among young incarcerated men and women.

    PubMed

    Kacanek, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying.

  4. 40 CFR 1068.435 - May I sell engines/equipment from a family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.435 May I sell engines/equipment from a family with...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.435 - May I sell engines/equipment from a family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.435 May I sell engines/equipment from a family with...

  6. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address in January, President Obama said he visited "many business leaders who want to hire in the United States but can't find workers with the right skills." Not hard to imagine, considering the U.S. Department of Commerce reports that only one in every 18 workers in America currently works in a science, technology,…

  7. Selling hospice.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Americans are increasingly turning to hospice services to provide them with medical care, pain management, and emotional support at the end of life. The increase in the rates of hospice utilization is explained by a number of factors including a "hospice movement" dating to the 1970s which emphasized hospice as a tool to promote dignity for the terminally ill; coverage of hospice services by Medicare beginning in 1983; and, the market for hospice services provision, sustained almost entirely by governmental reimbursement. On the one hand, the growing acceptance of hospice may be seen as a sign of trends giving substance to the death-with-dignity movement and the growing strength of end-of-life decision-makers and planners who integrate medical, community, family and spiritual networks. On the other hand, the precise relationship between the death-with-dignity and commercial processes driving hospice utilization rates are not well understood. On May 2, 2013, the U.S. Government intervened in a lawsuit brought by former hospice employees alleging that behind Vitas Innovative Hospice Care, the largest for-profit hospice service provider in the United States, lie an intricate web of incentives for patient intake nurses, physicians and marketers which not only drove hospice patients to use more expensive (and medically unnecessary) crisis care services, but influenced patient and family decisions as to whether or not to discontinue curative treatment. The corporate, investment, and regulatory history behind Vitas provides an important insight into the market realities behind Americans' embrace of hospice care and the risks to patient autonomy and health that accompany the commercialization of this ethically and morally complex health care service. PMID:25565612

  8. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  9. Women and men with intellectual disabilities who sell or trade sex: voices from the professionals.

    PubMed

    Kuosmanen, Jari; Starke, Mikaela

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of women and men with intellectual disabilities (ID) selling or exchanging sexual services is poorly understood. In this study, the authors explored the knowledge and perceptions of this phenomenon shared by professionals working in the field. Focus group discussions demonstrated broad familiarity with the phenomenon. Different motives and contributing factors were identified for the behavior, blurring the boundary line between free choice and exploitation. Two distinct discourses emerged from the interviews based on the assumed "rationality" of the sex transaction and its rewards: Those with ID who traded sexual favors were presented as either conscious and autonomous agents or unaware and exploited victims. PMID:21827299

  10. Contractor Sales Training: Providing the Skills Necessary to Sell Comprehensive Home Energy Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth

    2011-08-17

    Many comprehensive home energy efficiency programs rely on contractors as the customer-facing ‘front line’ to sell energy improvements. Adding sales skills to contractors’ existing technical expertise is key to converting more assessments into comprehensive home energy upgrades. Leading programs recognize the need to support contractors with sales and business training to help them succeed and to support the growth of the home performance industry for the long term. A number of contractor sales training efforts are emerging, including some programs that are seeing encouraging early results.

  11. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  12. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  13. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  14. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  15. Structural factors influencing patterns of drug selling and use and HIV risk in the San Salvador metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2010-06-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Drug Use and Drug Selling on Violent Offending in a Panel of Delinquent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a vast number of empirical studies arguing for or against a causal relationship between illegal drug use and selling and violent behavior, the debate continues. In part this is due to methodological weaknesses of previous research. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, the current study seeks to improve on prior research designs to allow for a more precise examination of the mechanisms that lead from an individual’s drug use (chiefly, marijuana use in the current sample) and drug selling to violent action. Results will allow for greater confidence in making causal inference regarding a long-standing concern in the discipline. PMID:26889079

  17. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  18. Selling your self? The psychological impact of street sex work and factors affecting support seeking.

    PubMed

    Gorry, Jo; Roen, Katrina; Reilly, James

    2010-09-01

    Previous research investigating the risks of female street sex work has tended to focus on the most tangible risks to physical health and safety. This is reflected in the provision of support services for sex workers, where these aspects are prioritised. There is little research focusing solely on the psychological risks of sex work. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perceived psychological impact of street sex work and factors that affected support seeking. Interviews were carried out with a sample of UK female street sex workers (n = 7) who attended a drop-in clinic and health professionals (n = 5) who provided input to the drop-in service. The analytic process, which drew from an interpretative phenomenological approach, revealed four main themes that work together to describe the emotional impact of selling sex. Implications for support services and future research are highlighted.

  19. From a Vital Sign to Vitality: Selling Exercise So Patients Want to Buy It.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Guérin, Eva; Phillips, Edward; Fortier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is Medicine (EIM) and physical activity as a vital sign are based on health-focused research and reflect ideal frames and messages for clinicians. However, they are nonoptimal for patients because they do not address what drives patients' decision-making and motivation. With the growing national emphasis on patient-centered and value-based care, it is the perfect time for EIM to evolve and advance a second-level consumer-oriented exercise prescription and communication strategy. Through research on decision-making, motivation, consumer behavior, and meaningful goal pursuit, this article features six evidence-based issues to help clinicians make physical activity more relevant and compelling for patients to sustain in ways that concurrently support patient-centered care. Physical activity prescriptions and counseling can evolve to reflect affective and behavioral science and sell exercise so patients want to buy it.

  20. 'No willpower required'. The slimming industry and the right to sell dreams.

    PubMed

    de Beaufort, Inez; Vandamme, Sofie

    2008-03-01

    Many products to lose weight are presented on the market. The products are advertised with two 'arguments': the health-argument: obesity and overweight are dangerous for your health, and the beauty argument: obesity and overweight make you ugly. The authors raise ethical questions with regard to the promises made and discuss the following arguments: the exploitation of vulnerable persons who are told they are unhealthy and ugly, the stigmatization of obese people as lazy and without willpower, and the harm some treatments may cause. They argue that raising the health argument should be analyzed very critically as obese people are vulnerable and susceptible to all kind of promises. With regard to the beauty argument, they argue that 'selling dreams' is perhaps less problematic as people are not as susceptible and vulnerable with regard to promises on beauty and therefore less likely to be seduced by such promises. People should be empowered to be very critical of (advertisements for) slimming products.

  1. The Making of a Best-Selling Book on Reproduction: Lennart Nilsson's A Child Is Born.

    PubMed

    Jülich, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the 1965 first edition of Swedish photographer Lennart Nilsson's Ett barn blir till (A Child Is Born) by placing the book back in the historical context in which it was produced, marketed, and reviewed. In particular it shows how medicine and the media in Sweden were intertwined in the process of incorporating Nilsson's photographs of aborted embryos and fetuses into a best-selling book on the origin and development of human life. Nilsson's work is related to other books in the same genre as well as the popular picture magazines of the time, in order to highlight how it aspired to offer something new. It is argued that a number of commercial and other interests were involved and that an immense effort went into not only making and promoting the book but also trying to control the meaning of the images.

  2. From a Vital Sign to Vitality: Selling Exercise So Patients Want to Buy It.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Guérin, Eva; Phillips, Edward; Fortier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is Medicine (EIM) and physical activity as a vital sign are based on health-focused research and reflect ideal frames and messages for clinicians. However, they are nonoptimal for patients because they do not address what drives patients' decision-making and motivation. With the growing national emphasis on patient-centered and value-based care, it is the perfect time for EIM to evolve and advance a second-level consumer-oriented exercise prescription and communication strategy. Through research on decision-making, motivation, consumer behavior, and meaningful goal pursuit, this article features six evidence-based issues to help clinicians make physical activity more relevant and compelling for patients to sustain in ways that concurrently support patient-centered care. Physical activity prescriptions and counseling can evolve to reflect affective and behavioral science and sell exercise so patients want to buy it. PMID:27399825

  3. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health. PMID:21210860

  4. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  5. Heterosexual behaviours among men who sell sex to men in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian D.; Muhaari, Allan D.; Agwanda, Carole; Kowuor, Dickens; van der Elst, Elise; Davies, Alun; Graham, Susan M.; Jaffe, Harold W.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective African men who have sex with men often sell sex to men, and MSM who sell sex (MSM-SW) often also have female partners. We compared sexual risk behaviour of MSM-SW who were sexually active with female partners (bisexual MSW) to MSM-SW with only male partners (exclusive MSW). Design Descriptive behavioural study Methods A novel, validated daily event and partner diary self-completed by 82 MSM who sold sex over a follow-up period of 42 days with weekly review. Cumulative individual counts of sex and condomless sex were compiled by partner characteristics. The incidence of specific partnerships and sex acts were compared within and between bisexual and exclusive MSW. Results Most (59%) MSM-SW reported female partners during follow-up. The majority of both male and female partners were cash-paying clients originating locally. Bisexual MSW reported a similar rate of condomless sex with male and female partners, but significantly fewer male partners than exclusive MSW. Bisexual MSW had lower HIV prevalence, were more likely to only report insertive anal sex roles, and reported lower frequencies of condomless receptive anal sex than exclusive MSW. Conclusion Bisexually active male sex workers in coastal Kenya create HIV and other sexually transmitted infection transmission pathways to partners and clients in both MSM and heterosexual networks, but differed from exclusive MSW in having lower HIV acquisition and transmission risks. Epidemiological projection methods are liable to overestimate bridging potential of MSM-SW and MSM populations without account for systematic differences in risk within these populations. PMID:26565965

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  8. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. 270.10f-3 Section 270.10f... existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. (a) Definitions—(1) Domestic Issuer means any issuer... made in reliance upon this (or for such shorter period that the issuer was required to file...

  9. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  10. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling,...

  11. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling,...

  12. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling,...

  13. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling,...

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in...

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in...

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in...

  17. 12 CFR 225.136 - Utilization of foreign subsidiaries to sell long-term debt obligations in foreign markets and to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization of foreign subsidiaries to sell long-term debt obligations in foreign markets and to transfer the proceeds to their United States... foreign subsidiaries to sell long-term debt obligations in foreign markets and to transfer the proceeds...

  18. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  19. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  20. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  1. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  2. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling,...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.305 - What forms do we use to transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., farm machinery, and certain military-design motor vehicles and motor vehicles that are damaged beyond... transfer ownership when selling a motor vehicle? 102-34.305 Section 102-34.305 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Disposal of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.305 What...

  4. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Right of First Refusal §...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.105 - Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Before we sell a...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.105 - Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Before we sell a...

  7. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  8. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  9. "Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

  10. Key Senator Scrutinizes Pharmacy 340B Selling Practices: Federal Office in Charge of Drug Discounts Begins to Feel the Heat.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Upselling takes place when a safety-net hospital increases its profits by selling discounted drugs to privately insured patients at full price. Senator Charles Grassley is on the case to increase transparency and to curtail the misuse of 340B purchases.

  11. The Effects of Task Clarification, Visual Prompts, and Graphic Feedback on Customer Greeting and Up-Selling in a Restaurant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…

  12. 24 CFR 100.135 - Unlawful practices in the selling, brokering, or appraising of residential real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... availability of a residential real estate-related transaction, whether the appraisal is oral or written, or... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.135 Unlawful practices in the selling... engaged in the business of making or furnishing appraisals of residential real property from taking...

  13. 24 CFR 100.135 - Unlawful practices in the selling, brokering, or appraising of residential real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... availability of a residential real estate-related transaction, whether the appraisal is oral or written, or... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.135 Unlawful practices in the selling... engaged in the business of making or furnishing appraisals of residential real property from taking...

  14. Writing Treatments That Sell: How To Create and Market Your Story Ideas to the Motion Picture and TV Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchity, Kenneth; Wong, Chi-Li

    Pointing out that what sells a story idea for film or television is not writing the script but preparing the "treatment"--the brief pitch of a story to a producer or agent--this book furnishes dozens of examples of treatments from actual productions. The book makes the distinction between scripts designed for feature films, episodic television,…

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.185 - May we sell Federal personal property to State or local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal property to State or local governments? 102-38.185 Section 102-38.185 Public Contracts and... Federal personal property to State or local governments? Yes, you may sell Federal personal property to State or local governments. Additional guidelines on sales to State or local governments are...

  16. Community Background Reports: Papago Reservation, Sells, Arizona. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 17, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackett, Robert; Chilcott, John H.

    Number 17 in Series I of the final report of the National Study of American Indian Education describes the small community of Sells, Arizona, in terms of (1) location and climate, (2) sociocultural background, (3) transportation problems, (4) housing problems, (5) governmental influence, (6) recreation, (7) educational opportunities, and (8)…

  17. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family with a suspended certificate of conformity? 1045.330 Section 1045.330 Protection of Environment... engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity? You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1045.315 only if one of the following...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.105 - Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove? 102-34.105 Section 102-34.105 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents....

  1. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  2. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  3. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  4. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that

  5. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    PubMed

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P < 0.001). Steers received a greater premium ($6.48 +/- 0.09 vs. $6.02 +/- 0.08; mean +/- SE) and bull calves received greater discounts ($0.30 +/- 0.14 vs. $1.68 +/- 0.09) in 2005 than in 2000. Breeds types that increased in value from 2000 to 2005 were Angus x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P < 0.001). Breed types that received a reduced selling price in 2005 compared with 2000 (P < 0.001) were one-fourth Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0

  6. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    PubMed

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P < 0.001). Steers received a greater premium ($6.48 +/- 0.09 vs. $6.02 +/- 0.08; mean +/- SE) and bull calves received greater discounts ($0.30 +/- 0.14 vs. $1.68 +/- 0.09) in 2005 than in 2000. Breeds types that increased in value from 2000 to 2005 were Angus x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P < 0.001). Breed types that received a reduced selling price in 2005 compared with 2000 (P < 0.001) were one-fourth Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0

  7. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers. PMID:21563007

  8. Buying on margin, selling short in an agent-based market model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Honggang

    2013-09-01

    Credit trading, or leverage trading, which includes buying on margin and selling short, plays an important role in financial markets, where agents tend to increase their leverages for increased profits. This paper presents an agent-based asset market model to study the effect of the permissive leverage level on traders’ wealth and overall market indicators. In this model, heterogeneous agents can assume fundamental value-converging expectations or trend-persistence expectations, and their effective demands of assets depend both on demand willingness and wealth constraints, where leverage can relieve the wealth constraints to some extent. The asset market price is determined by a market maker, who watches the market excess demand, and is influenced by noise factors. By simulations, we examine market results for different leverage ratios. At the individual level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences agents’ wealth accumulation. At the market level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences changes in the asset price, volatility, and trading volume. Qualitatively, our model provides some meaningful results supported by empirical facts. More importantly, we find a continuous phase transition as we increase the leverage threshold, which may provide a further prospective of credit trading.

  9. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  10. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women. PMID:24367591

  11. Selling sex: female street prostitution and HIV risk behaviour in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    McKeganey, N; Barnard, M

    1992-01-01

    Female prostitutes have often been seen as a major source of HIV infection. In this paper we report on a study of HIV-related risk behaviour among street prostitutes in Glasgow. This paper is based on street interviews using a standardized schedule with 68 women. We focus on the extent of HIV testing amongst the women, travel, the sexual services provided, the use of condoms with clients and private partners, and the extent of drug injecting and equipment sharing by the women. It is shown that female street prostitution within Glasgow is, at present, unlikely to be associated with significant heterosexual spread of HIV as most commercial sex is with a condom. However, some risk activities are continuing. Additionally, prostitutes report worrying rates of condom failure with clients. It is suggested that attention should switch away from an exclusive focus on women selling sexual services to target the men who purchase sex. These data indicate that much of the pressure for these women to provide unprotected sex comes from their clients.

  12. Sexuality sells: a content analysis of lesbian and heterosexual women's bodies in magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Controversies in the literature suggest varied views as to whether lesbian and heterosexual women accept different cultural norms about body shape and size. This article explores whether messages about the body from lesbian media deviate from mainstream, heterosexually focused media. In particular, I differentiate the messages within both media by the physical appearance of the model in the photo, and how the body is positioned in the type and context of the ad itself. Three hundred randomly selected photo advertisements from lesbian and mainstream women's magazines were examined. Lesbian models varied more in age and weight than mainstream models, and were more likely to be androgynous in gender appearance. In turn, mainstream models were more likely to be wearing revealing clothing that hindered their mobility, such as a tight skirt or stiletto heels. Advertisements in lesbian magazines placed their models in more defined contexts, such as in travel ads, and with more of a purpose than mainstream advertisements, where models were more likely to be placed in front of a non-descript backdrop. Lesbian advertisements were more likely to sell products that engendered community (e.g., travel, book club), whereas mainstream advertisements more often sold products that emphasized the self (e.g., clothing, beauty products). I consider how lesbian and heterosexual bodies are reproduced and impart messages about "doing" gender.

  13. The impact of the principal in the implementation of promoting science among English language learners (P-SELL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittrell, Resma

    School organizations are in a constant state of change. One of the major changes that all schools encounter is adopting new curriculum. It is important to look at the role of the principal during the implementation of a new curriculum so that we can identify specific strategies that might be useful in other areas of school change. This study focuses on the role of the principal during the adoption of a new science curriculum, Promoting Science Among English Language Learners (P-SELL), within six elementary schools. This multiple case study included teacher focus group interviews, principal interviews, and teacher and principal written surveys to identify specific roles and strategies that principals illustrated during implementation of P-SELL. The overarching themes uncovered included (a) distributive leadership, (b) clear communication, and (c) supportive conditions. These findings can be used to understand the process of change within an organization.

  14. Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet? The case of Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Alice Mboganie; den Hartog, Adel P; Mwadime, Robert K N; van Staveren, Wija A; Foeken, Dick W J

    2002-03-01

    This study examined whether street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthful diet. It was hypothesized that vendors sold only low-cost food groups to enable the buyer to afford the food while the vendor also made a profit. A structured questionnaire was administered to 580 vendors in three selected locations. Data included product names, ingredients, methods of preparation, and the sex of the vendor. A little more than half of the vendors (53%) sold food of only one group; 44% sold cereals. Overall, 36% of vendors, mostly men, sold only carbohydrate products. The percentage of vendors selling foods of more than one group was higher in the working area (53%) than in the slum area (43%, p < .05), and it was higher in both of these areas taken together than in the lower-middle income area (21%, p < .001). Micronutrient and mixed-nutrient products were associated with female vendors. Although a slight majority of all street vendors sell foods of only one group, women vendors are capable of supplying a sufficient variety of food groups that consumers can afford. It appears that consumer purchasing power dictates the food groups provided by vendors, especially cereal-based-foods. A policy on micronutrient fortification of cereal flours and fats used in popular street food preparation needs to be considered. This could be coupled with consumer and vendor education programs focusing on the importance of healthful diets. PMID:11975369

  15. Underage and underserved: reaching young women who sell sex in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Mapfumo, Rumbidzo; Hanisch, Dagmar; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Cowan, Frances

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Young women who sell sex (YWSS) in Southern Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, as the risks of being young and female in a high prevalence setting coalesce with those of commercial sex. YWSS are less able to negotiate safe sex, more likely to have higher risk partners, and less likely to use available health services compared to older sex workers. In Zimbabwe’s national HIV programme for sex workers, fewer than 1% of clients were 15–29. We developed monthly interactive workshops for YWSS based on an Activity Pack consisting of 21 sessions organised into six modules. The aim was to encourage YWSS’ interaction with each other, build their trust, confidence and skills, and encourage uptake of clinical services. We conducted a process evaluation to assess programme strengths, identify challenges, and recommend changes. This paper presents findings synthesising programme records with qualitative data and discusses feasibility, acceptability, and outputs during the pilot phase. In total, 143 YWSS attended meetings and most were from the target 15–19-year-old age group. Participants enjoyed the sessions and reported improved cooperation, willingness to negotiate with clients, and self-reflection about their futures. Staff found facilitating sessions easy and activities clear and appropriate. Challenges included identifying appropriate referrals, initial recruitment of women in some sites, and managing participants’ requests for financial compensation. The number of clients aged 15–19 increased at sex worker clinics in all sites. This programme is the first to target YWSS in Zimbabwe to address their disproportionately low service use. It proved feasible to staff and acceptable to participants over a one-year period. Given enhanced vulnerability of YWSS, this programme provides one workable model for reaching this underserved group. PMID:27391994

  16. Underage and underserved: reaching young women who sell sex in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Mapfumo, Rumbidzo; Hanisch, Dagmar; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Cowan, Frances

    2016-03-01

    Young women who sell sex (YWSS) in Southern Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, as the risks of being young and female in a high prevalence setting coalesce with those of commercial sex. YWSS are less able to negotiate safe sex, more likely to have higher risk partners, and less likely to use available health services compared to older sex workers. In Zimbabwe's national HIV programme for sex workers, fewer than 1% of clients were 15-29. We developed monthly interactive workshops for YWSS based on an Activity Pack consisting of 21 sessions organised into six modules. The aim was to encourage YWSS' interaction with each other, build their trust, confidence and skills, and encourage uptake of clinical services. We conducted a process evaluation to assess programme strengths, identify challenges, and recommend changes. This paper presents findings synthesising programme records with qualitative data and discusses feasibility, acceptability, and outputs during the pilot phase. In total, 143 YWSS attended meetings and most were from the target 15-19-year-old age group. Participants enjoyed the sessions and reported improved cooperation, willingness to negotiate with clients, and self-reflection about their futures. Staff found facilitating sessions easy and activities clear and appropriate. Challenges included identifying appropriate referrals, initial recruitment of women in some sites, and managing participants' requests for financial compensation. The number of clients aged 15-19 increased at sex worker clinics in all sites. This programme is the first to target YWSS in Zimbabwe to address their disproportionately low service use. It proved feasible to staff and acceptable to participants over a one-year period. Given enhanced vulnerability of YWSS, this programme provides one workable model for reaching this underserved group.

  17. Buying and selling "loosies" in Baltimore: the informal exchange of cigarettes in the community context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-07-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General's report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18-24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes ("loosies") within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities.

  18. Underage and underserved: reaching young women who sell sex in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Mapfumo, Rumbidzo; Hanisch, Dagmar; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Cowan, Frances

    2016-03-01

    Young women who sell sex (YWSS) in Southern Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, as the risks of being young and female in a high prevalence setting coalesce with those of commercial sex. YWSS are less able to negotiate safe sex, more likely to have higher risk partners, and less likely to use available health services compared to older sex workers. In Zimbabwe's national HIV programme for sex workers, fewer than 1% of clients were 15-29. We developed monthly interactive workshops for YWSS based on an Activity Pack consisting of 21 sessions organised into six modules. The aim was to encourage YWSS' interaction with each other, build their trust, confidence and skills, and encourage uptake of clinical services. We conducted a process evaluation to assess programme strengths, identify challenges, and recommend changes. This paper presents findings synthesising programme records with qualitative data and discusses feasibility, acceptability, and outputs during the pilot phase. In total, 143 YWSS attended meetings and most were from the target 15-19-year-old age group. Participants enjoyed the sessions and reported improved cooperation, willingness to negotiate with clients, and self-reflection about their futures. Staff found facilitating sessions easy and activities clear and appropriate. Challenges included identifying appropriate referrals, initial recruitment of women in some sites, and managing participants' requests for financial compensation. The number of clients aged 15-19 increased at sex worker clinics in all sites. This programme is the first to target YWSS in Zimbabwe to address their disproportionately low service use. It proved feasible to staff and acceptable to participants over a one-year period. Given enhanced vulnerability of YWSS, this programme provides one workable model for reaching this underserved group. PMID:27391994

  19. Buying and selling "loosies" in Baltimore: the informal exchange of cigarettes in the community context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-07-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General's report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18-24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes ("loosies") within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities. PMID:17431795

  20. 12 CFR 150.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... assets. (iii) The transaction is permitted under 12 CFR 9.18(b)(8)(iii) for defaulted fixed-income... Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.350 May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of...

  1. 12 CFR 150.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assets. (iii) The transaction is permitted under 12 CFR 9.18(b)(8)(iii) for defaulted fixed-income... Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.350 May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of...

  2. 12 CFR 150.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assets. (iii) The transaction is permitted under 12 CFR 9.18(b)(8)(iii) for defaulted fixed-income... Exercising Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on Self Dealing § 150.350 May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines...

  5. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... your proposed remedy to address a suspended certificate under § 1042.325 is inadequate to solve the problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines...

  6. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... your proposed remedy to address a suspended certificate under § 1042.325 is inadequate to solve the problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines...

  7. Quality of Online Pharmacies and Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. Objective The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. Methods We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. Results We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs

  8. Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].

    PubMed

    1991-09-01

    This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves.

  9. HIV risk among drug-using men who have sex with men, men selling sex, and transgender individuals in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Bao Ngoc; Mulvey, Kevin P; Baldwin, Simon; Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about drug use and its association with HIV risk among men who have sex with men is limited. Although the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam is increasingly acknowledged, understanding the impact of drug use on the spread of HIV is largely lacking. Using qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 93 drug users, 15 non-drug users and 9 community stakeholders, this analysis explores emerging patterns of drug use and risk factors for engaging in risk behaviours among drug-using men having sex with men, men selling sex and transgender individuals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Findings revealed that drug use is shifting from heroin to ecstasy and ice. Drug users reported unsafe sex associated with drug use and men selling sex were particularly at elevated risk because of using drugs as a tool for sex work and trading sex for drugs. These findings are guiding development of programmes addressing unmet HIV-prevention needs in Vietnam.

  10. Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements. PMID:22567159

  11. The social dynamics of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya: a qualitative study contextualizing high risk sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen M

    2013-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa have one of the highest HIV seroprevelance rates of any population. Effective safe sex interventions are urgently needed to stop the transmission of HIV during commercial sex. Despite widespread education, counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs, unprotected sexual intercourse remains a large behavioural challenge. Research on this topic has been limited primarily to establishing the frequency of high risk sexual behaviour without a comprehensive analysis of the social environment creating these factors, especially gender inequality. Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address gendered socioeconomic power imbalances. Policy implications based on these findings include re-evaluating laws against the selling of sex and prioritizing female education and economic opportunities. PMID:24069759

  12. Supply chain coordination with two production modes and random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Dong; Zhou, Yong-Wu; Wang, Jun-Ping

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses production and order as well as advertising coordination issues in a single-manufacturer single-buyer supply chain, where the manufacturer sells a newsvendor-type product through the buyer who faces a random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price. The buyer has two ordering opportunities: the one happens before the beginning of the season, and the other takes place at the end of the season. The ordered items are produced by the manufacturer in two production modes for different requirements. The first production mode is relatively cheap but requires a long lead-time, whereas the second is expensive but offers quick response. Under such a setting, the centralised and decentralised decision models are developed, respectively, and the closed form solution to each model is provided as well. Moreover, we point out that the traditional revenue-sharing contract fails to coordinate the supply chain. We thus propose an improved revenue-sharing contract that requests the manufacturer not only shares the buyer's revenue but also bears a portion of the buyer's operating costs. Such a contract can achieve perfect coordination of the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate its profit between two parties.

  13. Forcing the Navy to Sell Cigarettes on Ships: How the Tobacco Industry and Politicians Torpedoed Navy Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435

  14. Forcing the Navy to sell cigarettes on ships: how the tobacco industry and politicians torpedoed Navy tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Offen, Naphtali; Arvey, Sarah R; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-03-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships' stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces.

  15. Buyouts & ventures. Selling ... or selling out.

    PubMed

    Meyer, H; Hudson, T; Cain, J E; Carr, S L; Zacharias, D

    1996-06-01

    Charity begins at home, yet across the country hometown not-for-profit hospitals are forming joint partnerships with investor-owned systems. In some of these cases no foundation is created to continue the hospital's good deeds. In this special report, Hospitals & Health Networks looks at the issues and asks, "Do these joint ventures need more public scrutiny?"

  16. 30 CFR 206.53 - How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? 206.53 Section 206.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil §...

  17. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Form 300-A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall...

  18. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Form 300-A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall...

  19. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Form 300-A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall...

  20. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Form 300-A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall...

  1. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Form 300-A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall...

  2. 17 CFR 230.143 - Definition of “has purchased”, “sells for”, “participates”, and “participation”, as used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purchased, sells for, participates, and participation, in section 2(11) (48 Stat. 74, 48 Stat. 905; 15 U.S.C... purposes and by or in anticipation of the exercise of war powers, from any person subject to its jurisdiction securities of a person organized under the laws of the United States or any State or Territory,...

  3. 17 CFR 230.143 - Definition of “has purchased”, “sells for”, “participates”, and “participation”, as used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchased, sells for, participates, and participation, in section 2(11) (48 Stat. 74, 48 Stat. 905; 15 U.S.C... purposes and by or in anticipation of the exercise of war powers, from any person subject to its jurisdiction securities of a person organized under the laws of the United States or any State or Territory,...

  4. 30 CFR 206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... multiplied by the royalty rate in your lease or that BLM prescribes under 43 CFR 3211.18. See § 206.361 for... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... Geothermal Resources § 206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purchaser multiplied by the royalty rate in your lease or that BLM prescribes under 43 CFR 3211.18. See... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... purchaser multiplied by the royalty rate in your lease or that BLM prescribes under 43 CFR 3211.18. See... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purchaser multiplied by the royalty rate in your lease or that BLM prescribes under 43 CFR 3211.18. See... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell...

  8. 40 CFR 1068.261 - What provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What provisions apply for selling or... keep an inventory of these randomly selected parts, consistent with good engineering judgment and...

  9. Selling. Unit 16. Level 3. Instructor Guide. PACE. Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 303-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on selling in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 3 of learning--starting and managing…

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The

  12. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  13. Web sites selling cigarettes: how many are there in the USA and what are their sales practices?

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, K.; Kim, A.; Williams, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number and geographic location of web sites selling cigarettes in the USA, and to examine their sales and marketing practices.
METHODS—Comprehensive searches were conducted using four keyword terms and five popular internet search engines, supplemented by sites identified in a news article. Over 1800 sites were examined to identify 88 internet cigarette vendors.
MEASURES—Trained raters examined the content of each site using a standardised coding instrument to assess geographic location, presence of warnings, products sold, and promotional strategies.
SETTING—USA.
RESULTS—Internet cigarette vendors were located in 23 states. Nearly half (n = 43) were located in New York state, and many were in tobacco producing states with low cigarette excise taxes. Indian reservations housed 49 of the 88 sites. Only 28.4% of sites featured the US Surgeon General's health warnings and 81.8% featured minimum age of sale warnings. Nearly all sites (96.6%) sold premium or value brand cigarettes, 21.6% sold duty-free Marlboros, and 8.0% sold bidis. Approximately one third featured special promotional programmes.
CONCLUSIONS—Internet cigarette vendors present new regulatory and enforcement challenges for tobacco control advocates because of the difficulty in regulating internet content and because many vendors are on Indian reservations.


Keywords: youth access; internet; web sites; policy PMID:11740027

  14. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... member(s) of my immediate family do not have full title? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and... for which I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family do not have full title? If you use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which you and/or a member(s) of your immediate...

  15. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  16. Financial Knudsen number: Breakdown of continuous price dynamics and asymmetric buy-and-sell structures confirmed by high-precision order-book information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-10-01

    We generalize the description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets in terms of a Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of incoming, exiting, and annihilating particles by presenting a model of the velocity on each side (buy and sell) independently. The improved model builds on the time-averaged number of particles in the inner layer and its change per unit time, where the inner layer is revealed by the correlations between price velocity and change in the number of particles (limit orders). This allows us to introduce the Knudsen number of the financial Brownian particle motion and its asymmetric version (on the buy and sell sides). Not being considered previously, the asymmetric Knudsen numbers are crucial in finance in order to detect asymmetric price changes. The Knudsen numbers allows us to characterize the conditions for the market dynamics to be correctly described by a continuous stochastic process. Not questioned until now for large liquid markets such as the USD-JPY and EUR-USD exchange rates, we show that there are regimes when the Knudsen numbers are so high that discrete particle effects dominate, such as during market stresses and crashes. We document the presence of imbalances of particles depletion rates on the buy and sell sides that are associated with high Knudsen numbers and violent directional price changes. This indicator can detect the direction of the price motion at the early stage while the usual volatility risk measure is blind to the price direction.

  17. Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Methods Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Results Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Conclusion Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be responsive both to the health

  18. Public and private sector responses to essential drugs policies: a multilevel analysis of drug prescription and selling practices in Mali.

    PubMed

    Maïga, Fatoumata Ina; Haddad, Slim; Fournier, Pierre; Gauvin, Lise

    2003-09-01

    Many African countries have introduced cost recovery mechanisms based on the sale of drugs and measures aimed at improving drug supply. This study compares prescribing and selling practices in Mali, in 3 cities where the public sector contributes differentially to the supply of drugs on the market. Multilevel models are used to analyse the content and cost of 700 medication transactions observed in 14 private and public legal points of sale. Results show that the objective of improving access to drugs seems to have been achieved in the sites studied. Costs of prescriptions were lower where public health services had been revitalized. Affordable generic drugs were accessible and widely used, even in the private sector. However, measures intended to rationalize the prescription and delivery of drugs did not always have the desired effect. While agents in the public sector tended to prescribe fewer antibiotics, injectables, or brand-name drugs, the data confirm the virtual absence of advice concerning the use or the side effects of the drugs in both public and private sectors. In addition, data supported the notion that the public and private sectors are closely intertwined. Notably, availability of drugs in the public sector contributed to diminishing the prices charged in the private sector. Similarly, the use that agents in the public sector made of the opportunities afforded by the presence of the private pharmaceutical sector provided another illustration of interrelatedness. Finally, the data showed that the presence of a private sector, which has not been affected by measures aimed at rationalizing prescription and sales practices, limits the effects of measures implemented in the public sector. More assertive policies, based on strategies encompassing actors in the private sector, are needed to increase the safety and effectiveness of prescription and sales practices.

  19. Buying and Selling “Loosies” in Baltimore: The Informal Exchange of Cigarettes in the Community Context

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-01-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General’s report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18–24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes (“loosies”) within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities. PMID:17431795

  20. Selling brand MD.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1999-08-01

    Health care is more than local, of course: It's personal. Recognizing the connections between doctors and patients as a potent form of brand loyalty, health systems are looking for ways to leverage those bonds--and encourage new ones--with special marketing campaigns.

  1. Selling your sol

    SciTech Connect

    Canough, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    At almost every solar energy conference there is a session called Marketing Solar. Most of these had nothing to do with what the rest of the business world calls marketing. For example, at a conference last year, the Marketing Solar session was a series of presentations about demo projects. Most solar energy people are still talking about payback. While it is nice to be able to claim that something will save you money that is only one reason people are interested in or buy a certain product. And it's not the number one reason. Time after time marketing experts will show you surveys of customers where price was not the top consideration at all. People do not buy luxury automobiles because they are cheap. They don't buy hot tubs for payback. What does it take to get someone to buy a solar energy system. To what do you have to appeal? What techniques make a sale? The author discusses the answers to these questions based on his experience.

  2. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The prospective NASA contractor is provided with information that describes the agency and its procurement practices. Products include ideas, manufacturing capabilities, fabricated components, construction, basic materials, and specialized services. NASA assistance in marketing these and other products is emphasized. Small and minority business enterprises are discussed. The agency's scientific and technical information activities are also discussed.

  3. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Prospective contractors are acquainted with the organizational structure of NASA, and the major technical program offices and selected staff offices at the Headquarters level are briefly described. The basic procedures for Federal procurement are covered. A primer is presented on how to market to NASA. While the information is specific to NASA, many of the principles are applicable to other agencies as well. Some of the major programs are introduced which are available to small and disadvantaged businesses. The major research programs and fields of interest at individual NASA centers are summarized.

  4. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  5. The selling of olestra.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    1998-01-01

    The Procter & Gamble Company spent 30 years and an estimated $500 million to bring its non-digestible fat substitute, olestra, to market. The Food and Drug Administration approved olestra as a food additive but requires products containing olestra to carry a warning statement about its potential effects on gastrointestinal function. In obtaining approval for olestra, P&G conducted a lengthy, persistent, and comprehensive campaign to enlist support from members of Congress; FDA staff; and food, nutrition, and health professionals. This campaign raises larger questions about corporate influence on government policies, and the relationships of corporations to health professionals. To address these larger concerns, the author reviews the history of olestra's approval; describes P&G's campaign to obtain support from FDA and Congress, to defend olestra against critics, and to market it to professionals, the press, and consumers; and suggests implications for public health policies. PMID:9847922

  6. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

  7. Education that Sells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the export of post-secondary education, together with the educational models and methodologies, by Canada to meet considerable international demands. In addition, their post-secondary institutions actively market their services overseas to attract international students to Canadian campuses. In the developed and developing…

  8. The selling of olestra.

    PubMed Central

    Nestle, M

    1998-01-01

    The Procter & Gamble Company spent 30 years and an estimated $500 million to bring its non-digestible fat substitute, olestra, to market. The Food and Drug Administration approved olestra as a food additive but requires products containing olestra to carry a warning statement about its potential effects on gastrointestinal function. In obtaining approval for olestra, P&G conducted a lengthy, persistent, and comprehensive campaign to enlist support from members of Congress; FDA staff; and food, nutrition, and health professionals. This campaign raises larger questions about corporate influence on government policies, and the relationships of corporations to health professionals. To address these larger concerns, the author reviews the history of olestra's approval; describes P&G's campaign to obtain support from FDA and Congress, to defend olestra against critics, and to market it to professionals, the press, and consumers; and suggests implications for public health policies. Images p508-a p509-a p510-a p511-a p512-a p513-a p515-a p516-a p517-a PMID:9847922

  9. Buying and Selling Laserbases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Discusses factors that should be considered by buyers and producers of databases on CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory). The advantages and disadvantages of CD-ROM are also discussed and compared with those of magnetic and print media, and market projections are provided. (CLB)

  10. Selling Microforms to Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Marjorie H.

    1978-01-01

    Methods employed to obtain funding from managers for microform equipment in a small industrial research library included the consultation of library literature, the identification of in-house operations potentially affected, and the accurate determination of industry-wide and in-house familiarity with and receptiveness to microforms. Written…

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information

  12. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles.

  13. Quali-quantitative analysis of best selling drugs from pharmacy, street market and traditional herbal medicine: a pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. PMID:25481086

  14. Can the government ban organ sale? Recent court challenges and the future of US law on selling human organs and other tissue.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I G

    2012-08-01

    On December 1, 2011, in Flynn v. Holder, a panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) from a constitutional challenge, but interpreted the act such that its prohibition on sale did not encompass "peripheral blood stem cells" obtained through apheresis. Rehearing of the case was denied on March 27, 2012. The Obama administration must now decide whether to pursue its challenge in the US Supreme Court. This article explains the litigation, its significance and uses it as a backdrop against which to understand the history and future trajectory of the laws governing selling organs and other human tissue.

  15. Can the government ban organ sale? Recent court challenges and the future of US law on selling human organs and other tissue.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I G

    2012-08-01

    On December 1, 2011, in Flynn v. Holder, a panel of the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) from a constitutional challenge, but interpreted the act such that its prohibition on sale did not encompass "peripheral blood stem cells" obtained through apheresis. Rehearing of the case was denied on March 27, 2012. The Obama administration must now decide whether to pursue its challenge in the US Supreme Court. This article explains the litigation, its significance and uses it as a backdrop against which to understand the history and future trajectory of the laws governing selling organs and other human tissue. PMID:22594492

  16. Gnawing Pains, Festering Ulcers, and Nightmare Suffering: Selling Leprosy as a Humanitarian Cause in the British Empire, c. 1890-1960

    PubMed Central

    Vongsathorn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    When British attention was drawn to the issue of leprosy in the Empire, humanitarian organisations rose to take on responsibility for the ‘fight against leprosy’. In an effort to fundraise for a distant cause at a time when hundreds of charities competed for the financial support of British citizens, fundraisers developed propaganda to set leprosy apart from all other humanitarian causes. They drew on leprosy’s relationship with Christianity, its debilitating symptoms, and the supposed vulnerability of leprosy sufferers in order to mobilise Britain’s sense of humanitarian, Christian, and patriotic duty. This article traces the emergence of leprosy as a popular imperial humanitarian cause in modern Britain and analyses the narratives of religion, suffering, and disease that they created and employed in order to fuel their growth and sell leprosy as a British humanitarian cause. PMID:24932060

  17. How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics. PMID:27179197

  18. S. 395: A Bill to authorize and direct the Secretary of Energy to sell the Alaska Power Administration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains S.395, a Bill to authorize and direct the Secretary of Energy to sell the Alaska Power Administration, and for other purposes. This bill was introduced in the Senate of the United States, 104th Congress, First session, February 13, 1995.

  19. Isn't that special. Louisiana hospital could be the first--and, if successful, probably not the last--to finance a new facility by selling bonds to doctors.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, Mary Chris

    2003-05-12

    Lafayette (La.) General Medical Center is trying to raise funds for a $75 million heart hospital by selling bonds to doctors. If the sale is successful, a flood of similar deals could follow. The project's chief architect, Robert Rosenfield, left, says his firm already is working on 25 to 30 additional deals. What effect will this type of financial arrangement have on the healthcare industry? PMID:12776451

  20. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. PMID:26191956

  1. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  2. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic

  3. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads.

  4. Honors Sells . . . But Who's Paying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    High school students on the college prep track are going to greater lengths to become competitive applicants for honors programs and their attendant scholarships, especially in the face of escalating college costs. All stakeholders in honors education--students, families, teachers, and administrators--face steeper financial challenges than they…

  5. Valuing and selling a practice.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Surgeons, as they contemplate retirement, wrongly believe that their practices do not have financial value. In fact, a well-organized efficiently functioning office with an emphasis on excellent service in combination with a constant stream of patients make it financially ideal for the new surgeon. Being able to assume such a practice can be a very smart financial decision. The practice's worth can be determined by a careful analysis of the practice financials and an evaluation of the functioning of the office and employees. Purchasing such a practice can be, economically, a very smart move by a new surgeon. Payments are made over time at a rate that allows the surgeon to make a good living, leaving him with real equity once the payments are complete. The departing surgeon, who had spent years building this successful practice, gets some of this value back in the form of an income stream to supplement his retirement. This process should be considered in virtually every case. Do not just "close the door."

  6. The Selling of Student Loans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago, a U.S. Senate aide walked into a bank in Maine and saw a sign that read "Take out a student loan today, get a toaster." The aide, concerned that students would be tempted to take out loans they did not need, drafted legislation barring lenders from offering "inducements" to borrow. That language was added to the Higher Education…

  7. South Carolina Guide for Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Ronald T.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a secondary course in salesmanship. It contains 6 units that cover 33 competencies. Each competency is presented in a standard format: performance objective, resources, teaching activities, evaluation, and supplementary materials, including an information sheet, exercises, and checklists. Units and…

  8. How to sell safer sex.

    PubMed

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  9. The Selling of the Subliminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Describes Expandovision, a microcomputer-television connection which enables users to flash brief messages designed to improve their behavior on their television screens. Several incidents where subliminal persuasion has been used on television viewers in the past are recounted, and the effectiveness and dangers of subliminal persuasion are…

  10. Selling Complementary Patents: Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J; Santore, Rudy; McKee, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Production requiring licensing groups of complementary patents implements a coordination game among patent holders, who can price patents by choosing among combinations of fixed and royalty fees. Summed across patents, these fees become the total producer cost of the package of patents. Royalties, because they function as excise taxes, add to marginal costs, resulting in higher prices and reduced quantities of the downstream product and lower payoffs to the patent holders. Using fixed fees eliminates this inefficiency but yields a more complex coordination game in which there are multiple equilibria, which are very fragile in that small mistakes can lead the downstream firm to not license the technology, resulting in inefficient outcomes. We report on a laboratory market investigation of the efficiency effects of coordinated pricing of patents in a patent pool. We find that pool-like pricing agreements can yield fewer coordination failures in the pricing of complementary patents.

  11. The Selling of a Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The Lister Hill Network was a federally supported program designed to share computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs among health science institutions through a national computer network. In May 1975, federal support of the program was discontinued. At that time, the Health Education Network Users Group (HENUG) was formed to insure the…

  12. Student Recruitment: The Hard Sell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Tony

    1975-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons concerning advertising for recruitment using three modes of analyses - economics, ethics, and law. The author concludes that advertising is an invaluable technique for information dispersal in higher education. (Author/PG)

  13. Designing Libraries to Sell Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elaine

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the need for effective design considerations in libraries to attract users. Having attractive entrances, using space effectively, creating assignable space, providing comfortable seating, avoiding crowding and barriers, and having a flexible design to accommodate technological change are among the areas discussed. (CHC)

  14. Marketing and selling product security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Sharon

    1998-04-01

    The risk run for counterfeiting and diversion is significantly smaller than that for armed robbery, the latter involving getting killed or being jailed. The industry of valuable products, therefore, must authenticate their products using overt, and/or semi-covert, and/or covert technology. As a result counterfeiting and diversion are limited, while sales and revenues are stimulated. Relevant market categories are government, health and safety, non-consumables, and consumables. To make security measures function adequately, manufacturers of valuable goods must be not only be provided with application equipment and know how, but also with the necessary services.

  15. Selling cheap sex and seashells.

    PubMed

    West, J

    1993-03-01

    Sri Lanka became known as a gay paradise with the advent of tourism in the late 1970s. UNICEF estimates that up to 15,000 boys in Sri Lanka may engage in homosexual prostitution. Nearly 400,000 tourists visited Sri Lanka in 1992, 50,000 of them British. The probable increase of high risk sexual contacts between tourists and Sri Lankan youths worries the government's health department. By early 1993, there were only 22 cases of AIDS and 65 people who tested HIV positive. But the government's chief venereologist says there are around 200,000 cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year, and it is estimated that as many as 2500 Sri Lankans are HIV positive. In a population of 17 million, this figure is small, but it represents an increase of 300% in just over a year. The parallels with nearby Thailand, where HIV spread explosively, are ominous. Unfortunately, cultural taboos make sex education difficult. A UNICEF doctor described the first television commercials about AIDS as ridiculous. Ignorance about AIDS is almost total. Most boy prostitutes have heard of AIDS but few use condoms and none realize that the disease kills. Organizations like Save the Children Fund recognize the magnitude of the problem but admit that reaching the beach boys, who are financially independent, is difficult. In an attempt to attack the problem, 2 social organizations compiled a list of beach boys in Hikkaduwa, the most popular tourist resort, and invited them for counselling and voluntary AIDS testing, but no one showed up. PMID:12286737

  16. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is the dominating lactic acid bacterium in retail modified-atmosphere-packaged marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day.

    PubMed

    Susiluoto, Tuija; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2003-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in retail, modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), marinated broiler meat strips on sell-by-day were mainly identified as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum. A total of 32 packages, three to five packages of seven differently marinated broiler meat products, were studied at the end of the producer-defined shelf life (at 6 degrees C, 7-9 days depending on the manufacturer). Prior to the microbiological analyses, appearance and smell of the product was checked and pH measured. Bacteria were cultured on MRS and Tomato Juice Agar (TJA), Rogosa SL agar (SLA), Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Streptomycin Thallium Acetate Agar (STAA) for the enumeration of LAB, lactobacilli, total bacterial count and Brochothrix thermosphacta, respectively. The average CFU/g of the 32 packages was 2.3 x 10(8) on PCA. The highest bacterial average, 3.1 x 10(8), was recovered on TJA, the corresponding CFU/g averages on MRS and SLA being 2.3 x 10(8) and 1.3 x 10(8), respectively. Despite the high LAB numbers detected, radical spoilage changes such as unpleasant odor, slime production and formation of gas were not seen. B. thermosphacta did not form a significant part of the bacterial population since none of the levels exceeded the spoilage threshold level of 10(5) CFU/g reported in previous studies for this organism. In order to characterize the dominating LAB population, as many as 85, 85 and 88 colonies from MRS, TJA and SLA, respectively, were randomly picked and cultured pure. LAB were identified to species level using a 16 and 23S rDNA HindIiI RFLP (ribotyping) database. Fifty-six of the 170 isolates picked from the non-selective LAB media (MRS and TJA) were identified as L. gasicomitatum, followed by Carnobacterium divergens (41 isolates), Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus subsp. melibiosus (31 isolates) and L. curvatus subsp. curvatus (20 isolates) species. SLA proved not to be completely selective for lactobacilli because the growth of Leuconostoc spp. was not

  17. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1) Experimental

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    new process shows improved overall ethanol yields compared to traditional dilute acid pretreatment. The experimental results from this work support the techno-economic analysis and calculation of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) detailed in our companion paper. PMID:22888758

  18. “First, do no harm”: legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10–17 who sell sex or inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10–17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory “rehabilitation” in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10–17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. Discussion As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10–17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10–17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent

  19. H.R. 887: A Bill to amend title 10, United States Code, to require the Secretary of Energy to sell the naval petroleum reserves since such reserves are no longer necessary for the national security of the United States. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This bill is proposed to require the Secretary of Energy to immediately begin actions to sell the naval petroleum reserves. The Secretary is given one year to finalize the sale, unless the Secretary is unable to complete the sale for fair market value. The sale is required to be a competitive type sales transaction.

  20. Selling Academe to the Technology Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, David F.

    1998-01-01

    Confusion over the role to be played by technology in college instruction is common, with administration sometimes in opposition to faculty over transformation of courses into courseware and the action of teaching into commercially viable property. The major proponents of such a transformation include vendors of network hardware, software, and…

  1. Review Citations for Best-Selling Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1979-01-01

    Compares "Book Review Digest,""Book Review Index," and "Current Book Review Citations" for their coverage of titles appearing on the best-seller lists of "Publishers Weekly." Methodology is described and results are provided for both 1976 and 1978 titles. (Author/JD)

  2. Selling Schools to Information Technology Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundley, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Most higher-education institutions cannot compete with business/industry for information-technology (IT) workers, but can level the playing field by capitalizing on workers' desire for professional-development opportunities. Strategies include using the appeal of the institution's mission and as a training ground for future IT workers; redesigning…

  3. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  4. The Humanities: Why Such a Hard Sell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Schools have traditionally had the goal of helping students grow in three areas: personal, economic, and civic. In recent years, however, the economic realm has taken precedence, with careers and credentials becoming a focus of education policy. In this article, Ferrero bewails the lack of support for the more personal and civic aims of education…

  5. Selling wind: Lessons in green niche marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Gregory Edward

    Concern about global warming, energy independence, and threats to oil supply have increased attention on wind and other forms of renewable energy. Yet after more than twenty years, the wind industry remains dependent on government interventions. This research examined the potential of renewable energy credits (RECs) to help wind energy become profitable. Messages used to promote wind and solar energy RECs were compared with those for sustainable building materials. Findings confirm a still immature approach to marketing and sales. None of those interviewed either recognized the value of or had taken action to ensure customer retention nor recognized the role socially conscious and active consumers might play in promoting and helping develop the industry. Recommended actions include continuing research on effective marketing strategies and development of a coordinated industry message.

  6. Simplicity sells: Making smoking cessation easier.

    PubMed

    Bonniot Saucedo, Catherine; Schroeder, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Toll-free telephone quitlines are successful alternatives to direct clinician contact. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services created a national quitline number, 1-800-QUIT-NOW. This enabled states without quitlines to establish them, giving free access to cessation services to every smoker in the U.S. It also created a new mechanism for national quitline marketing, employing simplified and streamlined approaches.

  7. Selling Young People on the Symphony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimpton, Jeffrey; Lestz, Glenn M.

    1985-01-01

    How the Wichita (Kansas) Public Schools and the Wichita Symphony developed a young people's concert format that is educationally, musically, and logistically sound is described. A spirit of cooperation and interdependence between private and public art organizations is necessary to foster student interest in the arts. (RM)

  8. Gentrifying Water and Selling Jim Crow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett

    2002-01-01

    Explores the gentrification of Washington, D.C.'s Anacostia watershed, tracing the projects of federal and local government to devitalize and demolish living black relationships and institutions while reifying lost, invented, or imagined communities. Explores connections among capital, community, culture, and state power. Examines problems in the…

  9. Mission statements: selling corporate values to employees.

    PubMed

    Klemm, M; Sanderson, S; Luffman, G

    1991-06-01

    This article investigates the reasons for the increasing use of the Company Mission Statement. Using information from a survey of U.K. companies in 1989 it looks at the types of statements issued by companies, their content, usage, and value to managers. Of particular interest is whether the mission is primarily used for the motivation of staff, or for external image building. Related issues are the value of the mission drafting process in bringing managers together to agree common objectives and the use of a hierarchy of statements to reconcile internal and external stakeholders' interests. The conclusion is that the Mission, which includes a statement of company values, is an important tool for managers to assert their leadership within the organization.

  10. How to sell services more profitably.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Werner; Ulaga, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    When products become commodities, manufacturing companies may seek to differentiate themselves with value-added services--a potentially profitable strategy. Unfortunately, companies often stumble in the effort. Reinartz and Ulaga conducted in-depth studies of 18 leading companies in a broad variety of product markets to learn what distinguished the successes from the rest. They discovered four steps to developing a profitable services capability. RECOGNIZE THAT YOU ALREADY HAVE A SERVICE COMPANY: You can identify and charge for simple services--as Merck did when it stopped quietly absorbing shipping costs. Switching services from free to fee clarifies their value for managers as well as for customers. INDUSTRIALIZE THE BACK OFFICE: To prevent delivery costs from eating up service-offering margins, build flexible service platforms, closely monitor process costs, and exploit new technologies that enable process innovations. The Swedish bearings manufacturer SKF provided off-site access to an online monitoring tool that could warn of potential failure in customers' machines. CREATE A SERVICE-SAVVY SALES FORCE: Services require longer sales cycles and, often, decisions from high up in a customer's hierarchy; what's more, product salespeople may be inimical to change. Schneider-Electric did a major overhaul of its sales organization and trained its people to switch from cost-plus pricing to value-based pricing. FOCUS ON CUSTOMERS' PROCESSES AND THE OPPORTUNITIES THEY AFFORD FOR NEW SERVICE OFFERINGS: You may need to acquire new capabilities to take advantage of those opportunities: The industrial coatings specialist PPG had to learn how painting robots function after it offered to take over Fiat's Torino paint shop. Services can both lock in customers and help acquire new accounts. They should be developed with care and attention.

  11. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  12. Chinese Summer Schools Sell Quick Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth; Farrar, Lara

    2013-01-01

    American-style summer programs in China, catering to Chinese-born students, have taken American universities by surprise. They are yet one more player in the complex and often opaque Chinese education industry, an industry in which American colleges are finding themselves increasingly entwined. These programs have become a booming enterprise,…

  13. Outrageous fortune: selling other people's cells.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1990-01-01

    In 1984, physician David Golde and others at the University of California patented a cell line developed from cells removed from John Moore, a patient of Golde's. Moore alleged that he had not consented to this use of his cells. He filed suit against Golde for breaching a physician's fiduciary duty to a patient, and against those profiting from the cell line for a share of the profits. On appeal, the California Supreme Court supported Moore's duty claim against Golde, but refused to grant him ownership interest in his cells after they had been removed from his body. Annas reviews the five-to-two decision, arguing against the majority's reasons for rejecting Moore's claim against all the defendents except Golde, and concurring with the opinions of the two dissenting justices. Annas foresees a legislative solution to the questions raised by commerce in human organs, tissues, and cells.

  14. WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO SELL FEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBRACHT, JAMES J.

    TO DETERMINE THE VOCATIONAL COMPETENCIES NECESSARY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NINE ESSENTIAL SALES ACTIVITIES IN THE FEED INDUSTRY, A JURY OF 24 FEED DEALERS, SALES TRAINING DIRECTORS, AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION RESEARCHERS, AND BUSINESS EDUCATION RESEARCHERS MADE "YES" AND "NO" DETERMINATIONS FOR 40 COMPETENCIES. THE NUMBER OF COMPETENCIES CONSIDERED…

  15. Sell or not to sell - a pastoralist's dilemma: a lesson from the slaughterhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Perevolotsky, A.

    1986-09-01

    Marketing strategies employed by herders in Piura, a coastal region in northern Peru, are discussed in conjunction with ecological and economic factors. Data from regional slaughterhouses' help in analyzing decisions concerning livestock offtakes and in understanding the rationale behind them. Piura is characterized by sharp weather changes, amplified by the El Nino phenomenon. The variations in precipitation and forage availability strongly affect production, structure, and dynamics of the herds and are therefore a significant component in determining the actual marketing decision strategy. Pure herders adopt an insurance strategy emphasizing a build-up of herds during abundant years in order to compensate for considerable losses caused by frequent droughts. The use of stubble and concentrated feed in coping with droughts is restricted by economic and social factors. Agropastoralists are affected not only by ecological factors but also by labor availability, agricultural cash requirements, and household needs. As a result, these goat keepers practice a capital-manipulation strategy in which goats and kids are used as a form of capital. The paper provides an empirical representation of these two marketing strategies based on slaughterhouses' records and a complementary field survey.

  16. Selling off or selling out? Medical schools and ethical leadership in tobacco stock divestment.

    PubMed

    Wander, Nathaniel; Malone, Ruth E

    2004-11-01

    Medical and health science schools occupy a prestigious place in U.S. society. When they express a position on tobacco use--either by action or silence--that expression is consequential. Recognizing this, the tobacco industry has worked to sustain and exploit relationships with academic health sciences institutions. Corporate contributions to medical research are more visible, but institutional investments in tobacco stocks are also crucial to these relationships. The American Medical Association divested (sold) its tobacco holdings in 1986, urging others to do the same. Yet, as late as 2004, at least five of the leading dozen medical schools have not divested, and those that have seem reluctant to publicize their actions. The authors use internal tobacco industry documents and secondary source material to describe and analyze Philip Morris's response to two cases of threatened academic divestment. In each case, the world's largest tobacco company succeeded in minimizing the impact of divestment activities--in the first, by muting the consequences of a divestment, and in the second, by convincing university decisionmakers to recommend against tobacco stock divestment. In addition to arguing that tobacco divestment would lead to other pressures or be ineffective, the company exploited university concerns about losing corporate research funding as a key element of its antidivestment strategy. If academic medical centers regard protection of the public's health as a primary mission, divestment from tobacco holdings is essential; profiting from tobacco either through investments or research funding undermines this mission. Silent divestment squanders opportunities for ethical leadership and public dialogue.

  17. "I have seen the future": selling the unsustainable city.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Seventy years ago, General Motors’ Highways and Horizons exhibit at the World’s Fair, designed by Norman Bel Geddes and Eero Saarinen, promoted demand for cars and federal highways without any concern for environmental sustainability, the theme of our 2010 conference. The main exhibit included a sequence of four parts (entrance ramps, map lobby, Futurama ride, and “intersection of 1960”) where the viewer’s perception of spatial scale was manipulated. Setha M. Low’s theory of “embodied space” helps decode why movement through these diverse spaces influenced millions of Americans’ views of transportation and urban form, a promotional success yet to be equaled by advocates of environmental sustainability. PMID:22329067

  18. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    PubMed

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in. PMID:25551631

  19. Turning On: The Selling of the Present, 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Bryant

    1971-01-01

    Advocates teachers' working with students "toward a better understanding of media's personal and social effects, and toward freedom from media addiction"; a paper presented at annual convention of National Council of Teachers of English (Atlanta, November 27, 1970). (Author/RD)

  20. International Studies a Hard Sell in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    North Carolina boasts a growing network of global-studies magnet schools, a prominent university center that sponsors training on international issues and study trips abroad for thousands of teachers, an innovative recruitment program to attract teachers from around the globe, and a popular former governor who has championed the cause of …

  1. Polymer therapeutics: Top 10 selling pharmaceuticals - what next?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ruth

    2014-09-28

    At the time of the first issue of the Journal of Controlled Release (JCR), polymeric drugs, polymer-drug and protein conjugates and block copolymer micelles carrying bound drugs, i.e. polymer therapeutics, were still regarded as scientific curiosities with little or no prospect of generating practical to use medicines. How this perception has changed. Many major Pharma now have R&D programmes in this area and in 2013 two polymer therapeutics, Copaxone and Neulasta, are featured in the Top 10 US pharmaceutical sales list. Although there are a growing number of marketed products (e.g. PEGylated proteins, a PEG-aptamer and oral polymeric sequestrants), and the first follow-on (generic products) are emerging, the first polymer-drug conjugates and block copolymer micelle products (as covalent conjugates) have yet to enter routine clinical use. Industrial familiarity and recent advances in the underpinning scientific disciplines will no doubt accelerate the transfer of polymer therapeutics into clinically useful medicines and imaging agents. This short personal perspective reflects on the current status of polymer therapeutics and the future opportunities to improve their successful translation. It adds to recent and historical reviews that comprehensively document the evolution of the field since JCR was born.

  2. Do Sell-Side Stock Analysts Exhibit Escalation of Commitment?

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Milkman, Katherine L

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company's quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year's earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed.

  3. Selling the Work Ethic: From Puritan Pulpit to Corporate PR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Sharon

    This book provides an account and critique of the work ethic, a central aspect of modern capitalist society. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 considers social changes in Europe in the 16th-17th centuries, maintaining that work was imbued with moral qualities and wealth seeking acquired social legitimacy through religious sanction. Chapter 3…

  4. Vo-Ed's Role in Selling Solar Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Milton E.; Valentine, Ivan E.

    1976-01-01

    Speaks to the role of vocational education in providing massive training programs to prepare technicians and other service personnel to perform installation and service functions necessary to support architects and engineers designing and developing solar energy systems. (HD)

  5. Selling Software: How Vendors Manipulate Research and Cheat Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Educational software makers are often rebuffed by educational authorities, whose endorsements could lead to governmental stamps of approval, and thus explosive sales. But they usually get warmer receptions in the offices of the nation's school superintendents, who are, after all, their primary customers. The system was not supposed to work this…

  6. The Commission Game: An Ethics Activity for Professional Selling Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewicz, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Commission Game is an experiment-based experiential learning activity designed to elicit students' sincere ethical decision making in an ambiguous sales context. The activity includes multiple relevant stakeholders as well as tangible, shared risk/reward elements. The activity's design encourages students to contemplate their own personal code…

  7. Instrumentational complexity of music genres and why simplicity sells.

    PubMed

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an 'instrumentational complexity value' to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. 'New wave' or 'disco' quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like 'folk rock' remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in.

  8. Instrumentational Complexity of Music Genres and Why Simplicity Sells

    PubMed Central

    Percino, Gamaliel; Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening habits are strongly influenced by two opposing aspects, the desire for variety and the demand for uniformity in music. In this work we quantify these two notions in terms of instrumentation and production technologies that are typically involved in crafting popular music. We assign an ‘instrumentational complexity value’ to each music style. Styles of low instrumentational complexity tend to have generic instrumentations that can also be found in many other styles. Styles of high complexity, on the other hand, are characterized by a large variety of instruments that can only be found in a small number of other styles. To model these results we propose a simple stochastic model that explicitly takes the capabilities of artists into account. We find empirical evidence that individual styles show dramatic changes in their instrumentational complexity over the last fifty years. ‘New wave’ or ‘disco’ quickly climbed towards higher complexity in the 70s and fell back to low complexity levels shortly afterwards, whereas styles like ‘folk rock’ remained at constant high instrumentational complexity levels. We show that changes in the instrumentational complexity of a style are related to its number of sales and to the number of artists contributing to that style. As a style attracts a growing number of artists, its instrumentational variety usually increases. At the same time the instrumentational uniformity of a style decreases, i.e. a unique stylistic and increasingly complex expression pattern emerges. In contrast, album sales of a given style typically increase with decreasing instrumentational complexity. This can be interpreted as music becoming increasingly formulaic in terms of instrumentation once commercial or mainstream success sets in. PMID:25551631

  9. Colleges Face Tough Sell to Freshmen, Survey Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Freshmen are more concerned about academic quality and affordability than they have been in decades, according to an annual survey conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California at Los Angeles. Sixty-three percent of students said academic reputation was a very-important factor in selecting a college, an…

  10. Creating and selling embryos for "donation": ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert; Sauer, Mark V

    2015-02-01

    The commercial creation and sale of embryos has begun, which poses a series of ethical questions that have received little scholarly attention. Some of the concerns that arise are similar to those posed by the sale of gametes, while other issues differ markedly. Questions emerge, first, regarding the rights of the unborn children and their ability to know their biological parents. Companies that create human embryos de novo may wish to keep gamete providers anonymous. Many of these offspring thus will never learn that their parents are not their biologic parents. Yet, such disclosures, regarding not only one but both of these biologic parents, may be important for these individuals; and a lack of this knowledge may impede their physical and psychological health. Second, questions surface regarding the fees that providers should charge for embryos and whether these amounts should vary based on the traits of 1 or both of the gamete donors. Some prospective parents may seek specific traits in a baby (eg, height or eye/hair coloring), which prompts the creation of embryos from 2 gamete donors who possess these characteristics. Third, ownership of embryos created without an advanced directive by patients poses dilemmas (eg, disposition of any remaining embryos). Fourth, guidelines do not yet exist to limit the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors. Hence, unbeknownst to each other, full siblings could potentially meet, get married, and procreate. This discussion has several critical implications for future practice and professional education and policy. Patients with diseases associated with genetic tests may well ask obstetricians, gynecologists, and other physicians about these techniques and practices. Clinicians can refer such patients to assisted reproductive technology specialists; however, familiarity with the basic aspects of the issues and complexities involved could aid these providers and their patients Several of these issues can be addressed relatively easily through guidelines from professional associations (eg, limiting the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors). Because creation and sales of embryos will likely spread, consideration of appropriate responses is critical to establish standards of care to help the future offspring, and ensure ongoing public trust.

  11. Selling the story: Narratives and charisma in adults with TBI

    PubMed Central

    JONES, CORINNE A.; TURKSTRA, LYN S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine storytelling performance behaviours in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and relate these behaviours to perceived charisma and desirability as a conversation partner. Design and methods Seven adult males with traumatic brain injury (TBI) told their accident narratives to a male confederate. Ten male undergraduate students rated 1-minute video clips from the beginning of each narrative using the Charismatic Leadership Communication Scale (CLCS). Raters also indicated whether or not they would like to engage in conversation with each participant. Results Of the performative behaviours analysed, gestures alone significantly influenced CLCS ratings and reported likelihood of engaging in future conversation with the participant. Post-hoc analysis revealed that speech rate was significantly correlated with all of the preceding measures. There was a significant correlation between self- and other-ratings of charisma. Conclusions The findings suggest that aspects of non-verbal performance, namely gesture use and speech rate, influence how charismatic an individual is perceived to be and how likely someone is to engage in conversation with that person. Variability in these performance behaviours may contribute to the variation in social outcomes seen in the TBI population. PMID:21714624

  12. Knowing what to sell, when, and to whom.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Venkatesan, Rajkumar; Reinartz, Werner

    2006-03-01

    Despite an abundance of data, most companies do a poor job of predicting the behavior of their customers. In fact, the authors' research suggests that even companies that take the greatest trouble over their predictions about whether a particular customer will buy a particular product are correct only around 55% of the time--a result that hardly justifies the costs of having a CRM system in the first place. Businesses usually conclude from studies like this that it's impossible to use the past to predict the future, so they revert to the timeworn marketing practice of inundating their customers with offers. But as the authors explain, the reason for the poor predictions is not any basic limitation of CRM systems or the predictive power of past behavior, but rather of the mathematical methods that companies use to interpret the data. The authors have developed a new way of predicting customer behavior, based on the work of the Nobel Prize-winning economist Daniel McFadden, that delivers vastly improved results. Indeed, the methodology increases the odds of successfully predicting a specific purchase by a specific customer at a specific time to about 85%, a number that will have a major impact on any company's marketing ROI. What's more, using this methodology, companies can increase revenues while reducing their frequency of customer contact-evidence that overcommunication with customers may actually damage a company's sales. PMID:16515161

  13. "Creative solutions": selling cigarettes in a smoke-free world

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Malone, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the development and execution of the "Creative Solutions" Benson & Hedges advertising campaign to understand its social, political, and commercial implications. Methods: Searches of the Philip Morris documents and Legacy Tobacco Documents websites for relevant materials; Lexis/Nexis searches of major news and business publications; and denotative and connotative analyses of the advertising imagery. Results: Philip Morris developed the Creative Solutions campaign in an effort to directly confront the successes of the tobacco control movement in establishing new laws and norms that promoted clean indoor air. The campaign's imagery attempted to help smokers and potential smokers overcome the physical and social downsides of smoking cigarettes by managing risk and resolving internal conflict. The slogans suggested a variety of ways for smokers to respond to restrictions on their habit. The campaign also featured information about the Accommodation Program, Philip Morris's attempt to organise opposition to clean indoor air laws. Conclusion: The campaign was a commercial failure, with little impact on sales of the brand. Philip Morris got some exposure for the Accommodation Program and its anti-regulatory position. The lack of commercial response to the ads suggests that they were unable to successfully resolve the contradictions that smokers were increasingly experiencing and confirms the power of changing social norms to counter tobacco industry tactics. PMID:14985598

  14. Struggling Colleges Debate the Propriety of Selling Their Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Donors give art collections worth millions of dollars to colleges, mostly to be displayed in their art museums. But some financially strapped colleges have started looking at the art as a way of escaping their financial woes. Fisk University expects to make $16-million from the sale of two paintings, one by Georgia O'Keeffe and another by Marsden…

  15. The challenge of technology transfer: Buying in without selling out

    PubMed Central

    Pennypacker, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    Highly effective technologies flowing from the discipline of behavior analysis have not been widely adopted, thus threatening the survival of the discipline itself. An analysis of the contingencies underlying successful technology transfer suggests the need for direct, empirical involvement in the marketplace in order to insure that the maximum demonstrable benefits reach the ultimate users. A successful example of this strategy of technology transfer is provided. Three areas of intense national concern—urban violence, illiteracy, and declining industrial productivity—provide immediate opportunities for the technologies of behavior analysis to secure the place of the discipline in the intellectual mosaic of the 21st century. PMID:22478656

  16. A Systems Analysis Role Play Case: We Sell Stuff, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel; Cole, Carey

    2007-01-01

    Most systems development projects incorporate some sort of life cycle approach in their development. Whether the development methodology involves a traditional life cycle, prototyping, rapid application development, or some other approach, the first step usually involves a system investigation, which includes problem identification, feasibility…

  17. Effects of Advertising on Advance Selling and Online Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Mingyu

    2012-01-01

    Advertising has been one of the most important marketing variables for both practices and academic literature, and it has been generally known to raise the firm's market share (Ataman, van Heerde, and Mela 2010). However, under the contemporary market environment, advertising's impact may be more complicated. For example, in advance…

  18. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors.

  19. Reporting on Literacy: Soft-Selling a Complex Political Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Michael

    Much of the story of illiteracy is about the powerless, and reporting on it can focus on who lacks power and why. However, much of the untold story about illiteracy is about people with power who are choosing not to wield it--educators, economists, elected officials, presidential candidates, corporate leaders, publishers, and the literate public…

  20. Argentina: An emerging marketer is set to sell itself

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Argentina is outlined in the article. A brief history of the industry`s transformation from a federal to a private enterprise is presented. Information on fuel cycle facilities for uranium production, uranium dioxide production, zircalloy turbine production, nuclear fuel fabrication, and heavy water production is provided. Other topics presented include spent fuel storage, technology marketing, industry restructuring, and bilateral weapons agreements.

  1. Selling and Building Linked Data: Drive Value and Gain Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Kristen

    Data inside enterprises is exploding. Routinely key decision makers state, "one of the most valuable assets of our organization is actionable information." Paradoxically, it is often challenging to gather the necessary metrics to build a business case to justify a Linked Data initiative for improved data quality in the face of the well-documented shortcomings of traditional enterprise approaches to data management. Internet standards have matured considerably in the last decade. The number of linked data sets is growing daily and already exceeds well in excess of ten thousand data sets, over 400 of which are published via the US Government at gov as of April 2010. Many of these linked data sets are high quality. Best practices for linking data within the enterprise are increasingly being published in articles, blogs and technical books. One of the pioneering linked enterprise data projects was undertaken by a Fortune 500 company in the early 2000 timeframe. The lessons learned about how to navigate the management and organizational dynamics are relevant today. This chapter outlines the successful strategies for a linked enterprise data initiative, including a consistent metadata management strategy across lines of business, definition and documentation of data ownership and the value of cross-functional teams in the definition, development and deployment of the project.

  2. Protecting Your District's Ability to Sell Bonds or Other Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Dan; Palsma, Abigail Stokes

    2012-01-01

    If a school district has more than $10 million in tax-exempt debt, inclusive of all outstanding bonds, certificates of participation, and other public debt issues with durations of more than nine months, it must comply with the contractual requirements entered into under Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules. District administrators and…

  3. How to Become an Effective Advocate without Selling Your Soul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grob, George F.

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is ''advocating for the results of a specific evaluation.'' To some extent, all evaluators are advocates, however the author notes, "there is no great mystery in how to use evaluations for advocacy, especially with respect to influencing policy making within federal and state…

  4. Selling the Art Program: Tickling a Sacred Cow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Anderson D.

    1978-01-01

    For art to survive in the schools, a new image must be presented to the public. Art should be distinguished from crafts, which have a purely recreational connotation, and promoted as a utilitarian subject, teaching fundamental production skills leading toward mastery, as the Suzuki method does in music. (SJL)

  5. Selling University Reform: The University of Melbourne and the Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of the "Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings" and the "Academic Rankings of World Universities" by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, some Australian universities have become especially concerned with being ranked among the 100 leading universities. The University of Melbourne, Australia's second oldest…

  6. Buying and selling power in the age of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes the market management which is the subject of pioneering research being conducted by EPRI. On the wholesale side, this research centers on the development of powerful analytical methods to support utility decisions regarding new opportunities in the bulk power market. Research on retail market management is concentrated on developing innovative price-differentiated services that can enhance the value of electricity to customers and also foster a utility's long-term financial competitiveness.

  7. Creating and Selling Embryos for “Donation”: Ethical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Sauer, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    The commercial creation and sale of embryos has begun, posing a series of ethical questions that have received little scholarly attention. Some of the concerns that arise are similar to those posed by the sale of gametes, while other issues differ markedly. Questions emerge, firstly, regarding the rights of the unborn children – their ability to know their biological parents. Companies that create human embryos de novo may wish to keep gamete providers anonymous. Many of these offspring will thus never learn that their parents are not their biological parents. Yet, such disclosures – regarding not only one, but both of these biological parents – may be important for these individuals; and lack of this knowledge may impede their physical and psychological health. Secondly, questions surface regarding the fees that providers should charge for embryos, and whether these amounts should vary based on the traits of one or both of the gamete donors. Some prospective parents may seek specific traits in a baby (e.g., height or eye/hair coloring), prompting creation of embryos from two gamete donors who possess these characteristics. Thirdly, ownership of embryos created without an advanced directive by patients poses dilemmas – e.g., disposition of any remaining embryos. Fourthly, guidelines do not yet exist to limit the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors. Hence, unbeknownst to each other, full siblings could potentially meet, get married and procreate. This discussion has several critical implications for future practice, and professional education and policy. Patients with diseases associated with genetic tests may well ask obstetricians, gynecologists and other physicians about these techniques and practices. Clinicians can refer such patients to Assisted Reproductive Technology specialists, but familiarity with the basic aspects of the issues and complexities involved could aid themselves and their patients Several of these issues can be relatively easily addressed through guidelines from professional associations (e.g., limiting the number of embryos sold from each pair of gamete donors). As creation and sales of embryos will likely spread, consideration of appropriate responses is critical in order to establish standards of care to help the future offspring, and ensure ongoing public trust. PMID:25448512

  8. Why Honors Is a Hard Sell in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelen-Eigles, Deborah; Milner, Janice Levinsohn

    2014-01-01

    At the college president's request and after attending the 2013 NCHC conference in New Orleans, the authors developed a comprehensive honors program framework and spent the spring semester of 2014 sharing it with units across the college for discussion and feedback. The response was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the many benefits of this…

  9. An Honors Koan: Selling Water by the River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Jerry Herron begins his forum essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," with his anecdotal True Genealogical Confessions, Jeffery Portnoy, writes here that he feels feel obligated to begin in a similar mode. One side of Portnoy's family was in the real estate business in St. Louis, and the other…

  10. Women Business Owners: Selling to the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide is designed to help women business owners become more successful by providing them with information about marketing their goods and services to the federal government. Part 1 focuses on how the government buys. It covers briefly general procedures, consolidated purchasing programs, and individual federal agencies. Three government tools…

  11. Selling Your Design: Oral Communication Pedagogy in Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Janne; O'Brien, David

    2005-01-01

    Good design skills are the main focus of assessment practices in design education and are evaluated primarily by drawings and models. In some settings, design studio pedagogy tends to reflect only these content-oriented assessment priorities, with minimal attention paid to the development of oral communication skills. Yet, in many professional…

  12. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  13. Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction. Special Double Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of the media in society and the growing incidence of addiction. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Culture of Addiction" (Rosalind Silver); (2) "Crack and the Box" (Pete Hamill); (3) "When It Comes to Drugs, Beware the Censor's Fix" (David Musto); (4)…

  14. Advertising the "New Fun-Tier": Selling Casinos to Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, John L.; Miller, Delthia

    2010-01-01

    There is an absence of research on the commercial advertising of gambling as it relates to casinos. This study examines print, radio, television and point of sale casino ads that aired in Canada. Using quantitative and qualitative methods we analyze a convenience sample of 367 ads that aired or were printed in 2005 and 2006. Our findings indicate…

  15. Students Selling Sex: Marketisation, Higher Education and Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Teela; Hardy, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Robust academic research on the topic of students involved in the sex industry is in its infancy, yet the relationship appears consistent and permanent. This paper draws on findings from the largest study into the stripping industry in the United Kingdom to explore the relationships between students, sex work and consumption. To make sense of the…

  16. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Successful Selling of the Destroyer Deal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas E.; Morgan, Hugh

    One of the most evident examples of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's mastery of the press and his manipulation of public opinion was the 1940 arrangement of the transfer of 50 United States naval destroyers to Great Britain while that nation was at war with Germany and Italy and while noninterventionist sentiment was quite strong in the United…

  17. Selling Academies: Local Democracy and the Management of "Consultation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Academies (state schools owned and run by private sponsors on a non-profit basis) are a key element in Labour's education agenda. Proposals to set up Academies, in most cases by taking over existing schools, have provoked local campaigns of opposition in many areas. Replacing a Local Authority with an Academy entails a process of consultation.…

  18. Sell lumens, not kilowatts: The future for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Piepmeier, J.M. ); Jermain, D. ); Egnor, T.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The key to the future for electric utilities will not be found in legislation or regulation. Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 will prove to be just as ineffectual in improving the industry's position as was the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. These legislative palliatives, which produced so much commotion and so many reams of heated commentary, are largely irrelevant to a successful future for electric utilities. The key will be found in economics, not in law, and the future will lie in completing Thomas A. Edison's century-old vision for the industry, half of which the industry has heretofore ignored. The industry must embrace the complete vision and evolve from electric utilities into [open quotes]end-use energy utilities.[close quotes

  19. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  20. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  1. Do Sell-Side Stock Analysts Exhibit Escalation of Commitment?

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that when an analyst makes an out-of-consensus forecast of a company’s quarterly earnings that turns out to be incorrect, she escalates her commitment to maintaining an out-of-consensus view on the company. Relative to an analyst who was close to the consensus, the out-of-consensus analyst adjusts her forecasts for the current fiscal year’s earnings less in the direction of the quarterly earnings surprise. On average, this type of updating behavior reduces forecasting accuracy, so it does not seem to reflect superior private information. Further empirical results suggest that analysts do not have financial incentives to stand by extreme stock calls in the face of contradictory evidence. Managerial and financial market implications are discussed. PMID:21516220

  2. West Virginia sells LP-gas throughout the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Maslowski, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Mountain State of West Virginia is one of the few states in the Northeastern U.S. that produce and process natural gas liquids from local wells. Because customers in this heavily populated region are easy to come by, West Virginia remains a net exporter of propane and butane.

  3. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  4. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.52 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that...

  5. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  6. Selling health lifestyles: using social marketing to promote change and prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Langill, Donna

    2004-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) brought together grantmakers, researchers, and public health professionals on May 20, 2004 to discuss the application of social marketing principles to health promotion and chronic disease prevention. As a behavior change technique, social marketing has proven effective in motivating people to make the complex and difficult behavior changes that can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The Issue Dialogue used the lens of tobacco prevention and cessation, physical activity, and healthy eating to examine how health grantmakers can use social marketing principles and techniques to encourage and support the adoption of healthier behaviors across the lifespan. This Issue Brief incorporates the information and ideas shared at the meeting with a background paper on social marketing that was prepared for participants who attended the Issue Dialogue. It starts with an introduction of social marketing concepts and provides a framework for assessing whether social marketing is an appropriate approach to use in addressing a particular issue. Subsequent sections: (1) describe both the social marketing communications process and techniques, using examples from campaigns developed by health grantmakers and others; (2) describe how social marketing can be used to promote policy change; (3) provide information on communication strategies that can complement social marketing; and (4) present opportunities for grantmakers. PMID:15551499

  7. 49 CFR 375.303 - If I sell liability insurance coverage, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  8. 49 CFR 375.303 - If I sell liability insurance coverage, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  9. 49 CFR 375.303 - If I sell liability insurance coverage, what must I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS...

  10. Is Darwinism past its "sell-by" date? The Origin of Species at 150.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Many people worry that the theory of evolution that Charles Darwin gave in his Origin of Species is now dated and no longer part of modern science. This essay challenges this claim, arguing that the central core of the Origin is as vital today as it ever was, although naturally the science keeps moving on. Darwin provided the foundation not the finished product. PMID:21300310

  11. Sales of environmental products and services in the Mexican market. How to sell in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, A.

    1994-12-31

    The seven major fields in the Mexican environmental market are: solid waste management; air pollution control; hazardous waste management; waste water treatment and water pollution control; recycling; remediation and site cleanup; and consulting services. According to Mexican authorities, the total value of imports of environmental goods and services in 1992 was more than $1 billion dollars; it is expected to increase to more than $2.2 billion dollars by 1995, with an average rate of 30% growth per year. The still growing and the large size of the Mexican industrial sector, the privatization of hundreds of state enterprises, the government`s economics reform program, the expanded needs of the public sector, the enforcement of the existing environmental regulations, the creation of new regulations, and the new environmental mentality of many of the public and private institutions and companies are the result of the values mentioned above.

  12. "Drink beer regularly - it's good for you (and us)": selling Tooth's Beer in a depressed market.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the unique publicity activities devised by the Tooth's brewery in Sydney during the Great Depression and the 1930s. Unlike many advertisers, the brewery did not turn its back on advertising or marketing. Recognising the importance of publicity, the brewery developed innovative advertising and marketing initiatives in an attempt to arrest its declining sales. Such strategies included the development of co-operative advertising campaigns, the creation of advertisements directly targeting female consumers, and the renovation of pubs owned by the brewery. However, the significance of these initiatives extends beyond the immediate economic concerns. They were also celebration of modernity. By locating Tooth's advertising, marketing, and public relations activities within the broader social, cultural, and political context, this study provides a revealing insight into the way in which such campaigns simultaneously informed and reflected the Australian experience of modernity during the 1930s. PMID:20069745

  13. A question of ethics: selling autologous stem cell therapies flaunts professional standards.

    PubMed

    Munsie, Megan; Hyun, Insoo

    2014-11-01

    The idea that the body's own stem cells could act as a repair kit for many conditions, including cardiac repair, underpins regenerative medicine. While progress is being made, with hundreds of clinical trials underway to evaluate possible autologous cell-based therapies, some patients and physicians are not prepared to wait and are pursuing treatments without evidence that the proposed treatments are effective, or even safe. This article explores the inherent tension between patients, practitioners and the need to regulate the development and commercialization of new cellular therapies--even when the cells come from the patient.

  14. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    PubMed

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program.

  15. Contested commodities at both ends of life: buying and selling gametes, embryos, and body tissues.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    2001-09-01

    This essay examines the increasing commodification of the body with respect to tissues, games, and embryos. Such commodifcation contributes to a diminishing sense of human personhood on an individual level, even as it erodes commitments to human flourishing at the societal level. After the case for social harm resulting from the increasing commodification of the body is made, the question becomes whether that harm is best remedied by following any of three approaches by which government traditionally seeks to promote the flourishing of its citizens. The author concludes that it is not, and that what is needed is a pragmatic and somewhat casuistic approach to the regulation of contested commodities--that which legal scholar Margaret Jane Radin calls "incomplete commodification." PMID:11700683

  16. [Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchimal stem sells of bone marrow].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Iu M; Makarova, E B

    2013-04-01

    The review describes the mechanisms of hormonal, autocrine, paracrine and intracellular regulation in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, the role of negative feedbacks in this process.

  17. No Selling the Genie Lamp: A Game Literacy Practice in "The Sims"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth R.; Gee, James Paul

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the New Literacy Studies, the authors argue that game literacy takes multiple forms and is embedded in different practices associated with particular games and gaming communities. They examine one specific game literacy practice that involves players of "The Sims" creating challenges for other players, and they identify how playing and…

  18. Sell a book and cook a dog: misery, memory and space from Siberian camps to Apartheid.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Els

    2004-09-01

    In this article, the life story of a Polish woman in South Africa is used to illustrate that stories of exile are 'matter out of place' in host countries. Space is a central category in both the story of exiles and in the collective history of receiving countries, but it has different emotional, social, cultural and political meanings. Sometimes stories of exile are denied a place in the social memory of a society. Therefore, recollection and making sense of experienced misery in foreign contexts is often a difficult and lonely undertaking. The article links the story to macro-political processes and attempts to answer questions regarding the consequences of the lack of meaningful space for exiles to remember. Collective and national memories and ceremonies are often exclusive and offer no place for 'alien' memories. Therapeutic repertoires often fail to address the emotional value of communal sharing a socio-cultural and (meta) physical space. It is argued that because the state does not take responsibility for providing a (symbolic) space for the mourning and reconciliation of people whose memories are out of place, transcultural psychiatry - its subsystem - will have to reflect on how to provide such a space.

  19. Do Photovoltaic Energy Systems Effect Residential Selling Prices? Results from a California Statewide Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Pete; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that provides estimates of the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. We find strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, from roughly $4 to $6.4/watt across the full dataset, to approximately $2.3/watt for new homes, to more than $6/watt for existing homes. A number of ideas for further research are suggested.

  20. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have sold in the U.S., yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on the sales price. A clearer understanding of these effects might influence the decisions of homeowners, home buyers and PV home builders. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. Across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests, the analysis finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without. The effects range, on average, from approximately $3.9 to $6.4 per installed watt (DC), with most models coalescing near $5.5/watt, which corresponds to a premium of approximately $17,000 for a 3,100 watt system. The research also shows that, as PV systems age, the premium enjoyed at the time of home sale decreases. Additionally, existing homes with PV systems are found to have commanded a larger sales price premium than new homes with similarly sized PV systems. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted in this area as well as a number of other areas that are highlighted.

  1. Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first…

  2. Shifting blame/selling health: corporate social responsibility in the age of obesity.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how and why health has become a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy for the global food and drink industry (FDI) in the context of current governmental and public calls to address mounting obesity rates. It argues that, despite the current prominence of health within CSR, there has not been a reciprocal interest by those adopting sociological approaches to the study of health and illness in the implications of this strategic uptake of health or in the viability and legitimacy of the state's own public health role. This omission is addressed through an empirical exploration of three contentions: first, that health and wellbeing may be used to secure brand value and consumer goodwill at a time when mounting obesity rates demand new levels of accountability from the FDI. Secondly, that the food industry, through CSR, may promote a narrow epidemiological understanding of obesity, shifting blame from 'foods' to 'diet' and from 'diet' to 'sedentarism'. Thirdly, that CSR reporting and its associated practices have enabled the food industry to assume some responsibility for obesity prevention, thereby problematising the state's role in addressing its own 'public health' crisis. PMID:18764803

  3. 31st G. Heiner Sell Lectureship: Secondary Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, William A.; Korsten, Mark A.; Radulovic, Miroslav; Schilero, Gregory J.; Wecht, Jill M.; Spungen, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have secondary medical consequences of paralysis and/or the consequences of extreme inactivity. The metabolic changes that result from reduced activity include insulin resistance with carbohydrate disorders and dyslipidemia. A higher prevalence of coronary artery calcification was found in persons with SCI than that in matched able-bodied controls. A depression in anabolic hormones, circulating testosterone and growth hormone, has been described. Adverse soft tissue body composition changes of increased adiposity and reduced skeletal muscle are appreciated. Immobilization is the cause for sublesional disuse osteoporosis with an associated increased risk of fragility fracture. Bowel dysmotility affects all segments of the gastrointestinal tract, with an interest in better defining and addressing gastroesophageal reflux disease and difficulty with evacuation. Developing and testing more effective approaches to cleanse the bowel for elective colonoscopy are being evaluated. The extent of respiratory dysfunction depends on the level and completeness of SCI. Individuals with higher spinal lesions have both restrictive and obstructive airway disease. Pharmacological approaches and expiratory muscle training are being studied as interventions to improve pulmonary function and cough strength with the objective of reducing pulmonary complications. Persons with spinal lesions above the 6th thoracic level lack both cardiac and peripheral vascular mechanisms to maintain blood pressure, and they are frequently hypotensive, with even worse hypotension with upright posture. Persistent and/or orthostatic hypotension may predispose those with SCI to cognitive impairments. The safety and efficacy of anti-hypotensive agents to normalize blood pressure in persons with higher level cord lesions is being investigated. PMID:23459498

  4. Packaging radium, selling science: boxes, bottles and other mundane things in the world of science.

    PubMed

    Rentetzi, Maria

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the intersection of science and culture in the marketplace and explores the ways in which radium quack and medicinal products were packaged and labelled in the early twentieth century US. Although there is an interesting growing body of literature by art historians on package design, historians of science and medicine have paid little to no attention to the ways scientific and medical objects that were turned into commodities were packaged and commercialized. Thinking about packages not as mere containers but as multifunctional tools adds to historical accounts of science as a sociocultural enterprise and reminds us that science has always been part of consumer culture. This paper suggests that far from being receptacles that preserve their content and facilitate their transportation, bottles and boxes that contained radium products functioned as commercial and epistemic devices. It was the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act that enforced such functions. Packages worked as commercial devices in the sense that they were used to boost sales. In addition, 'epistemic' points to the fact that the package is an artefact that ascribes meaning to and shapes its content while at the same time working as a device for distinguishing between patent and orthodox medicines.

  5. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the history of Kool's music‐themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Results Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African‐American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. Conclusions This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 “Kool Mixx” campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African‐American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip‐hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African‐American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip‐hop community may further increase their effectiveness. PMID:16998169

  6. Selling Indian Education: Fundraising and American Indian Identities at Bacone College, 1880-1941

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Lisa K.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, American Indian education in the United States was inextricably linked to Euro-American colonialism. By the late nineteenth century, many Euro-Americans thought Native Americans were a "vanishing race," and schools for Indians incorporated this belief into their design. In the United States, the large number and variety of schools…

  7. Selling Students on the Character of Liberal Arts: A Benefit of Worldview Awareness in Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Emile Durkheim, the sociologist and education professor, said that the personality developed by a form of literary study was contrary to genuinely Christian character. Provoked by this insight, the author explores whether a Christian university's reliance on classical liberal arts education might be working against its desires for the character of…

  8. Selling Exclusion: Images of Students of Color in Bowl Game Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Bourke, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Each winter, the best collegiate football programs compete in the Bowl Championship Series. in addition to showcasing their prowess of the field, each school is afforded opportunities to highlight other aspects of their institution in the form of advertising spots. The current study analyzed each of these spots for the 43 university participants…

  9. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  10. Selling Education through "Culture": Responses to the Market by New, Non-Government Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The move to a market model of schooling has seen a radical restructuring of the ways schooling is "done" in recent times in Western countries. Although there has been a great deal of work to examine the effects of a market model on local school management (LSM), teachers' work and university systems, relatively little has been done to examine its…

  11. Helping Prospective Teachers Sell Themselves: The Portfolio as a Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, Helene; Didham, Cheryl K.

    Education majors at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio are required to complete a credential portfolio prior to their final evaluation conference. At this conference the cooperating teacher, student teacher, and supervisor meet and discuss the completion of student teaching competencies. The portfolio contains evidence of completion of…

  12. Selling blood and gametes during tough economic times: insights from Google search

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jonathan A.; Ngo, Tin C.; Rothman, Cathy; Breyer, Benjamin; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To use Google Insights search volume and publicly available economic indicators to test the hypothesis that sperm, egg, and blood donations increase during economic downturns and to demonstrate the feasibility of using Google search volume data to predict national trends in actual sperm, egg, and blood donations rates. Materials and methods Cross-correlation statistical analysis comparing Google search data for terms relating to blood, egg, and sperm donations with various economic indicators including the S&P 500 closing values, gross domestic product (GDP), the U.S. Index of Leading Indicators (U.S. Leading Index), gross savings rate, mortgage interest rates, unemployment rate, and consumer price index (CPI) from 2004–2011. A secondary analysis determined the Pearson correlation coefficient between Google search data with actual sperm, egg, and blood donation volume in the U.S. as measured by California Cryobank, the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, and the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey, respectively. Significance of cross-correlation and Pearson correlation analysis as indicated by p value. Results There were several highly significant cross-correlation relationships between search volume and various economic indicators. Correlation between Google search volume for the term “sperm donation,” “egg donation,” and “blood donation” with actual number of sperm, egg and blood donations in the United States demonstrated Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.2 (p > 0.10), −0.1 (p > 0.10), and 0.07 (p > 0.10), respectively. Temporal analysis showed an improved correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p < 0.05) for blood donation when shifted 12 months later relative to Google search volume. Conclusion Google search volume data for search terms relating to sperm, egg, and blood donation increase during economic downturns. This finding suggests gamete and bodily fluid donations are influenced by market forces like other commodities. Google search may be useful for predicting blood donation trends but is more limited in predicting actual semen and oocyte donation patterns. PMID:26432967

  13. Different Kind of"Deal": Selling Wind as Environmental Compliance; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tombari, C.; Sinclair, K.

    2003-05-01

    Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs), an environmental regulatory mechanism available at both State and Federal levels, show promise as a marketing venue for wind developers. SEPs are an alternative available to defendants who have been assessed penalties for environmental non-compliance, allowing them to offset a significant amount of penalties by investing in environmentally beneficial projects. In 1999, the dollar value of Federal SEPs negotiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) totaled$277 million. In addition, cumulative state enforcement actions may be settled with SEPs. Aside from some compressed natural gas projects, no clean energy projects have been undertaken with the funds. Wind and other clean energy developers can play a unique role in introducing wind energy projects into the SEP negotiating process.

  14. A Demanding Reality: Print-Media Advertising and Selling Smartness in a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt, Beth; Otto, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    In this article we offer analysis of the intersection between what is theorized as the "knowledge economy," US schools, and identity politics through our examination of a sample of print media advertisements. The thematic thread we use to tie these pieces together is the concept of smartness, which we frame as a metanarrative of truth reflected in…

  15. Weight isn't selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings.

    PubMed

    Ruggs, Enrica N; Hebl, Michelle R; Williams, Amber

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the literature on the stigma of obesity has grown but there still remains a paucity of research examining specific issues associated with its impact in the workplace. In the current study, we examine 3 such issues related to the influence of weight-based stigmatization in retail settings. First, we highlight research on the impact of obesity in men often is minimized or altogether excluded, and we examine whether weight-based stigmatization influences men in authentic retail settings (Study 1). Across retail contexts, Study 1 reveals that heavy (vs. nonheavy) men do experience significantly more interpersonal (subtle) discrimination. Second, we examine the "why" of weight-based stigmatization and find that weight-related negative stereotypes compound to produce indirect but strong effects of stigmatization in retail settings (Study 2). Third and finally, we examine whether weight-based stigmatization against men and women in retail also influences ratings of associated products and the organizations for which heavy individuals work (also Study 2). Results from Study 2 show that stereotypes work similarly for men and women and that a stigma-by-association effect occurs in which evaluators rate products and organizations associated with heavy (vs. nonheavy) retail personnel more negatively. Finally, we discuss the importance of these findings in gaining a more holistic look at the influence of weight stigmatization in the workplace. PMID:25751751

  16. Selling the Brooklyn Bridge: What the Essayist Can Learn from the Advertiser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdt, Lisa M.

    Studying the writing strategies used in advertisements helps students discover that rhetorical technique and patterns of development are not a system of arbitrary rules, but a means of achieving specific and real effects. By analyzing its purpose, audience, persona, and argumentative content, students learn how each element contributes to an ad's…

  17. Selling candles in a post-Edison world: phasing with noble gases bound within engineered sites.

    PubMed

    Quillin, Michael L; Matthews, Brian W

    2003-11-01

    The utility of noble gases for phase determination has been limited by the lack of naturally occurring binding sites in proteins. Wild-type T4 lysozyme contains one such binding site. By mutating large hydrophobic residues to alanine, additional noble-gas binding sites have been successfully introduced into this protein. Using data from xenon derivatives of the wild type, two single mutants and the corresponding double mutant, experimental phases for T4 lysozyme have been determined using standard multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) techniques. These phases, which were obtained from room-temperature data collected on a rotating-anode source, are comparable in quality with phases calculated using selenomethionine-based multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) methods on frozen crystals at a synchrotron. In addition, this method of introducing noble-gas binding sites near specific residues should provide useful information for determining the register of amino acids within electron-density maps and the positions of molecules within the unit cell. PMID:14573947

  18. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: inventing a disease to sell low libido.

    PubMed

    Meixel, Antonie; Yanchar, Elena; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2015-10-01

    Condition branding is a marketing technique in which companies develop conditions concurrently with developing drugs; examples include gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, social anxiety disorder, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Although it is illegal for pharmaceutical companies to market drugs prior to regulatory approval, there are no restrictions on marketing diseases, and industry seeks to establish a disease state in the minds of clinicians years before an expected drug launch. Continuing medical education (CME) courses are an important part of promotion prior to drug approval and have become a key marketing tool for increasing clinician receptivity to new products. We systematically identified 14 free, internet-based, industry-funded, accredited CME modules on hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women which came out before a new drug, flibanserin, was being considered for regulatory approval in the USA. Common themes in these modules included the following: (1) Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is common, underdiagnosed and can have a profound effect on quality of life. (2) Women may not be aware that they are sick or distressed. (3) Simple questionnaires can assist clinicians in diagnosing the disorder. (4) It is problematic that there are medicines available to treat sexual problems for men but not women. In fact, there is no scientifically established norm for sexual activity, feelings or desire, and there is no evidence that hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a medical condition. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is a typical example of a condition that was sponsored by industry to prepare the market for a specific treatment. PMID:26124287

  19. Near-infrared quantum cutting platform in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics for solar sells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weirong; Lei, Xiao; Gao, Huiping; Mao, Yanli

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the photoluminescent properties of Er3+/Yb3+ and Ce3+/Er3+/Yb3+ -doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics. The transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics were prepared by high temperature melting method and subsequent heat treatment. Effect of heat treatment schedules on crystallization behavior and microstructure were analyzed by differential scanning caborimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrum and scanning electron microscopy. The structure of fluoride nanocrystals indicates that the main phase in the oxyfluoride glass ceramics is CaF2 nanocrystal sized at 25 nm at the optimal crystallization temperature 600 °C for 8 h. The Ce3+/Er3+/Yb3+ tri-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics shows wider absorption bands comparing with Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics. The effective energy transfer processes from Ce3+ to Yb3+, Er3+ to Yb3+ and Ce3+ to Er3+ all can take place simultaneously. The idea of using Ce3+ together with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions could enhance the ultraviolet visible light absorption and the 960-1040 nm near infrared emission. Results of this study demonstrate that the tri-activator Ce3+/Er3+/Yb3+ materials are promising for practical application to enhance the energy efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells via spectrum modification.

  20. Selling the Need for School Social Work Services to the Legislature: A Call for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittlesey-Jerome, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Recent attempts to marginalize the social work profession have had an impact on school social workers in New Mexico. To better understand the quality of the workplace for these related services professionals, a past lead social worker for a large school district was interviewed, and three open-ended items were added to the 2010 statewide school…

  1. Effectively selling astronomy to the public -- fusing lessons learned from education, entertainment, advertising and public relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur; Day, Jacque

    2010-03-01

    A great celestial story is only as effective as the teller of the tale. With passion and knowledge at the helm, we must search for ways to pass on enthusiasm to others while conveying sound science. Based on our experiences, we present an integrated approach -- one that borrows elements from education, entertainment, advertising, and public relations -- to choose an event, hook and keep the public's attention while making them want more, and provide some tips for increasing media presence.

  2. [When health "sells": presence and characteristics of health-related advertising in the Italian press].

    PubMed

    Bressanelli, Maura; Marcantoni, Claudio; Orizio, Grazia; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated the amount of health-related advertising that appeared in major Italian newspapers and magazines during the months of July 2009 and November 2009. Advertisements related to health (as defined by the World Health Organization) were found to be widely present in the Italian press. Health promotion messages given by health institutions must therefore compete with the above advertisements that deal with health issues usually for purely commercial purposes. PMID:22508644

  3. Selling condoms to women: liberation plus legislation gives new life to the old rubber.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    1985-10-01

    Liberation in combination with legislation gives new life to condoms, which now find their way into the purses, brief cases, and shopping carts of increasing numbers of women. The number of female buyers of condoms has risen from 15% in the mid-1970s to perhaps as high as 40% today, thanks to the increasing number of women who are dissatisfied with contraceptive alternatives and a condom industry that is playing to its growing female audience with new packaging and marketing methods. The condom has a distinct advantage in an age when women are more concerned and knowledgeable about their bodies than ever before. The condom has no side effects. The $200 million-a-year condom industry enjoys a current growth rate in sales of about 12%. This is not too bad for a product that has been termed "16th century technology." Currently, Youngs, Schmid, and approximately 4 dozen other US condom companies mold, dry, test, roll and pack nearly 1000 condoms a minute, 400-500 million condoms a year. The Japanese buy 612 million condoms a year. Fewer than 15% of all US couples use condoms, which account for a quarter of the $800 million-a-year contraceptive industry. The growth in condoms was steady until about 3 years ago when it really started to move. There are 3 reasons for the growth spurt. In 1977, the Supreme Court struck down some lingering blue-nosed state laws that regulated who could buy condoms (not minors), where and why they could be sold (only in pharmacies for "disease control" rather than for contraception), how they could be advertised to the public (not at all), and where they could be displayed (out of sight). At the same time, a number of female contraceptive methods considerably trendier and more sophisticated than condoms fell into public, if not medical, disrepute. Finally, venereal diseases have grown in number to fill a category called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that includes more than 30 ailments. Condoms are the only contraceptives that also are effective venereal disease barriers. Consequently, condoms moved from under the counter to in front of it. Most notable of the condom industry's recent innovations have been unisex merchandising. It was decided that a lot more women would buy condoms if the packaging had femine appeal. With or without a yuppie clientele, the condom business is so healthy that existing advertising strictures have not hampered sales. Women are the primary purchasers of condoms in pharmacies and grocery stores.

  4. Selling Out (In) Sport Management: Practically Evaluating the State of the American (Sporting) Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Amber; King-White, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    When teaching in Sport Management programs professors are often forced to respond to the actions and teachings of professionals in the field. According to the study by Kincheloe & Steinberg many of these normalized and, indeed celebrated, behaviors are actions that are part and parcel of the "recovery movement" which (re)inscribe new…

  5. ‘Acceptable rebellion’: marketing hipster aesthetics to sell Camel cigarettes in the US

    PubMed Central

    Hendlin, Yogi; Anderson, Stacey J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present work was to understand why and how RJ Reynolds and other tobacco companies have marketed tobacco products to young adult social trendsetting consumers (termed ‘hipsters’) to recruit trendsetters and average consumers to smoke. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents and industry marketing materials. Results Since 1995, RJ Reynolds developed its marketing campaigns to better suit the lifestyle, image identity and attitudes of hip trendsetters (so-called ‘hipsters’), and Camel’s brand identity actively shifted to more closely convey the hipster persona. Camel emphasised in-venue events such as promotional music tours to link the brand and smoking to activities and symbols appealing to hipsters and their emulating masses. Conclusions To reach this targeted and socially valuable trend-setting population, public health advocates must tap into hipster psychology and expose to the targeted community the tobacco company’s efforts to infiltrate the hipster community to turn hipsters into tobacco-using role models. PMID:20501494

  6. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  7. Selling Our Collecting Souls: How License Agreements Are Controlling Collection Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Suzan D.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the challenges that licensing for electronic products are creating for academic libraries. Discusses ownership of versus access to information; packaging of electronic journals; cost-benefit analysis; multiple versions of the same information, e.g. print and electronic; consortial agreements; negotiating; legal issues; and the question…

  8. Marketing communications in nonbusiness situations or why it's so hard to sell brotherhood like soap.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, M L

    1979-01-01

    Marketing tools, techniques, and theories developed in the private sector can be applied in the public and nonprofit sectors; however, their limitations must be recognized. Nonbusiness communications campaigns should consider the involvedness (high or low) of the situation and the relevant segments, available positive and negative reinforcers, nonmonetary costs, the level of latent demand, and the wide range of communications alternatives. 5 hypotheses can be proposed regarding communications effectiveness outside of the private sector: 1) the lower the perceived personal value to the individual, relative to the cost, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of success of marketing communications; 2) the lower the latent or pre-existing demand for the object, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of marketing communications success; 3) the greater the involvement level of the object, situation, or issue, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of marketing success; 4) the greater the past involvement level of the individual, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of success; and 5) the greater the level of participation needed within the society, the more difficult the behavior change and the lower the likelihood of sucess of marketing communications. Many nonbusiness issues exist in either very high or very low involvement environments, calling for an enlarged set of communications strategies. More attention should be given to communications alternatives such as movies, television programs, and in-home and in-school educational communications, especially since it appears that public service spots are not very effective. Finally, more research is needed to generate and test the effectiveness of various marketing strategies aimed at overcoming inherent characteristics that suggest a low likelihood of success.

  9. Writer's Market, 1998: Where and How To Sell What You Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kirsten C., Ed.; Prues, Don, Ed.

    This guide provides up-to-date marketing information for those individuals who are developing or who wish to develop a career in writing. Featured in the guide are more than 2000 consumer and trade magazines; over 1250 book publishers; and more than 940 card companies, syndicates, script buyers, and contests. The guide's comprehensive and…

  10. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or...

  11. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  12. Short-selling constraints as cause for price distortions: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Florian; Huber, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the influence of the possibility to short stocks and/or borrow money in laboratory markets. A key innovation of our study is that subjects can simultaneously trade two risky assets on two double-auction markets, allowing us to differentiate between assets with relatively high versus low capitalization. Divergence of opinions is created by providing each trader with noisy information on the intrinsic values of both assets. We find that when borrowing money or shorting stocks is restricted prices are systematically distorted. Specifically, stocks with high (low) capitalization are traded at lower (higher) prices than their fundamental value. Lifting the restrictions leads to more efficient prices and more liquidity, thereby also lowering volatility and bid-ask spreads. PMID:26523081

  13. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  14. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings. PMID:22099449

  15. The Over-Selling of Fiber Optics? Cable Planning for Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes fiber optic cables and coaxial cables and considers when each would be appropriate for educational technology. Single mode versus multimode fiber optics are explained, advantages and disadvantages of each type of cable are discussed, and guidelines for choosing fiber optic cables and coaxial cables are offered. (LRW)

  16. Stealing and Selling Nature: Why We Need to Teach Environmental History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of superstorm Sandy and a presidential election in which the candidates from both major parties essentially ignored climate change, this author states that it is time that schools begin to play their part in creating climate literate citizens. He contends that Hurricane Sandy, and the superstorms that will certainly follow, are not…

  17. Selling Principles: Influencing Principles of Marketing Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Marketing as a Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camey, John P.; Williams, Janice K.

    2004-01-01

    Many marketing departments have experienced decreasing enrollments in marketing courses and difficulty recruiting students into the marketing major. This article examines and validates the Principles of Marketing class as significantly influencing students' overall perceptions of and attitudes toward marketing and the pursuit of marketing as their…

  18. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…

  19. Biodiversity for billionaires: capitalism, conservation and the role of philanthropy in saving/selling nature.

    PubMed

    Holmes, George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of philanthropy in conservation as a way of exploring how and why conservation might be becoming more neoliberal. It describes how conservation philanthropy supports capitalism both discursively and in more practical ways. Philanthropy is examined in terms of the two forces considered to be driving the neoliberalization of conservation — the need for capitalism to find new ways of making money, and the desire of conservationists to engage with capitalism as the best way of getting things done. It demonstrates how philanthropy can speak to both of these logics simultaneously, particularly through emerging ideas of philanthrocapitalism, which may be enhancing the neoliberalization of both philanthropy and conservation.

  20. Personal Selling at Bournesworth College: A Simulation Exercise. Information Bank Simulation Exercise 2435A-F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribbins, Keith

    This simulation is designed to train further education college salespersons in making effective sales presentations to firms' training officers. The exercise is divided into the following four parts: preparing for a sales visit (allotted time, 1 hour 15 minutes); carrying out the visit (45 minutes); reflecting on the visit and drafting…

  1. The Great American Blow-Up: Puffery in Advertising and Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Ivan L.

    Puffery refers to advertising statements which are not illegal, though they cannot be proven to be true. By legal definition, puffery is advertising or other sales representations which praise the item to be sold with subjective opinions, superlatives, or exaggerations, vaguely and generally, stating no specific facts. This book examines the…

  2. Selling Physics to Unwilling Buyers: Using Hollywood to Recruit for Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2003-03-01

    If confronting misconceptions is one way to learn, as many researchers have suggested, then Hollywood primes many young people to learn physics. At the same time, it is important to demonstrate to the public that the real world is actually more interesting than the world of science fiction. I will use examples from TV and movies, in particular Star Trek and the X-Files, to have some fun and to explore some interesting physics at the same time.

  3. Selling Internet Gambling: Advertising, New Media and the Content of Poker Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, John L.; Kervin, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the web design and engineering, advertising and marketing, and pedagogical features present at a random sample of 71 international poker sites obtained from the Casino City directory in the summer of 2009. We coded for 22 variables related to access, appeal, player protection, customer services, on-site security, use of images,…

  4. Innovation and Emulation: Lessons from American Universities in Selling Private Rights to Public Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Walter W.; Owen-Smith, Jason; Colyvas, Jeannette A.

    2007-01-01

    American universities are purported to excel at technology transfer. This assumption, however, masks important features of American innovation. Attempts to emulate the US example must recognize the heterogeneity of its industries and institutions of higher education. Stanford University and the biomedical cluster in Boston, Massachusetts,…

  5. Adolescents with Learning Disabilities as Writers: Are We Selling Them Short?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the evolution of a programmatic line of research on strategic writing instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) conducted by staff and affiliates of the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. The goal associated with this research is that students with LD learn the writing skills that they…

  6. Sell in May and Go Away? Learning and Risk Taking in Nonmonotonic Decision Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Renato; Rieskamp, Jörg; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    In nonmonotonic decision problems, the magnitude of outcomes can both increase and decrease over time depending on the state of the decision problem. These increases and decreases may occur repeatedly and result in a variety of possible outcome distributions. In many previously investigated sequential decision problems, in contrast, outcomes (or…

  7. Using GeoRSS feeds to distribute house renting and selling information based on Google map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nong, Yu; Wang, Kun; Miao, Lei; Chen, Fei

    2007-06-01

    Geographically Encoded Objects RSS (GeoRSS) is a way to encode location in RSS feeds. RSS is a widely supported format for syndication of news and weblogs, and is extendable to publish any sort of itemized data. When Weblogs explode since RSS became new portals, Geo-tagged feed is necessary to show the location that story tells. Geographically Encoded Objects adopts the core of RSS framework, making itself the map annotations specified in the RSS XML format. The case studied illuminates that GeoRSS could be maximally concise in representation and conception, so it's simple to manipulate generation and then mashup GeoRSS feeds with Google Map through API to show the real estate information with other attribute in the information window. After subscribe to feeds of concerned subjects, users could easily check for new bulletin showing on map through syndication. The primary design goal of GeoRSS is to make spatial data creation as easy as regular Web content development. However, it does more for successfully bridging the gap between traditional GIS professionals and amateurs, Web map hackers, and numerous services that enable location-based content for its simplicity and effectiveness.

  8. Selling without $$: Grassroots Advocates of Gifted and Talented Education Meet the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary Eileen

    This monograph describes media strategies that advocates for gifted children can use to promote gifted and talented education. It begins by discussing different types of media outlets that advocates can use to get their message across, including television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet. The tools of media work are then described. Ways to…

  9. Biotechnology and the popular press: hype and the selling of science.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-07-01

    The popular media has emerged as an important source of scientific information. It has been suggested that the portrayal of genetics by the media is often inaccurate--a phenomenon branded 'genohype'--and, as a result, is having an adverse impact on public understanding and policy development. However, emerging data suggest that, in some circumstances, the media reporting of science is surprisingly accurate and portrays a message created by the scientific community. As such, there are reasons to believe that the hyping of research results might be part of a more systemic problem associated with the increasingly commercial nature of the research environment.

  10. What Makes a Top-Selling Textbook? Comparing Characteristics of AIS Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badua, Frank; Sharifi, Mohsen; Mendez Mediavilla, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of accounting textbooks are under-investigated, and most of the research is survey-based, largely ignoring the information that could be analyzed by direct inspection of textbook content and its impact on textbook selection. In this study the authors fill this lacuna by deploying content analysis of the…

  11. The Popeye principle: selling child health in the first nutrition crisis.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Laura

    2005-10-01

    The cartoon character Popeye the Sailor was capable of superhuman feats of strength after eating a can of spinach. Popeye ate spinach because the association of spinach with strength was a product of the first national nutrition crisis in the United States: the 1920s fight against child malnutrition. Spanning the first three decades of the twentieth century, the malnutrition crisis arose from the confluence of many different events including the invention of nutrition science and new standards for height and weight; international food crises created by world war; the rise of consumerism, advertising, and new forms of mass media; and Progressive reformers' conviction that education was a key component of any solution. The history of the malnutrition crisis presented in this essay synthesizes disparate histories concerning advertising, public health, education, consumerism, philanthropy, and Progressive Era reform with original analysis of a major nutrition education program sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund in the 1920s. Because the character of Popeye came to embody one of the nutritional norms advocated in the 1920s, I refer to the influence of culturally constructed social norms on children's beliefs about health and nutrition as the Popeye Principle. The history of the malnutrition crisis demonstrates the importance of understanding the cultural and economic conditions surrounding childhood nutrition, the use and influence of numerical norms, and the mutually reinforcing influences on children's nutritional norms from their parents, peers, teachers, and culture.

  12. A Soft Sell for Hardware: The Use of Microcomputer Technology for Cost Effective Special Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosemary; Ragghianti, Suzanne

    The role of the computer as manager of instruction in special education is discussed. In Part 1, basic computer terms are introduced under the major headings of data measurement, hardware, and software. Part 2 focuses on selection criteria for microcomputers. Suggestions for evaluating software are given in terms of ease of use, documentation,…

  13. The Pause--That Sells. Capsule I, II, and III. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Liz

    This document provides teaching guidelines, objectives, and student activities for a three-part television advertising unit intended for use in a fourth grade consumer economics program. Major objectives of the unit are to help students look critically at television commercials. Each part of the unit requires from four to six hours of classroom…

  14. Aggression and sexual behavior in best-selling pornography videos: a content analysis update.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Ana J; Wosnitzer, Robert; Scharrer, Erica; Sun, Chyng; Liberman, Rachael

    2010-10-01

    This current study analyzes the content of popular pornographic videos, with the objectives of updating depictions of aggression, degradation, and sexual practices and comparing the study's results to previous content analysis studies. Findings indicate high levels of aggression in pornography in both verbal and physical forms. Of the 304 scenes analyzed, 88.2% contained physical aggression, principally spanking, gagging, and slapping, while 48.7% of scenes contained verbal aggression, primarily name-calling. Perpetrators of aggression were usually male, whereas targets of aggression were overwhelmingly female. Targets most often showed pleasure or responded neutrally to the aggression. PMID:20980228

  15. An overview of the synthetic routes to the best selling drugs containing 6-membered heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Marcus; Baxendale, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    This review which is the second in this series summarises the most common synthetic routes as applied to the preparation of many modern pharmaceutical compounds categorised as containing a six-membered heterocyclic ring. The reported examples are based on the top retailing drug molecules combining synthetic information from both scientific journals and the wider patent literature. It is hoped that this compilation, in combination with the previously published review on five-membered rings, will form a comprehensive foundation and reference source for individuals interested in medicinal, synthetic and preparative chemistry. PMID:24204439

  16. Selling safety: the use of celebrities in improving awareness of safety in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Seneviratne, Dimuth; Burgess, Marion

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influential power of a celebrity to convey key safety messages in commercial aviation using a pre-flight safety briefing video. In addition, the present research sought to examine the effectiveness of subtitles in aiding the recall of these important messages as well as how in-cabin aircraft noise affects recall of this information. A total of 101 participants were randomly divided into four groups (no noise without subtitles, no noise with subtitles, noise without subtitles and noise with subtitles) and following exposure to a pre-recorded pre-flight safety briefing video were tested for recall of key safety messages within that video. Participants who recognised and recalled the name of the celebrity in the safety briefing video recalled significantly more of the messages than participants who did not recognise the celebrity. Subtitles were also found to be effective, however, only in the presence of representative in-cabin aircraft noise. Practitioner Summary: Passenger attention to pre-flight safety briefings on commercial aircraft is poor. Utilising the celebrity status of a famous person may overcome this problem. Results suggest that celebrities do increase the recall of safety-related information. PMID:26490111

  17. [Selling health! A new look at old-time pharmacy almanacs].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Mario Luiz

    2006-01-01

    Offering images of pharmaceutical products and marketing strategies, pharmacy almanacs are a valuable source when researching the history of medications. The article analyzes the idea of science that was presented in these almanacs and demonstrates how this research source is pertinent to the history both of science and of advertising in Brazil. PMID:17533733

  18. Marketing Tech Prep. Even the Best Concepts Don't Always Sell Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Patty

    1994-01-01

    An excerpt from the book "Tech Prep Marketing Guide" delves into the myriad reasons for aggressively promoting tech prep to parents, employers, students, counselors, and other educators. It includes a discussion of the marketing plan and the benefits of tech prep. (JOW)

  19. Selling Schools: Marketing and Recruitment Strategies in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Huriya

    2016-01-01

    Under new school-choice policies, schools feel increasing pressure to market their schools to parents and students. I examine how school leaders in New Orleans used different marketing strategies based on their positions in the market hierarchy and the ways in which they used formal and informal processes to recruit students. This study relied on…

  20. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.