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Sample records for mehg-induced ros production

  1. Measurement of Mitochondrial ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2011-01-01

    The significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as aggravating or primary factors in numerous pathologies is widely recognized, with mitochondria being considered the major intracellular source of ROS. It is not yet possible to routinely measure mitochondrial ROS in animals or cultured cells with a reasonable degree of certainty. However, at the level of isolated mitochondria, one can easily monitor and quantify the rate of ROS production, identify major sites of ROS production, and compare the rates of ROS production in mitochondria isolated from normal and diseased tissue. In this chapter, we describe in detail the most recent and reliable method to measure mitochondrial ROS as the rate of H2O2 emission. This method may be employed with minimal modifications to measure H2O2 production by mitochondria isolated from various tissues and under a wide variety of experimental conditions. PMID:20700717

  2. Measurement of mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A

    2010-01-01

    The significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as aggravating or primary factors in numerous pathologies is widely recognized, with mitochondria being considered the major intracellular source of ROS. It is not yet possible to routinely measure mitochondrial ROS in animals or cultured cells with a reasonable degree of certainty. However, at the level of isolated mitochondria, one can easily monitor and quantify the rate of ROS production, identify major sites of ROS production, and compare the rates of ROS production in mitochondria isolated from normal and diseased tissue. In this chapter, we describe in detail the most recent and reliable method to measure mitochondrial ROS as the rate of H2O2 emission. This method may be employed with minimal modifications to measure H2O2 production by mitochondria isolated from various tissues and under a wide variety of experimental conditions.

  3. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling. PMID:24563855

  4. Heme modulates Trypanosoma cruzi bioenergetics inducing mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Natália P; Saraiva, Francis M S; Oliveira, Matheus P; Mendonça, Ana Paula M; Inacio, Job D F; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo E; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F; Laranja, Gustavo A T; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Oliveira, Marcus F; Paes, Marcia C

    2017-03-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown. In the present study we demonstrate the involvement of heme in the parasite mitochondrial metabolism, decreasing oxygen consumption leading to increased mitochondrial ROS and membrane potential. First, we incubated epimastigotes with carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, which led to decreased ROS formation and parasite proliferation, even in the presence of heme, correlating mitochondrial ROS and T. cruzi survival. This hypothesis was confirmed after the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant ((2-(2,2,6,6 Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl) triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) decreased both heme-induced ROS and epimastigote proliferation. Furthermore, heme increased the percentage of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) positive parasites tremendously-indicating the hyperpolarization and increase of potential of the mitochondrial membrane (ΔΨm). Assessing the mitochondrial functional metabolism, we observed that in comparison to untreated parasites, heme-treated epimastigotes decreased their oxygen consumption, and increased the complex II-III activity. These changes allowed the electron flow into the electron transport system, even though the complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity decreased

  5. Molecular mechanisms of ROS production and oxidative stress in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newsholme, Philip; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Keane, Kevin Noel; Carlessi, Rodrigo; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem

    2016-12-15

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are known to be associated with the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative systems of cells and tissues, is a result of over production of oxidative-free radicals and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). One outcome of excessive levels of ROS is the modification of the structure and function of cellular proteins and lipids, leading to cellular dysfunction including impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity, immune activation and inflammation. Nutritional stress, such as that caused by excess high-fat and/or carbohydrate diets, promotes oxidative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonylation and decreased antioxidant status. In obesity, chronic oxidative stress and associated inflammation are the underlying factors that lead to the development of pathologies such as insulin resistance, dysregulated pathways of metabolism, diabetes and cardiovascular disease through impaired signalling and metabolism resulting in dysfunction to insulin secretion, insulin action and immune responses. However, exercise may counter excessive levels of oxidative stress and thus improve metabolic and inflammatory outcomes. In the present article, we review the cellular and molecular origins and significance of ROS production, the molecular targets and responses describing how oxidative stress affects cell function including mechanisms of insulin secretion and action, from the point of view of possible application of novel diabetic therapies based on redox regulation.

  6. GLP-1 Cleavage Product Reverses Persistent ROS Generation After Transient Hyperglycemia by Disrupting an ROS-Generating Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Ferdinando; Du, Xueliang; Carratú, Anna; Gerfen, Gary J.; D’Apolito, Maria; Giardino, Ida; Rasola, Andrea; Marin, Oriano; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Murphy, Anne N.; Shah, Manasi S.

    2015-01-01

    The assumption underlying current diabetes treatment is that lowering the level of time-averaged glucose concentrations, measured as HbA1c, prevents microvascular complications. However, 89% of variation in risk of retinopathy, microalbuminuria, or albuminuria is due to elements of glycemia not captured by mean HbA1c values. We show that transient exposure to high glucose activates a multicomponent feedback loop that causes a stable left shift of the glucose concentration-reactive oxygen species (ROS) dose-response curve. Feedback loop disruption by the GLP-1 cleavage product GLP-1(9–36)amide reverses the persistent left shift, thereby normalizing persistent overproduction of ROS and its pathophysiologic consequences. These data suggest that hyperglycemic spikes high enough to activate persistent ROS production during subsequent periods of normal glycemia but too brief to affect the HbA1c value are a major determinant of the 89% of diabetes complications risk not captured by HbA1c. The phenomenon and mechanism described in this study provide a basis for the development of both new biomarkers to complement HbA1c and novel therapeutic agents, including GLP-1(9–36)amide, for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. PMID:26294429

  7. Switching on a transient endogenous ROS production in mammalian cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Elisa; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Calvo, María I; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2016-10-15

    There is a growing interest in the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as essential components of molecular mechanisms regulating key cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. This interest has fostered the development of new molecular tools to localize and quantify ROS production in cultured cells and in whole living organisms. An equally important but often neglected aspect in the study of ROS biology is the development of accurate procedures to introduce a ROS source in the biological system under study. At present, this experimental requirement is solved in most cases by an external and systemic administration of ROS, usually hydrogen peroxide. We have previously shown that a photodynamic treatment based on the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX and further irradiation of the target with adequate light source can be used to transiently switch on an in situ ROS production in human cultured keratinocytes and in mouse skin in vivo. Using this approach we reported that qualitatively low levels of ROS can activate cell proliferation in cultured cells and promote a transient and reversible hyperproliferative response in the skin, particularly, in the hair follicle stem cell niche, promoting physiological responses like acceleration of hair growth and supporting the notion that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell function and tissue homeostasis in a whole organism. Our principal aim here is to provide a detailed description of this experimental methodology as a useful tool to investigate physiological roles for ROS in vivo in different experimental systems.

  8. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  9. Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

  10. Yeast elicitor-induced stomatal closure and peroxidase-mediated ROS production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Munemasa, Shintaro; Uraji, Misugi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2010-11-01

    Yeast elicitor (YEL) induces stomatal closure. We investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) production and [Ca(2+)](cyt) oscillations to clarify YEL signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. YEL induced ROS accumulation in guard cells. A peroxidase inhibitor [salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)] inhibited the stomatal closure and the ROS accumulation, but neither the atrbohD atrbohF mutation nor an NADPH oxidase inhibitor [diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI)] had any effect. An NO scavenger [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO)] inhibited the YEL-induced stomatal closure and SHAM abolished NO production. YEL-elicited [Ca(2+)](cyt) oscillations were inhibited by SHAM but not by the atrbohD atrbohF mutation. These results indicate that YEL induces stomatal closure accompanied by ROS production mediated by peroxidases and NO production.

  11. Fucoxanthin Suppresses Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production During Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Jung; Seo, Young-Jin; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2016-11-01

    Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4. Lipogenesis-related enzymes, such as diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-θ, were downregulated by fucoxanthin. The ROS-producing enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) and the NADPH-generating enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase also decreased following fucoxanthin treatment. The adipokine adiponectin and the ROS-scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase and catalase were dose-dependently increased by fucoxanthin. Furthermore, lipolysis-related enzymes and superoxide dismutase 1 were slightly decreased, because of the suppression of lipid-generating factors and the cytosolic enzyme NOX4. To confirm these results, we investigated lipid accumulation and ROS production in zebrafish, where fucoxanthin suppressed lipid and triglyceride accumulation, as well as ROS production. Our data suggest that fucoxanthin inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic and lipogenic factors and ROS-regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. ROS production during symbiotic infection suppresses pathogenesis-related gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Leguminous plants have exclusive ability to form symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. Symbiosis is a complex process that involves multiple molecular signaling activities, such as calcium fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and synthesis of nodulation genes. We analyzed the role of ROS in defense gene expression in Medicago truncatula during symbiosis and pathogenesis. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is regulated by NPR1 protein, which resides in the cytoplasm as an oligomer. After oxidative burst and return of reducing conditions, the NPR1 undergoes monomerization and becomes translocated to the nucleus, where it functions in PR genes induction. We show that ROS production is both stronger and longer during symbiotic interactions than during interactions with pathogenic, nonhost or common nonpathogenic soil bacteria. Moreover, root cells inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti accumulated ROS in the cytosol but not in vacuoles, as opposed to Pseudomonas putida inoculation or salt stress treatment. Furthermore, increased ROS accumulation by addition of H2O2 reduced the PR gene expression, while catalase had an opposite effect, establishing that the PR gene expression is opposite to the level of cytoplasmic ROS. In addition, we show that salicylic acid pretreatment significantly reduced ROS production in root cells during symbiotic interaction. PMID:22499208

  13. ROS production during symbiotic infection suppresses pathogenesis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Leguminous plants have exclusive ability to form symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium. Symbiosis is a complex process that involves multiple molecular signaling activities, such as calcium fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and synthesis of nodulation genes. We analyzed the role of ROS in defense gene expression in Medicago truncatula during symbiosis and pathogenesis. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is regulated by NPR1 protein, which resides in the cytoplasm as an oligomer. After oxidative burst and return of reducing conditions, the NPR1 undergoes monomerization and becomes translocated to the nucleus, where it functions in PR genes induction. We show that ROS production is both stronger and longer during symbiotic interactions than during interactions with pathogenic, nonhost or common nonpathogenic soil bacteria. Moreover, root cells inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti accumulated ROS in the cytosol but not in vacuoles, as opposed to Pseudomonas putida inoculation or salt stress treatment. Furthermore, increased ROS accumulation by addition of H₂O₂ reduced the PR gene expression, while catalase had an opposite effect, establishing that the PR gene expression is opposite to the level of cytoplasmic ROS. In addition, we show that salicylic acid pretreatment significantly reduced ROS production in root cells during symbiotic interaction.

  14. Illumination of Arabidopsis roots induces immediate burst of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis roots are routinely exposed to light both during their cultivation within transparent Petri dishes and during their confocal microscopy analysis. Here we report that illumination of roots which naturally grow in darkness, even for a few seconds, induces an immediate and strong burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plant scientists studying roots should pay great attention to the environment of living roots, and keep them in darkness as long as possible. Results obtained using illuminated roots during in vivo microscopic analysis should also be interpreted with great caution. PMID:21957498

  15. Illumination of Arabidopsis roots induces immediate burst of ROS production.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Baluška, František

    2011-10-01

    Arabidopsis roots are routinely exposed to light both during their cultivation within transparent Petri dishes and during their confocal microscopy analysis. Here we report that illumination of roots which naturally grow in darkness, even for a few seconds, induces an immediate and strong burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plant scientists studying roots should pay great attention to the environment of living roots, and keep them in darkness as long as possible. Results obtained using illuminated roots during in vivo microscopic analysis should also be interpreted with great caution.

  16. Does the oxidative stress theory of aging explain longevity differences in birds? I. Mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates are reported to be inversely related to maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) in mammals and also to be higher in short-living mammals compared to short-living birds. The mammal-bird comparison, however, is mainly based on studies of rats and pigeons. To date, there has been no systematic examination of ROS production in birds that differ in MLSP. Here we report a comparison of mitochondrial ROS production in two short-living (quails) and three long-living bird species (parrots) that exhibit, on average, a 5-fold longevity difference. Mitochondrial ROS production was determined both in isolated mitochondria (heart, skeletal muscle and liver) as traditionally done and also in intact erythrocytes. In all four tissues, mitochondrial ROS production was similar in quails and parrots and showed no correspondence with known longevity differences. The lack of a consistent difference between quails and parrots was not due to differences in mitochondrial content as ROS production in relation to oxygen consumption (determined as the free radical leak) showed a similar pattern. These findings cast doubt on the robustness of the oxidative stress theory of aging.

  17. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by amoebocytes of Asterias rubens (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Coteur, Geoffroy; Warnau, Michel; Jangoux, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2002-03-01

    An adapted peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence method in an EDTA-free, Ca++-containing medium is described and used to characterise reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by starfish immunocytes using a standard microplate reader luminometer. ROS production was stimulated by direct interaction of immunocytes with bacteria or bacterial wall components, but not by the soluble stimulant PMA nor the lectin concanavalin A. Produced ROS detected by this method are apparently superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. Comparison with other chemiluminescence methods indicates that the described method is the only one to detect the stimulation of starfish immunocytes by the Gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus, a fact that questions previous reports indicating a lack of stimulation by pathogens. The adapted method provides a rapid determination of the overall ROS production, which is suitable for both disease control and immunotoxicological studies in echinoderms.

  18. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Philipp R.; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; von Loewenich, Friederike D.; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM) component hyaluronic acid (HA) to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. Conclusions/Significance These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD. PMID:22848468

  19. SMG-1 kinase attenuates mitochondrial ROS production but not cell respiration deficits during hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Resseguie, Emily A; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2017-07-27

    Supplemental oxygen (hyperoxia) used to treat individuals in respiratory distress causes cell injury by enhancing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. The suppressor of morphogenesis of genitalia (SMG-1) kinase is activated during hyperoxia and promotes cell survival by phosphorylating the tumor suppressor p53 on serine 15. Here, we investigate whether SMG-1 and p53 blunt this vicious cycle of progressive ROS production and decline in mitochondrial respiration seen during hyperoxia. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 or colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were depleted of SMG-1, UPF-1, or p53 using RNA interference, and then exposed to room air (21% oxygen) or hyperoxia (95% oxygen). Immunoblotting was used to evaluate protein expression; a Seahorse Bioanalyzer was used to assess cellular respiration; and flow cytometry was used to evaluate fluorescence intensity of cells stained with mitochondrial or redox sensitive dyes. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ROS and suppressed mitochondrial respiration without changing mitochondrial mass or membrane potential. Depletion of SMG-1 or its cofactor, UPF1, significantly enhanced hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial but not cytosolic ROS abundance. They did not affect mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, or hyperoxia-induced deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Genetic depletion of p53 in A549 cells and ablation of the p53 gene in H1299 or HCT116 cells revealed that SMG-1 influences mitochondrial ROS through activation of p53. Our findings show that hyperoxia does not promote a vicious cycle of progressive mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction because SMG-1-p53 signaling attenuates production of mitochondrial ROS without preserving respiration. This suggests antioxidant therapies that blunt ROS production during hyperoxia may not suffice to restore cellular respiration.

  20. Mechanistic insight into the suppression of microglial ROS production by voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Shoki; Kihara, Shinji; Sakimura, Kenji; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-09-29

    Voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) reportedly promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in several immune cell types. However, we recently reported that primary microglia from VSOP/Hv1-deficient mice show higher ROS production than those from WT mice. Microglia may show a distinct activation status between WT and VSOP/Hv1-deficient cells, leading to a distinct level of ROS production between them. This is unlikely, however, because ROS production in VSOP/Hv1-deficient microglia remained higher than in WT microglia when the cells were exposed to LPS. Further, this increase in ROS production in VSOP/Hv1-deficient cells was not observed in macrophages, which suggests microglia have a unique mechanism of VSOP/Hv1-dependent ROS regulation. The mechanism underlying this unconventional ROS regulation by VSOP/Hv1 in microglia is discussed.

  1. Deficiency of DJ-1 Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis through Inhibition of Hepatic ROS Production and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxue; Sun, Xuehua; Gu, Jinyang; Yu, Chang; Wen, Yankai; Gao, Yueqiu; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury. Results showed that DJ-1 depletion significantly blunted liver fibrosis, accompanied by marked reductions in liver injury and ROS production. In the acute CCl4 model, deficiency of DJ-1 showed hepatic protective functions as evidenced by decreased hepatic damage, reduced ROS levels, diminished hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation compared to WT mice. In vitro hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation assays indicated that DJ-1 has no direct effect on the activation of HSCs in the context of with or without TGFβ treatment. Thus our present study demonstrates that in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, DJ-1 deficiency attenuates mice fibrosis by inhibiting ROS production and liver injury, and further indirectly affecting the activation of HSCs. These results are in line with previous studies that ROS promote HSC activation and fibrosis development, and suggest the therapeutic value of DJ-1 in treatment of liver fibrosis.

  2. Deficiency of DJ-1 Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis through Inhibition of Hepatic ROS Production and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingxue; Sun, Xuehua; Gu, Jinyang; Yu, Chang; Wen, Yankai; Gao, Yueqiu; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury. Results showed that DJ-1 depletion significantly blunted liver fibrosis, accompanied by marked reductions in liver injury and ROS production. In the acute CCl4 model, deficiency of DJ-1 showed hepatic protective functions as evidenced by decreased hepatic damage, reduced ROS levels, diminished hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation compared to WT mice. In vitro hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation assays indicated that DJ-1 has no direct effect on the activation of HSCs in the context of with or without TGFβ treatment. Thus our present study demonstrates that in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, DJ-1 deficiency attenuates mice fibrosis by inhibiting ROS production and liver injury, and further indirectly affecting the activation of HSCs. These results are in line with previous studies that ROS promote HSC activation and fibrosis development, and suggest the therapeutic value of DJ-1 in treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27766037

  3. A peroxidase contributes to ROS production during Arabidopsis root response to potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Ciani, Silvano; Schachtman, Daniel P

    2010-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in root responses to potassium deprivation by regulating the expression of the high-affinity K(+) transporter gene AtHAK5 and other genes. Activation-tagged lines of Arabidopsis plants containing the AtHAK5 promoter driving luciferase were screened for bioluminescence under potassium-sufficient conditions. A member of the type III peroxidase family, RCI3, was isolated and when it was overexpressed by the activation tag, this led to the enhanced expression of luciferase and the endogenous AtHAK5. RCI3 was found to be up-regulated upon potassium deprivation. Plants overexpressing RCI3 (RCI3-ox) showed more ROS production and AtHAK5 expression whereas the ROS production and AtHAK5 expression were reduced in rci3-1 under K(+)-deprived conditions. These results suggested that RCI3 is involved in the production of ROS under potassium deprivation and that RCI3-mediated ROS production affects the regulation of AtHAK5 expression. This peroxidase appears to be another component of the low-potassium signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis roots.

  4. Methylglyoxal-induced stomatal closure accompanied by peroxidase-mediated ROS production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Tahsina Sharmin; Uraji, Misugi; Ye, Wenxiu; Hossain, Mohammad Anowar; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is an oxygenated short aldehyde and a glycolytic intermediate that accumulates in plants under environmental stresses. Being a reactive α-oxoaldehyde, MG may act as a signaling molecule in plants during stresses. We investigated whether MG induces stomatal closure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca²⁺](cyt)) to clarify roles of MG in Arabidopsis guard cells. MG induced production of ROS and [Ca²⁺](cyt) oscillations, leading to stomatal closure. The MG-induced stomatal closure and ROS production were completely inhibited by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), but were not affected by an NAD(P)H oxidase mutation, atrbohD atrbohF. Furthermore, the MG-elicited [Ca²⁺](cyt) oscillations were significantly suppressed by SHAM but not by the atrbohD atrbohF mutation. Neither endogenous abscisic acid nor endogenous methyl jasmonate was involved in MG-induced stomatal closure. These results suggest that intrinsic metabolite MG can induce stomatal closure in Arabidopsis accompanied by extracellular ROS production mediated by SHAM-sensitive peroxidases, intracellular ROS accumulation, and [Ca²⁺](cyt) oscillations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. RBOH-mediated ROS production facilitates lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    de Rycke, Riet; Fernandez, Ana; Himschoot, Ellie; Van Breusegem, Frank; Périlleux, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Lateral root (LR) emergence represents a highly coordinated process in which the plant hormone auxin plays a central role. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as important signals during auxin-regulated LR formation; however, their mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we report that Arabidopsis roots exposed to ROS show increased LR numbers due to the activation of LR pre-branch sites and LR primordia (LRP). Strikingly, ROS treatment can also restore LR formation in pCASP1:shy2-2 and aux1 lax3 mutant lines in which auxin-mediated cell wall accommodation and remodeling in cells overlying the sites of LR formation is disrupted. Specifically, ROS are deposited in the apoplast of these cells during LR emergence, following a spatiotemporal pattern that overlaps the combined expression domains of extracellular ROS donors of the RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGS (RBOH). We also show that disrupting (or enhancing) expression of RBOH in LRP and/or overlying root tissues decelerates (or accelerates) the development and emergence of LRs. We conclude that RBOH-mediated ROS production facilitates LR outgrowth by promoting cell wall remodeling of overlying parental tissues. PMID:27402709

  6. Biological Evaluation of Ferrocenyl Olefins: Cancer Cell Growth Inhibition, ROS Production, and Apoptosis Activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aijing; Lin, Junsheng; Pi, Chao; Xu, Ruian; Cui, Xiuling

    2016-03-01

    The antiproliferative effects of various ferrocenyl olefins were evaluated against the cell lines MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), DLD-1 (human colon adenocarcinoma cells), HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), and A549 (human lung carcinoma cells), using the MTT test. IC50 values were determined. Compounds 8, 9, 11, and 12 with high antiproliferative activity were tested for their reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell cycle analysis was performed on A549 cells. The results show that these compounds might perform their antiproliferative activity through inducing ROS generation, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle arrest.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA depletion causes decreased ROS production and resistance to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hulin; Wang, Junling; Liu, Zhongrong; Yang, Huilan; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhao, Minling; Liu, Yan; Yan, Miaomiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion occurs frequently in many diseases including cancer. The present study was designed in order to examine the hypothesis that mtDNA-depleted cells are resistant to apoptosis and to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for this effect. Parental human osteosarcoma 143B cells and mtDNA-deficient (Rho° or ϱ°) 206 cells (derived from 143B cells) were exposed to different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The effects of solar irradiation on cell morphology were observed under both light and fluorescence microscopes. Furthermore, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were detected and measured by flow cytometry. In both cell lines, apoptosis and ROS production were clearly increased, whereas MMP was slightly decreased. However, apoptosis and ROS production were reduced in the Rho°206 cells compared with the 143B cells. We also performed western blot analysis and demonstrated the increased release of cytosolic Cyt c from mitochondria in the 143B cells compared with that in the Rho°206 cells. Thus, we concluded that Rho°206 cells exhibit more resistance to solar-simulated UV radiation-induced apoptosis at certain doses than 143B cells and this is possibly due to decreased ROS production. PMID:27499009

  8. Association between ROS production, swelling and the respirasome integrity in cardiac mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sehwan; Javadov, Sabzali

    2017-09-15

    Although mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and ROS production play a critical role in mitochondria-mediated cell death, a cause-effect relationship between them remains elusive. This study elucidated the crosstalk between mitochondrial swelling, ROS production, and electron transfer chain (ETC) supercomplexes in rat heart mitochondria in response to Ca(2+) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH), a lipid-soluble organic peroxide. Results showed that ROS production induced by TBH was significantly increased in the presence of Ca(2+) in a dose-dependent manner. TBH markedly inhibited the state 3 respiration rate with no effect on the mitochondrial swelling. Ca(2+) exerted a slight effect on mitochondrial respiration that was greatly aggravated by TBH. Analysis of supercomplexes revealed a minor difference in the presence of TBH and/or Ca(2+). However, incubation of mitochondria in the presence of high Ca(2+) (1 mM) or inhibitors of ETC complexes (rotenone and antimycin A) induced disintegration of the main supercomplex, respirasome. Thus, PTP-dependent swelling of mitochondria solely depends on Ca(2+) but not ROS. TBH has no effect on the respirasome while Ca(2+) induces disintegration of the supercomplex only at a high concentration. Intactness of individual ETC complexes I and III is important for maintenance of the structural integrity of the respirasome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of resveratrol on apoptosis and ROS production in Hepa 1-6 hepatocarcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Shen, Ke-Ping; Hu, Bing; Deng, Shan

    2012-03-01

    To observe the effects of resveratrol on apoptosis and ROS production in murine hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells in vitro. Hepa 1-6 cells were treated with different dose of resveratrol (20 micromol/L, 40 micromol/L, 80 micromol/L). Cell proliferation was detected with MTT assay at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to visualize apoptotic morphology. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Activated caspase-3 was detected by western blot. Intracellular ROS production was observed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA) staining. Compared with the control, upon treatment with 20-80 micromol/L resveratrol for 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, the proliferation of Hepa 1-6 cells was significantly inhibited in a time-dose dependent manner. 20-80 micromol/L resveratrol also induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphology change in Hepa 1-6 cells accompanied with caspase-3 activation and ROS generation. Resveratrol could inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis in murine hepatocarcinoma Hepa 1-6 cells, and the mechanism may associated with caspase-3 activation and ROS production.

  10. Respiratory chain components involved in the glycerophosphate dehydrogenase-dependent ROS production by brown adipose tissue mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdenek; Mrácek, Tomás; Vojtísková, Alena; Jesina, Pavel; Stopka, Pavel; Houstek, Josef

    2007-07-01

    Involvement of mammalian mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH, EC 1.1.99.5) in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied in brown adipose tissue mitochondria by different spectroscopic techniques. Spectrofluorometry using ROS-sensitive probes CM-H2DCFDA and Amplex Red was used to determine the glycerophosphate- or succinate-dependent ROS production in mitochondria supplemented with respiratory chain inhibitors antimycin A and myxothiazol. In case of glycerophosphate oxidation, most of the ROS originated directly from mGPDH and coenzyme Q while complex III was a typical site of ROS production in succinate oxidation. Glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production monitored by KCN-insensitive oxygen consumption was highly activated by one-electron acceptor ferricyanide, whereas succinate-dependent ROS production was unaffected. In addition, superoxide anion radical was detected as a mGPDH-related primary ROS species by fluorescent probe dihydroethidium, as well as by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with DMPO spin trap. Altogether, the data obtained demonstrate pronounced differences in the mechanism of ROS production originating from oxidation of glycerophosphate and succinate indicating that electron transfer from mGPDH to coenzyme Q is highly prone to electron leak and superoxide generation.

  11. Complex I assembly into supercomplexes determines differential mitochondrial ROS production in neurons and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Douce, Juliette; Logan, Angela; James, Andrew M.; Bonvento, Gilles; Murphy, Michael P.; Bolaños, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons depend on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation, whereas astrocytes do not, a distinctive feature that is essential for neurotransmission and neuronal survival. However, any link between these metabolic differences and the structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is unknown. Here, we investigated this issue and found that, in neurons, mitochondrial complex I is predominantly assembled into supercomplexes, whereas in astrocytes the abundance of free complex I is higher. The presence of free complex I in astrocytes correlates with the severalfold higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by astrocytes compared with neurons. Using a complexomics approach, we found that the complex I subunit NDUFS1 was more abundant in neurons than in astrocytes. Interestingly, NDUFS1 knockdown in neurons decreased the association of complex I into supercomplexes, leading to impaired oxygen consumption and increased mitochondrial ROS. Conversely, overexpression of NDUFS1 in astrocytes promoted complex I incorporation into supercomplexes, decreasing ROS. Thus, complex I assembly into supercomplexes regulates ROS production and may contribute to the bioenergetic differences between neurons and astrocytes. PMID:27799543

  12. Prostaglandin E₂ is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-10-17

    Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation.

  13. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Kostrzewa, Artur; Łuczak, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response. Incubation of neutrophils with betanin in the concentration range 2-500 µM resulted in significant inhibition of ROS production (by 15-46%, depending on the ROS detection assay). The antioxidant capacity of betanin was most prominently expressed in the chemiluminescence measurements. This compound decreased also the percentage of DNA in comet tails in stimulated neutrophils, but only at the 24 h time point. In resting neutrophils an increased level of DNA in comet tails was observed. Betanin did not affect the activity of caspase-3, in resting neutrophils, but significantly enhanced the enzyme activity in stimulated neutrophils. The western blot analysis showed, however, an increased level of caspase-3 cleavage products as a result of betanin treatment both in resting and stimulated neutrophils. The results indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies.

  14. SIRT3 Silencing Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Cytotoxic Treatments Through an Increment in ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Torrens-Mas, Margalida; Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Sastre-Serra, Jorge; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar

    2017-02-01

    SIRT3, the major deacetylase in mitochondria, plays a crucial role modulating ROS production and scavenging by regulating key proteins implicated in mitochondrial turnover and in antioxidant defenses. Therefore, SIRT3 could confer resistance to chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress, leading to a lower ROS production and a higher cell survival. Our aim was to analyze whether SIRT3 silencing in breast cancer cells through a specific siRNA could increase oxidative stress and thus compromise the antioxidant response, resulting in a sensitization of the cells to cisplatin (CDDP) or tamoxifen (TAM). For this purpose, we studied cell viability, ROS production, apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 and T47D cell lines treated with these cytotoxic compounds, these either alone, or in combination with SIRT3 silencing. Moreover, protein levels regulated by SIRT3 were also examined and survival curves were analyzed to study the importance of SIRT3 expression for the overall survival of breast cancer patients. When SIRT3 was silenced and combined with cytotoxic treatments, cell viability was highly decreased, and was accompanied by a significant increase in ROS production. While TAM treatment increased autophagic cell death, CDDP significantly triggered apoptosis, whereas SIRT3 silencing produced an enhancement of these two action mechanisms. SIRT3 knockdown also affected PGC-1α and TFAM (mitochondrial biogenesis), and MnSOD and IDH2 (antioxidant defenses) protein levels. Finally, survival curves showed that higher SIRT3 expression is correlated to a poorer prognosis for patients with grade 3 breast cancer. In conclusion, SIRT3 could be a therapeutic target for breast cancer, improving the effectiveness of CDDP and TAM treatments. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 397-406, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  16. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox) phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox) mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  17. Critical role of mitochondrial ROS is dependent on their site of production on the electron transport chain in ischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; Zilberstein, Netanel F; Feng, Yansheng; Bopassa, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Using amplex red to measure ROS production, we found that mitochondria isolated from hearts after I/R produced more ROS than non-ischemic when complex I substrate (glutamate/malate) was used. Interestingly, the substrates of complex II (succinate) and ubiquinone (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, G3P) produced less ROS in mitochondria from I/R hearts compared to normal healthy hearts. The inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and complex III (antimycin A) increased ROS production when glutamate/malate and G3P were used; in contrast, they reduced ROS production when the complex II substrate was used. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity required to induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was measured using calcium green fluorescence and was found to be higher when mitochondria were treated with G3P and succinate compared to glutamate/malate. Furthermore, Langendorff hearts treated with glutamate/malate exhibited reduced cardiac functional recovery and increased myocardial infarct size compared to hearts treated with G3P. Thus, ROS production by the stimulated respiratory chain complexes I and III has opposite roles: cardio-deleterious when produced in complex I and cardio-protective when produced in complex III. The mechanism of these ROS involves the inhibition of the mPTP opening, a key event in cell death following ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27679744

  18. Critical role of mitochondrial ROS is dependent on their site of production on the electron transport chain in ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Madungwe, Ngonidzashe B; Zilberstein, Netanel F; Feng, Yansheng; Bopassa, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Using amplex red to measure ROS production, we found that mitochondria isolated from hearts after I/R produced more ROS than non-ischemic when complex I substrate (glutamate/malate) was used. Interestingly, the substrates of complex II (succinate) and ubiquinone (sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, G3P) produced less ROS in mitochondria from I/R hearts compared to normal healthy hearts. The inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and complex III (antimycin A) increased ROS production when glutamate/malate and G3P were used; in contrast, they reduced ROS production when the complex II substrate was used. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity required to induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was measured using calcium green fluorescence and was found to be higher when mitochondria were treated with G3P and succinate compared to glutamate/malate. Furthermore, Langendorff hearts treated with glutamate/malate exhibited reduced cardiac functional recovery and increased myocardial infarct size compared to hearts treated with G3P. Thus, ROS production by the stimulated respiratory chain complexes I and III has opposite roles: cardio-deleterious when produced in complex I and cardio-protective when produced in complex III. The mechanism of these ROS involves the inhibition of the mPTP opening, a key event in cell death following ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  19. The ROS production induced by a reverse-electron flux at respiratory-chain complex 1 is hampered by metformin.

    PubMed

    Batandier, Cécile; Guigas, Bruno; Detaille, Dominique; El-Mir, M-Yehia; Fontaine, Eric; Rigoulet, M; Leverve, Xavier M

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated in mitochondria extracted from liver of rats treated with or without metformin, a mild inhibitor of respiratory chain complex 1 used in type 2 diabetes. A high rate of ROS production, fully suppressed by rotenone, was evidenced in non-phosphorylating mitochondria in the presence of succinate as a single complex 2 substrate. This ROS production was substantially lowered by metformin pretreatment and by any decrease in membrane potential (Delta Phi(m)), redox potential (NADH/NAD), or phosphate potential, as induced by malonate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, or ATP synthesis, respectively. ROS production in the presence of glutamate-malate plus succinate was lower than in the presence of succinate alone, but higher than in the presence of glutamate-malate. Moreover, while rotenone both increased and decreased ROS production at complex 1 depending on forward (glutamate-malate) or reverse (succinate) electron flux, no ROS overproduction was evidenced in the forward direction with metformin. Therefore, we propose that reverse electron flux through complex 1 is an alternative pathway, which leads to a specific metformin-sensitive ROS production.

  20. Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kukat, Alexandra; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Edgar, Daniel; Mourier, Arnaud; Jacoby, Christoph; Maiti, Priyanka; Mauer, Jan; Becker, Christina; Senft, Katharina; Wibom, Rolf; Kudin, Alexei P.; Hultenby, Kjell; Flögel, Ulrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ricquier, Daniel; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction is often accompanied by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, we previously showed that an increase in random somatic mtDNA mutations does not result in increased oxidative stress. Normal levels of ROS and oxidative stress could also be a result of an active compensatory mechanism such as a mild increase in proton leak. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was proposed to play such a role in many physiological situations. However, we show that upregulation of UCP2 in mtDNA mutator mice is not associated with altered proton leak kinetics or ROS production, challenging the current view on the role of UCP2 in energy metabolism. Instead, our results argue that high UCP2 levels allow better utilization of fatty acid oxidation resulting in a beneficial effect on mitochondrial function in heart, postponing systemic lactic acidosis and resulting in longer lifespan in these mice. This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. PMID:24945157

  1. Tanshinone IIA blocks dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts through inhibiting Nox4-derived ROS production.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; He, Chongru; Tong, Wenwen; Zou, Yuming; Li, Dahe; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of osteoblasts caused by glucocorticoids has been identified as an important contributor to the development of osteoporosis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan), an active ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), has been reported to cast positive effects on osteoporosis. However, the precise mechanisms accounting this action remain elusive. In this study, by using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as a model, we confirmed the protective effects of Tan against dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell apoptosis and further clarified its molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment with Dex caused cell injury, increased cytosol cytochrome c level and Nox expression, induced apoptosis in caspase-9-dependent manner, and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Tan attenuated these deleterious consequence triggered by Dex. Moreover, Dex-induced ROS production and cell injury were inhibited by antioxidant, NADPH oxidases inhibitors, Nox4 inhibitor, and Nox4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Overexpression of Nox4 almost abolished the inhibitory effect of Tan on Dex-induced cell injury and apoptosis. The results also demonstrated significant involvement of Nox4 in the Dex-induced apoptosis. Nox4-derived ROS led to apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, we evidenced that Tan reversed Dex-induced apoptosis via inactivation of Nox4. The present findings suggest that inhibition of Nox4 may be a novel therapeutic approach of Tan to prevent against glucocorticoids-induced osteoblasts apoptosis and osteoporosis.

  2. Tanshinone IIA blocks dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts through inhibiting Nox4-derived ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; He, Chongru; Tong, Wenwen; Zou, Yuming; Li, Dahe; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of osteoblasts caused by glucocorticoids has been identified as an important contributor to the development of osteoporosis. Tanshinone IIA (Tan), an active ingredient extracted from the rhizome of the Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), has been reported to cast positive effects on osteoporosis. However, the precise mechanisms accounting this action remain elusive. In this study, by using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as a model, we confirmed the protective effects of Tan against dexamethasone (Dex)-induced cell apoptosis and further clarified its molecular mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment with Dex caused cell injury, increased cytosol cytochrome c level and Nox expression, induced apoptosis in caspase-9-dependent manner, and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Tan attenuated these deleterious consequence triggered by Dex. Moreover, Dex-induced ROS production and cell injury were inhibited by antioxidant, NADPH oxidases inhibitors, Nox4 inhibitor, and Nox4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Overexpression of Nox4 almost abolished the inhibitory effect of Tan on Dex-induced cell injury and apoptosis. The results also demonstrated significant involvement of Nox4 in the Dex-induced apoptosis. Nox4-derived ROS led to apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, we evidenced that Tan reversed Dex-induced apoptosis via inactivation of Nox4. The present findings suggest that inhibition of Nox4 may be a novel therapeutic approach of Tan to prevent against glucocorticoids-induced osteoblasts apoptosis and osteoporosis. PMID:26722597

  3. Control of ROS and RNS productions in liquid in atmospheric pressure plasma-jet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Ito, Taiki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Ikeda, Junichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma jets are of current interest in biomedical applications such as wound disinfection and even treatment of cancer tumors. Beneficial therapeutic effects in medical applications are attributed to excited species of oxygen and nitrogen from air. However, to control the production of these species in the plasma jet is difficult because their production is strongly dependent on concentration of nitrogen and oxygen from ambient air into the plasma jet. In this study, we analyze the discharge characteristics and the ROS and RNS productions in liquid in low- and high-frequency plasma-jet systems. Our experiments demonstrated the marked effects of surrounding gas near the plasma jet on ROS and RNS productions in liquid. By controlling the surround gas, the O2 and N2 main plasma jets are selectively produced even in open air. We also show that the concentration ratio of NO2- to H2O2 in liquid is precisely tuned from 0 to 0.18 in deionized water by changing N2 gas ratio (N2 / (N2 +O2)) in the main discharge gas, where high NO2- ratio is obtained at N2 gas ratio at N2 / (N2 +O2) = 0 . 8 . The low-frequency plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas is an effective plasma source for ROS and RNS productions in liquid, and can be a useful tool for biomedical applications. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  4. ROS production and lipid catabolism in desiccating Shorea robusta seeds during aging.

    PubMed

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2012-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation products appear to correlate strongly with the desiccation induced loss of viability in recalcitrant sal seeds. The 100% germination in fresh sal seeds declined with dehydration under natural storage conditions (26 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 52 ± 2%). Seeds became non-viable within 8 days. Desiccation induced disturbances in the metabolic activity of seeds resulted in generation of enormous amounts of ROS that are responsible for cellular damage and viability loss. Oxidative stress in the dehydrating aging sal seeds was further aggravated by inducing lipid peroxidation as the amounts of free fatty acid, conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide and secondary free radicals; malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, were also promoted. In addition, significant rise in lipid degrading enzymes; lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) and lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 1.13.11.12) were detected in dehydrating sal seeds. Our results indicated multiple pathways (ROS, lipid peroxidation & lipase and LOX) that operate in the dehydrating recalcitrant sal seeds finally contributing to loss of viability.

  5. 5-Aminolevulinic acid strongly enhances delayed intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by ionizing irradiation: quantitative analyses and visualization of intracellular ROS production in glioma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Takehiro; Yamamoto, Junkoh; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Akiba, Daisuke; Ueta, Kunihiro; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy has important roles in multimodal treatment for highly aggressive malignant gliomas. Previously, we demonstrated that multi-dose ionizing irradiation with repetitive administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) enhanced the host antitumor response and strongly inhibited tumor growth in experimental glioma. However, the mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of 5-ALA is not known. Ionizing irradiation not only causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation initially by water radiolysis but also induces delayed production of mitochondrial ROS for mediating the long-lasting effects of ionizing irradiation on tumor cells. 5-ALA leads to high accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the mitochondria of tumor cells, yet can also improve dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in tumor cells. Here, we assessed the effect of 5-ALA-induced PpIX synthesis and delayed production of intracellular ROS after ionizing irradiation with 5-ALA in glioma cells in vitro. Temporal changes in intracellular 5-ALA-induced PpIX synthesis after ionizing irradiation in glioma cell lines were evaluated using flow cytometry (FCM). Then, the effect of 5-ALA on delayed production of intracellular ROS 12 h after ionizing irradiation in glioma cells was evaluated by FCM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Ionizing irradiation had no effect on 5-ALA-induced PpIX synthesis in glioma cells. Delayed intracellular production of ROS was significantly higher than that just after ionizing irradiation, but 5-ALA pretreatment strongly enhanced the delayed intracellular production of ROS, mainly in the cytoplasm of glioma cells. This 5-ALA-induced increase in the delayed production of ROS tended to be higher in the case of 5-ALA treatment before rather than after ionizing irradiation. These results suggest that 5-ALA can affect tumor cells under ionizing irradiation, and greatly increase secondary intracellular production of ROS long after ionizing

  6. Spin Biochemistry Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production by Radio Frequency Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Robert J.; Hill, Iain; Singel, David J.; Martino, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of weak magnetic fields on the biological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from intracellular superoxide (O2•−) and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were investigated in vitro with rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (rPASMC). A decrease in O2•− and an increase in H2O2 concentrations were observed in the presence of a 7 MHz radio frequency (RF) at 10 μTRMS and static 45 μT magnetic fields. We propose that O2•− and H2O2 production in some metabolic processes occur through singlet-triplet modulation of semiquinone flavin (FADH•) enzymes and O2•− spin-correlated radical pairs. Spin-radical pair products are modulated by the 7 MHz RF magnetic fields that presumably decouple flavin hyperfine interactions during spin coherence. RF flavin hyperfine decoupling results in an increase of H2O2 singlet state products, which creates cellular oxidative stress and acts as a secondary messenger that affects cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates the interplay between O2•− and H2O2 production when influenced by RF magnetic fields and underscores the subtle effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on oxidative metabolism, ROS signaling, and cellular growth. PMID:24681944

  7. Echinoderm reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured by peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) as an immunotoxicological tool.

    PubMed

    Coteur, G; Danis, B; Dubois, P

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in invertebrate immunity prompted the use of this response in immunotoxicological studies in several taxa including marine organisms. In this chapter, we review the effects of environmental factors and contaminants such as heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the production of ROS by the main immune effector cells of echinoderms, the so-called amoebocytes. ROS production was measured by the peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) method. This method was found to predominantly reflect the production of superoxide anions and peroxides, among which hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are the main species detected. Exogenous factors such as water temperature and salinity can influence this immune response in echinoderms. However, gender, handling stress and parasitism by a castrating ciliate apparently did not affect it. The impact of metals on ROS production differed greatly according to the duration and routes of exposure; in vitro and short-term in vivo exposures to metals caused an inhibition of this immune response, while the opposite effect was observed in a long-term in vivo exposure study. On the other hand, PCBs systematically had a stimulatory effect on ROS production independent of the echinoderm species or exposure routes. From the study of complex field contaminations, it appeared that contaminants released in the environment, such as metals, modulate starfish amoebocyte ROS production. This impact potentially represents a threat to the sustainability of natural populations of echinoderms and thereby to the stability of benthic ecosystems.

  8. Increased ROS production in non-polarized mammary epithelial cells induces monocyte infiltration in 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhang; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Gaofeng; St Clair, Daret K; Xu, Wei; Xu, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Loss of epithelial cell polarity promotes cell invasion and cancer dissemination. Therefore, identification of factors that disrupt polarized acinar formation is crucial. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive cancer progression and promote inflammation. Here, we show that the non-polarized breast cancer cell line T4-2 generates significantly higher ROS levels than polarized S1 and T4R cells in three-dimensional (3D) culture, accompanied by induction of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and cytokine expression. Minimizing ROS in T4-2 cells with antioxidants reestablished basal polarity and inhibited cell proliferation. Introducing constitutively activated RAC1 disrupted cell polarity and increased ROS levels, indicating that RAC1 is a crucial regulator that links cell polarity and ROS generation. We also linked monocyte infiltration with disruption of polarized acinar structure using a 3D co-culture system. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that increased ROS in non-polarized cells is necessary and sufficient to enhance monocyte recruitment. ROS also induced cytokine expression and NF-κB activity. These results suggest that increased ROS production in mammary epithelial cell leads to disruption of cell polarity and promotes monocyte infiltration.

  9. Compound C Increases Sestrin2 Expression via Mitochondria-Dependent ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Seo, Suho; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2016-01-01

    Compound C is a widely used chemical inhibitor that down-regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. However, it has been suggested that compound C exerts AMPK-independent effects in various cells. Here, we investigated whether compound C induces Sestrin2 (SESN2), an antioxidant enzyme induced by diverse stress. In addition, the mechanism responsible for SESN2 induction by compound C was determined. Our results showed that compound C increased SESN2 protein expression in HepG2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of SESN2 mRNA was also observed in cells treated with compound C. Increase of SESN2 luciferase activity confirmed transcriptional regulation by compound C and this substance also increased nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) phosphorylation, which implies that Nrf2 was involved in SESN2 induction. Next, we sought to demonstrate whether production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanied SESN2 expression. Compound C increased ROS production, but this effect was prevented by pretreatment with antioxidants or the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Moreover, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of pore formation in the mitochondrial membrane, attenuated compound C-induced SESN2 induction. However, overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMPK was not able to abolish SESN2 induction by compound C, which implies that its action is independent of AMPK inhibition. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that compound C alters mitochondrial function and induces ROS production, which ultimately leads to phosphorylation of Nrf2 and induction of SESN2.

  10. 7-Keto-cholesterol and 25-hydroxy-1 cholesterol rapidly enhance ROS production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; Reyes-Quiróz, María Edith; Sáenz, Javier; Geniz, Isabel; Jiménez, Juan; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elizabeth; Sobrino, Francisco; Santa-María, Consuelo

    2016-12-01

    Oxysterols are cholesterol-oxygenated derivatives generated in the organism and also present in foods because of cholesterol oxidation during processing and storage. They are the natural ligands of liver X receptors (LXRs) and are generally recognized as hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory molecules although this latter property is still controversial. Most oxysterol studies have been performed in macrophages, whereas the effects of oxysterols in neutrophils are poorly known. In this study, human neutrophils were exposed to two different oxysterols, 7-keto-cholesterol (7-k-chol) and 25-hydroxy-cholesterol (25-OH-chol), and their possible participation in inflammatory process was evaluated. Human neutrophils were incubated with 7-k-chol and 25-OH-chol, and ROS production, translocation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic components, hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and lysozyme secretion were analyzed. An increase in ROS production was observed within a short period of time (minutes) with both molecules. These oxysterols also stimulated the cellular membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase cytosolic components, p47phox and p67phox. On the other hand, HO-1 expression, a cytoprotector enzyme, is inhibited in human neutrophils upon oxysterols treatment. Moreover, both oxysterols were associated with high lysozyme enzyme secretion at 5 and 18 h of incubation. The present paper describes for the first time that two oxysterols (7-k-chol and 25-OH-chol) enhance the ROS production within a short period of time in human neutrophils, stimulate the translocation of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase to the cellular membrane and increase lysozyme secretion. These data suggest that both oxysterols are able to activate pro-inflammatory effects in human neutrophils which contrasts with the role assigned to the oxysterols when they act through LXR at long time of incubation.

  11. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  12. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide prevents vascular calcification induced ROS production by regulating Nrf-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensong; Li, Yi; Ding, Hanlu; Du, Yaqin; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Although vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a ubiquitous human health problem, effective therapies with limited side effects are still lacking, and the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. The Nrf-2/ARE pathway is a pivotal to regulate anti-oxidative responses in vascular calcification upon ESRD. Although Nrf-2 plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and brain ischemia, the effect of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification in ESRD patients is still unclear. The aim of this research was to study the protective role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification and the mechanism of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification. Here we used the rat vascular smooth muscle cell model of β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification resembling vascular calcification in ESRD to investigate the therapeutic effect of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide on vascular calcification and further explores the possible underlying mechanisms. Our current report shows the in vitro role of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide in protecting against intracellular ROS accumulation upon vascular calcification. Both hydrogen peroxide and sulforaphane pretreatment reduced ROS production, increased the expression of Nrf-2, and decreased the expression of Runx2 following calcification. Our study demonstrates that 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide can effectively protect rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells against oxidative stress by preventing vascular calcification induced ROS production through Nrf-2 pathway. These data might define an antioxidant role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification upon ESRD.

  14. Unconventional role of voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) in regulation of microglial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takafumi; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Imura, Yoshio; Koizumi, Schuichi; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Yamashita, Toshihide; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. ) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. ). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. ). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia. Extracellular ROS production was lower in neutrophils of Hvcn1(-/-) mice than WT mice as reported. In contrast, it was drastically enhanced in isolated Hvcn1(-/-) microglia as compared with cells from WT mice. Actin dynamics was altered in Hvcn1(-/-) microglia and intracellular distribution of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit, p67, was changed. When expression levels of oxidative stress responsive antioxidant genes were compared between WT and Hvcn1(-/-) in cerebral cortex at different ages of animals, they were slightly decreased in Hvcn1(-/-) mice at younger stage (1 day, 5 days, 3 weeks old), but drastically increased at aged stage (6 months old), suggesting that the regulation of microglial ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is age-dependent. We also performed brain ischemic stroke experiments and found that the neuroprotective effect of VSOP/Hv1deficiency on infarct volume depended on the age of animals. Taken together, regulation of ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is more complex than previously thought and significance of VSOP/Hv1 in microglial ROS production depends on age. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Effects of Copper on Hemocyte Apoptosis, ROS Production, and Gene Expression in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Li, Kexu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chenggui; Shen, Yuchun

    2017-02-25

    Copper, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at high concentrations. In the present study, we evaluated the apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to 1 or 5 mg L(-1) Cu for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The expression changes of antioxidant biomarker genes, i.e., copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT), apoptosis-related genes, i.e., caspase-3 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), and a specific biomarker gene of heavy metal pollution, i.e., metallothionein (MT), were also determined in hemocytes. Significant increases in ROS production were observed in both treatment groups at each time points. The apoptotic cell ratios were significantly increased at 6-48 h among shrimp exposed to 1 mg L(-1) Cu and at each time points in 5 mg L(-1) Cu group. These results indicated that Cu would induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hemocyte of L. vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, caspase-3, IAP, and MT were upregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of these genes in stress response against Cu exposure.

  16. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter.

    PubMed

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Shin, Woongghi; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2012-10-15

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295-320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species - ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6-24h under dim light (5-10 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETR(max) in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rETR(max) with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no F(v)/F(m) or rETR(max). A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15%, respectively. Following 24h in dim light, the percentage of motile cells increased to between 66% and 95% of the initial value. The velocity of non-irradiated cells was 60 μm s(-1), which decreased to 16-35 μm s(-1) immediately following exposure for 15-60 min. After periods of time in dim light (6, 12 and 24h) velocities had recovered to between 44 and 81% of the initial value. In untreated controls, the r-value was 0.23, indicating random movement of E. agilis, but it increased to 0.35 and 0.72 after exposure to UV-B for 30 and 60 min, respectively. There was a tendency towards vertical downward movement of cells proportional to the duration of exposure. The compactness of E. agilis decreased

  17. Oleic/Palmitate Induces Apoptosis in Human Articular Chondrocytes via Upregulation of NOX4 Expression and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dapeng; Lu, Jianmin; Yang, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The association between obesity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in osteoarthritis (OA) patients has already been identified. However, the specific mechanism underlying ROS production and OA progression has never been elucidated. Osteoarthritic cartilage was obtained from patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, and chondrocytes were isolated from these tissues. The cells were treated with varying concentrations (10,100,500 μM, and 5 mM) of oleic/palmitate (O/P) mixture at different times, that is at 6, 24, and 48 h. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. ROS production was detected using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The protein levels of NOX4 and cleaved-caspase3 were detected using Western blot assay. O/P significantly decreased cell viability at 10, 100, 500 μM, and 5 mM in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell viability was reduced by 500 μM O/P mixture at 6, 24, and 48 h in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with 500 μM O/P significantly enhanced ROS production and cell apoptosis in chondrocytes. Furthermore, treatment with O/P mixture significantly enhanced the expression of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in a dose- and time- dependent manner. More importantly, inhibition of NOX4 could partially eliminate O/P-induced chondrocytes apoptosis by reducing ROS production. To conclude, O/P treatment enhances ROS production and cell apoptosis mainly by upregulating the protein levels of NOX4 and caspase3 activation in chondrocytes, indicating a potential therapeutic target of OA in obesity patients.

  18. ROS production as a common mechanism of ENaC regulation by EGF, insulin, and IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Pavlov, Tengis S; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) is a key transporter participating in the fine tuning of Na(+) reabsorption in the nephron. ENaC activity is acutely upregulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). It was also proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a stimulatory effect on ENaC. Here we studied whether effects of EGF, insulin, and IGF-1 correlate with ROS production in the mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD(c14)) cells. Western blotting confirmed the expression of the NADPH oxidase complex subunits in these cells. Treatment of mpkCCD(c14) cells with EGF, insulin, or IGF-1 evoked an increase in ROS production as measured by CM-H(2)DCF-DA fluorescence. ROS production caused by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction also resulted in a significant elevation in short-circuit current through the mpkCCD(c14) monolayer. Transepithelial current measurements showed an acute increase of amiloride-sensitive current through the mpkCCD(c14) monolayer in response to EGF, insulin, or IGF-1. Pretreatment with the nonselective NADPH oxidase activity inhibitor apocynin blunted both ROS production and increase in ENaC-mediated current in response to these drugs. To further test whether NADPH oxidase subunits are involved in the effect of EGF, we used a stable M-1 cell line with a knockdown of Rac1, which is one of the key subunits of the NADPH oxidase complex, and measured amiloride-sensitive currents in response to EGF. In contrast to control cells, EGF had no effect in Rac1 knockdown cells. We hypothesize that EGF, insulin, and IGF-1 have a common stimulatory effect on ENaC mediated by ROS production.

  19. Coronatine Inhibits Stomatal Closure through Guard Cell-Specific Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Toum, Laila; Torres, Pablo S.; Gallego, Susana M.; Benavídes, María P.; Vojnov, Adrián A.; Gudesblat, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes trigger stomatal closure through microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) synthesizes the polyketide toxin coronatine, which inhibits stomatal closure by MAMPs and by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanism by which coronatine, a jasmonic acid-isoleucine analog, achieves this effect is not completely clear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential second messengers in stomatal immunity, therefore we investigated the possible effect of coronatine on their production. We found that coronatine inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production induced by ABA, and by the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. This toxin also inhibited NADPH oxidase-dependent stomatal closure induced by darkness, however, it failed to prevent stomatal closure by exogenously applied H2O2 or by salicylic acid, which induces ROS production through peroxidases. Contrary to what was observed on stomata, coronatine did not affect the oxidative burst induced by flg22 in leaf disks. Additionally, we observed that in NADPH oxidase mutants atrbohd and atrbohd/f, as well as in guard cell ABA responsive but flg22 insensitive mutants mpk3, mpk6, npr1-3, and lecrk-VI.2-1, the inhibition of ABA stomatal responses by both coronatine and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium was markedly reduced. Interestingly, coronatine still impaired ABA-induced ROS synthesis in mpk3, mpk6, npr1-3, and lecrk-VI.2-1, suggesting a possible feedback regulation of ROS on other guard cell ABA signaling elements in these mutants. Altogether our results show that inhibition of NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS synthesis in guard cells plays an important role during endophytic colonization by Pst through stomata. PMID:28018388

  20. Individual Amino Acid Supplementation Can Improve Energy Metabolism and Decrease ROS Production in Neuronal Cells Overexpressing Alpha-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Delic, Vedad; Griffin, Jeddidiah W D; Zivkovic, Sandra; Zhang, Yumeng; Phan, Tam-Anh; Gong, Henry; Chaput, Dale; Reynes, Christian; Dinh, Vinh B; Cruz, Josean; Cvitkovic, Eni; Placides, Devon; Frederic, Ernide; Mirzaei, Hamed; Stevens, Stanley M; Jinwal, Umesh; Lee, Daniel C; Bradshaw, Patrick C

    2017-06-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels. Oxygen consumption was decreased by alpha-synuclein overexpression, but ATP levels did not decrease and ROS levels did not increase. Treatment with ferrous sulfate, a ROS generator, resulted in decreased oxygen consumption in both control and alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells. However, this treatment only decreased ATP levels and increased ROS production in the cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein. Similarly, paraquat, another ROS generator, decreased ATP levels in the alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells, but not in the control cells, further demonstrating how alpha-synuclein sensitized the cells to oxidative insult. Proteomic analysis yielded molecular insights into the cellular adaptations to alpha-synuclein overexpression, such as the increased abundance of many mitochondrial proteins. Many amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates and their ester forms were individually supplemented to the cells with L-serine, L-proline, L-aspartate, or L-glutamine decreasing ROS production in oxidatively stressed alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells, while diethyl oxaloacetate or L-valine supplementation increased ATP levels. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with individual metabolites could yield bioenergetic improvements in PD patients to delay loss of dopaminergic neurons.

  1. Effect of captopril and the bradykinin-PKC pathway on ROS production in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues de Araujo, Glaucy; Granato de Faria, Karine; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni, Joamyr Victor; Souza, Aline Arlindo; Chianca-Júnior, Deoclecio; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; Chaves, Miriam Martins; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of captopril as a promoter in modulating the oxidant-antioxidant balance in rats with type 1 diabetes, and the influence of protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by bradykinin in type 1 diabetic rats. This study evaluated the redox status in both the cardiac tissue and at the cellular level (neutrophils). Two concentrations of captopril were utilized: (i) 5 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), which was considered a therapeutic dose; and (ii) 10 mg·(kg body mass)(-1). Body mass, plasma glucose, and serum insulin were evaluated. To investigate the redox status of the cardiac tissue, we analyzed lipid peroxidation, concentration of carbonylated protein, catalase activity, and the concentration of glutathione. For a more accurate assessment of the possible antioxidant effect of captopril, we also analyzed ROS in neutrophils (in vivo), and ROS production induced by bradykinin and the influence of the PKC pathway in this production (in vitro). Our data show that the hearts of diabetic animals have increased oxidative damage, exemplified by the increased concentration of carbonylated protein and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). However, animals treated with captopril at both concentrations showed lower concentrations of carbonylated protein compared with untreated diabetic animals. We found an increase of catalase activity in the heart of diabetic rats, which was reversed by captopril treatment at both of the dosages tested. Our data showed that captopril was able to reduce ROS production in the neutrophils of diabetic rats at a dose of 10 mg captopril·(kg body mass)(-1). However, the antioxidant effect of captopril is independent of bradykinin. Diabetes induces oxidative stress, and these results suggest that captopril has an antioxidant effect and can modulate the production of ROS in circulating neutrophils.

  2. High activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Subir K.R.; Gemin, Adam; Singh, Gurmit; E-mail: gurmit.singh@hrcc.on.ca

    2005-08-12

    Most malignant cells are highly glycolytic and produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to normal cells. Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) participates in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by delivering reducing equivalents from this molecule into the electron transport chain, thus sustaining glycolysis. Here, we investigate the role of mGPDH in maintaining an increased rate of glycolysis and evaluate glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analyses revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A. Furthermore, both the glycolytic capacity and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production was increased 1.68- to 4.44-fold and 5- to 7-fold, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to PNT1A cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGPDH is involved in maintaining a high rate of glycolysis and is an important site of electron leakage leading to ROS production in prostate cancer cells.

  3. High activity of mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subir K R; Gemin, Adam; Singh, Gurmit

    2005-08-12

    Most malignant cells are highly glycolytic and produce high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to normal cells. Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) participates in the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by delivering reducing equivalents from this molecule into the electron transport chain, thus sustaining glycolysis. Here, we investigate the role of mGPDH in maintaining an increased rate of glycolysis and evaluate glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production in prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and CL1). Immunoblot, polarographic, and spectrophotometric analyses revealed that mGPDH abundance and activity was significantly elevated in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to the normal prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A. Furthermore, both the glycolytic capacity and glycerophosphate-dependent ROS production was increased 1.68- to 4.44-fold and 5- to 7-fold, respectively, in prostate cancer cell lines when compared to PNT1A cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that mGPDH is involved in maintaining a high rate of glycolysis and is an important site of electron leakage leading to ROS production in prostate cancer cells.

  4. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating β-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christopher J; Boyle, Rachel H; Astin, Jonathan W; Flores, Maria Vega; Oehlers, Stefan H; Sanderson, Leslie E; Ellett, Felix; Lieschke, Graham J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2013-08-06

    Evidence suggests the bactericidal activity of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) directly contributes to killing phagocytozed bacteria. Infection-responsive components that regulate this process remain incompletely understood. We describe a role for the mitochondria-localizing enzyme encoded by Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) during the utilization of fatty acids as a fuel for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and associated mROS production. In a zebrafish infection model, infection-responsive expression of zebrafish irg1 is specific to macrophage-lineage cells and is regulated cooperatively by glucocorticoid and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Irg1-depleted macrophage-lineage cells are impaired in their ability to utilize fatty acids as an energy substrate for OXPHOS-derived mROS production resulting in defective bactericidal activity. Additionally, the requirement for fatty acid β-oxidation during infection-responsive mROS production and bactericidal activity toward intracellular bacteria is conserved in murine macrophages. These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function.

  5. DJ-1 links muscle ROS production with metabolic reprogramming and systemic energy homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sally Yu; Lu, Shun-Yan; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Revelo, Xavier S.; Cai, Erica P.; Luk, Cynthia T.; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Patel, Prital; Kim, Raymond H.; Bombardier, Eric; Quadrilatero, Joe; Tupling, A. Russell; Mak, Tak W.; Winer, Daniel A.; Woo, Minna

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies, including obesity and diabetes, but ROS also act as endogenous signalling molecules, regulating numerous biological processes. DJ-1 is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins across species, and mutations in DJ-1 have been linked to some cases of Parkinson's disease. Here we show that DJ-1 maintains cellular metabolic homeostasis via modulating ROS levels in murine skeletal muscles, revealing a role of DJ-1 in maintaining efficient fuel utilization. We demonstrate that, in the absence of DJ-1, ROS uncouple mitochondrial respiration and activate AMP-activated protein kinase, which triggers Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming in muscle cells. Accordingly, DJ-1 knockout mice exhibit higher energy expenditure and are protected from obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in the setting of fuel surplus. Our data suggest that promoting mitochondrial uncoupling may be a potential strategy for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:26077864

  6. Microglial ROS production in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model of epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rettenbeck, Maruja L; von Rüden, Eva-Lotta; Bienas, Silvia; Carlson, Regina; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Potschka, Heidrun

    2015-07-10

    Reactive oxygen species and inflammatory signaling have been identified as pivotal pathophysiological factors contributing to epileptogenesis. Considering the development of combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment strategies with antiepileptogenic potential, a characterization of the time course of microglial reactive oxygen species generation during epileptogenesis is of major interest. Thus, we isolated microglia cells and analyzed the generation of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometric analysis in an electrical rat post-status epilepticus model. Two days post status epilepticus, a large-sized cell cluster exhibited a pronounced response with excessive production of reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with phorbol-myristate-acetate. Neither in the latency phase nor in the chronic phase with spontaneous seizures a comparable cell population with induction of reactive oxygen species was identified. We were able to demonstrate in the electrical rat post-status-epilepticus model, that microglial ROS generation reaches a peak after the initial insult, is only marginally increased in the latency phase, and returns to control levels during the chronic epileptic phase. The data suggest that a combination of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging approaches might only be beneficial during a short time window after an epileptogenic brain insult. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. N-arachidonylglycine causes ROS production and cytochrome c release in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zaccagnino, Patrizia; Saltarella, Maddalena; D'Oria, Susanna; Corcelli, Angela; Saponetti, Matilde Sublimi; Lorusso, Michele

    2009-09-01

    N-arachidonylglycine (NA-Gly) is an amino acid derivative of arachidonic acid. This compound is structurally related to anandamide (arachidonylethanolamine), which is considered an endogenous ligand of the cannabinoid receptor. NA-Gly is present at relatively high levels in the spinal cord, small intestine, and kidneys and at lower, but remarkable, levels in testes, lungs, and liver. The presence of varying levels in different organs suggests multiple functions in addition to the reported anti-inflammatory and pain suppression actions. Here a study on the interaction of NA-Gly with isolated mitochondria is reported. The results show that micromolar concentrations of NA-Gly cause: (i) an increase in the resting state respiration with both glutamate plus malate and succinate as substrates and (ii) a decrease in either ADP- or uncoupler-activated respiration. Whereas the stimulated resting state respiration was substantially reduced by cyclosporin A (CsA), the NA-Gly-inhibited State 3 respiration was almost unaffected. Measurements by blot analysis showed that NA-Gly caused a CsA-sensitive cytochrome c release. Under these conditions no matrix swelling could be detected. Experiments are also presented showing that NA-Gly caused a respiration-dependent large ROS production, which seems in turn to be responsible for the inhibition of electron transport activity and cytochrome c release.

  8. The calcium sensor GhCaM7 promotes cotton fiber elongation by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenxin; Tu, Lili; Yang, Xiyan; Tan, Jiafu; Deng, Fenglin; Hao, Juan; Guo, Kai; Lindsey, Keith; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-04-01

    Fiber elongation is the key determinant of fiber quality and output in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Although expression profiling and functional genomics provide some data, the mechanism of fiber development is still not well understood. Here, a gene encoding a calcium sensor, GhCaM7, was isolated based on its high expression level relative to other GhCaMs in fiber cells at the fast elongation stage. The level of expression of GhCaM7 in the wild-type and the fuzzless/lintless mutant correspond to the presence and absence, respectively, of fiber initials. Overexpressing GhCaM7 promotes early fiber elongation, whereas GhCaM7 suppression by RNAi delays fiber initiation and inhibits fiber elongation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in early fiber development. ROS induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and Ca(2+) starvation promotes early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 overexpression fiber cells show increased ROS concentrations compared with the wild-type, while GhCaM7 RNAi fiber cells have reduced concentrations. Furthermore, we show that H2 O2 enhances Ca(2+) influx into the fiber and feedback-regulates the expression of GhCaM7. We conclude that GhCaM7, Ca(2+) and ROS are three important regulators involved in early fiber elongation. GhCaM7 might modulate ROS production and act as a molecular link between Ca(2+) and ROS signal pathways in early fiber development. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naha, Pratap C.; Davoren, Maria; Lyng, Fiona M.; Byrne, Hugh J.

    2010-07-15

    The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H{sub 2}DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at {approx} 4 h), TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 secretion (maximum at {approx} 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death ({approx} 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three ``D's'': diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Kazunari; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Nakayama, Yasuko; Yoshioka, Haruna; Nomura, Takashi; Sakabe, Jun-ichi; Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Jun; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narumiya, Shuh; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Tokura, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three “D's”: diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation. PMID:24131900

  12. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence.

  13. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Priller, Johannes Peter Roman; Reid, Stephen; Konein, Patrick; Dietrich, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85–10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence. PMID:27398933

  14. Iminophosphorane-organogold(III) complexes induce cell death through mitochondrial ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Laura; Contel, María; Palomera, Luis; Azaceta, Gemma; Marzo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Gold compounds are being investigated as potential antitumor drugs. Some gold(III) derivatives have shown to induce cell death in solid tumors but their mechanism of action differs from that of cisplatin, since most of these compounds do not bind to DNA. We have explored cellular events triggered by three different iminophosphorane-organo gold(III) compounds in leukemia cells (a neutral compound with two chloride ligands [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}Cl2] 1, and two cationic compounds with either a dithiocarbamate ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(S2CN-Me2)]PF6 2, or a water-soluble phosphine and a chloride ligand [Au{κ2-C,N-C6H4(PPh2=N(C6H5)-2}(P{Cp(m-C6H4-SO3Na)2}3) Cl]PF6 3). All three compounds showed higher toxicity against leukemia cells when compared to normal T-lymphocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 induced both necrosis and apoptosis, while 3 was mainly apoptotic. Necrotic cell death induced by 1 and 2 was Bax/Bak- and caspase-independent, while apoptosis induced by 3 was Bax/Bak-dependent. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at the mitochondrial level was a critical step in the antitumor effect of these compounds. PMID:21864808

  15. ROS Production and Scavenging under Anoxia and Re-Oxygenation in Arabidopsis Cells: A Balance between Redox Signaling and Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Annalisa; Caretto, Sofia; Leone, Antonella; Bove, Anna; Nisi, Rossella; De Gara, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Plants can frequently experience low oxygen concentrations due to environmental factors such as flooding or waterlogging. It has been reported that both anoxia and the transition from anoxia to re-oxygenation determine a strong imbalance in the cellular redox state involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Plant cell cultures can be a suitable system to study the response to oxygen deprivation stress since a close control of physicochemical parameters is available when using bioreactors. For this purpose, Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures grown in a stirred bioreactor were subjected to a severe anoxic stress and analyzed during anoxia and re-oxygenation for alteration in ROS and NO as well as in antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. The results obtained by confocal microscopy showed the dramatic increase of ROS, H2O2, and NO during the anoxic shock. All the ascorbate-glutathione related parameters were altered during anoxia but restored during re-oxygenation. Anoxia also induced a slight but significant increase of α-tocopherol levels measured at the end of the treatment. Overall, the evaluation of cell defenses during anoxia and re-oxygenation in Arabidopsis cell cultures revealed that the immediate response involving the overproduction of reactive species activated the antioxidant machinery including ascorbate-glutathione system, α-tocopherol and the ROS-scavenging enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and peroxidase making cells able to counteract the stress toward cell survival. PMID:27990148

  16. Curcumin derivative WZ35 efficiently suppresses colon cancer progression through inducing ROS production and ER stress-dependent apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junru; Feng, Zhiguo; Wang, Chunhua; Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Weidong; Kanchana, Karvannan; Dai, Xuanxuan; Zou, Peng; Gu, Junlian; Cai, Lu; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is characterized by its fast progression and poor prognosis, and novel agents of treating colon cancer are urgently needed. WZ35, a synthetic curcumin derivative, has been reported to exhibit promising antitumor activity. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of WZ35 and explored the underlying mechanisms in colon cancer cell lines. WZ35 treatment significantly decreased the cell viability associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in colon cancer cell lines. We also show that WZ35 is highly effective in inhibiting tumor growth in a CT26 xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, WZ35 treatment significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CT26 cells. Abrogation of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) co-treatment almost totally reversed the WZ35-induced cell apoptosis and ER stress activation. Inhibition of p-PERK by GSK2606414 can significantly reverse WZ35-induced cell apoptosis in CT26 cells. Taken together, the curcumin derivative WZ35 exhibited anti-tumor effects in colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, via a ROS-ER stress-mediated mechanism. These findings indicate that activating ROS generation could be an important strategy for the treatment of colon cancers. PMID:28337376

  17. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator.

  18. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1.

    PubMed

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner.

  19. Intracellular ROS

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Yehoram

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular localization of stress induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as an important aspect towards understanding of cellular responses to environmental stimuli. Our recent study published in the PNAS (103:18008–13)1 shows that NaCl-induced ROS appear within endosomes on the way to tonoplast as part of the vacuolar vesicle trafficking. In addition to showing ROS damage to the tonoplast, this finding may shed light upon recently reported aspects of root water relations during salt stress, suggesting a new signaling role for intracellular ROS in Arabidopsis root cells, during salt stress: ROS that are compartmentalized in endosomes are delivered by the vacuolar vesicle trafficking pathway to the tonoplast, resulting in oxidative gating of TIPs water channels. The closure of the tonoplast aquaporins contributes to the observed reduction in root hydraulic conductivity during salt stress. PMID:19704741

  20. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  1. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  2. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Fen; Sun Wenwu; Zhao Xiao Ting; Cui Zongjie Yang Wenxiu

    2008-05-16

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

  3. Testing the vicious cycle theory of mitochondrial ROS production: effects of H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide treatment on heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Alberto; Caro, Pilar; Gómez, José; Barja, Gustavo

    2006-04-01

    Vicious cycle theories of aging and oxidative stress propose that ROS produced by the mitochondrial electron transport chain damage the mitochondria leading exponentially to more ROS production and mitochondrial damage. Although this theory is widely discussed in the field of research on aging and oxidative stress, there is little supporting data. Therefore, in order to help clarify to what extent the vicious cycle theory of aging is correct, we have exposed mitochondria in vitro to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or cumene-hydroperoxide (0, 30, 100 and 500 muM). We have found that 30 muM hydrogen peroxide (or higher concentrations) inhibit oxygen consumption in state 3 and increase ROS production with pyruvate/malate but not with succinate as substrate, indicating that these effects occur specifically at complex I. Similar levels of cumene-OOH inhibit state 3 respiration with both kinds of substrates, and increase ROS production in both state 4 and state 3 with pyruvate/malate and with succinate. The effects of cumene-OOH on ROS generation are due to action of the peroxide in the complex III or in the complex III plus complex I ROS generators. In all cases, the increase in ROS production occurred at a threshold level of peroxide exposure without further exponential increase in ROS generation. These results are consistent with the idea that ROS production can contribute to increase oxidative stress in old animals, but the results do not fit with a vicious cycle theory in which peroxide generation leads exponentially to more and more ROS production with age.

  4. ROS Hexapod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Kirsch; Bankieris, Derek

    2016-01-01

    As an intern project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job was to familiarize myself and operate a Robotics Operating System (ROS). The project outcome will convert existing software assets into ROS using nodes, enabling a robotic Hexapod to communicate and to be functional and controlled by an existing PlayStation 3 (PS3) controller. Existing control algorithms and current libraries have no ROS capabilities within the Hexapod C++ source code. Conversion of C++ codes to ROS will enable existing code to be compatible with ROS, and will be controlled using existing PS3 controller. Furthermore, my job description is to design ROS messages and script programs which will enable assets to participate in the ROS ecosystem. In addition, an open source software (IDE) Arduino board will be integrated in the ecosystem with designing circuitry on a breadboard to add additional behavior with push buttons, potentiometers and other simple elements in the electrical circuitry. Other projects with the Arduino will be a GPS module digital clock that will run off 22 satellites to show accurate real time using a GPS signal and internal patch antenna to communicate with satellites.

  5. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human microvascular endothelial cells: role in endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yong; Ducatman, Alan; Ward, Rebecca; Leonard, Steve; Bukowski, Valerie; Guo, Nancy Lan; Shi, Xianglin; Vallyathan, Val; Castranova, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a member of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) containing an 8-carbon backbone. PFOS is a man-made chemical with carbon-fluorine bonds that are one of the strongest in organic chemistry and widely used in industry. Human occupational and environmental exposure to PFOS occurs globally. PFOS is non-biodegradable and persistent in the human body and environment. In this study, data demonstrated that exposure of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) to PFOS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at both high and low concentrations. Morphologically, it was found that exposure to PFOS induced actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in HMVEC. Furthermore, data demonstrated the production of ROS plays a regulatory role in PFOS-induced actin filament remodeling and the increase in endothelial permeability. Our results indicate that the generation of ROS may play a role in PFOS-induced aberrations of the endothelial permeability barrier. The results generated from this study may provide a new insight into the potential adverse effects of PFOS exposure on humans at the cellular level. PMID:20391123

  6. Galectin-1 accelerates wound healing by regulating the neuropilin-1/Smad3/NOX4 pathway and ROS production in myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh-Te; Chen, Jhih-Sian; Wu, Ming-Heng; Hsieh, I-Shan; Liang, Chen-Hsien; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Chen, Yuh-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblasts have a key role in wound healing by secreting growth factors and chemoattractants to create new substrates and proteins in the extracellular matrix. We have found that galectin-1, a β-galactose-binding lectin involved in many physiological functions, induces myofibroblast activation; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we reveal that galectin-1-null (Lgals1(-/-)) mice exhibited a delayed cutaneous wound healing response. Galectin-1 induced myofibroblast activation, migration, and proliferation by triggering intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A ROS-producing protein, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), was upregulated by galectin-1 through the neuropilin-1/Smad3 signaling pathway in myofibroblasts. Subcutaneous injection of galectin-1 into wound areas accelerated the healing of general and pathological (streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus) wounds and decreased the mortality of diabetic mice with skin wounds. These findings indicate that galectin-1 is a key regulator of wound repair that has therapeutic potential for pathological or imperfect wound healing.

  7. Cysteine dietary supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I induced by methionine restriction.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Gomez, J; Lopez Torres, M; Naudi, A; Mota-Martorell, N; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2015-06-01

    It has been described that dietary cysteine reverses many of the beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction in aging rodents. In this investigation male Wistar rats were subjected to diets low in methionine, supplemented with cysteine, or simultaneously low in methionine and supplemented with cysteine. The results obtained in liver showed that cysteine supplementation reverses the decrease in mitochondrial ROS generation induced by methionine restriction at complex I. Methionine restriction also decreased various markers of oxidative and non-oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins which were not reversed by cysteine. Instead, cysteine supplementation also lowered protein damage in association with decreases in mTOR activation. The results of the present study add the decrease in mitochondrial ROS production to the various beneficial changes induced by methionine restriction that are reversed by cysteine dietary supplementation.

  8. Biological evaluation of twenty-eight ferrocenyl tetrasubstituted olefins: cancer cell growth inhibition, ROS production and hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral; Hillard, Elizabeth A; Pigeon, Pascal; Rocha, Danilo Damasceno; Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Montenegro, Raquel C; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Goulart, Marilia O F; Jaouen, Gérard

    2011-09-01

    The antiproliferative effects of twenty-eight tetrasubstituted olefins bearing a ferrocenyl group, including six never-reported compounds, were evaluated against SF-295 (human glioblastoma), HCT-8 (human colon cancer), MDA-MB-435 (human melanoma) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) using the MTT test. IC(50) values were determined for twenty-three active compounds and of these, ten compounds had IC(50) values lower than 2 μM on one or more cell lines. Of all the compounds, only two produced significant amounts of ROS on HL-60 cells, and ROS production and growth inhibition could not be correlated. The ten most antiproliferative compounds were tested for their hemolytic activity on mouse erythrocytes. Five compounds showing high antiproliferative activity and low hemolytic activity were thus identified for further study.

  9. Trace amounts of Cu²⁺ ions influence ROS production and cytotoxicity of ZnO quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Hatem; Merlin, Christophe; Dezanet, Clément; Balan, Lavinia; Medjahdi, Ghouti; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Schneider, Raphaël

    2016-03-05

    3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) was used as ligand to prepare ZnO@APTMS, Cu(2+)-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu@APTMS) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions at their surface (ZnO@APTMS/Cu). The dots have a diameter of ca. 5 nm and their crystalline and phase purities and composition were established by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Cu(2+) location on the ability of the QDs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation was investigated. Results obtained demonstrate that all dots are able to produce ROS (OH, O2(-), H2O2 and (1)O2) and that ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs generate more OH and O2(-) radicals and H2O2 than ZnO@APTMS and ZnO:Cu@APTMS QDs probably via mechanisms associating photo-induced charge carriers and Fenton reactions. In cytotoxicity experiments conducted in the dark or under light exposure, ZnO@APTMS/Cu QDs appeared slightly more deleterious to Escherichia coli cells than the two other QDs, therefore pointing out the importance of the presence of Cu(2+) ions at the periphery of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, with the lack of photo-induced toxicity, it can be inferred that ROS production cannot explain the cytotoxicity associated to the QDs. Our study demonstrates that both the production of ROS from ZnO QDs and their toxicity may be enhanced by chemisorbed Cu(2+) ions, which could be useful for medical or photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis.

  11. Hyperglycemia Induces Cellular Hypoxia through Production of Mitochondrial ROS Followed by Suppression of Aquaporin-1

    PubMed Central

    Sada, Kiminori; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Kukidome, Daisuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoaki; Kajihara, Nobuhiro; Sonoda, Kazuhiro; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously proposed that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation is a key event in the development of diabetic complications. Interestingly, some common aspects exist between hyperglycemia and hypoxia-induced phenomena. Thus, hyperglycemia may induce cellular hypoxia, and this phenomenon may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In endothelial cells (ECs), cellular hypoxia increased after incubation with high glucose (HG). A similar phenomenon was observed in glomeruli of diabetic mice. HG-induced cellular hypoxia was suppressed by mitochondria blockades or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression, which is a specific SOD for mtROS. Overexpression of MnSOD also increased the expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a water and oxygen channel. AQP1 overexpression in ECs suppressed hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia, endothelin-1 and fibronectin overproduction, and apoptosis. Therefore, hyperglycemia-induced cellular hypoxia and mtROS generation may promote hyperglycemic damage in a coordinated manner. PMID:27383386

  12. ROS Production via P2Y1-PKC-NOX2 Is Triggered by Extracellular ATP after Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Campos, Cristian A; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Casas, Mariana; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Espinosa, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    During exercise, skeletal muscle produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase (NOX2) while inducing cellular adaptations associated with contractile activity. The signals involved in this mechanism are still a matter of study. ATP is released from skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation and can autocrinely signal through purinergic receptors; we searched for an influence of this signal in ROS production. The aim of this work was to characterize ROS production induced by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. ROS production was measured using two alternative probes; chloromethyl-2,7- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate or electroporation to express the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive protein Hyper. Electrical stimulation (ES) triggered a transient ROS increase in muscle fibers which was mimicked by extracellular ATP and was prevented by both carbenoxolone and suramin; antagonists of pannexin channel and purinergic receptors respectively. In addition, transient ROS increase was prevented by apyrase, an ecto-nucleotidase. MRS2365, a P2Y1 receptor agonist, induced a large signal while UTPyS (P2Y2 agonist) elicited a much smaller signal, similar to the one seen when using ATP plus MRS2179, an antagonist of P2Y1. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors also blocked ES-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that physiological levels of electrical stimulation induce ROS production in skeletal muscle cells through release of extracellular ATP and activation of P2Y1 receptors. Use of selective NOX2 and PKC inhibitors suggests that ROS production induced by ES or extracellular ATP is mediated by NOX2 activated by PKC.

  13. ROS Production via P2Y1-PKC-NOX2 Is Triggered by Extracellular ATP after Electrical Stimulation of Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Campos, Cristian A.; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Casas, Mariana; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Espinosa, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    During exercise, skeletal muscle produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase (NOX2) while inducing cellular adaptations associated with contractile activity. The signals involved in this mechanism are still a matter of study. ATP is released from skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation and can autocrinely signal through purinergic receptors; we searched for an influence of this signal in ROS production. The aim of this work was to characterize ROS production induced by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. ROS production was measured using two alternative probes; chloromethyl-2,7- dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate or electroporation to express the hydrogen peroxide-sensitive protein Hyper. Electrical stimulation (ES) triggered a transient ROS increase in muscle fibers which was mimicked by extracellular ATP and was prevented by both carbenoxolone and suramin; antagonists of pannexin channel and purinergic receptors respectively. In addition, transient ROS increase was prevented by apyrase, an ecto-nucleotidase. MRS2365, a P2Y1 receptor agonist, induced a large signal while UTPyS (P2Y2 agonist) elicited a much smaller signal, similar to the one seen when using ATP plus MRS2179, an antagonist of P2Y1. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors also blocked ES-induced ROS production. Our results indicate that physiological levels of electrical stimulation induce ROS production in skeletal muscle cells through release of extracellular ATP and activation of P2Y1 receptors. Use of selective NOX2 and PKC inhibitors suggests that ROS production induced by ES or extracellular ATP is mediated by NOX2 activated by PKC. PMID:26053483

  14. Osthole Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells through Inhibition of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Shokoohinia, Yalda; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Moieni-Arya, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used for treatment of several types of cancers. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent prooxidant activity. It has been reported that DOX has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of osthole isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 as a neuronal model cell line. PC12 cells were pretreated with osthole 2 h after treatment with different concentrations of DOX. 24 h later, the cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the activity of caspase-3, the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and the generation of intracellular ROS were detected. We found that pretreatment with osthole on PC12 cells significantly reduced the loss of cell viability, the activity of caspase-3, the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the generation of intracellular ROS induced by DOX. Moreover, pretreatment with osthole led to an increase in MMP in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our results indicated that pretreatment with nontoxic concentrations of osthole protected PC12 cells from DOX-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of ROS production. PMID:25013759

  15. Aluminum induces neurodegeneration and its toxicity arises from increased iron accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihao; Du, Yumei; Xue, Hua; Wu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of aluminum (Al) - the most abundant metal element on earth - has been known for years. However, the mechanism of Al-induced neurodegeneration and its relationship to Alzheimer's disease are still controversial. In particular, in vivo functional data are lacking. In a Drosophila model with chronic dietary Al overloading, general neurodegeneration and several behavioral changes were observed. Al-induced neurodegeneration is independent of β-amyloid or tau-associated toxicity, suggesting they act in different molecular pathways. Interestingly, Drosophila frataxin (dfh), which causes Friedreich's ataxia if mutated in humans, displayed an interacting effect with Al, suggesting Friedreich's ataxia patients might be more susceptible to Al toxicity. Al-treated flies accumulated large amount of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and exhibited elevated SOD2 activity. Genetic and pharmacological efforts to reduce ROS or chelate excess Fe significantly mitigated Al toxicity. Our results indicate that Al toxicity is mediated through ROS production and iron accumulation and suggest a remedial route to reduce toxicity due to Al exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased xanthine oxidase-related ROS production and TRPV1 synthesis preceding DOMS post-eccentric exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Retamoso, Leandro T; Silveira, Mauro E P; Lima, Frederico D; Busanello, Guilherme L; Bresciani, Guilherme; Ribeiro, Leandro R; Chagas, Pietro M; Nogueira, Cristina W; Braga, Ana Claudia M; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S; Fighera, Michele R; Royes, Luiz Fernando F

    2016-05-01

    It is well-known that unaccustomed exercise, especially eccentric exercise, is associated to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whether DOMS is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is still an open question. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between TRPV1 and xanthine oxidase-related ROS production in muscle and DOMS after a bout of eccentric exercise. Male Wistar rats performed a downhill running exercise on a treadmill at a -16° tilt and a constant speed for 90min (5min/bout separated by 2min of rest). Mechanical allodynia and grip force tests were performed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72h after the downhill running. Biochemical assays probing oxidative stress, purine degradation, xanthine oxidase activity, Ca(2+) ATPase activity and TRPV1 protein content were performed in gastrocnemius muscle at 12, 24, and 48h after the downhill running. Our statistical analysis showed an increase in mechanical allodynia and a loss of strength after the downhill running. Similarly, an increase in carbonyl, xanthine oxidase activity, uric acid levels and TRPV1 immunoreactivity were found 12h post-exercise. On the other hand, Ca(2+) ATPase activity decreased in all analyzed times. Our results suggest that a possible relationship between xanthine oxidase-related ROS and TRPV1 may exist during the events preceding eccentric exercise-related DOMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inorganic nanoparticles enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the autoxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa).

    PubMed

    Luna-Velasco, Antonia; Field, Jim A; Cobo-Curiel, Angel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2011-09-01

    Public concerns over the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) are growing due to the rapid development of nanotechnology. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is oxidative stress resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the chemical production of ROS by inorganic NPs oxidizing the mammalian phenolic compound, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) was evaluated using a ROS sensitive dye, 2',7'-diclorodihydrofluorescin (DCFH). CeO(2), Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(0) NPs enhanced ROS production during the autoxidation of L-dopa by more than four-fold in reactions that were dependent on O(2). This is the first report of chemical ROS production due to interaction of phenolic compounds with NPs. Mn(2)O(3) oxidized DCFH in a reaction that did not require O(2) or L-dopa, suggesting a direct redox reaction between the Mn(2)O(3) and the dye. CeO(2), Mn(2)O(3) and to a lesser extent Fe(0) formed clear electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signature for hydroxyl radicals when incubated in aerobic aqueous suspensions with spin traps. The results indicate that NPs can generate ROS via chemical reactions with medium components and biomolecules susceptible to oxidation, such as L-dopa. NPs were reactive whereas micron-sized particles were not. The combined assay with L-dopa and DCFH is a method proposed to screen for chemical ROS production by NPs.

  18. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′, 7′-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. Results HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. Conclusions GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:24580748

  19. Synthetic Lethality of a Novel Small Molecule Against Mutant KRAS-Expressing Cancer Cells Involves AKT-Dependent ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Yadav, Sanjiv Kumar; Foo, Chuan Han Jonathan; Sethi, Gautam; Qiang, Yu; Bellot, Gregory L; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2016-05-10

    We recently reported the death-inducing activity of a small-molecule compound, C1, which triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent autophagy-associated apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In this study, we examine the ability of the compound to specifically target cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS with minimal activity against wild-type (WT) RAS-expressing cells. HCT116 cells expressing mutated KRAS are susceptible, while the WT-expressing HT29 cells are resistant. Interestingly, C1 triggers activation of mutant RAS, which results in the downstream phosphorylation and activation of AKT/PKB. Gene knockdown of KRAS or AKT or their pharmacological inhibition resulted in the abrogation of C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony-forming ability. We also made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout (KO) cells, which express only a single WT KRAS allele. Exposure of KO cells to C1 failed to increase mitochondrial ROS and cell death, unlike the parental cells harboring mutant KRAS. Similarly, mutant KRAS-transformed prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1-RAS) were more sensitive to the ROS-producing and death-inducing effects of C1 than the vector only expressing RWPE-1 cells. An in vivo model of xenograft tumors generated with HCT116 KRAS(WT/MUT) or KRAS(WT/-) cells showed the efficacy of C1 treatment and its ability to affect the relative mitotic index in tumors harboring KRAS mutant. These data indicate a synthetic lethal effect against cells carrying mutant KRAS, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of KRAS-specific chemotherapeutic strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 781-794.

  20. Suppression of ROS Production by Exendin-4 in PSC Attenuates the High Glucose-Induced Islet Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Shin-Young; You, Young-Hye; Ham, Dong-Sik; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yang, Hae Kyung; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a major role to fibrotic islet destruction observed in diabetic patients and animal model of diabetes. Exendin-4 (Ex-4) is a potent insulinotropic agent and has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, there have been no reports demonstrating the effects of Ex-4 on pancreatic islet fibrosis. In this study, Ex-4 treatment clearly attenuated fibrotic islet destruction and improved glucose tolerance and islet survival. GLP-1 receptor expression was upregulated during activation and proliferation of PSCs by hyperglycemia. The activation of PKA pathway by Ex-4 plays a role in ROS production and angiotensin II (Ang II) production. Exposure to high glucose stimulated ERK activation and Ang II-TGF- β1 production in PSCs. Interestingly, Ex-4 significantly reduced Ang II and TGF-β1 production by inhibition of ROS production but not ERK phosphorylation. Ex-4 may be useful not only as an anti-diabetic agent but also as an anti-fibrotic agent in type 2 diabetes due to its ability to inhibit PSC activation and proliferation and improve islet fibrosis in OLETF rats. PMID:27977690

  1. ROS Hexapod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Kirsch; Bankieris, Derek

    2016-01-01

    As an intern project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job was to familiarize myself and operate a Robotics Operating System (ROS). The project outcome converted existing software assets into ROS using nodes, enabling a robotic Hexapod to communicate to be functional and controlled by an existing PlayStation 3 (PS3) controller. Existing control algorithms and current libraries have no ROS capabilities within the Hexapod C++ source code when the internship started, but that has changed throughout my internship. Conversion of C++ codes to ROS enabled existing code to be compatible with ROS, and is now controlled using an existing PS3 controller. Furthermore, my job description was to design ROS messages and script programs that enabled assets to participate in the ROS ecosystem by subscribing and publishing messages. Software programming source code is written in directories using C++. Testing of software assets included compiling code within the Linux environment using a terminal. The terminal ran the code from a directory. Several problems occurred while compiling code and the code would not compile. So modifying code to where C++ can read the source code were made. Once the code was compiled and ran, the code was uploaded to Hexapod and then controlled by a PS3 controller. The project outcome has the Hexapod fully functional and compatible with ROS and operates using the PlayStation 3 controller. In addition, an open source software (IDE) Arduino board will be integrated into the ecosystem with designing circuitry on a breadboard to add additional behavior with push buttons, potentiometers and other simple elements in the electrical circuitry. Other projects with the Arduino will be a GPS module, digital clock that will run off 22 satellites to show accurate real time using a GPS signal and an internal patch antenna to communicate with satellites. In addition, this internship experience has led me to pursue myself to learn coding more efficiently and

  2. RIP1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production contributed to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced L929 cell necroptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuan-Chao; Wang, Hong-Ju; Yu, Lu; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) induces necroptosis and autophagy; however, the detailed molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we found that TNFα administration caused mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which led to necroptosis and autophagy in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells. Notably, the RIP1 (serine-threonine kinase receptor-interacting protein 1, a main adaptor protein of necroptosis) specific inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) recovered mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production due to TNFα administration. Moreover, pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk (zVAD) increased RIP1 expression and exacerbated TNFα-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, indicating that RIP1 led to mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria was accompanied with TNFα administration, and Nec-1 blocked the release of cytochrome c upon TNFα administration, while zVAD enhanced the release. These further suggested that RIP1 induced mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied with cytochrome c release. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) did not affect RIP1 expression as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production. Together with our previous publication that autophagy was a downstream consequence of necroptosis, we concluded that TNFα induced mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied with ROS production and cytochrome c release via RIP1, leading to necroptosis and resulting autophagic cell death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Mountain Ultra-Marathon Running on ROS Production and Oxidative Damage by Micro-Invasive Analytic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Moretti, Sarah; Pratali, Lorenza; Giardini, Guido; Tacchini, Philippe; Dellanoce, Cinzia; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Borghini, Andrea; Montorsi, Michela; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d’Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques. Methods Forty-six male athletes (45.04±8.75 yr, 72.6±8.4 kg, 1.76±0.05 m) were tested. Capillary blood and urine were collected before (Pre-), in the middle (Middle-) and immediately after (Post-) Race. Samples were analyzed for: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance; Antioxidant Capacity by Electrochemistry; oxidative damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxy Guanosine: 8-OH-dG; 8-isoprostane: 8-isoPGF2α) and nitric oxide metabolites by enzymatic assays; inflammatory biomarkers (plasma and urine interleukin-6: IL-6-P and IL-6-U) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); Creatinine and Neopterin by HPLC, hematologic (lactate, glucose and hematocrit) and urine parameters by standard analyses. Results Twenty-five athletes finished the race, while twenty-one dropped out of it. A significant increase (Post-Race vs Pre) of the ROS production rate (2.20±0.27 vs 1.65±0.22 μmol.min-1), oxidative damage biomarkers (8-OH-dG: 6.32±2.38 vs 4.16±1.25 ng.mg-1 Creatinine and 8-isoPGF2α: 1404.0±518.30 vs 822.51±448.91 pg.mg-1Creatinine), inflammatory state (IL-6-P: 66.42±36.92 vs 1.29±0.54 pg.mL-1 and IL-6-U: 1.33±0.56 vs 0.71±0.17 pg.mL1) and lactate production (+190%), associated with a decrease of both antioxidant capacity (-7%) and renal function (i.e. Creatinine level +76%) was found. Conclusions The used micro-invasive analytic methods allowed us to perform most of them before, during and immediately after the race directly in the field, by passing the need of storing and

  4. Inhibitory effect of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. on inflammation by suppression of iNOS and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Park, SunJu; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicines including Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (APL) have been traditionally used to treat inflammations including allergic disease as valuable medicinal properties. To investigate the attenuating ability of APL on inflammation, the NO release and ROS production, which play a key role in inflammatory and immune responses, was first tested using in vitro assay. The 80% ethanol extract of APL showed a significant activity to inhibit NO release and ROS production. In additional extracts from 80% ethanol extract of APL, n-butanol (BuOH) extract displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effects based on in vitro assay. The extract also significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells (p < 0.05), and suppressed the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, whereas the extract showed no inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, suggesting that the BuOH extract of APL could reduce the NO production through suppression of iNOS, but not COX-2. The BuOH extract also showed a significant effect in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in vivo model, consistent with our in vitro results. Our findings suggest that the BuOH extract of APL shows a potential anti-inflammatory activity, substantiating its traditional use in medicine.

  5. Kaempferol inhibits the production of ROS to modulate OPN-αvβ3 integrin pathway in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong-Bo; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Zi-Kui; Luo, Zhi-Feng

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that aldosterone regulates osteopontin (OPN)-related signaling pathways to promote nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, blocks those changes. Aldosterone induced productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), OPN, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase 4 (Nox4), NF-κB, OPN, alphavbeta3 (αvβ3) integrin, and inhibitor of NF-κB alpha phosphorylation (P-IκBα) in HUVEC. HUVECs were pretreated with kaempferol (0, 1, 3, or 10 μM) for 1 h and exposed to aldosterone (10(-6) M) for 24 h. Kaempferol reduced ROS, OPN, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α levels; Nox4, αvβ3 integrin; and P-IκBα expressions. The effect of aldosterone was also abrogated by spironolactone (10(-6) M). In addition, vitamin C (20 mmol/L) reduced ROS production. Vitamin C and LM609 (10 μg/mL) treatment decreased expressions of OPN, αvβ3 integrin, and NF-κB (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The present results suggest that kaempferol may modulate OPN-αvβ3 integrin pathway to inhibit NF-κB activation in HUVECs.

  6. Febuxostat Inhibition of Endothelial-Bound XO: Implications for Targeting Vascular ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Umair Z.; Hundley, Nicholas J.; Romero, Guillermo; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Tarpey, Margaret M.; Kelley, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a critical source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to vascular inflammation. Binding of XO to vascular endothelial cell glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) results in significant resistance to inhibition by traditional pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors such as allopurinol. Therefore, we compared the extent of XO inhibition (free and GAG-bound) by allopurinol to febuxostat, a newly approved nonpurine XO-specific inhibitor. In solution, febuxostat was 1000 fold more potent than allopurinol inhibition of XO-dependent uric acid formation (IC50 = 1.8 nM vs. 2.9 μM). Association of XO with heparin-Sepharose 6B (HS6B-XO) had minimal effect on inhibition of uric acid formation by febuxostat (IC50 = 4.4 nM) while further limiting the effect of allopurinol (IC50 = 64 μM). Kinetic analysis of febuxostat inhibition revealed Ki values of 0.96 nM (free) and 0.92 nM (HS6B-XO), confirming equivalent inhibition for both free and GAG-immobilized enzyme. When XO was bound to endothelial cell GAGs, complete enzyme inhibition was observed with 25 nM febuxostat, while no more than 80% inhibition was seen with either allopurinol or oxypurinol, even at concentrations above those tolerated clinically. The superior potency for inhibition of endothelium-associated XO is predictive of a significant role for febuxostat in investigating pathological states where XO-derived ROS are contributive and traditional XO inhibitors are only slightly effective. PMID:21554948

  7. TCS2 Increases Olaquindox-Induced Apoptosis by Upregulation of ROS Production and Downregulation of Autophagy in HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Daowen; Zhao, Kena; Yang, Xiayun; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2017-04-07

    Olaquindox, a feed additive, has drawn public attention due to its potential mutagenicity, genotoxicity, hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2) pathways in olaquindox-induced autophagy in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The results revealed that olaquindox treatment reduced the cell viability of HEK293 cells and downregulated the expression of TSC2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, olaquindox treatment markedly induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cascaded to autophagy, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death, which was effectively eliminated by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Furthermore, overexpression of TSC2 attenuated olaquindox-induced autophagy in contrast to inducing the production of ROS, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of TSC2 upregulated autophagy, and decreased olaquindox-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that TSC2 partly participates in olaquindox-induced autophagy, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and demonstrate that TSC2 has a negative regulation role in olaquindox-induced autophagy in HEK293 cells.

  8. Echinacoside Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Responses in PC12 Cells via Reducing ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Xuan, Zhao-Hong; Tian, Shuo; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses are involved in the mechanism of cell damage in PD. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a dopamine analog, specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, showing a variety of neuroprotective effects in previous studies. The present study was to investigate its effect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and possible mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that 6-OHDA reduced cell viability, decreased oxidation-reduction activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis compared with untreated PC12 cells. However, echinacoside treatment significantly attenuated these changes induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, echinacoside also could significantly alleviate the inflammatory responses induced by 6-OHDA. Further research showed that echinacoside could reduce 6-OHDA-induced ROS production in PC12 cells. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of echinacoside against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity may be involve in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses by reducing ROS production. PMID:25788961

  9. In vivo ROS production and use of oxidative stress-derived biomarkers to detect the onset of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Umeno, Aya; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2017-04-03

    Breakthroughs in biochemistry have furthered our understanding of the onset and progression of various diseases, and have advanced the development of new therapeutics. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous in biological systems. ROS can be formed non-enzymatically by chemical, photochemical and electron transfer reactions, or as the byproducts of endogenous enzymatic reactions, phagocytosis, and inflammation. Imbalances in ROS homeostasis, caused by impairments in antioxidant enzymes or non-enzymatic antioxidant networks, increase oxidative stress, leading to the deleterious oxidation and chemical modification of biomacromolecules such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. While many ROS are intracellular signaling messengers and most products of oxidative metabolisms are beneficial for normal cellular function, the elevation of ROS levels by light, hyperglycemia, peroxisomes, and certain enzymes causes oxidative stress-sensitive signaling, toxicity, oncogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Although the underlying mechanisms of these diseases are manifold, oxidative stress caused by ROS is a major contributing factor in their onset. This review summarizes the relationship between ROS and oxidative stress, with special reference to recent advancements in the detection of biomarkers related to oxidative stress. Further, we will introduce biomarkers for the early detection of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes, with a focus on our recent work.

  10. Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ligen; Pang, Weijun; Chen, Keyun; Wang, Fei; Gengler, Jon; Sun, Yuxiang

    2012-01-01

    We have reported previously that ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in mature adipocytes of white adipose tissue. PU.1 expression is increased greatly in mouse models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that PU.1 expression is increased only in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese mice, and the adipocytes are responsible for this increase in PU.1 expression. To further address PU.1's physiological function in mature adipocytes, PU.1 was knocked down in 3T3-L1 cells using retroviral-mediated expression of PU.1-targeting shRNA. Consistent with previous findings that PU.1 regulates its target genes, such as NADPH oxidase subunits and proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) and cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox and p40phox) were downregulated significantly in PU.1-silenced adipocytes. NADPH oxidase is a main source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Indeed, silencing PU.1 suppressed NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ROS in basal or hydrogen peroxide-treated adipocytes. Silencing PU.1 in adipocytes suppressed JNK1 activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser307. Consequently, PU.1 knockdown improved insulin signaling and increased glucose uptake in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, knocking down PU.1 suppressed basal lipolysis but activated stimulated lipolysis. Collectively, these findings indicate that obesity induces PU.1 expression in adipocytes to upregulate the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, both of which lead to JNK1 activation, insulin resistance, and dysregulation of lipolysis. Therefore, PU.1 might be a mediator for obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:22454293

  11. Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Pang, Weijun; Chen, Keyun; Wang, Fei; Gengler, Jon; Sun, Yuxiang; Tong, Qiang

    2012-06-15

    We have reported previously that ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in mature adipocytes of white adipose tissue. PU.1 expression is increased greatly in mouse models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that PU.1 expression is increased only in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese mice, and the adipocytes are responsible for this increase in PU.1 expression. To further address PU.1's physiological function in mature adipocytes, PU.1 was knocked down in 3T3-L1 cells using retroviral-mediated expression of PU.1-targeting shRNA. Consistent with previous findings that PU.1 regulates its target genes, such as NADPH oxidase subunits and proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) and cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox and p40phox) were downregulated significantly in PU.1-silenced adipocytes. NADPH oxidase is a main source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Indeed, silencing PU.1 suppressed NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ROS in basal or hydrogen peroxide-treated adipocytes. Silencing PU.1 in adipocytes suppressed JNK1 activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307). Consequently, PU.1 knockdown improved insulin signaling and increased glucose uptake in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, knocking down PU.1 suppressed basal lipolysis but activated stimulated lipolysis. Collectively, these findings indicate that obesity induces PU.1 expression in adipocytes to upregulate the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, both of which lead to JNK1 activation, insulin resistance, and dysregulation of lipolysis. Therefore, PU.1 might be a mediator for obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.

  12. TCF2 attenuates FFA-induced damage in islet β-cells by regulating production of insulin and ROS.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yingna; Liang, Chunlian

    2014-07-30

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are cytotoxic to pancreatic islet β-cells and play a crucial role in the diabetes disease process. A recent study revealed a down-regulation of transcription factor 2 (TCF2) levels during FFA-mediated cytotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells. However, its function during this process and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, treatment with palmitic acid (PA) at high levels (400 and 800 μM) decreased β-cell viability and TCF2 protein expression, along with the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Western and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the positive regulatory effect of TCF2 on GSIS through promotion of the key regulators pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in β-cells. In addition, both PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK showed decreased expression in PA (800 μM)-treated β-cells. Overexpression of TCF2 could effectively restore the inhibitory effect of PA on the activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK as well as β-cell viability, simultaneously, inhibited PA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. After blocking the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signals with their specific inhibitor, the effect of overexpressed TCF2 on β-cell viability and ROS production was obviously attenuated. Furthermore, a protective effect of TCF2 on GSIS by positive modulation of JNK-PDX1/GLUT2 signaling was also confirmed. Accordingly, our study has confirmed that TCF2 positively modulates insulin secretion and further inhibits ROS generation via the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Our work may provide a new therapeutic target to achieve prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  13. Inhibition of ROS production through mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and mitochondrial uncoupling increases post-thaw sperm viability in yellow catfish.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lu; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Dai, Jun; Xiang, Yang; Ji, Xiaoping; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the main causes for decreased viability in cryopreserved sperm. Many studies have reported the beneficial effect of antioxidant supplements in freezing media for post-thaw sperm quality. In the present study, we explored two new approaches of ROS inhibition in sperm cryopreservation of yellow catfish, namely mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant and metabolic modulator targeting mitochondrial uncoupling pathways. Our study revealed that addition of MitoQ, a compound designed to deliver ubiquinone into mitochondria, significantly decreased ROS production, as well as lipid peroxidation, and increased post-thaw viability. Similarly, sperm incubated with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a chemical protonophore that induces mitochondrial uncoupling, also had reduced ROS production, as well as lipid peroxidation, and increased post-thaw sperm viability. Conversely, activation of uncoupling protein (UCP2) by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) neither reduced ROS production nor increased post-thaw sperm viability. Our findings indicate that ROS inhibition through mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant or mild mitochondrial uncoupling is beneficial for sperm cryopreservation in yellow catfish. Our study provides novel methods to mitigate oxidative stress induced damage in cryopreserved sperm for future applications.

  14. Use of Commercial Dry Yeast Products Rich in Mannoproteins for White and Rosé Sparkling Wine Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Bueno-Herrera, Marta; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2015-06-17

    In sparkling wines, mannoproteins released during yeast autolysis largely affect their final quality. This process is very slow and may take several months. The aim of this work was to study the effect of several commercial dry yeast autolysates on the chemical composition, foam, and sensory properties of white and rosé sparkling wines aged on lees for 9 months during two consecutive vintages. The addition of these products in the tirage phase did not affect either the content of phenolic compounds, amino acids, and biogenic amines or the foam properties. The commercial product with the highest mannoprotein content and the highest purity caused significant changes in the volatile composition of the wines and enhanced the fruity aromas in both Verdejo and Godello sparkling wines.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-α, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFRβ is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways.

  16. Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C induced ROS production and cytotoxicity require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB activation.

    PubMed

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis.

  17. Clostridium perfringens Phospholipase C Induced ROS Production and Cytotoxicity Require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Pineda-Padilla, Maria Jose; Castro-Castro, Ana Cristina; Alape-Giron, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (CpPLC), also called α-toxin, is the most toxic extracellular enzyme produced by this bacteria and is essential for virulence in gas gangrene. At lytic concentrations, CpPLC causes membrane disruption, whereas at sublytic concentrations this toxin causes oxidative stress and activates the MEK/ERK pathway, which contributes to its cytotoxic and myotoxic effects. In the present work, the role of PKC, ERK 1/2 and NFκB signalling pathways in ROS generation induced by CpPLC and their contribution to CpPLC-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that CpPLC induces ROS production through PKC, MEK/ERK and NFκB pathways, the latter being activated by the MEK/ERK signalling cascade. Inhibition of either of these signalling pathways prevents CpPLC's cytotoxic effect. In addition, it was demonstrated that NFκB inhibition leads to a significant reduction in the myotoxicity induced by intramuscular injection of CpPLC in mice. Understanding the role of these signalling pathways could lead towards developing rational therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cell death during a clostridialmyonecrosis. PMID:24466113

  18. Glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS production, Ca(2+) and water channel in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, ShanShan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, GenXuan

    2016-03-01

    Sugars act as vital signaling molecules that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the effects of sugars on stomatal movement have been unclear. In our study, we explored the effects of monosaccharides such as glucose and mannose on stomatal aperture. Here, we demonstrate that glucose and mannose trigger stomatal closure in a dose- and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of broad bean (Vicia faba). Pharmacological studies revealed that glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was almost completely inhibited by two reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), was significantly abolished by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), whereas they were hardly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). Furthermore, glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure was strongly inhibited by a Ca(2+) channel blocker, LaCl3 , a Ca(2+) chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and two water channel blockers, HgCl2 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); whereas the inhibitory effects of the water channel blockers were essentially abolished by the reversing agent β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). These results suggest that ROS production mainly via NADPH oxidases, Ca(2+) and water channels are involved in glucose- and mannose-induced stomatal closure.

  19. Effects of β-glucan on ROS production and energy metabolism in yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) under acute hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Wang, Yong-Hong; Ai, Chun-Xiang; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Cai, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of β-glucan on acute hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and the changes in energy metabolism by determining ROS production, activities and mRNA levels of energy metabolism enzyme (PK, F-ATPase, SDH and MDH), and in gene expression of HIF-1α in the liver of large yellow croaker. Fish were injected with β-glucan at a dose of 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight on 6, 4 and 2 days before exposed to 1.5 and 7.0 mg DO L(-1) for 48 h. The results showed that β-glucan enhanced survival rate and reduced ROS during the lethal hypoxic stress, indicating that β-glucan could ameliorate hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. Obtained results also showed that β-glucan could up-regulate activities and mRNA levels of PK, demonstrating that β-glucan increased anaerobic glycolysis capacity. Furthermore, a coordinated transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism enzyme genes was observed, suggesting that HIF-1α is required for regulating these genes. In conclusion, β-glucan could alleviate cute hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in large yellow croker by enhancing anaerobic glycolysis capacity, emphasizing a central role of transcription factor HIF-1α in the process.

  20. ROS Production and ERK Activity Are Involved in the Effects of d-β-Hydroxybutyrate and Metformin in a Glucose Deficient Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Bastola, Tonking; Pariyar, Ramesh; Lee, Eun-Sol; Lee, Ho-Sub; Lee, Dae Ho; Seo, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β). ROS inhibitor reversed the glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and restored the reduced phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β. While metformin did not alter cell viability in normal glucose media, it further increased cell death and ROS production under glucose deficiency. However, D-BHB reversed cytotoxicity, ROS production, and the decrease in phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β induced by the glucose deficiency. ERK inhibitor reversed the D-BHB-induced increase in cell viability under glucose deficiency, whereas GSK3β inhibitor did not restore glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, the protective effect of D-BHB against glucose deficiency was confirmed in primary neuronal cells. We demonstrate that glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by ERK inhibition through ROS production, which is attenuated by D-BHB and intensified by metformin. PMID:28335557

  1. Advanced glycation end products as an upstream molecule triggers ROS-induced sFlt-1 production in extravillous trophoblasts: a novel bridge between oxidative stress and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q T; Zhang, M; Zhong, M; Yu, Y H; Liang, W Z; Hang, L L; Gao, Y F; Huang, L P; Wang, Z J

    2013-12-01

    Although abnormal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) production is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, the mechanisms that regulate the production of sFlt-1 during pre-eclampsia are unclear. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is prevalent in obesity, advanced maternal age, diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Alterations in the regulation and signaling of angiogenic pathways have been considered as a link between these conditions and pre-eclampsia. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible effects of AGEs on sFlt-1 secretion in extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). A EVT cell line (HRT-8/SVneo) was treated with various concentrations of AGEs-BSA. The mRNA expression of sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF) in EVT were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The secretion of sFlt-1, VEGF, and PlGF protein from EVT was measured with ELISA. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were determined by DCFH-DA. Exposure of EVT to AGEs-BSA induced increased intracellular ROS generation and overexpression of sFlt-1 at mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. Anti-RAGE immunoglobulin G or apocynin (an inhibitors of NADPH oxidase) could decrease the intracellular ROS generation and subsequently suppressed the production of sFlt-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Our data suggested that AGEs may be a new class of important mediator in the regulation of angiogenic pathways of EVT. Accumulation of AGEs might contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by promoting sFlt-1 production through activation of RAGE/NADPH oxidase dependent pathway in EVT.

  2. FTO Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Promotes NF-κB Activation through Positively Regulating ROS Production in Pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong-Qi; He, Wei; Xu, Kuan-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Xiao; Xu, Xin-Yu; Chen, Heng

    2015-01-01

    FTO (Fat mass and obesity-associated) is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes incurrence. Pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and insulin resistance are major causes of type 2 diabetes. However, whether FTO plays an important functional role in pancreatic β cells as well as the related molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the tissue expression profile of FTO was firstly determined using quantitative PCR and western blot. FTO is widely expressed in various tissues and presented with relative high expression in pancreas tissue, especially in endocrine pancreas. FTO overexpression in MIN6 cells achieved by lentivirus delivery significantly inhibits insulin secretion in the presence of glucose stimulus as well as KCl. FTO silence has no effect on insulin secretion of MIN6 cells. However, FTO overexpression doesn't affect the transcription of insulin gene. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NF-κB activation are significantly promoted by FTO overexpression. Inhibition of intracellular ROS production by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) can alleviate NF-κB activation and restore the insulin secretion mediated by FTO overexpression. A whole transcript-microarray is employed to analyze the differential gene expression mediated by FTO overexpression. The genes which are modulated by FTO are involved in many important biological pathways such as G-protein coupled receptor signaling and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, our study indicates that FTO may contribute to pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and the inhibition of FTO activity is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes.

  3. Uncaria tomentosa Leaves Decoction Modulates Differently ROS Production in Cancer and Normal Cells, and Effects Cisplatin Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Anita; Czepielewska, Edyta; Kuraś, Mieczysław; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Pietrzak, Wioleta; Nowak, Renata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2017-04-12

    Uncaria tomentosa is a woody vine with a long history of use in traditional Peruvian medicine and nowadays supplements containing this vine as ingredient are available. Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of Uncaria tomentosa have been suggested and attributed mainly to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids. However, the synergic action of different compounds occurring in extracts and modulation of redox processes may significantly influence the anticancer activity of Uncaria tomentosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the cytotoxic effects of the tetracyclic alkaloids free aqueous extract (decoction) of dried Uncaria tomentosa leaf blades in normal and cancer cells, and to assess the effect of the tested extract on cisplatin (CDDP) cytotoxicity. Tested Uncaria tomentosa extract was not cytotoxic for NHDF cells, but demonstrated cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cells. The extract increased ROS production in HepG2 cells, which resulted in decreased GSH level, leading to apoptosis of these cells through activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7. A reduction of NF-κB active form was observed in cancer cells. In normal cells the extract did not affect ROS production, GSH level and NF-κB activity, and maintained cell viability. HepG2 cells incubation with Uncaria tomentosa decoction and simultaneously with CDDP resulted in an increase in CDPP cytotoxic activity against HepG2, while under the same conditions Uncaria tomentosa prevents NHDF cell viability reduction due to CDDP. The results indicate that Uncaria tomentosa leaves decoction modulates differently cancer and normal cells oxidative metabolism and, enhanced cytotoxicity of CDDP against cancer cells and at the same time increased normal healthy cells resistance to cisplatin. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations and to describe underlying molecular mechanism, and the potential usefulness of Uncaria tomentosa decoction

  4. FTO Inhibits Insulin Secretion and Promotes NF-κB Activation through Positively Regulating ROS Production in Pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hong-Qi; He, Wei; Xu, Kuan-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Xiao; Xu, Xin-Yu; Chen, Heng

    2015-01-01

    FTO (Fat mass and obesity-associated) is associated with increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes incurrence. Pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and insulin resistance are major causes of type 2 diabetes. However, whether FTO plays an important functional role in pancreatic β cells as well as the related molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the tissue expression profile of FTO was firstly determined using quantitative PCR and western blot. FTO is widely expressed in various tissues and presented with relative high expression in pancreas tissue, especially in endocrine pancreas. FTO overexpression in MIN6 cells achieved by lentivirus delivery significantly inhibits insulin secretion in the presence of glucose stimulus as well as KCl. FTO silence has no effect on insulin secretion of MIN6 cells. However, FTO overexpression doesn’t affect the transcription of insulin gene. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NF-κB activation are significantly promoted by FTO overexpression. Inhibition of intracellular ROS production by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) can alleviate NF-κB activation and restore the insulin secretion mediated by FTO overexpression. A whole transcript-microarray is employed to analyze the differential gene expression mediated by FTO overexpression. The genes which are modulated by FTO are involved in many important biological pathways such as G-protein coupled receptor signaling and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, our study indicates that FTO may contribute to pancreas islet β cells dysfunction and the inhibition of FTO activity is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26018652

  5. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Prevents Murine Antibody-Mediated Acute Lung Injury at the Level of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John W.; Kim, Michael; Hou, Jing; McVey, Mark; Lee, Young Jin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chai, Zhong-Wei; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage. PMID:22363629

  6. JAK inhibitors prevent migration of rheumatoid arthritis neutrophils towards interleukin-8, but do not inhibit priming of the respiratory burst or ROS production.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Thomas S; Moots, Robert J; Wright, Helen L

    2017-04-02

    Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), via the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and cytokines. Orally-active JAK inhibitors (JAKi), e.g. baricitinib and tofacitinib, have high clinical efficacy in RA but are linked with neutropenia and increased infections. Our aim was to determine the effect of JAK inhibition with baricitinib and tofacitinib on healthy control and RA neutrophil lifespan and function. RA (n=7) and healthy control (n=7) neutrophils were treated with baricitinib or tofacitinib for 30 min, prior to incubation in the absence or presence of GM-CSF or IFNγ. JAKi prevented GM-CSF- and IFNγ-induced apoptosis delay in RA and healthy control neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Baricitinib decreased the rate of chemotaxis towards IL-8, but not fMLP, in RA neutrophils. Whilst healthy control neutrophils incubated with GM-CSF became primed to produce ROS in response to stimulation with fMLP and PMA, RA neutrophils produced increased levels of ROS without the need for priming. JAKi prevented ROS release from primed healthy control neutrophils in response to fMLP, but had no effect on ROS production by RA neutrophils. Baricitinib reversed GM-CSF priming of ROS production in response to fMLP in healthy control, but not RA, neutrophils. We conclude that incubation with JAKi prevents chemotaxis of RA neutrophils towards IL-8, but does not prevent the production of ROS or increase the level of apoptosis. This may be due to the in vivo exposure of RA neutrophils to priming agents other than those that activate JAK/STAT signalling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluoride Increases Superoxide Production and Impairs the Respiratory Chain in ROS 17/2.8 Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Brenda Lorena; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    It is known that fluoride produces oxidative stress. Inflammation in bone tissue and an impairment of the respiratory chain of liver have been described in treatments with fluoride. Whether the impairment of the respiratory chain and oxidative stress are related is not known. The aim of this work was to study the effects of fluoride on the production of superoxide radical, the function of the respiratory chain and the increase in oxidative stress in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. We measured the effect of fluoride (100 µM) on superoxide production, oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities of cultured cells following the treatment with fluoride. Fluoride decreased oxygen consumption and increased superoxide production immediately after its addition. Furthermore, chronic treatment with fluoride increased oxidative stress status in osteoblastic cells. These results indicate that fluoride could damage bone tissue by inhibiting the respiratory chain, increasing the production of superoxide radicals and thus of the others reactive oxygen species. PMID:24964137

  8. The cytotoxicity of garlic-related disulphides and thiosulfonates in WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells is dependent on S-thiolation and not production of ROS.

    PubMed

    Smith, Muneerah; Hunter, Roger; Stellenboom, Nashia; Kusza, Daniel A; Parker, M Iqbal; Hammouda, Ahmed N H; Jackson, Graham; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2016-07-01

    Garlic has been used for centuries in folk medicine for its health promoting and cancer preventative properties. The bioactive principles in crushed garlic are allyl sulphur compounds which are proposed to chemically react through (i) protein S-thiolation and (ii) production of ROS. A collection of R-propyl disulphide and R-thiosulfonate compounds were synthesised to probe the importance of thiolysis and ROS generation in the cytotoxicity of garlic-related compounds in WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells. A significant correlation (R(2)=0.78, Fcrit (7,1) α=0.005) was found between the cytotoxicity IC(50) and the leaving group pK(a) of the R-propyl disulphides and thiosulfonates, supporting a mechanism that relies on the thermodynamics of a mixed disulphide exchange reaction. Disulphide (1) and thiosulfonate (11) were further evaluated mechanistically and found to induce G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, and generate ROS. When the ROS produced by 1 and 11 were quenched with Trolox, ascorbic acid or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), only NAC was found to counter the cytotoxicity of both compounds. However, NAC was found to chemically react with 11 through mixed disulphide formation, providing an explanation for this apparent inhibitory result. Cellular S-thiolation by garlic related disulphides appears to be the cause of cytotoxicity in WHCO1 cells. Generation of ROS appears to only play a secondary role. Our findings do not support ROS production causing the cytotoxicity of garlic-related disulphides in WHCO1 cells. Importantly, it was found that the popular ROS inhibitor NAC interferes with the assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Olaquindox induces DNA damage via the lysosomal and mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Liping; She, Yan; Chen, Min; Li, Qiujuan; Yang, Guang; Geng, Chengyan; Tang, Liyun; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Lijie; Liu, Xiaofang

    2015-11-01

    Olaquindox (OLA) is a potent antibacterial agent used as a feed additive and growth promoter. In this study, the genotoxic potential of OLA was investigated in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 (HEK293). Results showed that OLA caused significant increases of DNA migration. Lysosomal membrane permeability and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced after treatment with OLA. OLA was shown to induce ROS production and GSH depletion. The expression of p53 protein is increased in cells incubated with OLA. The activation of p53 and ATM gene was assessed by exposure to OLA. Furthermore, NAC reduced DNA migration, ROS formation, GSH depletion and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. And desipramine significantly decreased AO fluorescence intensity and the expression of the p53 protein and gene. These results support the assumption that OLA exerted genotoxic effects and induced DNA strand breaks in HEK293 cells, possibly through lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway involving ROS production and p53 activation.

  10. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and ROS-Induced ROS Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Byproducts of normal mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis include the buildup of potentially damaging levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, etc., which must be normalized. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. This regenerative cycle of mitochondrial ROS formation and release was named ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Brief, reversible mPTP opening-associated ROS release apparently constitutes an adaptive housekeeping function by the timely release from mitochondria of accumulated potentially toxic levels of ROS (and Ca2+). At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area. Maladaptive mPTP- or IMAC-related RIRR may also be playing a role in aging. Because the mechanism of mitochondrial RIRR highlights the central role of mitochondria-formed ROS, we discuss all of the known ROS-producing sites (shown in vitro) and their relevance to the mitochondrial ROS production in vivo. PMID:24987008

  11. 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces premature senescence of astrocytes via WNT/β-catenin signaling and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaoke; Liang, Lingwei; Xi, Hanqing; Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Junkang; Tang, Cuiying; Liu, Xipeng; Liu, Suyi; Wan, Chunhua; Zhao, Jianya; Yang, Jianbin

    2015-07-01

    2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that could exert significant neurotoxicity in the human nervous system. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying TCDD-mediated neurotoxicity has not been clarified clearly. Herein, we investigated the potential role of TCDD in facilitating premature senescence in astrocytes and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Using the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, we demonstrated that TCDD exposure triggered significant premature senescence of astrocyte cells, which was accompanied by a marked activation of the Wingless and int (WNT)/β-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, TCDD altered the expression of senescence marker proteins, such as p16, p21 and GFAP, which together have been reported to be upregulated in aging astrocytes, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Further, TCDD led to cell-cycle arrest, F-actin reorganization and the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly attenuated TCDD-induced ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and astrocyte senescence. Notably, the application of XAV939, an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, ameliorated the effect of TCDD on cellular β-catenin level, ROS production, cellular oxidative damage and premature senescence in astrocytes. In summary, our findings indicated that TCDD might induce astrocyte senescence via WNT/β-catenin and ROS-dependent mechanisms.

  12. HSV Infection Induces Production of ROS, which Potentiate Signaling from Pattern Recognition Receptors: Role for S-glutathionylation of TRAF3 and 6

    PubMed Central

    Rahbek, Stine H.; Ichijo, Hidenori; Chen, Zhijian J.; Mieyal, John J.; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R.

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen structures and trigger intracellular signaling pathways leading to cytokine and chemokine expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as an important regulator of some of these pathways. ROS directly interact with signaling components or induce other post-translational modifications such as S-glutathionylation, thereby altering target function. Applying live microscopy, we have demonstrated that herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection induces early production of ROS that are required for the activation of NF-κB and IRF-3 pathways and the production of type I IFNs and ISGs. All the known receptors involved in the recognition of HSV were shown to be dependent on the cellular redox levels for successful signaling. In addition, we provide biochemical evidence suggesting S-glutathionylation of TRAF family proteins to be important. In particular, by performing mutational studies we show that S-glutathionylation of a conserved cysteine residue of TRAF3 and TRAF6 is important for ROS-dependent activation of innate immune pathways. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that ROS are essential for effective activation of signaling pathways leading to a successful innate immune response against HSV infection. PMID:21949653

  13. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3 T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes.

  14. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

    PubMed

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  15. Melamine activates NFκB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway and increases NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages and human embryonic kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Fu-Chen; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Sing-Ru; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Melamine is a wildly used compound in manufactures of plastics and resins. A variety of toxic effects from melamine, including nephrolithiasis, chronic kidney inflammation, and bladder carcinoma, have been mentioned. Oxidative stress is considered to be an important pathogenic mechanism of kidney disease which may develop from an increasing free radical production through inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate melamine-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 and human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. Results indicated melamine activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB through increasing IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65/p50 DNA-binding activity. In addition, melamine significantly increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Moreover, melamine activated NADPH oxidase (NOX), including NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, accompanied with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, melamine-induced ROS production could be attenuated by apocynin, a NOX inhibitor. In conclusion, our findings suggest melamine increased inflammation and oxidative stress via activation of NF-κB/COX-2 and NOX/ROS pathway, and first revealed the critical role of NOX in melamine-induced ROS production, suggesting the potential of NOX inhibitor against melamine toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of Superoxide in Bacteria Is Stress- and Cell State-Dependent: A Gating-Optimized Flow Cytometry Method that Minimizes ROS Measurement Artifacts with Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    McBee, Megan E.; Chionh, Yok H.; Sharaf, Mariam L.; Ho, Peiying; Cai, Maggie W. L.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial metabolism and stress response has emerged as a major theme in microbiology and infectious disease. Reactive fluorescent dyes have the potential to advance the study of ROS in the complex intracellular environment, especially for high-content and high-throughput analyses. However, current dye-based approaches to measuring intracellular ROS have the potential for significant artifacts. Here, we describe a robust platform for flow cytometric quantification of ROS in bacteria using fluorescent dyes, with ROS measurements in 10s-of-1000s of individual cells under a variety of conditions. False positives and variability among sample types (e.g., bacterial species, stress conditions) are reduced with a flexible four-step gating scheme that accounts for side- and forward-scattered light (morphological changes), background fluorescence, DNA content, and dye uptake to identify cells producing ROS. Using CellROX Green dye with Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG as diverse model bacteria, we show that (1) the generation of a quantifiable CellROX Green signal for superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide-induced hydroxyl radicals, validates this dye as a superoxide detector; (2) the level of dye-detectable superoxide does not correlate with cytotoxicity or antibiotic sensitivity; (3) the non-replicating, antibiotic tolerant state of nutrient-deprived mycobacteria is associated with high levels of superoxide; and (4) antibiotic-induced production of superoxide is idiosyncratic with regard to both the species and the physiological state of the bacteria. We also show that the gating method is applicable to other fluorescent indicator dyes, such as the 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride for cellular esterase and reductive respiratory activities, respectively. These results demonstrate that properly controlled flow cytometry coupled

  17. Production of Superoxide in Bacteria Is Stress- and Cell State-Dependent: A Gating-Optimized Flow Cytometry Method that Minimizes ROS Measurement Artifacts with Fluorescent Dyes.

    PubMed

    McBee, Megan E; Chionh, Yok H; Sharaf, Mariam L; Ho, Peiying; Cai, Maggie W L; Dedon, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microbial metabolism and stress response has emerged as a major theme in microbiology and infectious disease. Reactive fluorescent dyes have the potential to advance the study of ROS in the complex intracellular environment, especially for high-content and high-throughput analyses. However, current dye-based approaches to measuring intracellular ROS have the potential for significant artifacts. Here, we describe a robust platform for flow cytometric quantification of ROS in bacteria using fluorescent dyes, with ROS measurements in 10s-of-1000s of individual cells under a variety of conditions. False positives and variability among sample types (e.g., bacterial species, stress conditions) are reduced with a flexible four-step gating scheme that accounts for side- and forward-scattered light (morphological changes), background fluorescence, DNA content, and dye uptake to identify cells producing ROS. Using CellROX Green dye with Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG as diverse model bacteria, we show that (1) the generation of a quantifiable CellROX Green signal for superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide-induced hydroxyl radicals, validates this dye as a superoxide detector; (2) the level of dye-detectable superoxide does not correlate with cytotoxicity or antibiotic sensitivity; (3) the non-replicating, antibiotic tolerant state of nutrient-deprived mycobacteria is associated with high levels of superoxide; and (4) antibiotic-induced production of superoxide is idiosyncratic with regard to both the species and the physiological state of the bacteria. We also show that the gating method is applicable to other fluorescent indicator dyes, such as the 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride for cellular esterase and reductive respiratory activities, respectively. These results demonstrate that properly controlled flow cytometry coupled

  18. Concentration-dependent Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) effects on ROS production, energy status, and human sperm function.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Inês; Amaral, Sandra; Tavares, Renata Santos; Paiva, Carla; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2014-04-01

    Literature regarding the effects of sildenafil citrate on sperm function remains controversial. In the present study, we specifically wanted to determine if mitochondrial dysfunction, namely membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and changes in energy content, are involved in in vitro sildenafil-induced alterations of human sperm function. Sperm samples of healthy men were incubated in the presence of 0.03, 0.3, and 3 μM sildenafil citrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-based medium for 2, 3, 12, and 24 hours. Sperm motility and viability were evaluated and mitochondrial function, i.e., mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide production were assessed using flow-cytometry. Additionally, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results show a decrease in sperm motility correlated with the level of mitochondria-generated superoxide, without a visible effect on mitochondrial membrane potential or viability upon exposure to sildenafil. The effect on both motility and superoxide production was higher for the intermediate concentration of sildenafil (0.3 µM) indicating that the in vitro effects of sildenafil on human sperm do not vary linearly with drug concentration. Adenosine triphosphate levels also decreased following sildenafil exposure, but this decrease was only detected after a decrease in motility was already evident. These results suggest that along with the level of ATP and mitochondrial function other factors are involved in the early sildenafil-mediated decline in sperm motility. However, the further decrease in ATP levels and increase in mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species after 24 hours of exposure might further contribute towards declining sperm motility.

  19. Prostaglandin D2 Uses Components of ROS Signaling to Enhance Testosterone Production in Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Alon; McDonald, J Tyson; Goldsborough, Kennedy; Harvey, Valerie M; Chan, Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Elevated levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) have been shown to be present in the bald scalp of androgenic alopecia (AGA) patients and to functionally inhibit hair growth. However, its precise mechanism in AGA has yet to be clearly defined. Although testosterone plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of AGA, the existence of a possible link between PGD2 and testosterone in skin has not been investigated. Here we show that human keratinocytes treated with PGD2 show enhanced capacity to convert the weak androgen, androstenedione, to testosterone. At the same time, treatment with PGD2 induced reactive oxygen species as indicated by generation of the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxynonenal. To determine whether these two events are linked, we used the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, which blocked the enhanced testosterone production from PGD2-treated keratinocytes. Our study suggests the existence of a possible crosstalk between the PGD2-reactive oxygen species axis and testosterone metabolism in keratinocytes. Thus, we propose that AGA patients might benefit from the use of N-acetyl-cysteine or other antioxidants as a supplement to currently available or emerging AGA therapies such as finasteride, minoxidil, and PGD2 receptor blockers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  1. Rotenone induces cell death in primary dopaminergic culture by increasing ROS production and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Gille, Gabriele

    2006-09-01

    Although the definite etiology of Parkinson's disease is still unclear, increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in increasing the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. In the present study, primary cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were applied to investigate the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of rotenone-induced neuronal cell death relevant to Parkinson's disease. Results revealed that rotenone destroyed dopaminergic neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Consistent with the cytotoxic effect of rotenone as evidenced by dopaminergic cell loss, it significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, the number of necrotic cells in the culture and the number of nuclei showing apoptotic features. Rotenone exerted toxicity by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species production and shifting respiration to a more anaerobic state.

  2. Oxidative Stress Assessment in Response to Ultraendurance Exercise: Thiols Redox Status and ROS Production according to Duration of a Competitive Race

    PubMed Central

    Vezzoli, Alessandra; Dellanoce, Cinzia; Montorsi, Michela; Tonini, Annamaria; Accinni, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Response to an ultraendurance competitive race on thiols redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and oxidative stress (OxS) was investigated according to duration. Methods. Twenty-four elite runners were examined: six completed 50 km and eighteen 100 km. Blood and urine samples were collected before and immediately after the race. Erythrocytes and plasma aminothiols by high-performance liquid chromatography, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and OxS biomarkers (protein carbonyl (PC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), and 8-OH-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)) by immunoenzymatic assays and ROS production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance were assessed. Results. Significant increases (P between <0.05 and <0.0001) were recorded in plasma total and oxidized aminothiols concentration and TAC (P < 0.0001) only after 100 km: plasmatic (ROS production (+12 versus +29%), PC (+54 versus +115%), and TBARS (+28 versus +55%)) and urinary (8-OH-dG.creatinine−1 (+71 versus +158%) and 8-iso-PGF2α.creatinine−1 (+43 versus +135%)) concentrations for 50 and 100 km (duration 4 h 3′ versus 8 h 42′), respectively. Conclusion. Very prolonged ultraendurance exercise causes an increase in ROS production and OxS depending on specific biomarker examined but always linearly and directly related to exercise duration. Redox status of erythrocytes was preserved. A relationship between running performance and both prerace ROS production and antioxidant-redox status was found in 100 km race. PMID:27504148

  3. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  4. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  5. Rho kinase activation and ROS production contributes to the cooling enhanced contraction in cutaneous equine digital veins.

    PubMed

    Zerpa, H; Berhane, Y; Woodcock, H; Elliott, J; Bailey, S R

    2010-07-01

    A decrease in environmental temperature can directly affect the contractility of cutaneous vasculature, mediated in part by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Most of the cellular mechanisms underlying the cooling-enhanced contractility to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists have been reported in cutaneous arteries but little information is available on cutaneous veins. To investigate the cellular mechanisms associated with the cooling-enhanced contraction to UK-14304 (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist), isolated equine digital veins (EDVs) were studied at 30 degrees C and 22 degrees C. The effects of inhibitors were studied on the contractile response to UK-14304 (0.1 microM). The cooling-enhanced responses were inhibited by Rho kinase inhibitors [maximum response to UK-14304 95.2 +/- 8% of response to depolarizing Krebs solution (DKS) in control vessels cooled to 22 degrees C, compared with 31.4 +/- 6% in the presence of fasudil 1 microM and 75.8 +/- 6% with Y-27632 0.1 microM] and the effects of these inhibitors were considerably less at 30 degrees C (control response 56.4 +/- 5% of DKS; 34.9 +/- 6% with fasudil 1 microM and 50.6 +/- 9% with Y-27632 0.1 microM). Furthermore, Western blotting showed that one of the downstream targets for Rho kinase activity, ezrin/radixin/moesin, was phosphorylated after cooling and reduced by fasudil (1 microM) only at 22 degrees C. The activation of protein kinase C contributed to the contractile response, but predominantly at 30 degrees C (maximum response 82.3 +/- 9% of DKS for control; 57.7 +/- 10% in the presence of chelerythrine 10 microM) with no significant effect at 22 degrees C. The reduction of the response at 22 degrees C by antioxidants, rotenone (14% reduction), and tempol (21% reduction) suggested the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS). No evidence was obtained to support the participation of tyrosine kinase. These data demonstrate that Rho kinase activation and the production of ROS contributes to the cooling

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus Stimulates the NLRP3 Inflammasome through a Pathway Requiring ROS Production and the Syk Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Saïd-Sadier, Najwane; Padilla, Eduardo; Langsley, Gordon; Ojcius, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening disease that occurs in immunodepressed patients when infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This fungus is the second most-common causative agent of fungal disease after Candida albicans. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which A. fulmigatus activates the innate immune system. We investigated the inflammatory response to conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus and specifically, their capacity to trigger activation of an inflammasome. Our results show that in contrast to conidia, hyphal fragments induce NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release from a human monocyte cell line. The ability of Aspergillus hyphae to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in the monocytes requires K+ efflux and ROS production. In addition, our data show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as pro-IL-1β expression relies on the Syk tyrosine kinase, which is downstream from the pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1, reinforcing the importance of Dectin-1 in the innate immune response against fungal infection. Furthermore, we show that treatment of monocytes with corticosteroids inhibits transcription of the gene encoding IL-1β. Thus, our data demonstrate that the innate immune response against A. fumigatus infection involves a two step activation process, with a first signal promoting expression and synthesis of pro-IL-1β; and a second signal, involving Syk-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, allowing processing and secretion of the mature cytokine. PMID:20368800

  7. Chrysophanol induces necrosis through the production of ROS and alteration of ATP levels in J5 human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, An-Cheng; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chou, Su-Tze; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Lee, Tsung-Han; Wood, W. G.; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell types. Effects of chrysophanol, an anthraquinone compound, on cancer cell death have not been well-studied. The goal of this study was to examine if chrysophanol had cytotoxic effects and if such effects involved apoptosis or necrosis in J5 human liver cancer cells. Chrysophanol induced necrosis in J5 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Non-apoptotic cell death was induced by chrysophanol in J5 cells and was characterized by caspase independence, delayed externalization of phosphatidylserine and plasma membrane disruption. Blockage of apoptotic induction by a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) failed to protect cells against chrysophanol-induced cell death. The levels of ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were also determined to assess the effects of chrysophanol. However, reductions in ATP levels and increases in LDH activity indicated that chrysophanol stimulated necrotic cell death. In summary, human liver cancer cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrosis and not apoptosis. PMID:20169580

  8. Modulation of rosR expression and exopolysaccharide production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by phosphate and clover root exudates.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Monika; Skorupska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C(2)H(2) type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6) and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2-10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1-20 mM) and clover root exudates (10 μM). PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

  9. Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Janczarek, Monika; Skorupska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6) and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM) and clover root exudates (10 μM). PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes. PMID:21747729

  10. Photoactivation of ROS production in situ transiently activates cell proliferation in mouse skin and in the hair follicle stem cell niche promoting hair growth and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Elisa; Calvo, María I.; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Vecchio, Daniela; Zamarrón, Alicia; de Almeida, Irma Joyce Dias; Stockert, Juan C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juarranz, Ángeles; Espada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the regulation of hair follicle cycle and skin homeostasis is poorly characterized. ROS have been traditionally linked to human disease and ageing, but recent findings suggest that can also have beneficial physiological functions in vivo in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we transiently switched on in situ ROS production in mouse skin. This process activated cell proliferation in the tissue and, interestingly, in the bulge region of the hair follicle, a major reservoir of epidermal stem cells, promoting hair growth as well as stimulating tissue repair after severe burn injury. We further show that these effects were associated with a transient Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr416 and with a strong transcriptional activation of the prolactin family 2 subfamily c of growth factors. Our results point to potentially relevant modes of skin homeostasis regulation and demonstrate that a local and transient ROS production can regulate stem cell and tissue function in the whole organism. PMID:26134949

  11. Methylglyoxal Impairs Insulin Secretion of Pancreatic β-Cells through Increased Production of ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Mediated by Upregulation of UCP2 and MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Bo, Jinshuang; Xie, Shiya; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Chunli; Guan, Yanming; Li, Chunmei; Lu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2016-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive glucose metabolic intermediate and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products. MG level is elevated in hyperglycemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Substantial evidence has shown that MG is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. We investigated the impact of MG on insulin secretion by MIN6 and INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms of this effect. Our study demonstrates that MG impaired insulin secretion by MIN6 or ISN-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis rate in MIN6 or ISN-1 cells and inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP production. Furthermore, the expression of UCP2, JNK, and P38 as well as the phosphorylation JNK and P38 was increased by MG. These effects of MG were attenuated by MG scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Collectively, these data indicate that MG impairs insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells through increasing ROS production. High levels of ROS can damage β-cells directly via JNK/P38 upregulation and through activation of UCP2 resulting in reduced MMP and ATP production, leading to β-cell dysfunction and impairment of insulin production.

  12. Size-dependent ROS production by palladium and nickel nanoparticles in cellular and acellular environments - An indication for the catalytic nature of their interactions.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Nicole; Palomaeki, Jaana; Karisola, Piia; Alenius, Harri; Kasper, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Palladium and nickel nanoparticles with variable but narrowly defined primary particle sizes in the range of 4-27 nm were investigated toward their catalytic activity and their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The agglomerate size in the gas phase was between 50 and 150 nm, after transfer into solution probably larger. The catalytic activity was measured on the basis of CO oxidation to CO2. The formation of ROS was determined after transferring the particles into phosphate buffered saline (PBS), via the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein method in a cell-free environment and with THP-1 cells. Activities were normalized with regard to catalyst surface area to enable a meaningful comparison of size effects. The solubility was measured for both materials and found to be 2 µg/ml for Ni and below the detection limit of 0.8 µg/ml for Pd. In the concentration range of about 4-250 µg/ml both materials induced a significant production of ROS in both acellular and cellular environments, with palladium being more active than nickel by several orders of magnitude. On an equal surface area concentration basis, both acellular and cellular ROS production showed a pronounced dependence on the primary particle size, with a maximum in the vicinity of 12 nm. The surface-specific catalytic activity also had a maximum at that size range. The correlation of these size effects is both surprising and - in combination with the poor solubility of palladium and nickel in PBS solution - a strong argument in favor of a particulate, catalytic mechanism for ROS production.

  13. Resveratrol suppresses hyperoxia-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SIRT1 and ROS production in PBMC from preterm infants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Dong, Wen-Bin; Lei, Xiao-Ping; Li, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Lian-Yu; Zhang, Ling-Ping

    2017-04-18

    By assessing silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this study aimed to explore the role of SIRT1 in premature infants after exposure to hyperoxia and assess the protective effects of resveratrol (Res). Firstly, ROS levels as well as SIRT1 translocation and expression in PBMCs samples were evaluated from 40 premature infants with different oxygen amounts received at birth. Then, PBMCs, from additional 40 premature infants administered no oxygen at birth, were used to establish an in vitro model of hyperoxia. In infants that received O2 at birth, ROS and MDA levels, and SIRT1 translocation rates gradually increased in a concentration-dependent manner, while SIRT1 gradually decreased. In agreement, PBMCs cultured in vitro showed increased ROS levels after exposed to hyperoxia, SIRT1 translocation increased as well. However, treatment with Res resulted in opposite effects. Res inhibits ROS release in PBMCs from preterm infants exposed to hyperoxia, likely by preventing SIRT1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and increasing SIRT1 expression.

  14. Ethylacetate extract from Draconis Resina inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages via suppression of ROS production.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Yi, Hyo-Seung; Yun, Hyun-Jeong; Ko, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Sun-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Draconis Resina (DR) is a type of dragon's blood resin obtained from Daemomorops draco BL. (Palmae). DR has long been used as a traditional Korean herbal medicine, and is currently used in traditional clinics to treat wounds, tumors, diarrhea, and rheumatism, insect bites and other conditions. In this study, we evaluated fractionated extracts of DR to determine if they inhibited the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. The results of this analysis revealed that the ethylacetate extract of Draconis Resina (DREA) was more potent than that of other extracts. Moreover, DREA inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-8 and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, treatment with an NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor, AEBSF, efficiently blocked LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, as did DREA. These findings indicate that DREA inhibits the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-6 by LPS via the inhibition of ROS production, which demonstrates that DREA inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the suppression of ROS production. Taken together, these results indicate that DREA has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerosis agent. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dose-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production from particulate matter exposure: comparison to oxidative potential and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuet, Wing Y.; Fok, Shierly; Verma, Vishal; Tagle Rodriguez, Marlen S.; Grosberg, Anna; Champion, Julie A.; Ng, Nga L.

    2016-11-01

    Elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations have been associated with cardiopulmonary risks. In this study, alveolar macrophages and ventricular myocytes were exposed to PM extracts from 104 ambient filters collected in multiple rural and urban sites in the greater Atlanta area. PM-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) were measured to investigate the effect of chemical composition and determine whether chemical assays are representative of cellular responses. For summer samples, the area under the ROS/RNS dose-response curve per volume of air (AUCvolume) was significantly correlated with dithiothreitol (DTT) activity, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), brown carbon, titanium, and iron, while a relatively flat response was observed for winter samples. EC50 was also correlated with max response for all filters investigated, which suggests that certain PM constituents may be involved in cellular protective pathways. Although few metal correlations were observed, exposure to laboratory-prepared metal solutions induced ROS/RNS production, indicating that a lack of correlation does not necessarily translate to a lack of response. Collectively, these results suggest that complex interactions may occur between PM species. Furthermore, the strong correlation between organic species and ROS/RNS response highlights a need to understand the contribution of organic aerosols, especially photochemically driven secondary organic aerosols (SOA), to PM-induced health effects.

  16. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity.

  17. Daphnetin reduces endotoxin lethality in mice and decreases LPS-induced inflammation in Raw264.7 cells via suppressing JAK/STATs activation and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Jing; Sang, Xiumei; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2017-07-01

    Here, we used various approaches to investigate the suppressive role of daphnetin in LPS-induced inflammatory response, with the goal to understand the underlining molecular mechanism by which daphnetin regulated these processes. We examined the survival rate and the lung injury in the mice model of LPS-induced endotoxemia. The production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was measured by ELISA and nitrite analysis, respectively. The expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and the activation of signaling molecules was determined by immunoblotting. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by the ROS assay. In vivo study showed that daphnetin enhanced the survival rate and reduced the lung injury in mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. Both in vivo and in vitro study showed that daphnetin prevented the production of pro-inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO, and PGE2 after LPS challenge. In Raw264.7 cells, we found that daphnetin reduced LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2, and suppressed LPS-induced ROS production. In addition, we found that daphnetin suppressed the activation of JAK/STATs pathway and inhibited the nucleus import of STAT1 and STAT3. Here, our results indicate that daphnetin shows anti-inflammatory properties, at least in part, through suppressing LPS-induced activation of JAK/STATs cascades and ROS production.

  18. The edible red alga, Gracilaria verrucosa, inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production, but improves glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Woo, Mi-Seon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2013-07-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa is a red alga that is widely distributed in seaside areas of many countries. We examined the effect of G. verrucosa extract on adipogenesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Oil red O staining and a nitroblue tetrazolium assay showed that G. verrucosa extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production, respectively. mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, as well as of their target gene, adipocyte protein 2, were reduced upon treatment with G. verrucosa extract. However, G. verrucosa extract increased glucose uptake, glucose transporter-4 expression, and AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα) phosphorylation compared to the control. Our results suggest that the anti-adipogenic and insulin-sensitive effects of G. verrucosa extract can be recapitulated to activation of AMPKα.

  19. Improved production of phleichrome from the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium phlei using synthetic inducers and photodynamic ROS production by phleichrome.

    PubMed

    So, Kum-Kang; Jo, Ik-Su; Chae, Min-Seon; Kim, Jung-Mi; Chung, Hea-Jong; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Jin-Kug; Choi, Jong-Kyung; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Two different diketopiperazines, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe), which were isolated from the culture filtrate of Epichloe typhina and found to be inducers of phleichrome production, were chemically synthesized and evaluated for use in the improved production of phleichrome from wild-type and UV-mutagenized strains (M0035) of Cladosporium phlei. When supplemented with PDA and V8 juice agar media, both inducers showed significant increases in the production of phleichrome. Phleichrome production was increased in a dose-dependent manner up to a concentration of maximum yield for both inducers. No further significant induction was observed by supplementing inducers over the concentration of maximum yield. Among the two inducers, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) showed better inducing capability than cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu). The maximum yield was observed from the M0035 strain grown on V8 juice media supplemented with 150 μM cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe), which was estimated to be 232.6 mg of phleichrome per gram of mycelia and 10.2 mg of secreted phleichrome per 20 agar-plugs. Interestingly, growth inhibition was observed on V8 juice agar media with 100, 150, and 200 μM cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) but not on PDA with the same amount of inducer, which suggests that the inhibitory effect might be through the overproduction of phleichrome rather than the toxic effect of the inducer itself. Superoxide production by purified phleichrome was dramatically stimulated upon illumination, thus demonstrating photodynamic production of superoxide in vitro by phleichrome.

  20. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  1. Salvianolic acid A inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by attenuating the production of ROS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luan-luan; Li, Dong-ye; Zhang, Yan-bin; Zhu, Man-yi; Chen, Dan; Xu, Tong-da

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the action of salvianolic acid A (SalA) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible signaling pathways mediating this action. Methods: Cell proliferation was examined with MTT assay. The expression levels of Src phosphorylation (phospho-Src), Akt phosphorylation (phospho-Akt), and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in HUVECs were determined by Western blot. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results: SalA (6.25–50 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) markedly increased the cell viability; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) prevented Ang II-induced increase of the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) markedly up-regulated the protein expression levels of phospho-Src, phospho-Akt (473) and Nox4; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) blocked all the effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) dramatically increased ROS production in HUVECs; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) blocked the ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: SalA inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation of HUVECs via reducing the expression levels of phospho-Src and phospho-Akt (473), thereby attenuating the production of ROS. PMID:22101169

  2. Static magnetic fields increase cardiomyocyte differentiation of Flk-1+ cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells via Ca2+ influx and ROS production.

    PubMed

    Bekhite, Mohamed M; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Sauer, Heinrich; Wartenberg, Maria

    2013-08-10

    To investigate the effects of static magnetic fields (MFs) on cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived embryoid bodies and Flk-1(+) cardiac progenitor cells and to assess the impact of cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]c and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryoid bodies and ES cell-derived Flk-1(+) cardiovascular progenitor cells were exposed to static MFs. The expression of cardiac genes was evaluated by RT-PCR; sarcomeric structures were assessed by immunohistochemistry; intracellular ROS and [Ca(2+)]c of ES cells were examined by H2DCF-DA- and fluo-4-based microfluorometry. Treatment of embryoid bodies with MFs dose-dependent increased the number of contracting foci and cardiac areas as well as mRNA expression of the cardiac genes MLC2a, MLC2v, α-MHC and β-MHC. In Flk-1(+) cells MFs (1 mT) elevated both [Ca(2+)]c and ROS, increased expression of the cardiogenic transcription factors Nkx-2.5 and GATA-4 as well as cardiac genes. This effect was due to Ca(2+) influx, since extracellular Ca(2+) chelation abrogated ROS production and MF-induced cardiomyogenesis. Furthermore absence of extracellular calcium impaired sarcomere structures. Neither the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 nor thapsigargin inhibited MF-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]c excluding involvement of intracellular calcium stores. ROS were generated through NAD(P)H oxidase, since NOX-4 but not NOX-1 and NOX-2 mRNA was upregulated upon MF exposure. Ablation of NOX-4 by sh-RNA and treatment with the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylen iodonium (DPI) totally abolished MF-induced cardiomyogenesis. The ability of static MFs to enhance cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells allows high throughput generation of cardiomyocytes without pharmacological or genetic modification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver-X-receptor activator prevents homocysteine-induced production of IgG antibodies from murine B lymphocytes via the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lina; Zhang, Zhenmin; Li Wenjing; Dai Jing; Guan Youfei; Wang Xian . E-mail: xwang@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-06-08

    Our previous study showed that homosysteine (Hcy) promotes proliferation of mouse splenic B lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated whether Hcy could stimulate the production of IgG antibodies. Hcy significantly increased the production of IgG antibodies from resting B lymphocytes. B lymphocytes from ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia showed elevated IgG secretion at either the basal Hcy level or in response to lipopolysaccharide. Hcy promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and free radical scavengers, MnTMPyP decreased Hcy-induced IgG secretion. The inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B (MG132) also significantly reduced Hcy-induced IgG secretion. Furthermore, Hcy-induced formation of ROS, activation of NF-{kappa}B, and secretion of IgG could be inhibited by the liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist TO 901317. Thus, our data provide strong evidence that HHcy induces IgG production from murine splenic B lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism might be through the ROS-NF-{kappa}B pathway and can be attenuated by the activation of LXR.

  4. Revisiting Kadenbach: Electron flux rate through cytochrome c-oxidase determines the ATP-inhibitory effect and subsequent production of ROS.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Rhiel, Annika; Weber, Petra; Ramzan, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is the predominant source of ATP. Excessive rates of electron transport cause a higher production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are two regulatory mechanisms known. The first, according to Mitchel, is dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential that drives ATP synthase for ATP production, and the second, the Kadenbach mechanism, is focussed on the binding of ATP to Cytochrome c Oxidase (CytOx) at high ATP/ADP ratios, which results in an allosteric conformational change to CytOx, causing inhibition. In times of stress, ATP-dependent inhibition is switched off and the activity of CytOx is exclusively determined by the membrane potential, leading to an increase in ROS production. The second mechanism for respiratory control depends on the quantity of electron transfer to the Heme aa3 of CytOx. When ATP is bound to CytOx the enzyme is inhibited, and ROS formation is decreased, although the mitochondrial membrane potential is increased.

  5. Revisiting Kadenbach: Electron flux rate through cytochrome c‐oxidase determines the ATP‐inhibitory effect and subsequent production of ROS

    PubMed Central

    Rhiel, Annika; Weber, Petra; Ramzan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is the predominant source of ATP. Excessive rates of electron transport cause a higher production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are two regulatory mechanisms known. The first, according to Mitchel, is dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential that drives ATP synthase for ATP production, and the second, the Kadenbach mechanism, is focussed on the binding of ATP to Cytochrome c Oxidase (CytOx) at high ATP/ADP ratios, which results in an allosteric conformational change to CytOx, causing inhibition. In times of stress, ATP‐dependent inhibition is switched off and the activity of CytOx is exclusively determined by the membrane potential, leading to an increase in ROS production. The second mechanism for respiratory control depends on the quantity of electron transfer to the Heme aa3 of CytOx. When ATP is bound to CytOx the enzyme is inhibited, and ROS formation is decreased, although the mitochondrial membrane potential is increased. PMID:27171124

  6. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System. PMID:26998193

  7. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator☆

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Byung Chul; Lee, Beom Seon; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate–glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2−1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis), with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress. PMID:25460723

  8. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on ROS production and growth inhibition using freshwater green algae pre-exposed to UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling; Hamzeh, Mahsa; Dodard, Sabine; Zhao, Yuan H; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the possibility that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) toxicity in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, using the dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) assay. Algae were exposed to nano-TiO2 under laboratory fluorescent lamps supplemented with UV irradiation for 3h, with or without a UV filter. Results showed that nano-TiO2 increased ROS production in UV-exposed cells, with or without a UV filter (LOEC values were 250 and 10mg/L, respectively). Sublethal effects of nano-TiO2 on UV pre-exposed algae were also examined. Toxicity studies indicated that exposure to nano-TiO2 agglomerates decreased algal growth following 3h pre-exposure to UV, with or without a UV filter (EC50s were 8.7 and 6.3mg/L, respectively). The present study suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of nano-TiO2 in algae occurred at concentrations lower than those that can elevate DCF fluorescence, and that ROS generation is not directly involved with the sublethal effects of nano-TiO2 in algae.

  9. 6-Acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from Chelidonium majus L. triggers proinflammatory cytokine production via ROS-JNK/ERK-NFκB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Soojong; Oh, Sang-seok; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dae Wook; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Kwang Dong

    2013-08-01

    Chelidonium majus L. is an herbal plant that is commonly used in Western phytotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine for diuretic, antitussive, eye-regenerative, anti-osteoporotic, and radioprotective purposes. In this study, we purified 6-acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from C. majus and investigated its immune-stimulatory effect. We found that ADS has the potential to induce the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), that NFκB activation is a critical mediator of ADS-induced cytokine production, and that the activation of NFκB was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). ADS induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which was also associated with NFκB activation; phosphorylarion and cytokine production were inhibited by ROS scavenger and by specific MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, the results suggest that ADS from C. majus, as a positive immune modulator, induces inflammatory cytokines that might improve immunity, via the ROS-ERK/JNK-NFκB pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of CO, NOx and SO2 on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione pathway to induce Fragaria×annasa as a hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Byung Chul; Lee, Beom Seon; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) on ROS production, photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione pathway in strawberry plants. The results showed that both singlet oxygen (O2(-1)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased in CO, NOx and SO2 treated strawberry leaves. A drastic reduction of primary metabolism of plants (photosynthesis), with the closure of stomata, resulted in a reduction of protein, carbohydrate and sucrose content due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under prolonged exposure of gas stress. The resulting antioxidant enzymes were increased under a low dose of gas stress, whereas they were decreased due to a high dose of gas stress. Our results indicate that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense responses to CO, NOx and SO2 gas stress. The increased level of antioxidant enzymes plays a significant role in plant protection due to which strawberry plants can be used as a hyperaccumulator to maintain environmental pollution, however, the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage under prolonged exposure of CO, NOx and SO2 stress.

  11. ROS production and gene expression in alveolar macrophages exposed to PM(2.5) from Baghdad, Iraq: Seasonal trends and impact of chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Samera H; Schauer, James J; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Shafer, Martin M; Kadhim, Ahmed Kh

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of changes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) composition on oxidative stress markers in an in-vitro alveolar macrophage (AM) model. Fifty-three PM2.5 samples were collected during a year-long PM sampling campaign in Baghdad, Iraq, a semi-arid region of the country. Monthly composites were analyzed for chemical composition and for biological activity using in-vitro measurements of ROS production and gene expression in the AM model. Twelve genes that were differentially expressed upon PM exposure were identified and their co-associations with the composition of PM2.5 were examined. Ten of those genes were up-regulated in January and April composites; samples which also exhibited high ROS activity and relatively high PM mass concentration. ROS production was statistically correlated with total PM2.5 mass, levoglucosan (a wood burning tracer) and several trace elements of the PM (especially V and Ni, which are associated with oil combustion). The expression of several cytokine genes was found to be moderately associated with PM mass, crustal materials (indication of dusty days or dust storms) and certain metals (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the PM. Thus, the ROS activity association with PM2.5, may, in part, be driven by redox-active metals. The antioxidant response genes (Nqo1 and Hmox1) were moderately associated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and showed a good correlation (r-Pearson of >0.7) with metals linked to vehicle-related emissions (i.e. Cu, Zn and Sb). Examining these associations in a larger sample pool (e.g. daily samples) would improve the power of the analysis and may strengthen the implication of these chemicals in the oxidative stress of biological systems, which could aid in the development of new metrics of PM toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specificity in ROS Signaling and Transcript Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Vaahtera, Lauri; Brosché, Mikael; Wrzaczek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), important signaling molecules in plants, are involved in developmental control and stress adaptation. ROS production can trigger broad transcriptional changes; however, it is not clear how specificity in transcriptional regulation is achieved. Recent Advances: A large collection of public transcriptome data from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is available for analysis. These data can be used for the analysis of biological processes that are associated with ROS signaling and for the identification of suitable transcriptional indicators. Several online tools, such as Genevestigator and Expression Angler, have simplified the task to analyze, interpret, and visualize this wealth of data. Critical Issues: The analysis of the exact transcriptional responses to ROS requires the production of specific ROS in distinct subcellular compartments with precise timing, which is experimentally difficult. Analyses are further complicated by the effect of ROS production in one subcellular location on the ROS accumulation in other compartments. In addition, even subtle differences in the method of ROS production or treatment can lead to significantly different outcomes when various stimuli are compared. Future Directions: Due to the difficulty of inducing ROS production specifically with regard to ROS type, subcellular localization, and timing, we propose that the concept of a “ROS marker gene” should be re-evaluated. We suggest guidelines for the analysis of transcriptional data in ROS signaling. The use of “ROS signatures,” which consist of a set of genes that together can show characteristic and indicative responses, should be preferred over the use of individual marker genes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1422–1441. PMID:24180661

  13. The chlorinated AHR ligand 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during embryonic development in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arzuaga, Xabier; Wassenberg, Deena; Giulio, Richard D.; Elskus, Adria

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to dioxin-like chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can result in increased cellular and tissue production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Little is known of these effects during early fish development. We used the fish model, Fundulus heteroclitus, to determine if the AHR ligand and pro-oxidant 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) can increase ROS production during killifish development, and to test a novel method for measuring ROS non-invasively in a living organism. The superoxide-sensitive fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium (DHE), was used to detect in ovo ROS production microscopically in developing killifish exposed to PCB126 or vehicle. Both in ovo CYP1A activity (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase, EROD) and in ovo ROS were induced by PCB126. In ovo CYP1A activity was inducible by PCB126 concentrations as low as 0.003 nM, with maximal induction occurring at 0.3 nM PCB126. These PCB126 concentrations also significantly increased in ovo ROS production in embryonic liver, ROS being detectable as early as 5 days post-fertilization. These data demonstrate that the pro-oxidant and CYP1A inducer, PCB126, increases both CYP1A activity and ROS production in developing killifish embryos. The superoxide detection assay (SoDA) described in this paper provides a semi-quantitative, easily measured, early indicator of altered ROS production that can be used in conjunction with simultaneous in ovo measurements of CYP1A activity and embryo development to explore functional relationships among biochemical, physiological and developmental responses to AHR ligands.

  14. Exogenous C2 Ceramide Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase Gene Expression by Inhibiting ROS Production and MAPK Signaling Pathways in PMA-Stimulated Human Astroglioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Young-Ho; Moon, Byung-In; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2016-03-31

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, which play a pivotal role in invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of glioma. Therefore, controlling MMPs is potentially an important therapeutic strategy for glioma. In the present study, we found that exogenous cell-permeable short-chain C2 ceramide inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced MMP-1, -3, and -9 gene expressions in U87MG and U373MG human astroglioma cells. In addition, C2 ceramide inhibited the protein secretion and enzymatic activities of MMP-1, -3, and -9. The Matrigel invasion assay and wound healing assay showed that C2 ceramide suppresses the in vitro invasion and migration of glioma cells, which appears to be involved in strong inhibition of MMPs by C2 ceramide. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that C2 ceramide inhibits PMA-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB/activator protein (AP)-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, C2 ceramide significantly inhibited PMA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, and inhibition of ROS by diphenylene iodonium (DPI, NADPH oxidase inhibitor) mimicked the effects of C2 ceramide on MMP expression and NF-κB/AP-1 via inhibition of p38 MAPK. The results suggest C2 ceramide inhibits MMP expression and glioma invasion, at least partly, by modulating ROS-p38 MAPK signaling axis and other MAPK signaling pathways.

  15. Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xia, Zhengyuan; Han, Yifan; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation.

  16. The IRAK-ERK-p67phox-Nox-2 axis mediates TLR4, 2-induced ROS production for IL-1β transcription and processing in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankita; Singh, Vishal; Tiwari, Rajiv L; Chandra, Tulika; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    In monocytic cells, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and TLR2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and inflammatory response; however, the mechanism is not well understood. The present study investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p67phox and Nox-2 in TLR4- and TLR2-induced ROS generation during interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) transcription, processing, and secretion. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor, U0126, PD98059, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)), and a free radical scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine (NAC))-attenuated TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS))- and TLR2 (Pam3csk4)-induced ROS generation and IL-1β production in THP-1 and primary human monocytes. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor and siRNA-attenuated LPS- and Pam3csk4-induced ERK-IRAK1 association and ERK phosphorylation and activity. LPS and Pam3csk4 also induced IRAK1/4-, ERK- and ROS-dependent activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), IL-1β transcription, and IL-1β processing because significant inhibition in AP-1 activity, IL-1β transcription, Pro- and mature IL-β expression, and caspase-1 activity was observed with PD98059, U0126, DPI, NAC, an IRAK1/4 inhibitor, tanshinone IIa, and IRAK1 siRNA treatment. IRAK-dependent ERK-p67phox interaction, p67phox translocation, and p67phox-Nox-2 interaction were observed. Nox-2 siRNA significantly reduced secreted IL-1β, IL-1β transcript, pro- and mature IL-1β expression, and caspase-1 activity indicating a role for Nox-2 in LPS- and Pam3csk4-induced IL-1β production, transcription, and processing. In the present study, we demonstrate that the TLR4- and TLR2-induced IRAK-ERK pathway cross-talks with p67phox-Nox-2 for ROS generation, thus regulating IL-1β transcription and processing in monocytic cells.

  17. Pioglitazone reduces angiotensin II-induced COX-2 expression through inhibition of ROS production and ET-1 transcription in vascular cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Girón, Jose V; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Aguado, Andrea; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Barrús, María T; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J

    2014-06-01

    Glitazones have anti-inflammatory properties by interfering with the transcription of proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and with ROS production, which are increased in hypertension. This study analyzed whether pioglitazone modulates COX-2 expression in hypertension by interfering with ROS and endothelin (ET)-1. In vivo, pioglitazone (2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 28 days) reduced the greater levels of COX-2, pre-pro-ET-1, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity as well as O2 (·-) production found in aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ANG II increased COX-2 and pre-pro-ET-1 levels more in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats. The ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHR cells. ANG II also increased NOX-1 expression, NOX activity, and superoxide production in SHR cells; the selective NOX-1 inhibitor ML-171 and catalase reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 and ET-1 transcription. ANG II also increased c-Jun transcription and phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-c-Jun, and p65 NF-κB subunit nuclear protein expression. SP-600125 and lactacystin, JNK and NF-κB inhibitors, respectively, reduced ANG II-induced ET-1, COX-2, and NOX-1 levels and NOX activity. Pioglitazone reduced the effects of ANG II on NOX activity, NOX-1, pre-pro-ET-1, COX-2, and c-Jun mRNA levels, JNK activation, and nuclear phospho-c-Jun and p65 expression. In conclusion, ROS production and ET-1 are involved in ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHRs, explaining the greater COX-2 expression observed in this strain. Furthermore, pioglitazone inhibits ANG II-induced COX-2 expression likely by interfering with NF-κB and activator protein-1 proinflammatory pathways and downregulating ROS production and ET-1 transcription, thus contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of glitazones.

  18. Silence of the ROS.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Judith; Brown, Brian D

    2016-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated during T cell activation and serve a signaling function but can also be damaging. In this issue of Immunity, Zhang et al. (2016) show that miR-23a prevents ROS-elicited necrosis by suppressing cyclophilin D (PPIF), a regulator of ROS escape from mitochondria.

  19. MicroRNA-155 Regulates ROS Production, NO Generation, Apoptosis and Multiple Functions of Human Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajing; Pan, Qunwen; Zhao, Yuhui; He, Caixia; Bi, Kexia; Chen, Yusen; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang; Ma, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    The microRNA-155 (miR155) regulates various functions of cells. Dysfunction or injury of endothelial cells (ECs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the role and potential mechanisms of miR155 in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) under physiological and pathological conditions. We detected the effects of miR155 silencing on ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and functions of HBMECs at basal and in response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Western blot and q-PCR were used for analyzing the gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase(Akt), activated caspase-3, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Results showed that under both basal and challenge situations: (1) Silencing of miR155 decreased apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of HBMECs, whereas, promoted nitric oxide (NO) generation. (2) Silencing of miR155 increased the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of HBMECs, while decreased cell adhesion ability. (3) Gene expression analyses showed that EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt were increased and that activated caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mRNA were decreased after knockdown of miR155. In conclusion, knockdown of miR155 could modulate ROS production, NO generation, apoptosis and function of HBMECs via regulating diverse gene expression, such as caspase-3, ICAM-1 and EGFR/ERK/p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  20. FBS or BSA Inhibits EGCG Induced Cell Death through Covalent Binding and the Reduction of Intracellular ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Xu, Yu-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Mo-Han; Zheng, Yi-Fan; Shen, Han-Ming; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Previously we have shown that (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can induce nonapoptotic cell death in human hepatoma HepG2 cells only under serum-free condition. However, the underlying mechanism for serum in determining the cell fate remains to be answered. The effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and its major component bovine serum albumin (BSA) on EGCG-induced cell death were investigated in this study. It was found that BSA, just like FBS, can protect cells from EGCG-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Detailed analysis revealed that both FBS and BSA inhibited generation of ROS to protect against toxicity of EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG was shown to bind to certain cellular proteins including caspase-3, PARP, and α-tubulin, but not LC3 nor β-actin, which formed EGCG-protein complexes that were inseparable by SDS-gel. On the other hand, addition of FBS or BSA to culture medium can block the binding of EGCG to these proteins. In silico docking analysis results suggested that BSA had a stronger affinity to EGCG than the other proteins. Taken together, these data indicated that the protective effect of FBS and BSA against EGCG-induced cell death could be due to (1) the decreased generation of ROS and (2) the competitive binding of BSA to EGCG. PMID:27830147

  1. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Florence-Anaïs; Merlin, Christophe; Balan, Lavinia; Schneider, Raphaël

    2014-03-15

    Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170°C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity.

  2. Quantifying transient psychological stress using a novel technique: changes to PMA-induced leukocyte production of ROS in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shelton-Rayner, Graham K; Mian, Rubina; Chandler, Simon; Robertson, Duncan; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Although much work has been conducted to quantify the long-term physiological effects of psychological stress, measures of short-term, low-level stress have been more elusive. This study assessed the effect of exposure of volunteers to a mild, brief, psychologically stressful event, on the functional ability of leukocytes in whole blood to respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in vitro. Volunteers operated a car electric window and adjusted it to 4 pre-determined positions. Between each operation the mechanism's polarity was covertly altered (group B) or remained unaltered (group A). For each treatment group 10 different subjects provided capillary blood samples pre- and post-stressor. Using a chemiluminescent technique termed leukocyte coping capacity, the ability of leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro was assessed. ROS release differed significantly at 10 min post-stressor between treatment groups, suggesting exposure to acute psychological stress leads to a reduced ability to respond to bacterial challenge.

  3. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. This pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species. The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by electrical stimulation. On the other hand, electrical stimuli induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits: p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50 μM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 μM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 μM and 200 μM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of electrical stimuli in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide on both NF

  4. Altered ROS production, NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 gene expression induced by electrical stimulation of in dystrophic mdx skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; López, José R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which cause functional loss of this protein. DMD pathology is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The aim of this work was to study the alterations in NF-κB activation and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression induced by membrane depolarization in dystrophic mdx myotubes. Membrane depolarization elicited by electrical stimulation (ES) increased p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression in wt myotubes, whereas in mdx myotubes it had the opposite effect. We have previously shown that depolarization-induced intracellular Ca2+ increases and ROS production are necessary for NF-κB activation and stimulation of gene expression in wt myotubes. Dystrophic myotubes showed a reduced amplitude and area under the curve of the Ca2+ transient elicited by ES. On the other hand, ES induced higher ROS production in mdx than wt myotubes, which were blocked by NOX2 inhibitors. Moreover, mRNA expression and protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunits; p47phox and gp91phox were increased in mdx myotubes. Looking at ROS-dependence of NF-κB activation we found that in wt myotubes external administration of 50µM H2O2 increased NF-κB activity; after administration of 100 and 200 µM H2O2 there was no effect. In mdx myotubes there was a dose-dependent reduction in NF-κB activity in response to external administration of H2O2, with a significant effect of 100 µM and 200 µM, suggesting that ROS levels are critical for NF-κB activity. Prior blockage with NOX2 inhibitors blunted the effects of ES in both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression. Finally, to ascertain whether stimulation of NF-κB and IL-6 gene expression by the inflammatory pathway is also impaired in mdx myotubes, we studied the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both NF-κB activation and IL-6 expression

  5. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria—An Amazing Defense Tool Against Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Trono, Daniela; Laus, Maura N.; Soccio, Mario; Alfarano, Michela; Pastore, Donato

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about 15 years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP). Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous) and tissues/organs (etiolated and green) have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel) are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs) and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane toward the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ), the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp) in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate hyperosmotic stress

  6. Embryopathic effects of thalidomide and its hydrolysis products in rabbit embryo culture: evidence for a prostaglandin H synthase (PHS)-dependent, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Crystal J J; Gonçalves, Luisa L; Wells, Peter G

    2011-07-01

    Thalidomide (TD) causes birth defects in humans and rabbits via several potential mechanisms, including bioactivation by embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) enzymes to a reactive intermediate that enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. We show herein that TD in rabbit embryo culture produces relevant embryopathies, including decreases in head/brain development by 28% and limb bud growth by 71% (P<0.05). Two TD hydrolysis products, 2-phthalimidoglutaramic acid (PGMA) and 2-phthalimidoglutaric acid (PGA), were similarly embryopathic, attenuating otic vesicle (ear) and limb bud formation by up to 36 and 77%, respectively (P<0.05). TD, PGMA, and PGA all increased embryonic DNA oxidation measured as 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) by up to 2-fold (P<0.05). Co- or pretreatment with the PHS inhibitors eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), or the free-radical spin trap phenylbutylnitrone (PBN), completely blocked embryonic 8-oxoG formation and/or embryopathies initiated by TD, PGMA, and PGA. This is the first demonstration of limb bud embryopathies initiated by TD, as well as its hydrolysis products, in a mammalian embryo culture model of a species susceptible to TD in vivo, indicating that all likely contribute to TD teratogenicity in vivo, in part through PHS-dependent, ROS-mediated mechanisms.

  7. Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Antrodia camphorata attenuates cigarette smoke-induced ROS production, DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells, and atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Ling; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Peng, Wei-Jung; Chen, Chee-Shan; Li, Mei-Ling; Hsu, Li-Sung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2017-04-03

    Cigarette smoke exposure activates several cellular mechanisms predisposing to atherosclerosis, including oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and vascular inflammation. Antrodia camphorata, a renowned medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has been investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties in cigarette smoke extracts (CSE)-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and ApoE-deficient mice. Fermented culture broth of Antrodia camphorata (AC, 200-800 µg/mL) possesses effective antioxidant activity against CSE-induced ROS production. Treatment of SMCs (A7r5) with AC (30-120 µg/mL) remarkably ameliorated CSE-induced morphological aberrations and cell death. Suppressed ROS levels by AC corroborate with substantial inhibition of CSE-induced DNA damage in AC-treated A7r5 cells. We found CSE-induced apoptosis through increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, was substantially inhibited by AC in A7r5 cells. Notably, upregulated SOD and catalase expressions in AC-treated A7r5 cells perhaps contributed to eradicate the CSE-induced ROS generation, and prevents DNA damage and apoptosis. Besides, AC suppressed AP-1 activity by inhibiting the c-Fos/c-Jun expressions, and NF-κB activation through inhibition of I-κBα degradation against CSE-stimulation. This anti-inflammatory property of AC was accompanied by suppressed CSE-induced VEGF, PDGF, and EGR-1 overexpressions in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AC protects lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells from CSE-induced cell death. In vivo data showed that AC oral administration (0.6 mg/d/8-wk) prevents CSE-accelerated atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. This antiatherosclerotic property was associated with increased serum total antioxidant status, and decreased total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. Thus, Antrodia camphorata may be useful for prevention of CSE-induced oxidative stress and diseases.

  9. ROS Are Good.

    PubMed

    Mittler, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plant biology. They are required for many important signaling reactions, but are also toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Recent studies revealed that ROS are necessary for the progression of several basic biological processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, cell death-that was previously thought to be the outcome of ROS directly killing cells by oxidation, in other words via oxidative stress-is now considered to be the result of ROS triggering a physiological or programmed pathway for cell death. This Opinion focuses on the possibility that ROS are beneficial to plants, supporting cellular proliferation, physiological function, and viability, and that maintaining a basal level of ROS in cells is essential for life.

  10. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  11. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2 (•-)), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed.

  12. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris.

  13. Actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation and Rac1 activity has implications on ROS production, cell migration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sehar Saleem; Parray, Arif Ali; Mushtaq, Umar; Fazili, Khalid Majid; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) and Rac1 are part of a signaling pathway via the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC). Both SNTA1 and Rac1 proteins are over-expressed in various carcinomas. It is through the DGC signaling pathway that SNTA1 has been shown to act as a link between the extra cellular matrix, the internal cell signaling apparatus and the actin cytoskeleton. SNTA1 is involved in the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton and actin reorganization. Rac1 also controls actin cytoskeletal organization in the cell. In this study, we present the interplay between f-actin, SNTA1 and Rac1. We analyzed the effect of actin depolymerization on SNTA1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity using actin depolymerizing drugs, cytochalasin D and latrunculin A. Our results indicate a marked decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of SNTA1 upon actin depolymerization. Results suggest that actin depolymerization mediated loss of SNTA1 phosphorylation leads to loss of interaction between SNTA1 and Rac1, with a concomitant loss of Rac1 activation. The loss of SNTA1tyrosine phosphorylation and Rac1 activity by actin depolymerization results in increased apoptosis, decreased cell migration and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in breast carcinoma cells. Collectively, our results present a possible role of f-actin in the SNTA1-Rac1 signaling pathway and implications of actin depolymerization on cell migration, ROS production and apoptosis.

  14. Carbohydrate derivatives from the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris and their effects on ROS production and glutamate-induced cell death in HT-22 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Lee, Dong-Sung; Lee, Dae-Young; Song, Na-Young; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Chung, Hae-Gon; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Kim, Geum-Soog; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-05-03

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Brassica rapa ssp. campestris led to the isolation of three new carbohydrate derivatives, namely sucrose 3,3',4'-triisovalerate (2), sucrose 6,3',4'-triisovalerate (3), and ethanone-1-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (3,7-anhydro-1-deoxy-d-glycero-d-gulo-2-octulose, 6), along with four known carbohydrate derivatives, 2,6,3',4'-tetraisovalerate (1), ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), n-butyl β-d-fructofuranoside (5), and n-pentyl β-d-fructofuranoside (7), which were initially isolated from plants of the Brassica genus. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, MS, and NMR. All of the isolated carbohydrate derivatives were evaluated to determine their effect on ROS production and glutamate-induced cell death in HT-22 cells. Compound 6 showed the most significant ROS reduction and a protective effect with IC50 values of 69.4 ± 3.8 μM and 4.96 ± 0.32 μM, respectively, which were equivalent to those of the positive control, Trolox.

  15. Hispidin and related herbal compounds from Alpinia zerumbet inhibit both PAK1-dependent melanogenesis in melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Be Tu, Pham Thi; Chompoo, Jamnian; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-06-01

    Recently several compounds from Okinawa plants including Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) were shown to inhibit directly the oncogenic/ageing kinase PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1). Furthermore, it was recently revealed that both PAK1 and PAK4 (p21-activated kinase 4) are equally essential for the melanogenesis in melanoma cells. Thus, in this study, we tested if several alpinia compounds inhibit the melanogenesis in melanoma (B16F10) cells, as well as the PAK1-dependent up-regulation of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1) without any cytotoxicity. The effect of alpinia compounds on the melanogenesis was measured by both the melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melanoma cells treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a melanogenesis stimulating hormone. We found that (1E,3E,5E)-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran (MTD), 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK), labdadiene, hispidin and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) at 50 μg/mL reduced the melanin content by 63-79%. The MTD, DK and hispidin, at 50 μg/mL, inhibited tyrosinase activity by 70-83% in melanoma cells. Among these compounds, labdadiene, MTD, (E)-2,2,3,3-Tetramethyl8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yl)octahydro-1H-quinolizine (TMOQ) and hispidin strongly inhibited the ROS production. Hispidin, labdadiene and MTD at 20 μg/mL inhibited NO production by over 70%. These findings altogether suggest that some of these alpinia compounds could be potentially useful for the prevention or treatment of hyperpigmentation and obesity.

  16. The effect of gallic acid on cytotoxicity, Ca(2+) homeostasis and ROS production in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-25

    Gallic acid, a polyhydroxylphenolic compound, is widely distributed in various plants, fruits and foods. It has been shown that gallic acid passes into blood brain barrier and reaches the brain tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. However, the effect of gallic acid on Ca(2+) signaling in glia cells is unknown. This study explored whether gallic acid affected Ca(2+) homeostasis and induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes. Gallic acid (20-40 μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]i) increases in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells. In DBTRG-05MG cells, the Ca(2+) response was decreased by half by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In Ca(2+)-containing medium, gallic acid-induced Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (2-APB, econazole and SKF96365). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Conversely, incubation with gallic acid also abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Gallic acid significantly caused cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG cells, which was partially prevented by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA-AM. Moreover, gallic acid activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved ROS production. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells, gallic acid induced [Ca(2+)]i increases by causing Ca(2+) entry via 2-APB, econazole and SKF96365-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and phospholipase C-dependent release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This Ca(2+) signal subsequently evoked mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis that involved ROS production.

  17. Inhibitors of ROS production by the ubiquinone-binding site of mitochondrial complex I identified by chemical screening.

    PubMed

    Orr, Adam L; Ashok, Deepthi; Sarantos, Melissa R; Shi, Tong; Hughes, Robert E; Brand, Martin D

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is often considered an unavoidable consequence of aerobic metabolism and currently cannot be manipulated without perturbing oxidative phosphorylation. Antioxidants are widely used to suppress effects of reactive oxygen species after formation, but they can never fully prevent immediate effects at the sites of production. To identify site-selective inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide/H2O2 production that do not interfere with mitochondrial energy metabolism, we developed a robust small-molecule screen and secondary profiling strategy. We describe the discovery and characterization of a compound (N-cyclohexyl-4-(4-nitrophenoxy)benzenesulfonamide; CN-POBS) that selectively inhibits superoxide/H2O2 production from the ubiquinone-binding site of complex I (site I(Q)) with no effects on superoxide/H2O2 production from other sites or on oxidative phosphorylation. Structure/activity studies identified a core structure that is important for potency and selectivity for site I(Q). By employing CN-POBS in mitochondria respiring on NADH-generating substrates, we show that site I(Q) does not produce significant amounts of superoxide/H2O2 during forward electron transport on glutamate plus malate. Our screening platform promises to facilitate further discovery of direct modulators of mitochondrially derived oxidative damage and advance our ability to understand and manipulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production under both normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Inhibitors of ROS production by the ubiquinone-binding site of mitochondrial complex I identified by chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Adam L.; Ashok, Deepthi; Sarantos, Melissa R.; Shi, Tong; Hughes, Robert E.; Brand, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is often considered an unavoidable consequence of aerobic metabolism and currently cannot be manipulated without perturbing oxidative phosphorylation. Antioxidants are widely used to suppress effects of reactive oxygen species after formation, but they can never fully prevent immediate effects at the sites of production. To identify site-selective inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide/H2O2 production that do not interfere with mitochondrial energy metabolism, we developed a robust small-molecule screen and secondary profiling strategy. We describe the discovery and characterization of a compound (N-cyclohexyl-4-(4-nitrophenoxy)benzenesulfonamide; CN-POBS) that selectively inhibits superoxide/H2O2 production from the ubiquinone-binding site of complex I (site IQ) with no effects on superoxide/H2O2 production from other sites or on oxidative phosphorylation. Structure/activity studies identified a core structure that is important for potency and selectivity for site IQ. By employing CN-POBS in mitochondria respiring on NADH-generating substrates, we show that site IQ does not produce significant amounts of superoxide/H2O2 during forward electron transport on glutamate plus malate. Our screening platform promises to facilitate further discovery of direct modulators of mitochondrially-derived oxidative damage and advance our ability to understand and manipulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:23994103

  19. Production of hydrogen peroxide and expression of ROS generating genes in peach flower petals in response to host and non-host pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in plant-microbe interactions in that they can either stimulate host resistance or benefit pathogen virulence. Accumulation of ROS was determined in peach petals in response to Monilinia fructicola (a compatible pathogen) and Penicillium digitatum (an i...

  20. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-04-12

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging.

  1. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081

  2. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  3. Regulation of plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stress responses: learning from AtRBOHD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yukun; He, Chengzhong

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in plants, as the metabolic by-products or as the signaling components in stress responses. High levels of ROS are harmful to plants. In contrast, ROS play important roles in plant physiology, including abiotic and biotic tolerance, development, and cellular signaling. Therefore, ROS production needs to be tightly regulated to balance their function. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue (RBOH) proteins, also known as plant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, are well studied enzymatic ROS-generating systems in plants. The regulatory mechanisms of RBOH-dependent ROS production in stress responses have been intensively studied. This has greatly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate plant ROS production. This review attempts to integrate the regulatory mechanisms of RBOHD-dependent ROS production by discussing the recent advance. AtRBOHD-dependent ROS production could provide a valuable reference for studying ROS production in plant stress responses.

  4. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  5. Rat Humanin is encoded and translated in mitochondria and is localized to the mitochondrial compartment where it regulates ROS production.

    PubMed

    Paharkova, Vladislava; Alvarez, Griselda; Nakamura, Hiromi; Cohen, Pinchas; Lee, Kuk-Wha

    2015-09-15

    Evidence for the putative mitochondrial origin of the Humanin (HN) peptide has been lacking, although its cytoprotective activity has been demonstrated in a variety of organismal and cellular systems. We sought to establish proof-of-principle for a mitochondria-derived peptide (MDP) in a rat-derived cellular system as the rat HN sequence is predicted to lack nuclear insertions of mitochondrial origin (NUMT). We found that the rat HN (Rattin; rHN) homologue is derived from the mitochondrial genome as evidenced by decreased production in Rho-0 cells, and that peptide translation occurs in the mitochondria as it is unaffected by cycloheximide. Rat HN localizes to the mitochondria in cellular subfractionation and immunohistochemical studies. Addition of a HN analogue to isolated mitochondria from rat INS-1 beta cells reduced hydrogen peroxide production by 55%. In summary, a locally bioactive peptide is derived and translated from an open reading frame (ORF) within rat mitochondrial DNA encoding 16S rRNA.

  6. Upregulation of arginase activity contributes to intracellular ROS production induced by high glucose in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Sun, Chuan-Bo; Liu, Chao; Fan, Yue; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Hu, Liang; Li, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Arginase is upregulated in some tissues under diabetes states. Arginase can compete with nitroxide synthase (NOS) for the common substrate L-arginine and thus increases oxidative stress by NOS uncoupling. We want to analyze whether arginase is upregulated and contribute to oxidative stress in H9c2 cells during high glucose treatment. H9c2 cells were cultured in normal or high glucose DMEM. Arginase activity increased in parallel with increased cell death and oxidative stress. Arginase inhibitor N ω-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) and NOS inhibitor N ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) could reverse these effects. Despite of upregulated NOS activity, NO production was impaired which could be preserved by nor-NOHA, suggesting a decreased substrate availability of NOS due to increased arginase activity. L-arginine supplementation decreased superoxide production while it could not protect cells from death. Upregulated arginase activity in H9c2 treated with high glucose can cause NOS uncoupling and subsequently reactive oxygen species augmentation and cell death. These findings suggest that arginase will be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Physicochemical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles that contribute to cellular ROS-dependent signaling and acellular production of hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christoph F A; Charrier, Jessica G; Wu, Dalei; McFall, Alexander S; Li, Wen; Abid, Aamir; Kennedy, Ian M; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-01-01

    While nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in a variety of consumer products and medical applications, some of these materials have potential health concerns. Macrophages are the primary responders to particles that initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Here, we utilized six flame-synthesized, engineered iron oxide NPs with various physicochemical properties (e.g. Fe oxidation state and crystal size) to study their interactions with RAW 264.7 macrophages, their iron solubilities, and their abilities to produce hydroxyl radical in an acellular assay. Both iron solubility and hydroxyl radical production varied between NPs depending on crystalline diameter and surface area of the particles, but not on iron oxidation state. Macrophage treatment with the iron oxide NPs showed a dose-dependent increase of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1). The nuclear factor (NF)-erythroid-derived 2 (E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) modulates the transcriptional activity of antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven genes, such as HO-1 and NQO-1. Here, we show that the iron oxide NPs activate Nrf2, leading to its increased nuclear accumulation and enhanced Nrf2 DNA-binding activity in NP-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Iron solubility and acellular hydroxyl radical generation depend on the physical properties of the NPs, especially crystalline diameter; however, these properties are weakly linked to the activation of cellular signaling of Nrf2 and the expression of oxidative stress markers. Overall, our work shows for the first time that iron oxide nanoparticles induce cellular marker genes of oxidative stress and that this effect is transcriptionally mediated through the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in macrophages.

  8. Physicochemical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles that contribute to cellular ROS-dependent signaling and acellular production of hydroxyl radical

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christoph F.A.; Charrier, Jessica G.; Wu, Dalei; McFall, Alexander S.; Li, Wen; Abid, Aamir; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2017-01-01

    While nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in a variety of consumer products and medical applications, some of these materials have potential health concerns. Macrophages are the primary responders to particles that initiate oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Here we utilized six flame-synthesized, engineered iron oxide NPs with various physicochemical properties (e.g., Fe oxidation state and crystal size) to study their interactions with RAW 264.7 macrophages, their iron solubilities, and their abilities to produce hydroxyl radical in an acellular assay. Both iron solubility and hydroxyl radical production varied between NPs depending on crystalline diameter and surface area of the particles, but not on iron oxidation state. Macrophage treatment with the iron oxide NPs showed a dose-dependent increase of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1). The nuclear factor (NF)-erythroid-derived 2 (E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) modulates the transcriptional activity of antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven genes such as HO-1 and NQO-1. Here, we show that the iron oxide NPs activate Nrf2, leading to its increased nuclear accumulation and enhanced Nrf2 DNA-binding activity in NP-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Iron solubility and acellular hydroxyl radical generation depend on the physical properties of the NPs, especially crystalline diameter; however, these properties are weakly linked to the activation of cellular signaling of Nrf2 and the expression of oxidative stress markers. Overall, our work shows for the first time that iron oxide nanoparticles induce cellular marker genes of oxidative stress and that this effect is transcriptionally mediated through the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in macrophages. PMID:27558512

  9. TGFβ regulates persistent neuroinflammation by controlling Th1 polarization and ROS production via monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Roham; Lund, Harald; Tosevski, Ivana; Zhang, Xing‐Mei; Malipiero, Ursula; Beckervordersandforth, Jan; Merkler, Doron; Prinz, Marco; Gyllenberg, Alexandra; James, Tojo; Warnecke, Andreas; Hillert, Jan; Alfredsson, Lars; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Fontana, Adriano; Suter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral levels of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) rise rapidly during the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We addressed the role of TGFβ responsiveness in EAE by targeting the TGFβ receptor in myeloid cells, determining that Tgfbr2 was specifically targeted in monocyte‐derived dendritic cells (moDCs) but not in CNS resident microglia by using bone‐marrow chimeric mice. TGFβ responsiveness in moDCs was necessary for the remission phase since LysMCreTgfbr2fl/fl mice developed a chronic form of EAE characterized by severe demyelination and extensive infiltration of activated moDCs in the CNS. Tgfbr2 deficiency resulted in increased moDC IL‐12 secretion that skewed T cells to produce IFN‐γ, which in turn enhanced the production of moDC‐derived reactive oxygen species that promote oxidative damage and demyelination. We identified SNPs in the human NOX2 (CYBB) gene that associated with the severity of MS, and significantly increased CYBB expression was recorded in PBMCs from both MS patients and from MS severity risk allele rs72619425‐A carrying individuals. We thus identify a novel myeloid cell‐T cell activation loop active in the CNS during chronic disease that could be therapeutically targeted. GLIA 2016;64:1925–1937 PMID:27479807

  10. Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica nanoparticles and a natural product approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2014-03-01

    Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDAapproved hypotensive drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica particles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The current work exposes the potential of using silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and EGCG's antioxidant capabilities in B35 neuroblastoma cells exposed to acrolein. We also measure nanotoxicity to individual rat neurons using high-throughput image scanning cytometry.

  11. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling. PMID:26658076

  12. Effects of Camphorquinone on Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Regulation and Prostaglandin E2 Production of Dental Pulp Cells: Role of ROS, ATM/Chk2, MEK/ERK and Hemeoxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Min-Tsz; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Lee, Ming-Shu; Sun, Tzu-Ying; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Lin, Hsueh-Jen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a popularly-used photosensitizer in composite resin restoration. In this study, the effects of CQ on cytotoxicity and inflammation-related genes and proteins expression of pulp cells were investigated. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATM/Chk2/p53 and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and MEK/ERK signaling was also evaluated. We found that ROS and free radicals may play important role in CQ toxicity. CQ (1 and 2 mM) decreased the viability of pulp cells to about 70% and 50% of control, respectively. CQ also induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of pulp cells. The expression of type I collagen, cdc2, cyclin B, and cdc25C was inhibited, while p21, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were stimulated by CQ. CQ also activated ATM, Chk2, and p53 phosphorylation and GADD45α expression. Besides, exposure to CQ increased cellular ROS level and 8-isoprostane production. CQ also stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production of pulp cells. The reduction of cell viability caused by CQ can be attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but can be promoted by Zinc protoporphyin (ZnPP). CQ stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and U0126 prevented the CQ-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. These results indicate that CQ may cause cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and PGE2 production of pulp cells. These events could be due to stimulation of ROS and 8-isoprostane production, ATM/Chk2/p53 signaling, HO-1, COX-2 and p21 expression, as well as the inhibition of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclin B1. These results are important for understanding the role of ROS in pathogenesis of pulp necrosis and pulpal inflammation after clinical composite resin filling.

  13. Effects of individual and a mixture of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in a rainbow trout gonadal cell line (RTG-2).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Babín, Mar

    2013-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) in aquatic environments is of concern. Although measured concentrations of individual substances are low, little consideration has been given to the likely chronic nature of the exposures or to the potential for mixture effects. The purpose of the present study was to use the RTG-2 rainbow trout cell line to analyse sub-lethal and cytotoxic effects of PPCPs present in a wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluents and their mixtures. Interactions with cytochrome P450 1A enzyme, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and cell viability were assessed using 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) and neutral red (NR) uptake assays, respectively. Not all of the compounds that were tested exhibited significant effects. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations and half maximal effective concentrations (EC50 ) were within the range 0.15 to 784.47 µg l(-1) . Clear dose-response curves were found for cells exposed to different mixtures of PPCPs. The lowest-observed-effect concentrations and concentrations causing EC50 were within the range 0.05 to 54.61 µg l(-1) . Four out the seven tested mixtures induced EROD activity. ROS production was detected in two mixtures. The ß-gal inhibition response was observed in six out the seven tested mixtures and occurred at a higher concentration than was observed for EROD induction activity or ROS generation. The present study clearly shows that the stress response through which cells mount a homeostatic response to toxicants can be potentially used for an initial, rapid and cost-effective assessment of the complex mixtures of PPCP that present in WWTP effluents are difficult and expensive to analyse chemically.

  14. Improved ROS measurement in root hair cells.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Silvina Paola Denita; Mangano, Silvina; Estevez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as important signaling components in various processes in plants. ROS are produced for NADPH oxidase in different subcellular compartments and they are involved for a wide range of stimuli, such as cell cycle, growth, plant defenses, abiotic stress responses, and abscisic acid signaling in guard cells. In Arabidopsis, root hairs ROS also play a key role in root hair growth and they control the activity of calcium channels required for polar growth (Takeda et al. Science 319:1241-1244, 2008). The production of reactive oxygen species is under a specific molecular control in order to avoid detrimental side effects. Here we describe a protocol to detect ROS by oxidation of a derivative of fluorescein: 2',7-dihidro dicloro fluorescein (H2DCFDA).

  15. Double-dose β-glucan treatment in WSSV-challenged shrimp reduces viral replication but causes mortality possibly due to excessive ROS production.

    PubMed

    Thitamadee, Siripong; Srisala, Jiraporn; Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2014-10-01

    In our research efforts to reduce the impact of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) disease outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture, we studied the effect of β-glucan administration to activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) enzymatic cascade prior to WSSV challenge. Injection of a single dose of β-glucan (5 μg/g) prior to WSSV challenge resulted in activation of the proPO system and reduced shrimp mortality (25-50%) when compared to controls (100%). By contrast, no significant reduction was observed using yellow head virus (YHV) in a similar protocol. We subsequently hypothesized that administration of a second dose of β-glucan after WSSV challenge might reduce shrimp mortality further. Surprisingly, the opposite occurred, and mortality of the WSSV-infected shrimp increased to 100% after the second β-glucan dose. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays revealed low WSSV levels in hemocytes of shrimp collected after the second dose of β-glucan administration, suggesting that the cause of increased mortality was unlikely to be increased WSSV replication. We found from measured phenoloxidase acitivity (PO) and H2O2 production that the higher mortality may have resulted from a combination of WSSV infection plus over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by two doses of β-glucan. Thus, caution may be prudent in continuous or prolonged activation of the shrimp immune system by β-glucan administration lest it exacerbate shrimp mortality in the event of WSSV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Scarfì, Sonia; Magnone, Mirko; Ferraris, Chiara; Pozzolini, Marina; Benvenuto, Federica; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA) compared to untreated quartz (Q) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-α, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that TNF-α mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-α production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Conclusion Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals. PMID:19298665

  17. Effect of tamoxifen and fulvestrant long-term treatments on ROS production and (pro/anti)-oxidant enzymes mRNA levels in a MCF-7-derived breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Badia, Eric; Morena, Marion; Lauret, Céline; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Boulle, Nathalie; Cavaillès, Vincent; Balaguer, Patrick; Cristol, Jean Paul

    2016-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the apoptotic effects induced by short-term tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer cells, but also in acquired resistance following long-term treatment. Whereas the use of the selective estrogen receptor down-regulator fulvestrant is promising, especially in patients who develop tamoxifen resistance, only few studies addressed its implication in the modulation of cellular redox status. The regulation of (pro/anti)-oxidant players were first investigated at the mRNA level in a MCF-7-derived cell line after short-term (24 h) estradiol treatment. Long-term anti-estrogen treated MCF-7 derived cell lines were also developed: 3 months of 4-hydroxytamoxifen alone (MCF7L-OHTLT) or followed by 3 months of fulvestrant (MCF7L-ICILT). Growth properties, hormone sensitivity, receptor content, ROS production and relative mRNA expression of pro or antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in these long-term treated cell lines. Short-term estradiol treatment showed a hormone sensitivity of Nox2, GPx1, GPx2 and SOD1 mRNA levels. The long-term fulvestrant treatment (3 months) of MCF7L-OHTLT led to a reduced level of ROS production accompanied with a drastic drop of the accessory protein p22(phox) mRNA. This ROS reduction, although not clearly related to antioxidant enzymes level, seems to be involved in fulvestrant sensitivity of long-term anti-estrogen treated cells, as suggested by the effects of antiradical tempol treatment. When compared to long-term 4-hydroxytamoxifen-treated breast cancer cells, addition of fulvestrant treatment was able to diminish ROS production and p22(phox) mRNA level, and made cells more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by tempol. These effects may be a valuable asset of the fulvestrant treatment.

  18. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cell-free model using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) assay-limitations of method.

    PubMed

    Szychowski, Konrad A; Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Kamila; Leja, Marcin L; Wójtowicz, Anna K; Gmiński, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant, applied in a variety of commercial and household products, mainly electronic ones. Since the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered one of the principal cytotoxicity mechanisms, numerous studies undertake that aspect of TBBPA's mechanism of action. The present study verifies if the fluorogenic substrate 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) should be used to detect ROS production induced by TBBPA. To determine the ability of TBBPA alone to stimulate the conversion of H2DCFDA to its fluorescent product 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), we used a cell-free model. In the experiments we check different cultured media also in combination with free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Additionally, experiments with stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) have been made. The presented data showed that TBBPA in all tested concentrations interacts with H2DCFDA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer while in micromolar concentrations in the DMEM/F12 medium with and without serum. The addition of NAC inhibited the interaction of TBBPA with H2DCFDA. Experiments with DPPH· showed that, in the presence of NAC, TBBPA acts like a free radical. TBBPA has similar properties to free radical and is susceptible to free radical scavenging properties of NAC. Our results indicated that H2DCFDA assay cannot be used to evaluate cellular ROS production in TBBPA studies. The study connected with TBBPA-stimulated ROS production in cell culture models using the H2DCFDA assay should be revised using a different method. However, due to the free radical-like nature of TBBPA, it can be very difficult. Therefore, further investigation of the nature of TBBPA as a compound with similar properties to free radical is required.

  19. Another Facet to the Anticancer Response to Lamellarin D: Induction of Cellular Senescence through Inhibition of Topoisomerase I and Intracellular Ros Production

    PubMed Central

    Ballot, Caroline; Martoriati, Alain; Jendoubi, Manel; Buche, Sébastien; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Lamellarin D (LamD) is a marine alkaloid with broad spectrum antitumor activities. Multiple intracellular targets of LamD, which affect cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis, have been identified. These include nuclear topoisomerase I, relevant kinases (such as cyclin-dependent kinase 2) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While we have previously demonstrated that LamD at micromolar range deploys strong cytotoxicity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis, mechanisms of its cytostatic effect have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrated that induction of cellular senescence (depicted by cell cycle arrest in G2 associated with β-galactosidase activity) is a common response to subtoxic concentrations of LamD. Cellular senescence is observed in a large panel of cancer cells following in vitro or in vivo exposure to LamD. The onset of cellular senescence is dependent on the presence of intact topoisomerase I since topoisomerase I-mutated cells are resistant to senescence induced by LamD. LamD-induced senescence occurs without important loss of telomere integrity. Instead, incubation with LamD results in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are critical for senescence as demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of antioxidants. In addition, cancer cells lacking mitochondrial DNA also exhibit cellular senescence upon LamD exposure indicating that LamD can trigger senescence, unlike apoptosis, in the absence of functional mitochondria. Overall, our results identify senescence-associated growth arrest as a powerful effect of LamD and add compelling evidence for the pharmacological interest of lamellarins as potential anticancer agents. PMID:24473175

  20. Inhibition of ROS production, autophagy or apoptosis signaling reversed the anticancer properties of Antrodia salmonea in triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ting; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Huang, Hui-Chi; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Huang, Pei-Jane; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hseu, You-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of Antrodia salmonea (AS), a well-known edible/medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, on human triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells and xenografted nude mice; and revealed the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in autophagic- and apoptotic-cell death. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with fermented culture broth of AS (0-200 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability/growth. AS-induced autophagy was evidenced via increased LC3-II accumulation, GFP-LC3 puncta and AVOs formation in MDA-MB-231 cells. These events are associated with increased ATG7, decreased p-mTOR, vanished SQSTM1/p62 expressions and dysregulated Beclin-1/Bcl-2 ratio. AS-induced apoptosis/necrosis through increased DNA fragmentation, Annexin-V/PI stained cells and Bax expression. Both mitochondrial (caspase-9/caspase-3/PARP) and death-receptor (caspase-8/FasL/Fas) signaling pathways are involved in execution of apoptosis. Interestingly, blockade of AS-induced ROS production by N-acetylcysteine pretreatment substantially attenuated AS-induced autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic/apoptotic-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis by Z-VAD-FMK suppressed AS-induced autophagic-death (decreased LC3-II/AVOs). Similarly, inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine/chloroquine diminished AS-induced apoptosis (decreased DNA fragmentation/caspase-3) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Bioluminescence imaging further confirmed that AS inhibited breast tumor growth in living MDA-MB-231-luciferase-injected nude mice. Taken together, AS crucially involved in execution/propagation of autophagic- or apoptotic-death of MDA-MB-231 cells, and decreased tumor growth in xenografted nude mice.

  1. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway reduces oxygen-glucose deprivation induced tissue swelling, ROS production, and cell death in mouse brain with angiotensin II overproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaolin; Li, Guangze; Chen, Shuzhen; Chen, Ji; Buck, Joshua; Zhu, Yulan; Xia, Huijing; Lazartigues, Eric; Chen, Yanfang; Olson, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mice which overexpress human renin and angiotensinogen (R+A+) show enhanced cerebral damage in both in vivo and in vitro experimental ischemia models. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) counteracts the effects of angiotensin (Ang-II) by transforming it into Ang-(1-7), thus reducing the ligand for the AT1 receptor and increasing stimulation of the Mas receptor. Triple transgenic mice, SARA, which specifically overexpress ACE2 in neurons of R+A+ mice were used to study the role of ACE2 in ischemic stroke using oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) of brain slices as an in vitro model. We examined tissue swelling, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell death in cerebral cortex (CX) and the hippocampal CA1 region during OGD. Expression levels of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4 were measured using western blots. Results show that SARA mice and R+A+ mice treated with the Mas receptor agonist Ang-(1-7) had less swelling, cell death, and ROS production in CX and CA1 areas compared to those in R+A+ animals. Treatment of slices from SARA mice with the Mas antagonist A779 eliminated this protection. Finally, western blots revealed less Nox2 and Nox4 expression in SARA mice compared with R+A+ mice both before and after OGD. We suggest that reduced brain swelling and cell death observed in SARA animals exposed to OGD results from diminished ROS production coupled with lower expression of NADPH oxidases. Thus, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway plays a protective role in brain ischemic damage by counteracting the detrimental effects of Ang-II-induced ROS production. PMID:24814023

  2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) regulates lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression/activity in TM4 Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Soledad P; Windschüttl, Stefanie; Matzkin, María E; Rey-Ares, Verónica; Terradas, Claudio; Ponzio, Roberto; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Levalle, Oscar; Calandra, Ricardo S; Mayerhofer, Artur; Frungieri, Mónica B

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate testicular function in health and disease. We previously described a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) system in Sertoli cells. Now, we found that PGD2 increases ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in murine TM4 Sertoli cells, and also induces antioxidant enzymes expression suggesting that defense systems are triggered as an adaptive stress mechanism that guarantees cell survival. ROS and specially H2O2 may act as second messengers regulating signal transduction pathways and gene expression. We describe a stimulatory effect of PGD2 on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression via DP1/DP2 receptors, which is prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY 294002. PGD2 also enhances Akt and CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation. Our results provide evidence for a role of PGD2 in the regulation of the oxidant/antioxidant status in Sertoli cells and, more importantly, in the modulation of LDH expression which takes place through ROS generation and the Akt-CREB/ATF-1 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar growth.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Silvina; Denita-Juarez, Silvina Paola; Choi, Hee-Seung; Marzol, Eliana; Hwang, Youra; Ranocha, Philippe; Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Borassi, Cecilia; Barberini, María Laura; Aptekmann, Ariel Alejandro; Muschietti, Jorge Prometeo; Nadra, Alejandro Daniel; Dunand, Christophe; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Estevez, José Manuel

    2017-05-16

    Root hair polar growth is endogenously controlled by auxin and sustained by oscillating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These cells extend several hundred-fold their original size toward signals important for plant survival. Although their final cell size is of fundamental importance, the molecular mechanisms that control it remain largely unknown. Here we show that ROS production is controlled by the transcription factor RSL4, which in turn is transcriptionally regulated by auxin through several auxin response factors (ARFs). In this manner, auxin controls ROS-mediated polar growth by activating RSL4, which then up-regulates the expression of genes encoding NADPH oxidases (also known as RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG proteins) and class III peroxidases, which catalyze ROS production. Chemical or genetic interference with ROS balance or peroxidase activity affects root hair final cell size. Overall, our findings establish a molecular link between auxin and ROS-mediated polar root hair growth.

  4. A wave of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ROS release in a sea of excitable mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nathan R; Hamacher-Brady, Anne; Westerhoff, Hans V; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2006-01-01

    Once considered simply as the main source of ATP, mitochondria are now implicated in the control of many additional aspects of cell physiology, such as calcium signaling, and pathology, as in injury incurred on ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (I/R). Mitochondrial respiration is ordinarily accompanied by low-level ROS production, but they can respond to elevated ROS concentrations by increasing their own ROS production, a phenomenon termed ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Two modes of RIRR have been described. In the first mode of RIRR, enhanced ROS leads to mitochondrial depolarization via activation of the MPTP, yielding a short-lived burst of ROS originating from the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The second mode of RIRR is MPTP independent but is regulated by the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR). Increased ROS in the mitochondrion triggers opening of the inner mitochondrial membrane anion channel (IMAC), resulting in a brief increase in ETC-derived ROS. Both modes of RIRR have been shown to transmit localized mitochondrial perturbations throughout the cardiac cell in the form of oscillations or waves but are kinetically distinct and may involve different ROS that serve as second messengers. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of these different modes of RIRR.

  5. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  6. Aging and Ambiguous ROS. System Genetics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Vladislav S; Baranova, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    Famous Free Radical Theory (FRT) of aging, the 50th year anniversary of which is celebrated in 2015 postulates a crucial role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in aging. Still it is the most robust theory of aging as mitochondria ROS production (mtROSp) correlates well with four principal ''rules" of aging being universal, endogenous, progressive, and deleterious. Vast number of experiments in different species prove mutagenic effect of ROS and their carcinogenic properties. So far, FRT stimulates the search of new pharmaceuticals with antioxidant activity. However, some recent experimental data and clinical findings render doubt to ROS as a principal senescence drivers and come in conflict with original version of FRT. Growth stimulating effects of ROS and their modest antitumor properties support these objections. One should remember that FRT is only one of the numerous theories of aging. Molecular mechanisms of senescence involve all living systems and numerous metabolic pathways which are also variable owing to the unique properties of individual genome and unique epigenetic modulations operating throughout the lifetime thus making aging a unique private matter. Universal theory of aging that incorporates and explains all known and suggested mechanisms of aging, is illusive. However, knowledge of unique peculiarities of individual genome, its feasible editing and efficient epigenetic regulation of metabolic pathways give a chance to postpone aging and extend period of active longevity.

  7. Targeting TRPM2 in ROS-Coupled Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Under pathological conditions such as inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which, in return, contribute to the development and exacerbation of disease. The second member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin subfamily, TRPM2, is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel, activated by ROS in an ADP-ribose mediated fashion. In other words, TRPM2 functions as a transducer that converts oxidative stress into Ca2+ signaling. There is good evidence that TRPM2 plays an important role in ROS-coupled diseases. For example, in monocytes the influx of Ca2+ through TRPM2 activated by ROS contributes to the aggravation of inflammation via chemokine production. In this review, the focus is on TRPM2 as a molecular linker between ROS and Ca2+ signaling in ROS-coupled diseases. PMID:27618067

  8. Targeting TRPM2 in ROS-Coupled Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-09-07

    Under pathological conditions such as inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which, in return, contribute to the development and exacerbation of disease. The second member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin subfamily, TRPM2, is a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, activated by ROS in an ADP-ribose mediated fashion. In other words, TRPM2 functions as a transducer that converts oxidative stress into Ca(2+) signaling. There is good evidence that TRPM2 plays an important role in ROS-coupled diseases. For example, in monocytes the influx of Ca(2+) through TRPM2 activated by ROS contributes to the aggravation of inflammation via chemokine production. In this review, the focus is on TRPM2 as a molecular linker between ROS and Ca(2+) signaling in ROS-coupled diseases.

  9. Phytohormones Signaling Pathways and ROS Involvement in Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Krystyna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major determinants of the regulation of development and stress responses in plants. During life cycle of these organisms, signaling networks of plant growth regulators and ROS interact in order to render an appropriate developmental and environmental response. In plant's photosynthetic (e.g., leaves) and non-photosynthetic (e.g., seeds) tissues, enhanced and suboptimal ROS production is usually associated with stress, which in extreme cases can be lethal to cells, a whole organ or even an organism. However, controlled production of ROS is appreciated for cellular signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in plant biology and increasing number of findings that have revealed roles of ROS and hormonal signaling in germination, some questions still arise, e.g., what are the downstream protein targets modified by ROS enabling stimulus-specific cellular responses of the seed? Or which molecular regulators allow ROS/phytohormones interactions and what is their function in seed life? In this particular review the role of some transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases is discussed, especially those which usually known to be involved in ROS and hormonal signal transduction under stress in plants, may also play a role in the regulation of processes occurring in seeds. The summarized recent findings regarding particular ROS- and phytohormones-related regulatory proteins, as well as their integration, allowed to propose a novel, possible model of action of LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1, and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 functioning during seeds life.

  10. Evidence of oxidative stress in very long chain fatty acid--treated oligodendrocytes and potentialization of ROS production using RNA interference-directed knockdown of ABCD1 and ACOX1 peroxisomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Baarine, M; Andréoletti, P; Athias, A; Nury, T; Zarrouk, A; Ragot, K; Vejux, A; Riedinger, J-M; Kattan, Z; Bessede, G; Trompier, D; Savary, S; Cherkaoui-Malki, M; Lizard, G

    2012-06-28

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and pseudo neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (P-NALD) are neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases resulting from the functional loss of the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter D (ABCD1) and from single peroxisomal enzyme deficiency (Acyl-CoA oxidase1: ACOX1), respectively. As these proteins are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA: C24:0, C26:0), X-ALD and P-NALD patients are characterized by the accumulation of VLCFA in plasma and tissues. Since peroxisomes are involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), we examined the impact of VLCFA on the oxidative status of 158N murine oligodendrocytes expressing or not Abcd1 or Acox1. VLCFA triggers an oxidative stress characterized by an overproduction of ROS and RNS associated with lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreased catalase activity and glutathione level. SiRNA knockdown of Abcd1 or Acox1 increased ROS and RNS production even in the absence of VLCFA, and especially potentialized VLCFA-induced ROS overproduction. Moreover, mainly in cells with reduced Acox1 level, the levels of VLCFA and neutral lipids were strongly enhanced both in untreated and VLCFA - treated cells. Our data obtained on 158N murine oligodendrocytes highlight that VLCFA induce an oxidative stress, and demonstrate that Abcd1 or Acox1 knockdown contributes to disrupt RedOx equilibrium supporting a link between oxidative stress and the deficiency of Abcd1 or Acox1 peroxisomal proteins. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of electrochemically simulated titanium cathodic corrosion products on ROS production and metabolic activity of osteoblasts and monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kalbacova, Marie; Roessler, Sophie; Hempel, Ute; Tsaryk, Roman; Peters, Kirsten; Scharnweber, Dieter; Kirkpatrick, James C; Dieter, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Nowadays aseptic loosening is the most common cause of orthopaedic implant failure. Some of its reasons have already been described up to now; however, others remain still hypothetical. Besides the inflammatory response to wear particles originating at different sources, the role of reactive oxygen species as products of cellular reactions and/or as a result of the process of corrosion of an implant leading to implant failure has recently been discussed too. In the present study, we used a galvanostatic polarization to simulate the cathodic partial reaction of the corrosion process at a titanium alloy surface. With respect to cells occurring at the interface of a metal implant, the behaviour of osteoblasts and monocytes/macrophages was investigated. It has been found that cathodic polarization of Ti6Al4V induces an increase in the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species as well as suppressing the metabolic activity of cells in a dose-dependent manner. This is in agreement with the results obtained with cells after external addition of hydrogen peroxide as another kind of oxidative stress. In both approaches, monocytes/macrophages show a higher tolerance to oxidative stress than osteoblasts. It could be concluded that the electrochemical setup developed induced intracellular changes occurring during oxidative stress and it could be used for future detailed analysis of the consequences of corrosion processes for cellular reactions.

  12. Cigarette smoke extract increases vascular endothelial growth factor production via TLR4/ROS/MAPKs/NF-kappaB pathway in nasal fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Min; Park, Joo-Hoo; Kim, Hwee-Jin; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2017-03-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of various chemical compounds, including free radicals and highly toxic compounds. Cigarette smoke exposure has been shown to be associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and tissue remodeling in upper airway. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the cytokines with a crucial role in tissue remodeling of airway. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on VEGF expression and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of CSE in nasal fibroblasts. Nasal fibroblasts were stimulated with CSE. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The expression level of VEGF was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of TLR4 were determined by RT-PCR. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TLR4 was transfected to suppress TLR4 expression. Activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by using dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-kappaB activations were determined by using western blot and/or luciferase assay. CSE had no significant cytotoxic effect in nasal fibroblast up to 5%. CSE significantly increased both VEGF mRNA and protein expression dose-dependently. The down-regulation of TLR4 transcription by siRNA treatment suppressed CSE-induced expressions of both TLR4 and VEGF. Pretreatment with ROS scavengers, specific inhibitors of each MAPK, and NF-kappaB inhibitor significantly decreased CSE-induced VEGF expression. CSE has a stimulatory effect on VEGF expression through the TLR4, ROS, MAPK, and NF-kappaB signaling pathway in nasal fibroblasts.

  13. Evaluation of HO-1 expression, cellular ROS production, cellular proliferation and cellular apoptosis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumors and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ren, Quan-Guang; Yang, Sheng-Li; Hu, Jian-Li; Li, Pin-Dong; Chen, Ye-Shan; Wang, Qiu-Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have a poor prognosis. However, the related mechanisms are unclear, thus we investigated the expression of HO-1 in ESCC tissue and explored possible mechanisms of tumor progression. Expression of HO-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 143 ESCC tumors. The correlation of HO-1 with clinicopathological characteristics was also examined. Two human ESCC cell lines, TE-13 and Eca109 were studied. Silencing of cell line HO-1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. Cell line viability, apoptosis and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after transfection were determined using MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. HO-1, Bax, Bcl-2 and A-caspase-3/-9 expression was evaluated using western blot analyses. We found that HO-1 was expressed in 58 of 143 ESCC tumors, mainly in the cytoplasm. There was a significant association between HO-1 expression and tumor grade (P<0.001). Knockdown of HO-1 expression in cell lines was associated with significantly decreased cellular proliferation (P<0.05) and a higher rate of apoptosis (P<0.001) 48 h after treatment. Treatment of the cell lines with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine abrogated this effect. Knockdown of HO-1 was associated with increased A-caspase-3 and -9 expression, but no change in Bax or Bcl-2 expression or Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was observed. Thus, the present study identified that ESCC tumors frequently expressed HO-1. Knockdown of HO-1 promoted apoptosis through activation of a ROS-mediated caspase apoptosis pathway.

  14. AGE, RAGE, and ROS in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Adeline L Y; Forbes, Josephine M; Cooper, Mark E

    2007-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Two key mechanisms implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy include advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Advanced glycation is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto amino groups of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGE modification of proteins may lead to alterations in normal function by inducing cross-linking of extracellular matrices. Intracellular formation of AGEs also can cause generalized cellular dysfunction. Furthermore, AGEs can mediate their effects via specific receptors, such as the receptor for AGE (RAGE), activating diverse signal transduction cascades and downstream pathways, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs as a result of the imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant defenses. Sources of ROS include the mitochondria, auto-oxidation of glucose, and enzymatic pathways including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NAD[P]H) oxidase. Beyond the current treatments to treat diabetic complications such as the optimization of blood pressure and glycemic control, it is predicted that new therapies designed to target AGEs, including AGE formation inhibitors and cross-link breakers, as well as targeting ROS using novel highly specific antioxidants, will become part of the treatment regimen for diabetic renal disease.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates H2O2-induced Leydig cells oxidation damage and apoptosis through inhibition of ROS production and activation of PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Wang, Dian; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is widely used as a nutritional supplement, and administration of DHEA produces a number of beneficial effects in the elderly. Many researchers have suggested that DHEA exerts it function after conversion into more biologically active hormones in peripheral target cells. The actions of DHEA in Leydig cells, a major target cell of DHEA biotransformation in males, are not clear. The present study found that DHEA increased cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde contents in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. DHEA significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, and decreased the DNA damage in H2O2-induced Leydig cells. Apoptosis was significant decreased in H2O2-induced Leydig cells after DHEA treatment. DHEA inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the upregulation of the caspase-3 protein level induced by H2O2 in Leydig cells. DHEA also reversed the decrease in PI3K and p-Akt protein levels induced by H2O2. These data showed that DHEA could ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative damage by increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activities, which resulted in reduced ROS content, and decreased apoptosis, mainly by preventing the loss of ΔΨm and inhibiting caspase-3 protein levels via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the anti-ageing effect of DHEA.

  16. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure–function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  17. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications.

  18. Chemoreception in the context of the general biology of ROS.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C; Agapito, M T; Rocher, A; Gonzalez-Martin, M C; Vega-Agapito, V; Gomez-Niño, A; Rigual, R; Castañeda, J; Obeso, A

    2007-07-01

    Superoxide anion is the most important reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily generated in cells. The main cellular constituents with capabilities to generate superoxide anion are NADPH oxidases and mitochondrial respiratory chain. The emphasis of our article is centered in critically examining hypotheses proposing that ROS generated by NADPH oxidase and mitochondria are key elements in O(2)-sensing and hypoxic responses generation in carotid body chemoreceptor cells. Available data indicate that chemoreceptor cells express a specific isoform of NADPH oxidase that is activated by hypoxia; generated ROS acting as negative modulators of the carotid body (CB) hypoxic responses. Literature is also consistent in supporting that poisoned respiratory chain can produce high amounts of ROS, making mitochondrial ROS potential triggers-modulators of the CB activation elicited by mitochondrial venoms. However, most data favour the notion that levels of hypoxia, capable of strongly activating chemoreceptor cells, would not increase the rate of ROS production in mitochondria, making mitochondrial ROS unlikely triggers of hypoxic responses in the CB. Finally, we review recent literature on heme oxygenases from two perspectives, as potential O(2)-sensors in chemoreceptor cells and as generators of bilirubin which is considered to be a ROS scavenger of major quantitative importance in mammalian cells.

  19. ROS sets the stage for macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony; Byles, Vanessa; Horng, Tiffany

    2013-08-01

    While M1 macrophages are highly pro-inflammatory and microbicidal, M2 macrophages and the related tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) regulate tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and can display immunomodulatory activity. In July issue of Cell Research, Zhang et al. show that ROS production, critical for the activation and functions of M1 macrophages, is necessary for the differentiation of M2 macrophages and TAMs, and that antioxidant therapy blocks TAM differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse models of cancer.

  20. Comparison of UVA-induced ROS and sunscreen nanoparticle-generated ROS in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cenchao; Turney, Terence W; Piva, Terrence J; Feltis, Bryce N; Wright, Paul F A

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues from free radicals induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be attenuated by sunscreen components, such as ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Although it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by cells upon exposure to ZnO and TiO2 NPs, it is unknown to what extent the amount generated is altered with UV co-exposure. As it is a critical component for determining the relative risk of these NPs when used in sunscreen formulations, we have investigated ROS generation by these NPs in human THP-1 monocyte immune cells following UVA co-exposure. Whilst the applied UVA dose (6.7 J cm(-2)) did not alter cell viability after 24 h, it induced significant ROS production - causing a 7-fold increase in intracellular peroxide and 3.3-fold increase in mitochondrial superoxide levels after 1 h. However, co-exposure to NPs and UVA generated the same or less ROS than with UVA exposure alone, with the exception of anatase TiO2, which showed significantly increased levels. These findings indicate that ROS generation from nanosunscreens is, in most cases, an insignificant contributor to the overall risk associated with oxidative stress from UVA exposure itself.

  1. High glucose upregulates BACE1-mediated Aβ production through ROS-dependent HIF-1α and LXRα/ABCA1-regulated lipid raft reorganization in SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Ryu, Jung Min; Jung, Young Hyun; Lee, Sei-Jung; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Sang Hun; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Ho Jae

    2016-11-10

    There is an accumulation of evidence indicating that the risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with diabetes mellitus, an indicator of high glucose concentrations in blood plasma. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on BACE1 expression and amyloidogenesis in vivo, and we present details of the mechanism associated with those effects. Our results, using ZLC and ZDF rat models, showed that ZDF rats have high levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ), phosphorylated tau, BACE1, and APP-C99. In vitro result with mouse hippocampal neuron and SK-N-MC, high glucose stimulated Aβ secretion and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, high glucose increased BACE1 and APP-C99 expressions, which were reversed by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Indeed, high glucose increased intracellular ROS levels and HIF-1α expression, associated with regulation of BACE1 and Liver X Receptor α (LXRα). In addition, high glucose induced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) down-regulation, was associated with LXR-induced lipid raft reorganization and BACE1 localization on the lipid raft. Furthermore, silencing of BACE1 expression was shown to regulate Aβ secretion and apoptosis of SK-N-MC. In conclusion, high glucose upregulates BACE1 expression and activity through HIF-1α and LXRα/ABCA1-regulated lipid raft reorganization, leading to Aβ production and apoptosis of SK-N-MC.

  2. High glucose upregulates BACE1-mediated Aβ production through ROS-dependent HIF-1α and LXRα/ABCA1-regulated lipid raft reorganization in SK-N-MC cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Ryu, Jung Min; Jung, Young Hyun; Lee, Sei-Jung; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Sang Hun; Hwang, In Koo; Seong, Je Kyung; Han, Ho Jae

    2016-01-01

    There is an accumulation of evidence indicating that the risk of Alzheimer’s disease is associated with diabetes mellitus, an indicator of high glucose concentrations in blood plasma. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on BACE1 expression and amyloidogenesis in vivo, and we present details of the mechanism associated with those effects. Our results, using ZLC and ZDF rat models, showed that ZDF rats have high levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ), phosphorylated tau, BACE1, and APP-C99. In vitro result with mouse hippocampal neuron and SK-N-MC, high glucose stimulated Aβ secretion and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, high glucose increased BACE1 and APP-C99 expressions, which were reversed by a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Indeed, high glucose increased intracellular ROS levels and HIF-1α expression, associated with regulation of BACE1 and Liver X Receptor α (LXRα). In addition, high glucose induced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) down-regulation, was associated with LXR-induced lipid raft reorganization and BACE1 localization on the lipid raft. Furthermore, silencing of BACE1 expression was shown to regulate Aβ secretion and apoptosis of SK-N-MC. In conclusion, high glucose upregulates BACE1 expression and activity through HIF-1α and LXRα/ABCA1-regulated lipid raft reorganization, leading to Aβ production and apoptosis of SK-N-MC. PMID:27829662

  3. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 regulates ROS homeostasis and oxidative stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alvina Grace; Doherty, Colleen J; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kay, Steve A; Schippers, Jos H M; Dijkwel, Paul P

    2012-10-16

    Organisms have evolved endogenous biological clocks as internal timekeepers to coordinate metabolic processes with the external environment. Here, we seek to understand the mechanism of synchrony between the oscillator and products of metabolism known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ROS-responsive genes exhibit a time-of-day-specific phase of expression under diurnal and circadian conditions, implying a role of the circadian clock in transcriptional regulation of these genes. Hydrogen peroxide production and scavenging also display time-of-day phases. Mutations in the core-clock regulator, CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), affect the transcriptional regulation of ROS-responsive genes, ROS homeostasis, and tolerance to oxidative stress. Mis-expression of EARLY FLOWERING 3, LUX ARRHYTHMO, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 affect ROS production and transcription, indicating a global effect of the clock on the ROS network. We propose CCA1 as a master regulator of ROS homeostasis through association with the Evening Element in promoters of ROS genes in vivo to coordinate time-dependent responses to oxidative stress. We also find that ROS functions as an input signal that affects the transcriptional output of the clock, revealing an important link between ROS signaling and circadian output. Temporal coordination of ROS signaling by CCA1 and the reciprocal control of circadian output by ROS reveal a mechanistic link that allows plants to master oxidative stress responses.

  4. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 regulates ROS homeostasis and oxidative stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Alvina Grace; Doherty, Colleen J.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Kay, Steve A.; Schippers, Jos H. M.; Dijkwel, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms have evolved endogenous biological clocks as internal timekeepers to coordinate metabolic processes with the external environment. Here, we seek to understand the mechanism of synchrony between the oscillator and products of metabolism known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Arabidopsis thaliana. ROS-responsive genes exhibit a time-of-day–specific phase of expression under diurnal and circadian conditions, implying a role of the circadian clock in transcriptional regulation of these genes. Hydrogen peroxide production and scavenging also display time-of-day phases. Mutations in the core-clock regulator, CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), affect the transcriptional regulation of ROS-responsive genes, ROS homeostasis, and tolerance to oxidative stress. Mis-expression of EARLY FLOWERING 3, LUX ARRHYTHMO, and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 affect ROS production and transcription, indicating a global effect of the clock on the ROS network. We propose CCA1 as a master regulator of ROS homeostasis through association with the Evening Element in promoters of ROS genes in vivo to coordinate time-dependent responses to oxidative stress. We also find that ROS functions as an input signal that affects the transcriptional output of the clock, revealing an important link between ROS signaling and circadian output. Temporal coordination of ROS signaling by CCA1 and the reciprocal control of circadian output by ROS reveal a mechanistic link that allows plants to master oxidative stress responses. PMID:23027948

  5. Identification of ROS using oxidized DCFDA and flow-cytometry.

    PubMed

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    Cells constantly generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during aerobic metabolism. The ROS generation plays an important protective and functional role in the immune system. The cell is armed with a powerful antioxidant defense system to combat excessive production of ROS. Oxidative stress occurs in cells when the generation of ROS overwhelms the cells' natural antioxidant defenses. ROS and the oxidative damage are thought to play an important role in many human diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, other neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Thus, establishing their precise role requires the ability to measure ROS accurately and the oxidative damage that they cause. There are many methods for measuring free radical production in cells. The most straightforward techniques use cell permeable fluorescent and chemiluminescent probes. 2'-7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) is one of the most widely used techniques for directly measuring the redox state of a cell. It has several advantages over other techniques developed. It is very easy to use, extremely sensitive to changes in the redox state of a cell, inexpensive and can be used to follow changes in ROS over time.

  6. In vivo ROS and redox potential fluorescent detection in plants: Present approaches and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Villasante, Cristina; Burén, Stefan; Barón-Sola, Ángel; Martínez, Flor; Hernández, Luis E

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are metabolic by-products in aerobic organisms including plants. Endogenously produced ROS act as cellular messengers and redox regulators involved in several plant biological processes, but excessive accumulation of ROS cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Understanding ROS signalling and stress responses requires precise imaging and quantification of local, subcellular and global ROS dynamics with high selectivity, sensitivity, and spatiotemporal resolution. Several fluorescent vital dyes have been tested so far, which helped to provide relevant spatially resolved information of oxidative stress dynamics in plants subjected to harmful environmental conditions. However, certain plant characteristics, such as high background fluorescence of plant tissues in vivo and antioxidant mechanisms, can interfere with ROS detection. The development of improved small-molecule fluorescent dyes and protein-based ROS sensors targeted to subcellular compartments will enable in vivo monitoring of ROS and redox changes in photosynthetic organisms.

  7. Differential immunotoxic effects of ethanol on murine EL-4 lymphoma and normal lymphocytes is mediated through increased ROS production and activation of p38MAPK.

    PubMed

    Premachandran, Sudha; Khan, Nazir M; Thakur, Vikas S; Shukla, Jyoti; Poduval, T B

    2012-08-01

    Ethanol has been used to achieve thymic depletion in myasthenia gravis patients. Ethanol (95%) has also been used widely in the therapy of many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma. In light of these findings, we delineated the differential immunotoxic behavior and mechanism of lower concentration of ethanol towards murine EL-4 lymphoma and its normal counterpart lymphocytes. EL-4 lymphoma and normal lymphocytes were cultured with ethanol (0%-5%) for 6 h and cytotoxicity was measured by various methods. EL-4 cells treated with ethanol showed concentration-dependent loss of viability at 2%-5% ethanol concentration and exhibit proliferative arrest at preG1 stage. Acridine-orange and ethidium-bromide staining indicated that ethanol induced death in EL-4 cells, by induction of both apoptosis and necrosis which was further supported by findings of DNA-fragmentation and trypan blue dye exclusion test. However, treatment of lymphocytes with similar concentration of ethanol did not show any death-associated parameters. Furthermore, ethanol induced significantly higher ROS generation in EL-4 cells as compared to lymphocytes and caused PARP cleavage and activation of apoptotic proteins like p53 and Bax, in EL-4 cells and not in normal lymphocytes. In addition, ethanol exposure to EL-4 cells led to phosphorylation of p38MAPK, and upregulation of death receptor Fas (CD95). Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol upto a concentration of 5% caused no significant immunotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes and induced cell death in EL-4 cells via phosphorylation of p38MAPK and regulation of p53 leading to further activation of both extrinsic (Fas) and intrinsic (Bax) apoptotic markers.

  8. Fibulin-5 blocks microenvironmental ROS in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Topalovski, Mary; Toombs, Jason E.; Wright, Christopher M.; Moore, Zachary R.; Boothman, David A.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wang, Huamin; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Castrillon, Diego H.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress is an aberration seen in many solid tumors, and exploiting this biochemical difference has the potential to enhance the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. Homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is important for normal cell function, but excessive production of ROS can result in cellular toxicity and therefore ROS levels must be balanced finely. Here, we highlight the relationship between the extracellular matrix and ROS production by reporting a novel function of the matricellular protein Fibulin-5 (Fbln5). We employed genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and found that mutation of the integrin-binding domain of Fbln5 led to decreased tumor growth, increased survival, and enhanced chemoresponse to standard PDA therapies. Through mechanistic investigations, we found that improved survival was due to increased levels of oxidative stress in Fbln5 mutant tumors. Furthermore, loss of the Fbln5-integrin interaction augmented fibronectin signaling, driving integrin-induced ROS production in a 5-lipooxygenase-dependent manner. These data indicate that Fbln5 promotes PDA progression by functioning as a molecular rheostat that modulates cell-ECM interactions to reduce ROS production and thus tip the balance in favor of tumor cell survival and treatment-refractory disease. PMID:26577699

  9. Phytohormones Signaling Pathways and ROS Involvement in Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major determinants of the regulation of development and stress responses in plants. During life cycle of these organisms, signaling networks of plant growth regulators and ROS interact in order to render an appropriate developmental and environmental response. In plant’s photosynthetic (e.g., leaves) and non-photosynthetic (e.g., seeds) tissues, enhanced and suboptimal ROS production is usually associated with stress, which in extreme cases can be lethal to cells, a whole organ or even an organism. However, controlled production of ROS is appreciated for cellular signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in plant biology and increasing number of findings that have revealed roles of ROS and hormonal signaling in germination, some questions still arise, e.g., what are the downstream protein targets modified by ROS enabling stimulus-specific cellular responses of the seed? Or which molecular regulators allow ROS/phytohormones interactions and what is their function in seed life? In this particular review the role of some transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases is discussed, especially those which usually known to be involved in ROS and hormonal signal transduction under stress in plants, may also play a role in the regulation of processes occurring in seeds. The summarized recent findings regarding particular ROS- and phytohormones-related regulatory proteins, as well as their integration, allowed to propose a novel, possible model of action of LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1, and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 functioning during seeds life. PMID:27379144

  10. Optimal ROS Signaling Is Critical for Nuclear Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Shu; Li, Yanhui; Ghebre, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P

    2016-05-03

    Efficient nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency requires activation of innate immunity. Because innate immune activation triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling, we sought to determine whether there was a role of ROS signaling in nuclear reprogramming. We examined ROS production during the reprogramming of doxycycline (dox)-inducible mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) carrying the Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc [OSKM]) into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). ROS generation was substantially increased with the onset of reprogramming. Depletion of ROS via antioxidants or Nox inhibitors substantially decreased reprogramming efficiency. Similarly, both knockdown and knockout of p22(phox)-a critical subunit of the Nox (1-4) complex-decreased reprogramming efficiency. However, excessive ROS generation using genetic and pharmacological approaches also impaired reprogramming. Overall, our data indicate that ROS signaling is activated early with nuclear reprogramming, and optimal levels of ROS signaling are essential to induce pluripotency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Beneficial Companions of Plants’ Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rachana; Singh, Samiksha; Parihar, Parul; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tripathi, Durgesh K.; Singh, Vijay P.; Chauhan, Devendra K.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc. Despite much progress, a comprehensive update of advances in the understanding of the mechanisms evoked by ROS that mediate in cell proliferation and development are fragmentry and the matter of ROS perception and the signaling cascade remains open. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this article to summarize the recent findings regarding updates made in the regulatory action of ROS at various plant developmental stages, which are still not well-known. PMID:27729914

  12. Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Magali; Beal, M Flint

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. It occurs early in disease pathogenesis and can exacerbate its progression. Several causes of oxidative stress have been determined over the years. First, mitochondria play an important role in the generation and accumulation of free radicals. In addition to mitochondria, inflammation can also induce oxidative damage, especially via microglia, and microglia are also important for Aβ clearance. In AD, both mitochondrial function and inflammatory response are affected, leading to increased ROS formation and oxidative damage to lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids. Some other sources have also been identified. From these findings, various neuroprotective strategies against ROS-mediated damages have been elaborated in AD research. This review recapitulates some of the major strategies used to prevent oxidative stress and disease progression. Outcomes from in vitro and in vivo studies using models of AD are encouraging. However, only a few clinical trials have provided positive results in terms of slowing down cognitive decline. Nonetheless, there is still hope for improved compounds that would better target pathways implicated in ROS production. In fact, facilitating the endogenous antioxidant system by modulating transcription has great promise for AD therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Reaction-Diffusion Model of ROS-Induced ROS Release in a Mitochondrial Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Aon, Miguel A.; Almas, Tabish; Cortassa, Sonia; Winslow, Raimond L.; O'Rourke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Loss of mitochondrial function is a fundamental determinant of cell injury and death. In heart cells under metabolic stress, we have previously described how the abrupt collapse or oscillation of the mitochondrial energy state is synchronized across the mitochondrial network by local interactions dependent upon reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we develop a mathematical model of ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) based on reaction-diffusion (RD-RIRR) in one- and two-dimensional mitochondrial networks. The nodes of the RD-RIRR network are comprised of models of individual mitochondria that include a mechanism of ROS-dependent oscillation based on the interplay between ROS production, transport, and scavenging; and incorporating the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and Ca2+ handling. Local mitochondrial interaction is mediated by superoxide (O2 .−) diffusion and the O2 .−-dependent activation of an inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). In a 2D network composed of 500 mitochondria, model simulations reveal ΔΨm depolarization waves similar to those observed when isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes are subjected to a localized laser-flash or antioxidant depletion. The sensitivity of the propagation rate of the depolarization wave to O2.− diffusion, production, and scavenging in the reaction-diffusion model is similar to that observed experimentally. In addition, we present novel experimental evidence, obtained in permeabilized cardiomyocytes, confirming that ΔΨm depolarization is mediated specifically by O2 .−. The present work demonstrates that the observed emergent macroscopic properties of the mitochondrial network can be reproduced in a reaction-diffusion model of RIRR. Moreover, the findings have uncovered a novel aspect of the synchronization mechanism, which is that clusters of mitochondria that are oscillating can entrain mitochondria that would otherwise display stable dynamics. The work identifies the fundamental mechanisms

  14. New insights into an old story: pollen ROS also play a role in hay fever.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Anna; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can exhibit negative and benign traits. In plants, ROS levels increase markedly during periods of environmental stress, and defense against pathogen attack. ROS form naturally as a by-product of normal oxygen metabolism, and evenly play an essential role in cell growth. The short ROS lifespan makes them ideal molecules to act in cell signaling, a role they share in both plants and animals. A particular plant organism, the pollen grain, may closely interact with human mucosa and an allergic inflammatory response often results. Pollen grain ROS represent a first, crucial signal which primes and magnifies a cascade of events in the allergic response.

  15. ROS and RNS in plant physiology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the unavoidable consequence of aerobic life. ROS is a collective term that includes both oxygen radicals, like superoxide (O 2. -) and hydroxyl (·OH) radicals, and other non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2 or (1)Δg), etc. In plants, ROS are produced in different cell compartments and are oxidizing species, particularly hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, that can produce serious damage in biological systems (oxidative stress). However, plant cells also have an array of antioxidants which, normally, can scavenge the excess oxidants produced and so avoid deleterious effects on the plant cell bio-molecules. The concept of 'oxidative stress' was re-evaluated in recent years and the term 'oxidative signalling' was created. This means that ROS production, apart from being a potentially harmful process, is also an important component of the signalling network that plants use for their development and for responding to environmental challenges. It is known that ROS play an important role regulating numerous biological processes such as growth, development, response to biotic and environmental stresses, and programmed cell death. The term reactive nitrogen species (RNS) includes radicals like nitric oxide (NO· ) and nitric dioxide (NO2.), as well as non-radicals such as nitrous acid (HNO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), among others. RNS are also produced in plants although the generating systems have still not been fully characterized. Nitric oxide (NO·) has an important function as a key signalling molecule in plant growth, development, and senescence, and RNS, like ROS, also play an important role as signalling molecules in the response to environmental (abiotic) stress. Similarly, NO· is a key mediator, in co-operation with ROS, in the defence response to pathogen attacks in plants. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to have an increasingly important role in biology and medicine.

  16. C. elegans epidermal wounding induces a mitochondrial ROS burst that promotes wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suhong; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated at wound sites and act as long-range signals in wound healing. The roles of other ROS in wound repair are little explored. Here we reveal a cytoprotective role for mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) in C. elegans skin wound healing. We show that skin wounding causes local production of mtROS superoxide at the wound site. Inhibition of mtROS levels by mitochondrial superoxide-specific antioxidants blocks actin-based wound closure, whereas elevation of mtROS promotes wound closure and enhances survival of mutant animals defective in wound healing. mtROS act downstream of wound-triggered Ca2+ influx. We find that the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter MCU-1 is essential for rapid mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and mtROS production after wounding. mtROS can promote wound closure by local inhibition of Rho GTPase activity via a redox-sensitive motif. These findings delineate a pathway acting via mtROS that promotes cytoskeletal responses in wound healing. PMID:25313960

  17. 20-HETE increases NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production and stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong; Bao, Yuyan; Li, Wei; Li, Xingting; Shen, Xin; Wang, Xu; Yao, Fanrong; O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Sun, Chengwen

    2010-01-01

    The production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is increased during ischemia-reperfusion, and inhibition of 20-HETE production has been shown to reduce infarct size caused by ischemia. This study was aimed to discover the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 20-HETE in cardiac myocytes. The effect of 20-HETE on L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) was examined in rat isolated cardiomyocytes by patch-clamp recording in the whole cell mode. Superfusion of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (10–100 nM) resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in ICa,L, and this action of 20-HETE was attenuated by a specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, gp91ds-tat (5 μM), or a superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (25 U/ml), suggesting that NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide is involved in the stimulatory action of 20-HETE on ICa,L. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (100 nM) increased both NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production by approximately twofold. To study the molecular mechanism mediating the 20-HETE-induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC activity was measured in cardiomyocytes. Incubation of the cells with 20-HETE (100 nM) significantly increased PKC activity, and pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with a selective PKC inhibitor, GF-109203 (1 μM), attenuated the 20-HETE-induced increases in ICa,L and in NADPH oxidase activity. In summary, 20-HETE stimulates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, which activates L-type Ca2+ channels via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes. 20-HETE and 20-HETE-producing enzymes could be novel targets for the treatment of cardiac ischemic diseases. PMID:20675568

  18. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis.

  19. PO2 cycling reduces diaphragm fatigue by attenuating ROS formation.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Diaz, Philip T; Chien, Michael T; Roberts, William J; Kishek, Juliana; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged muscle exposure to low PO2 conditions may cause oxidative stress resulting in severe muscular injuries. We hypothesize that PO2 cycling preconditioning, which involves brief cycles of diaphragmatic muscle exposure to a low oxygen level (40 Torr) followed by a high oxygen level (550 Torr), can reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as attenuate muscle fatigue in mouse diaphragm under low PO2. Accordingly, dihydrofluorescein (a fluorescent probe) was used to monitor muscular ROS production in real time with confocal microscopy during a lower PO2 condition. In the control group with no PO2 cycling, intracellular ROS formation did not appear during the first 15 min of the low PO2 period. However, after 20 min of low PO2, ROS levels increased significantly by ∼30% compared to baseline, and this increase continued until the end of the 30 min low PO2 condition. Conversely, muscles treated with PO2 cycling showed a complete absence of enhanced fluorescence emission throughout the entire low PO2 period. Furthermore, PO2 cycling-treated diaphragm exhibited increased fatigue resistance during prolonged low PO2 period compared to control. Thus, our data suggest that PO2 cycling mitigates diaphragm fatigue during prolonged low PO2. Although the exact mechanism for this protection remains to be elucidated, it is likely that through limiting excessive ROS levels, PO2 cycling initiates ROS-related antioxidant defenses.

  20. Testing the Oxidative Stress Hypothesis of Aging in Primate Fibroblasts: Is There a Correlation Between Species Longevity and Cellular ROS Production?

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Podlutsky, Andrej; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Sonntag, William E.; Merlin, Steven Z.; Philipp, Eva E. R.; Doyle, Kristian; Davila, Antonio; Recchia, Fabio A.; Ballabh, Praveen; Pinto, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging assessing reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress resistance in cultured fibroblasts from 13 primate species ranging in body size from 0.25 to 120 kg and in longevity from 20 to 90 years. We assessed both basal and stress-induced reactive oxygen species production in fibroblasts from five great apes (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and orangutan), four Old World monkeys (baboon, rhesus and crested black macaques, and patas monkey), three New World monkeys (common marmoset, red-bellied tamarin, and woolly monkey), and one lemur (ring-tailed lemur). Measurements of cellular MitoSox fluorescence, an indicator of mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) generation, showed an inverse correlation between longevity and steady state or metabolic stress–induced mitochondrial O2·− production, but this correlation was lost when the effects of body mass were removed, and the data were analyzed using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Fibroblasts from longer-lived primate species also exhibited superior resistance to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death than cells from shorter-living primates. After correction for body mass and lack of phylogenetic independence, this correlation, although still discernible, fell short of significance by regression analysis. Thus, increased longevity in this sample of primates is not causally associated with low cellular reactive oxygen species generation, but further studies are warranted to test the association between increased cellular resistance to oxidative stressor and primate longevity. PMID:22219516

  1. Pneumolysin induces cellular senescence by increasing ROS production and activation of MAPK/NF-κB signal pathway in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ii-Seul; Kim, Jinwook; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byung-Oh; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2017-02-20

    Senescence is an irreversible proliferation arrest that is induced by various stress stimuli including genotoxin. Pneumolysin (PLY) is a pathogenicity factor unique to Streptococcus pneumoniae that is important in pneumococcal-induced diseases such as otitis media, meningitis and pneumonia. However, the cell fate response to the toxin is mechanistically unclear. We investigated the effect of PLY on cellular senescence in BV-2 microglial cells. Exposure to PLY resulted in changes in the expression of phospho-p53, p21, p16, pRb and CDK2 and increased the number of senescence associated β-gal positive cells. PLY-treatment also increased PAI-1 expression and cell proliferation arrest in concentration- and time-dependent manners. PLY induced NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of SIRT-1, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. In addition, PLY increased the production of reactive oxygen species. Overall, the results suggest that PLY regulates microglial cellular senescence by enhancing production of reactive oxygen species, activation of MAPK and NF-κB, and phosphorylation of SIRT-1.

  2. Soybean Salt Tolerance 1 (GmST1) Reduces ROS Production, Enhances ABA Sensitivity, and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuxin; Lyle, Chimera; Jiang, Guo-liang; Penumala, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress. In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma.03g171600 gene in the current version of soybean genome sequence annotation. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma.03g171600 genomic region confirmed that GmST1 might serve as an intact gene in soybean leaf tissues. Unlike Glyma.03g171600 which was not expressed in leaves, GmST1 was strongly induced by salt treatment in the leaf tissues. By promoter analysis, a TATA box was detected to be positioned close to GmST1 start codon and a putative ABRE and a DRE cis-acting elements were identified at about 1 kb upstream of GmST1 gene. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops. PMID:27148284

  3. Puerarin ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in bovine Sertoli cells by suppressing ROS production and upregulating Hsp72 expression.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Li, Huatao; Jiang, Zhongling; Cao, Rongfeng; Gao, Shansong; Tian, Wenru

    2017-01-15

    Puerarin, a bioactive isoflavone glucoside extracted from radix Puerariae, has been proven to possess many biological activities. However, the role of puerarin in protecting bovine Sertoli cells (bSCs) under heat stress conditions remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to explore the possible protective mechanism of puerarin for primary cultured bSCs subjected to heat stress. Bovine Sertoli cells were treated with 15 μM of puerarin before they were exposed to 42 °C for 1 hour. The dose of puerarin (15 μM) was determined on the basis of cell viability. The results showed that puerarin treatment suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the oxidative damage of the bSCs subjected to heat stress, as indicated by changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde content. Moreover, puerarin treatment also suppressed the initiation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, as revealed by changes in Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic rate compared with the heat stress group. In addition, puerarin treatment increased Hsp72 expression in the bSCs with no apparent cellular cytotoxicity compared with the control group. Furthermore, increased Hsp72 was detected in the heat stress plus puerarin group compared with the heat stress group. In conclusion, puerarin attenuates heat stress-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis of bSCs by suppressing reactive oxygen species production and upregulating Hsp72 expression.

  4. SUGV baseline autonomy using ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Ethan; Sadler, Laurel; Baran, David

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the 3000+ robotic systems fielded in theater are entirely teleoperated. This constant dependence on operator control introduces several problems, including a large cognitive load on the operator and a limited ability for the operator to maintain an appropriate level of situational awareness of his surroundings. One solution to reduce the dependence on teleoperation is to develop autonomous behaviors for the robot to reduce the strain on the operator. We consider mapping and navigation to be fundamental to the development of useful field autonomy for small unmanned ground vehicles (SUGVs). To this end, we have developed baseline autonomous capabilities for our SUGV platforms, making use of the open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) software from Willow Garage, Inc. Their implementations of mapping and navigation are drawn from the most successful published academic algorithms in robotics. In this paper, we describe how we bridged our previous work with the Packbot Explorer to incorporate a new processing payload, new sensors, and the ROS system configured to perform the high-level autonomy tasks of mapping and waypoint navigation. We document our most successful parameter selection for the ROS navigation software in an indoor environment and present results of a mapping experiment.

  5. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Hisao; Fukai, Tohru; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min. Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2-pY), EC migration and proliferation at the similar extent. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or overexpression of Nox4, which produces H2O2, increases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), which is prevented by Nox2 siRNA, suggesting that Nox2 senses Nox4-derived H2O2 to promote mtROS production. Mechanistically, H2O2 increases S36 phosphorylation of p66Shc, a key mtROS regulator, which is inhibited by siNox2, but not by siNox4. Moreover, Nox2 or Nox4 knockdown or overexpression of S36 phosphorylation-defective mutant p66Shc(S36A) inhibits VEGF-induced mtROS, VEGFR2-pY, EC migration, and proliferation. In summary, Nox4-derived H2O2 in part activates Nox2 to increase mtROS via pSer36-p66Shc, thereby enhancing VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in ECs. This may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism of ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by the Nox4/Nox2/pSer36-p66Shc/mtROS axis, which drives sustained activation of angiogenesis signaling program. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Nanoparticle-based hyperthermia distinctly impacts production of ROS, expression of Ki-67, TOP2A, and TPX2, and induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Robert; Teran, Francisco J; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    So far, the therapeutic outcome of hyperthermia has shown heterogeneous responses depending on how thermal stress is applied. We studied whether extrinsic heating (EH, hot air) and intrinsic heating (magnetic heating [MH] mediated by nanoparticles) induce distinct effects on pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells). The impact of MH (100 µg magnetic nanoparticles [MNP]/mL; H=23.9 kA/m; f=410 kHz) was always superior to that of EH. The thermal effects were confirmed by the following observations: 1) decreased number of vital cells, 2) altered expression of pro-caspases, and 3) production of reactive oxygen species, and 4) altered mRNA expression of Ki-67, TOP2A, and TPX2. The MH treatment of tumor xenografts significantly (P≤0.05) reduced tumor volumes. This means that different therapeutic outcomes of hyperthermia are related to the different responses cells exert to thermal stress. In particular, intratumoral MH is a valuable tool for the treatment of pancreatic cancers.

  7. Nanoparticle-based hyperthermia distinctly impacts production of ROS, expression of Ki-67, TOP2A, and TPX2, and induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Robert; Teran, Francisco J; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Hilger, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    So far, the therapeutic outcome of hyperthermia has shown heterogeneous responses depending on how thermal stress is applied. We studied whether extrinsic heating (EH, hot air) and intrinsic heating (magnetic heating [MH] mediated by nanoparticles) induce distinct effects on pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells). The impact of MH (100 µg magnetic nanoparticles [MNP]/mL; H=23.9 kA/m; f=410 kHz) was always superior to that of EH. The thermal effects were confirmed by the following observations: 1) decreased number of vital cells, 2) altered expression of pro-caspases, and 3) production of reactive oxygen species, and 4) altered mRNA expression of Ki-67, TOP2A, and TPX2. The MH treatment of tumor xenografts significantly (P≤0.05) reduced tumor volumes. This means that different therapeutic outcomes of hyperthermia are related to the different responses cells exert to thermal stress. In particular, intratumoral MH is a valuable tool for the treatment of pancreatic cancers. PMID:28223795

  8. Diquat causes caspase-independent cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by production of ROS independently of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nisar, R; Hanson, P S; He, L; Taylor, R W; Blain, P G; Morris, C M

    2015-10-01

    Evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD), in addition to having a genetic aetiology, has an environmental component that contributes to disease onset and progression. The exact nature of any environmental agent contributing to PD is unknown in most cases. Given its similarity to paraquat, an agrochemical removed from registration in the EU for its suspected potential to cause PD, we have investigated the in vitro capacity of the related herbicide Diquat to cause PD-like cell death. Diquat showed greater toxicity towards SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and human midbrain neural cells than paraquat and also MPTP, which was independent of dopamine transporter-mediated uptake. Diquat caused cell death independently of caspase activation, potentially via RIP1 kinase, with only a minor contribution from apoptosis, which was accompanied by enhanced reactive oxygen species production in the absence of major inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. No changes in α-synuclein expression were observed following 24-h or 4-week exposure. Diquat may, therefore, kill neural tissue by programmed necrosis rather than apoptosis, reflecting the pathological changes seen following high-level exposure, although its ability to promote PD is unclear.

  9. Pre-exposure of neuroblastoma cell line to pulsed electromagnetic field prevents H2 O2 -induced ROS production by increasing MnSOD activity.

    PubMed

    Osera, Cecilia; Amadio, Marialaura; Falone, Stefano; Fassina, Lorenzo; Magenes, Giovanni; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Govoni, Stefano; Pascale, Alessia

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been linked to increased risk of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases; however, EMFs can also elicit positive effects on biological systems, and redox status seems crucially involved in EMF biological effects. This study aimed to assess whether a short and repeated pulsed EMF (PEMF) could trigger adaptive responses against an oxidative insult in a neuronal cellular model. We found that a 40 min overall (four times a week, 10 min each) pre-exposure to PEMF did not affect major physiological parameters and led to a significant increase of Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase activity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. In addition, we found PEMF-pre-exposed cells exhibited decreased reactive oxygen species production following a 30 min H2 O2 challenge, with respect to non pre-exposed cells. Our findings might provide new insights on the role played by short and repeated PEMF stimulations in the enhancement of cellular defenses against oxidative insults. Although studies in normal neuronal cells would be useful to further confirm our hypothesis, we suggest that specific PEMF treatments may have potential biological repercussions in diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of low intensity static magnetic field on FTIR spectra and ROS production in SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Emanuele; Condello, Salvatore; Currò, Monica; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Caccamo, Daniela; Magazù, Salvatore; Ientile, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    Biological effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been studied so far by experimental approaches exposing animals and cell cultures to EMFs. However, the evidence for cell toxicity induced by static magnetic field (SMF) is still uncertain. We investigated the effects produced by the exposure of human SH-SY5Y neuronal-like cells to a uniform magnetic field at intensities of 2.2 mT, which is less than the recommended public exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A decrease of membrane mitochondrial potential up to 30% was measured after 24 h of exposure to SMF in SH-SY5Y cells, and this effect was associated with reactive oxygen species production increase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that exposure to a static magnetic intensity around 2.2 mT changed the secondary structure of cellular proteins and lipid components. The vibration bands relative to the methylene group increased significantly after 4 h of exposure, whereas further exposure up to 24 h produced evident shifts of amide I and II modes and a relative increase in β-sheet contents with respect to α-helix components. Our study demonstrated that a moderate SMF causes alteration in cell homeostasis, as indicated by FTIR spectroscopy observations of changes in protein structures that are part of cell response to magnetic field exposure.

  11. Palmitic acid stimulates energy metabolism and inhibits insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells: The role of mTOR activation and mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Sánchez-Alegría, Karina; Gómez-Inclán, Cecilia; Ferrera, Patricia; Arias, Clorinda

    2017-09-15

    The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat cortical neurons and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells to demonstrate that PA blocks insulin-induced metabolic activation, inhibits the activation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt pathway and activates mTOR kinase downstream of Akt. Despite the fact that fatty acids are not normally used as a significant source of fuel by neural cells, we also found that short-term neuronal exposure to PA reduces the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, indicating that PA modifies the neuronal energy balance. Finally, inhibiting mitochondrial ROS production with mitoTEMPO prevented the deleterious effect of PA on insulin signaling. This work provides novel evidence of the mechanisms behind saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and its metabolic consequences on neuronal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of changes in lipid peroxidation, ROS production, surface structures, secondary metabolites and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under individual and combined stress of ultraviolet-B and ozone using open top chambers.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2013-08-01

    The individual and interactive effects of supplemental UV-B (sUV-B) (ambient + 7.2 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) and elevated O3 (ambient + 10 ppb) were evaluated under field conditions using open top chambers on two cultivars, Padmini and T-397 of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). Mean monthly surface level of O3 concentrations varied from 27.7 ppb to 59.0 ppb during the experimental period. Both UV-B and O03 induced the production of ROS (H2O2 and O2*-), resulting in significant damage of membranes due to lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Synthesis of secondary metabolites (flavonoids, anthocyanin, lignin and wax) was also enhanced in all the treatments, whereas biomass and yield were reduced. Alterations in frequency of stomata and wax distribution were also observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cultivar Padmini was found to be more sensitive because of higher damage of membrane vis-a-vis reduction in biomass and seed yield. However, concentrations of flavonoids, anthocyanin, lignin and wax were higher in T-397, suggesting its relative resistance against applied stress. Combined exposure of sUV-B and O3 was less harmful, as compared to their individual treatment. Among the three treatments, O3 was found to be more detrimental for overall growth and sUV-B for economic yield.

  13. ROS Generation in Peroxisomes and its Role in Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, as in most eukaryotic organisms, peroxisomes are probably the major sites of intracellular H2O2 production, as a result of their essentially oxidative type of metabolism. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that peroxisomes carry out essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The generation of the important messenger molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by animal and plant peroxisomes and the presence of catalase in these organelles has been known for many years, but the generation of superoxide radicals (O2(·(-)) ) and the occurrence of the metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase was reported for the first time in peroxisomes from plant origin. Further research showed the presence in plant peroxisomes of a complex battery of antioxidant systems apart from catalase. The evidence available of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in peroxisomes is presented, and the different antioxidant systems characterized in these organelles and their possible functions are described. Peroxisomes appear to have a ROS-mediated role in abiotic stress situations induced by the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and the xenobiotic 2,4-D, and also in the oxidative reactions of leaf senescence. The toxicity of Cd and 2,4-D has an effect on the ROS metabolism and speed of movement (dynamics) of peroxisomes. The regulation of ROS production in peroxisomes can take place by post-translational modifications of those proteins involved in their production and/or scavenging. In recent years, different studies have been carried out on the proteome of ROS metabolism in peroxisomes. Diverse evidence obtained indicates that peroxisomes are an important cellular source of different signaling molecules, including ROS, involved in distinct processes of high physiological importance, and might play an important role in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights

  14. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

  15. Redox-optimized ROS balance: a unifying hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Aon, M.A.; Cortassa, S.; O’Rourke, B.

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance depends on the both rate of single electron reduction of O2 to superoxide (O2.−) by the electron transport chain and the rate of scavenging by intracellular antioxidant pathways, considerable controversy exists regarding the conditions leading to oxidative stress in intact cells versus isolated mitochondria. Here, we postulate that mitochondria have been evolutionarily optimized to maximize energy output while keeping ROS overflow to a minimum by operating in an intermediate redox state. We show that at the extremes of reduction or oxidation of the redox couples involved in electron transport (NADH/NAD+) or ROS scavenging (NADPH/NADP+, GSH/GSSG), respectively, ROS balance is lost. This results in a net overflow of ROS that increases as one moves farther away from the optimal redox potential. At more reduced mitochondrial redox potentials, ROS production exceeds scavenging, while under more oxidizing conditions (e.g., at higher workloads) antioxidant defenses can be compromised and eventually overwhelmed. Experimental support for this hypothesis is provided in both cardiomyocytes and in isolated mitochondria from guinea pig hearts. The model reconciles, within a single framework, observations that isolated mitochondria tend to display increased oxidative stress at high reduction potentials (and high mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm), whereas intact cardiac cells can display oxidative stress either when mitochondria become more uncoupled (i.e., low ΔΨm) or when mitochondria are maximally reduced (as in ischemia or hypoxia). The continuum described by the model has the potential to account for many disparate experimental observations and also provides a rationale for graded physiological ROS signaling at redox potentials near the minimum. PMID:20175987

  16. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  17. SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: calcium and ROS.

    PubMed

    Csordás, György; Hajnóczky, György

    2009-11-01

    Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca(2+) and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function.

  18. RAGE Expression and ROS Generation in Neurons: Differentiation versus Damage

    PubMed Central

    Piras, S.; Furfaro, A. L.; Domenicotti, C.; Traverso, N.; Marinari, U. M.; Pronzato, M. A.; Nitti, M.

    2016-01-01

    RAGE is a multiligand receptor able to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), amphoterin, calgranulins, and amyloid-beta peptides, identified in many tissues and cells, including neurons. RAGE stimulation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly through the activity of NADPH oxidases. In neuronal cells, RAGE-induced ROS generation is able to favor cell survival and differentiation or to induce death through the imbalance of redox state. The dual nature of RAGE signaling in neurons depends not only on the intensity of RAGE activation but also on the ability of RAGE-bearing cells to adapt to ROS generation. In this review we highlight these aspects of RAGE signaling regulation in neuronal cells. PMID:27313835

  19. Identification of Genes in the RosR Regulon of Rhizobium etli

    PubMed Central

    Bittinger, Mark A.; Handelsman, Jo

    2000-01-01

    RosR is a determinant of nodulation competitiveness and cell surface characteristics of Rhizobium etli and has sequence similarity to a family of transcriptional repressors. To understand how RosR affects these phenotypes, we mutagenized a rosR mutant derivative of R. etli strain CE3 with a mini-Tn5 that contains a promoterless gusA gene at one end, which acts as a transcriptional reporter. Using a mass-mating technique, we introduced rosR into each mutant in trans and screened for mutants that expressed different levels of β-glucuronidase activity in the presence and absence of rosR. A screen of 18,000 mutants identified 52 insertions in genes negatively regulated by RosR and 1 insertion in a gene positively regulated by RosR. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the regions flanking the insertions suggests that RosR regulates genes of diverse function, including those involved in polysaccharide production and in carbohydrate metabolism and those in a region containing sequence similarity to virC1 and virD3 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Two of the mutants produced colonies with altered morphology and were more competitive in nodulation than was CE3ΔrosR, the rosR parent. One mutant that contained an insertion in a gene with similarity to exsH of Sinorhizobium meliloti did not nodulate the plant host Phaseolus vulgaris without rosR. These results indicate that RosR directly or indirectly influences expression of diverse genes in R. etli, some of which affect the cell surface and nodulation competitiveness. PMID:10692377

  20. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance.

  1. A Recombinant Potato virus Y Infectious Clone Tagged with the Rosea1 Visual Marker (PVY-Ros1) Facilitates the Analysis of Viral Infectivity and Allows the Production of Large Amounts of Anthocyanins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Teresa; Mohamed, Mohamed A; López-Moya, Juan-José; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to the cultivation of potato and other solanaceous plants. By inserting a cDNA coding for the Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 transcription factor into a PVY infectious clone, we created a biotechnological tool (PVY-Ros1) that allows infection by this relevant plant virus to be tracked by the naked eye with no need for complex instrumentation. Rosea1 is an MYB-type transcription factor whose expression activates the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments in a dose-specific and cell-autonomous manner. Our experiments showed that the mechanical inoculation of solanaceous plants with PVY-Ros1 induced the formation of red infection foci in inoculated tissue and solid dark red pigmentation in systemically infected tissue, which allows disease progression to be easily monitored. By using silver nanoparticles, a nanomaterial with exciting antimicrobial properties, we proved the benefits of PVY-Ros1 to analyze novel antiviral treatments in plants. PVY-Ros1 was also helpful for visually monitoring the virus transmission process by an aphid vector. Most importantly, the anthocyanin analysis of infected tobacco tissues demonstrated that PVY-Ros1 is an excellent biotechnological tool for molecular farming because it induces the accumulation of larger amounts of anthocyanins, antioxidant compounds of nutritional, pharmaceutical and industrial interest, than those that naturally accumulate in some fruits and vegetables well known for their high anthocyanin content. Hence these results support the notion that the virus-mediated expression of regulatory factors and enzymes in plants facilitates easy quick plant metabolism engineering.

  2. Altered cytotoxicity of ROS-inducing compounds by sodium pyruvate in cell culture medium depends on the location of ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Kelts, Jessica L; Cali, James J; Duellman, Sarah J; Shultz, John

    2015-01-01

    Induction of oxidative stress by drugs and other xenobiotics is an important mechanism of cytotoxicity. However, in vitro studies on the relationship between oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cultured cells is frequently complicated by the fact that cell culture medium components affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposures in ways that vary with the mode of ROS production. The objectives of this study were to first determine the mode of ROS induction by certain model compounds when they are applied to cultured cells, and then to determine how ROS induction and cytotoxicity were affected by the ROS-quenching medium component pyruvate. Three compounds, eseroline, benserazide, and pyrogallol induced H2O2 in cell culture media independent of cells. However, another compound, menadione, induced H2O2 in a manner largely dependent on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells used in this study, which is consistent with its known mechanism of inducing ROS through intracellular redox cycling. 1 mM pyruvate, as well as catalase, reduced the H2O2 in culture wells with each ROS inducer tested but it only reduced the cytotoxicity of cell-independent inducers. It reduced the cytotoxicity of benserazide and pyrogallol >10-fold and of eseroline about 2.5-fold, but had no effect on menadione cytotoxicity. From this data, it was concluded that depending on the mechanism of ROS induction, whether intra- or extracellular, a ROS-quenching medium component such as pyruvate will differentially affect the net ROS-induction and cytotoxicity of a test compound.

  3. Quantifying ROS levels using CM-H2DCFDA and HyPer.

    PubMed

    Oparka, Monika; Walczak, Jarosław; Malinska, Dominika; van Oppen, Lisanne M P E; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Koopman, Werner J H; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2016-10-15

    At low levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as signaling molecules within cells. When ROS production greatly exceeds the capacity of endogenous antioxidant systems, or antioxidant levels are reduced, ROS levels increase further. The latter is associated with induction of oxidative stress and associated signal transduction and characterized by ROS-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and/or damaging effects on biomolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins and lipids). Given the complex mechanisms involved in ROS production and removal, in combination with the lack of reporter molecules that are truly specific for a particular type of ROS, quantification of (sub)cellular ROS levels is a challenging task. In this chapter we describe two strategies to measure ROS: one approach to assess general oxidant levels using the chemical reporter CM-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate), and a second approach allowing more specific analysis of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels using protein-based sensors (HyPer and SypHer).

  4. ROS: Crucial Intermediators in the Pathogenesis of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Lan, Minghong; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) indicates the contribution of oxidative stress to IVD degeneration (IDD), giving a novel insight into the pathogenesis of IDD. ROS are crucial intermediators in the signaling network of disc cells. They regulate the matrix metabolism, proinflammatory phenotype, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence of disc cells. Oxidative stress not only reinforces matrix degradation and inflammation, but also promotes the decrease in the number of viable and functional cells in the microenvironment of IVDs. Moreover, ROS modify matrix proteins in IVDs to cause oxidative damage of disc extracellular matrix, impairing the mechanical function of IVDs. Consequently, the progression of IDD is accelerated. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy targeting oxidative stress would provide a novel perspective for IDD treatment. Various antioxidants have been proposed as effective drugs for IDD treatment. Antioxidant supplementation suppresses ROS production in disc cells to promote the matrix synthesis of disc cells and to prevent disc cells from death and senescence in vitro. However, there is not enough in vivo evidence to support the efficiency of antioxidant supplementation to retard the process of IDD. Further investigations based on in vivo and clinical studies will be required to develop effective antioxidative therapies for IDD. PMID:28392887

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    .5 h. By contrast ROS is formed rapidly within 30 min when simulants are dispersed in DI, but then the concentration either stabilizes or decreases over time. The results indicate that mechanical stress and the absence of molecular oxygen and water, which are important environmental characteristics of the lunar environment, can lead to enhanced production of ROS in general. However, compositional difference among simulants is the most important factor in governing the production of ROS. Simulants with glass content in excess of 40 wt% appear to produce as much as of order of magnitude more ROS than simulants with lower glass content.

  6. Fenretinide induces mitochondrial ROS and inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Roos; Leen, René; Tytgat, Godelieve A M; Caron, Huib N; van Kuilenburg, André B P

    2010-03-01

    Fenretinide induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondria in fenretinide-induced cytotoxicity and ROS production in six neuroblastoma cell lines. ROS induction by fenretinide was of mitochondrial origin, demonstrated by detection of superoxide with MitoSOX, the scavenging effect of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoQ and reduced ROS production in cells without a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain (Rho zero cells). In digitonin-permeabilized cells, a fenretinide concentration-dependent decrease in ATP synthesis and substrate oxidation was observed, reflecting inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was not required for ROS production. Co-incubation of fenretinide with inhibitors of different complexes of the respiratory chain suggested that fenretinide-induced ROS production occurred via complex II. The cytotoxicity of fenretinide was exerted through the generation of mitochondrial ROS and, at higher concentrations, also through inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  7. Controlled Delivery of Extracellular ROS Based on Hematoporphyrin-Incorporated Polyurethane Film for Enhanced Proliferation of Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Koo, Min-Ah; Kim, Bong-Jin; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Min Sung; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Dohyun; Nam, Ki Chang; Wang, Kangkyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

    2016-10-04

    The principle of photodynamic treatment (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizer (PS) at diseased tissues, followed by light irradiation to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In cells, a moderate increase in ROS plays an important role as signaling molecule to promote cell proliferation, whereas a severe increase of ROS causes cell damage. Previous studies have shown that low levels of ROS stimulate cell growth through PS drugs-treating PDT and non-thermal plasma treatment. However, these methods have side effects which are associated with low tissue selectivity and remaining of PS residues. To overcome such shortcomings, we designed hematoporphyrin-incorporated polyurethane (PU) film induced generation of extracellular ROS with singlet oxygen and free radicals. The film can easily control ROS production rate by regulating several parameters including light dose, PS dose. Also, its use facilitates targeted delivery of ROS to the specific lesion. Our study demonstrated that extracellular ROS could induce the formation of intracellular ROS. In vascular endothelial cells, a moderated increase in intracellular ROS also stimulated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by accurate control of optimum levels of ROS with hematoporphyrin-incorporated polymer films. This modulation of cellular growth is expected to be an effective strategy for the design of next generation PDT.

  8. Estrogen potentiates reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance to initiate carcinogenesis and promote cancer malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Gang; Li, Huizhong; Zheng, JunNian

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance plays an important role in driving carcinogenesis. ROS overproduction acts as the significant effector to increase genomic instability and transduce redox-related signal pathway. Especially, estrogen-mediated mitochondrial ROS promote the mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the damage to mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, estrogen-mediated ROS contribute to the alteration of energy metabolism and modulate several redox-sensitive proteins responsible for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. On the other hand, estrogen simultaneously performs the antioxidative beneficial functions, which protects cancer cells from the potential cytotoxic effects of estrogen-mediated ROS through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) antioxidant response. Consequently, estrogen potentiates the high ROS tolerance through increase of ROS production as well as acceleration of ROS elimination, which ultimately results in estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. However, this overdependence on antioxidant response system to resist ROS-mediated cytotoxicity also represents the "Achilles' Heel" of estrogen-mediated cancer cells. In other words, the destruction of the high ROS tolerance using antioxidant inhibitors may provide a novel and efficacious measure to selectively eliminate these cancer cells without harming normal cells. Of course, it will be necessary to define the exact situation of ROS homeostasis in the different cellular microenvironment and further decipher the mechanisms of redox regulation, which is consequently used as a new avenue to optimize the clinical therapy for estrogen-mediated cancer.

  9. Mechanical Stretch-Induced Activation of ROS/RNS Signaling in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W.; Prosser, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) occurs in striated muscle and affects Ca2+ signaling and contractile function. ROS/RNS signaling is tightly controlled, spatially compartmentalized, and source specific. Recent Advances: Here, we review the evidence that within the contracting myocyte, the trans-membrane protein NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is the primary source of ROS generated during contraction. We also review a newly characterized signaling cascade in cardiac and skeletal muscle in which the microtubule network acts as a mechanotransduction element that activates Nox2-dependent ROS generation during mechanical stretch, a pathway termed X-ROS signaling. Critical Issues: In the heart, X-ROS acts locally and affects the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) and tunes Ca2+ signaling during physiological behavior, but excessive X-ROS can promote Ca2+-dependent arrhythmias in pathology. In skeletal muscle, X-ROS sensitizes Ca2+-permeable sarcolemmal “transient receptor potential” channels, a pathway that is critical for sustaining SR load during repetitive contractions, but when in excess, it is maladaptive in diseases such as Duchenne Musclar dystrophy. Future Directions: New advances in ROS/RNS detection as well as molecular manipulation of signaling pathways will provide critical new mechanistic insights into the details of X-ROS signaling. These efforts will undoubtedly reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the numerous diseases of striated muscle in which altered mechanoactivation of ROS/RNS production has been identified. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 929–936. PMID:23971496

  10. X-ROS signalling is enhanced and graded by cyclic cardiomyocyte stretch

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Benjamin L.; Ward, Christopher W.; Lederer, W. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aims A sustained, single stretch of a cardiomyocyte activates a transient production of reactive oxygen species by membrane-located NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). This NoX2-dependent ROS (X-ROS) tunes cardiac Ca2+ signalling by reversibly sensitizing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. In contrast to static length changes, working heart cells are cyclically stretched and shortened in the living animal. Additionally, this stretch cycle is constantly varied by changes in the pre-load and heart rate. Thus, the objective of this study was (i) to characterize X-ROS signalling during stretch-shortening cycles and (ii) to evaluate how the amplitude (pre-load) and frequency (heart rate) of cell stretch affects X-ROS and Ca2+ signalling. Methods and results Single adult rat cardiomyocytes were attached to MyoTak™-coated micro-rods and stretched, while ROS production and Ca2+ signals were monitored optically. Although a sustained stretch led to only a transient burst of ROS, cyclic stretch-shortening cycles led to a steady-state elevation of ROS production. Importantly, this new redox state was graded by both the amplitude of stretch (3–15%) and cycle frequency (1–4 Hz). Elevated ROS production enhanced Ca2+ signalling sensitivity as measured by the Ca2+ spark rate. Conclusion The steady-state level of ROS production in a cardiomyocyte is graded by the amplitude and frequency of cell stretch. Thus, mechanical changes that depend on the pre-load and heart rate regulate a dynamic redox balance that tunes cellular Ca2+ signalling. PMID:23524301

  11. HIV protease inhibitors elicit volume-sensitive Cl− current in cardiac myocytes via mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wu; Baki, Lia; Yin, Jun; Zhou, Huiping; Baumgarten, Clive M.

    2010-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PI) reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV infection but cause multiple untoward effects. Because certain HIV PI evoke production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and volume-sensitive Cl− current (ICl,swell) is activated by ROS, we tested whether HIV PI stimulate ICl,swell in ventricular myocytes. Ritonavir and lopinavir elicited outwardly-rectifying Cl− currents under isosmotic conditions that were abolished by the selective ICl,swell-blocker DCPIB. In contrast, amprenavir, nelfinavir, and raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor, did not modulate ICl,swell acutely. Ritonavir also reduced action potential duration, but amprenavir did not. ICl,swell activation was attributed to ROS because ebselen, an H2O2, scavenger, suppressed ritonavir- and lopinavir-induced ICl,swell. Major ROS sources in cardiomyocytes are sarcolemmal NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. The specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin failed to block ritonavir- or lopinavir-induced currents, although it blocks ICl,swell elicited by osmotic swelling or stretch. In contrast, rotenone, a mitochondrial e− transport inhibitor, suppressed both ritonavir- and lopinavir-induced ICl,swell. ROS production was measured in HL-1 cardiomyocytes with C-H2DCFDA-AM and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with JC-1. Flow cytometry confirmed that ritonavir and lopinavir but not amprenavir, nelfinavir, or raltegravir augmented ROS production, and HIV PI-induced ROS production was suppressed by rotenone but not NADPH oxidase blockade. Moreover, ritonavir, but not amprenavir, depolarized ΔΨm. These data suggest ritonavir and lopinavir activated ICl,swell via mitochondrial ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase. ROS-dependent modulation of ICl,swell and other ion channels by HIV PI may contribute to some of their actions in heart and perhaps other tissues. PMID:20736017

  12. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Biological Activities of Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Hossain, Mohammed Kawser; Lee, Soo Bin; Kim, Kyeongseok; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Choi, Hye Yeon; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS produced by metallic NPs correlates with particle size, shape, surface area, and chemistry. ROS possess multiple functions in cellular biology, with ROS generation a key factor in metallic NP-induced toxicity, as well as modulation of cellular signaling involved in cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review, we briefly explained NP classes and their biomedical applications and describe the sources and roles of ROS in NP-related biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we also described the roles of metal NP-induced ROS generation in stem cell biology. Although the roles of ROS in metallic NP-related biological functions requires further investigation, modulation and characterization of metallic NP-induced ROS production are promising in the application of metallic NPs in the areas of regenerative medicine and medical devices. PMID:28075405

  13. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Biological Activities of Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Hossain, Mohammed Kawser; Lee, Soo Bin; Kim, Kyeongseok; Saha, Subbroto Kumar; Yang, Gwang-Mo; Choi, Hye Yeon; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2017-01-10

    Nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties that make them appropriate for various applications. The structural alteration of metallic NPs leads to different biological functions, specifically resulting in different potentials for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The amount of ROS produced by metallic NPs correlates with particle size, shape, surface area, and chemistry. ROS possess multiple functions in cellular biology, with ROS generation a key factor in metallic NP-induced toxicity, as well as modulation of cellular signaling involved in cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review, we briefly explained NP classes and their biomedical applications and describe the sources and roles of ROS in NP-related biological functions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we also described the roles of metal NP-induced ROS generation in stem cell biology. Although the roles of ROS in metallic NP-related biological functions requires further investigation, modulation and characterization of metallic NP-induced ROS production are promising in the application of metallic NPs in the areas of regenerative medicine and medical devices.

  14. Mitochondrial flashes: new insights into mitochondrial ROS signalling and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tingting; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory mitochondria undergo stochastic, intermittent bursts of superoxide production accompanied by transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reversible opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. These discrete events were named ‘superoxide flashes’ for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal involved, and ‘mitochondrial flashes’ (mitoflashes) for the entirety of the multifaceted and intertwined mitochondrial processes. In contrast to the flashless basal ROS production of ‘homeostatic ROS’ for redox regulation, bursting ROS production during mitoflashes may provide ‘signalling ROS’ at the organelle level, fulfilling distinctly different cell functions. Mounting evidence indicates that mitoflash frequency is richly regulated over a broad range, and represents a novel, universal, and ‘digital’ readout of mitochondrial functional status and of the mitochondrial stress response. An emerging view is that mitoflashes participate in vital processes including metabolism, cell differentiation, the stress response and ageing. These recent advances shed new light on the role of mitochondrial functional dynamics in health and disease. PMID:25038239

  15. Lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction against cancer cells with a high pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jingke; Shao, Yiran; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments.Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests

  16. Harnessing host ROS-generating machinery for the robust genome replication of a plant RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kiwamu; Hashimoto, Kenji; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2017-02-14

    As sessile organisms, plants have to accommodate to rapid changes in their surrounding environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into plant stress adaptations. It is established that a respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) produces ROS in response to microbe-associated molecular patterns to inhibit pathogen infection. Plant viruses are also known as causative agents of ROS induction in infected plants; however, the function of ROS in plant-virus interactions remains obscure. Here, we show that the replication of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, requires NbRBOHB-mediated ROS production. The RCNMV replication protein p27 plays a pivotal role in this process, redirecting the subcellular localization of NbRBOHB and a subgroup II calcium-dependent protein kinase of N. benthamiana (NbCDPKiso2) from the plasma membrane to the p27-containing intracellular aggregate structures. p27 also induces an intracellular ROS burst in an RBOH-dependent manner. NbCDPKiso2 was shown to be an activator of the p27-triggered ROS accumulations and to be required for RCNMV replication. Importantly, this RBOH-derived ROS is essential for robust viral RNA replication. The need for RBOH-derived ROS was demonstrated for the replication of another (+)RNA virus, brome mosaic virus, suggesting that this characteristic is true for plant (+)RNA viruses. Collectively, our findings revealed a hitherto unknown viral strategy whereby the host ROS-generating machinery is diverted for robust viral RNA replication.

  17. Harnessing host ROS-generating machinery for the robust genome replication of a plant RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have to accommodate to rapid changes in their surrounding environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into plant stress adaptations. It is established that a respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) produces ROS in response to microbe-associated molecular patterns to inhibit pathogen infection. Plant viruses are also known as causative agents of ROS induction in infected plants; however, the function of ROS in plant–virus interactions remains obscure. Here, we show that the replication of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, requires NbRBOHB-mediated ROS production. The RCNMV replication protein p27 plays a pivotal role in this process, redirecting the subcellular localization of NbRBOHB and a subgroup II calcium-dependent protein kinase of N. benthamiana (NbCDPKiso2) from the plasma membrane to the p27-containing intracellular aggregate structures. p27 also induces an intracellular ROS burst in an RBOH-dependent manner. NbCDPKiso2 was shown to be an activator of the p27-triggered ROS accumulations and to be required for RCNMV replication. Importantly, this RBOH-derived ROS is essential for robust viral RNA replication. The need for RBOH-derived ROS was demonstrated for the replication of another (+)RNA virus, brome mosaic virus, suggesting that this characteristic is true for plant (+)RNA viruses. Collectively, our findings revealed a hitherto unknown viral strategy whereby the host ROS-generating machinery is diverted for robust viral RNA replication. PMID:28154139

  18. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Kacie M.

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands

  19. LOX-1 and ROS, inseparable factors in the process of endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, V; Balzan, S

    2014-08-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1) has been identified in endothelial cells as the main receptor of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). LOX-1 is upregulated in the presence of pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes because it acts as a mediator of "endothelial dysfunction". It promotes the generation of superoxide anion (O2(-)), the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production and the increment of endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes. Recently, it was reported that OxLDL, binding to LOX-1, determined a significant increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting the involvement of signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). It is now generally accepted that ROS act indirectly on the modulation of LOX-1 expression because ROS oxidize native LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 activation per se may stimulate ROS generation. Accordingly, our findings showed that high levels of ROS can directly increase LOX-1 production in microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). It has been reported that OxLDL, usually > 20 μg protein/ml, induced apoptosis in a variety of cell types. At low concentrations (< 5 μg protein/ml) OxLDL appears to be associated with cell proliferation and low levels of ROS-induced capillary tube formation in endothelial cells. Our data and those of the literature indicate the existence of a direct control of LOX-1 by ROS. Although ROS in large amounts clearly have detrimental effects on cell biology, small amounts of ROS could have a beneficial effect, suggesting its therapeutic potential for reducing ischemic tissue.

  20. Redox-optimized ROS balance and the relationship between mitochondrial respiration and ROS.

    PubMed

    Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Aon, Miguel A

    2014-02-01

    The Redox-Optimized ROS Balance [R-ORB] hypothesis postulates that the redox environment [RE] is the main intermediary between mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species [ROS]. According to R-ORB, ROS emission levels will attain a minimum vs. RE when respiratory rate (VO2) reaches a maximum following ADP stimulation, a tenet that we test herein in isolated heart mitochondria under forward electron transport [FET]. ROS emission increased two-fold as a function of changes in the RE (~400 to ~900mV·mM) in state 4 respiration elicited by increasing glutamate/malate (G/M). In G/M energized mitochondria, ROS emission decreases two-fold for RE ~500 to ~300mV·mM in state 3 respiration at increasing ADP. Stressed mitochondria released higher ROS, that was only weakly dependent on RE under state 3. As a function of VO2, the ROS dependence on RE was strong between ~550 and ~350mV·mM, when VO2 is maximal, primarily due to changes in glutathione redox potential. A similar dependence was observed with stressed mitochondria, but over a significantly more oxidized RE and ~3-fold higher ROS emission overall, as compared with non-stressed controls. We conclude that under non-stressful conditions mitochondrial ROS efflux decreases when the RE becomes less reduced within a range in which VO2 is maximal. These results agree with the R-ORB postulate that mitochondria minimize ROS emission as they maximize VO2 and ATP synthesis. This relationship is altered quantitatively, but not qualitatively, by oxidative stress although stressed mitochondria exhibit diminished energetic performance and increased ROS release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of Basal and Stimulated ROS Levels as Predictors of Islet Potency and Function

    PubMed Central

    Armann, B.; Hanson, M. S.; Hatch, E.; Steffen, A.; Fernandez, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a luminol-based assay using intact islets, which allows for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, an index capable of characterizing metabolic and mitochondrial integrity prior to transplantation was created based on the capacity of islets to respond to high glucose and rotenone (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor) by production of ROS. To validate this assay, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense capacity were evaluated by detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), respectively. Also, flow cytometric analyses of ROS (dihydroethidine), apoptosis (Annexin V, active caspases), necrosis (Topro3), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1) were done in parallel to correlate with changes in luminol-measured ROS. ATP/ADP ratios were quantified by HPLC and the predictive value of ROS measurement on islet functional potency was correlated with capacity to reverse diabetes in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD.scid mouse model as well as in human transplant recipients. Our data demonstrate that levels of ROS in islets correlate with the percentage of apoptotic cells and their functional potency in vivo. The ROS indices following glucose and rotenone exposure are indicative of metabolic potency and mitochondrial integrity and can be used as surrogate markers to evaluate the quality of islets prior to transplantation. PMID:17227556

  2. Modeling Local X-ROS and Calcium Signaling in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Limbu, Sarita; Hoang-Trong, Tuan M; Prosser, Benjamin L; Lederer, W Jonathan; Jafri, M Saleet

    2015-11-17

    Stretching single ventricular cardiac myocytes has been shown experimentally to activate transmembrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase type 2 to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase the Ca2+ spark rate in a process called X-ROS signaling. The increase in Ca2+ spark rate is thought to be due to an increase in ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) open probability by direct oxidation of the RyR2 protein complex. In this article, a computational model is used to examine the regulation of ROS and calcium homeostasis by local, subcellular X-ROS signaling and its role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. To this end, a four-state RyR2 model was developed that includes an X-ROS-dependent RyR2 mode switch. When activated, [Ca2+]i-sensitive RyR2 open probability increases, and the Ca2+ spark rate changes in a manner consistent with experimental observations. This, to our knowledge, new model is used to study the transient effects of diastolic stretching and subsequent ROS production on RyR2 open probability, Ca2+ sparks, and the myoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) during excitation-contraction coupling. The model yields several predictions: 1) [ROS] is produced locally near the RyR2 complex during X-ROS signaling and increases by an order of magnitude more than the global ROS signal during myocyte stretching; 2) X-ROS activation just before the action potential, corresponding to ventricular filling during diastole, increases the magnitude of the Ca2+ transient; 3) during prolonged stretching, the X-ROS-induced increase in Ca2+ spark rate is transient, so that long-sustained stretching does not significantly increase sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak; and 4) when the chemical reducing capacity of the cell is decreased, activation of X-ROS signaling increases sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and contributes to global oxidative stress, thereby increases the possibility of arrhythmia. The model provides quantitative information not

  3. Mimicking lichens: incorporation of yeast strains together with sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria improves survival, growth, ROS removal, and lipid production in a stable mutualistic co-culture production platform

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tingting; Li, Chien-Ting; Butler, Kirk; ...

    2017-03-21

    a potential stable production platform that combines the metabolic capability of photoautotrophs to capture inorganic carbon with the channeling of the resulting organic carbon directly to a robust heterotroph partner for producing biofuel and other chemical precursors.« less

  4. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26635831

  5. Endogenous Cytokinin Overproduction Modulates ROS Homeostasis and Decreases Salt Stress Resistance in Arabidopsis Thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Shen, Wenzhong; Chan, Zhulong; Wu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins in plants are crucial for numerous biological processes, including seed germination, cell division and differentiation, floral initiation and adaptation to abiotic stresses. The salt stress can promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plants which are highly toxic and ultimately results in oxidative stress. However, the correlation between endogenous cytokinin production and ROS homeostasis in responding to salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of overexpressing the cytokinin biosynthetic gene AtIPT8 (adenosine phosphate-isopentenyl transferase 8) and the response of salt stress in Arabidopsis. Overproduction of cytokinins, which was resulted by the inducible overexpression of AtIPT8, significantly inhibited the primary root growth and true leaf emergence, especially under the conditions of exogenous salt, glucose and mannitol treatments. Upon cytokinin overproduction, the salt stress resistance was declined, and resulted in less survival rates and chlorophyll content. Interestingly, ROS production was obviously increased with the salt treatment, accompanied by endogenously overproduced cytokinins. The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are responsible for scavenging ROS, were also affected. Transcription profiling revealed that the differential expressions of ROS-producing and scavenging related genes, the photosynthesis-related genes and stress responsive genes were existed in transgenic plants of overproducing cytokinins. Our results suggested that broken in the homeostasis of cytokinins in plant cells could modulate the salt stress responses through a ROS-mediated regulation in Arabidopsis.

  6. Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Magali; Beal, M. Flint

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. It occurs early in disease pathogenesis and can exacerbate its progression. Several causes of oxidative stress have been determined over the years. First, mitochondria play an important role in the generation and accumulation of free radicals. In addition to mitochondria, inflammation can also induce oxidative damage, especially via microglia, and microglia are also important for Aβ clearance. In AD, both mitochondrial function and inflammatory response are affected, leading to increased ROS formation and oxidative damage to lipid, proteins and nucleic acids. Some other sources have also been identified. From these findings, various neuroprotective strategies against ROS-mediated damages have been elaborated in AD research. This review recapitulates some of the major strategies used to prevent oxidative stress and disease progression. Outcomes from in vitro and in vivo studies using models of AD are encouraging. However, only a few clinical trials have provided positive results in terms of slowing down cognitive decline. Nonetheless, there is still hope for improved compounds that would better target pathways implicated in ROS production. In fact, facilitating the endogenous antioxidant system by modulating transcription has great promise for AD therapy. PMID:21130159

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  8. Mitochondrial ROS Signaling in Organismal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, Gerald S.; Horvath, Tamas L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Generation, transformation, and utilization of organic molecules in support of cellular differentiation, growth, and maintenance are basic tenets that define life. In eukaryotes, mitochondrial oxygen consumption plays a central role in these processes. During the process of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria utilize oxygen to generate ATP from organic fuel molecules but in the process also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). While ROS have long been appreciated for their damage-promoting, detrimental effects, there is now a greater understanding of their roles as signaling molecules. Here, we review mitochondrial ROS-mediated signaling pathways with an emphasis on how they are involved in various basal and adaptive physiological responses that control organismal homeostasis. PMID:26496603

  9. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  10. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, A Y; Kushnareva, Y E; Murphy, A N; Starkov, A A

    2015-05-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66(shc) protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field.

  11. Investigation of atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxidative species (ROS): Their sources, characterization, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachari, Prasanna

    The relationships between the observed ROS concentrations in the New York City PMTACS study and various other atmospheric indicator species such as O3, HOx radicals, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC), as well as the statistical significance of any observable correlations were explored. A statistically significant moderate positive correlation between the O3 and the ROS concentrations, that indicated the local intensity of photochemistry was a moderate factor affecting the formation of particulate ROS in the daytime atmosphere, was observed. The results of the comparison between ROS and HO x concentrations indicated the existence of, at best, a weak positive correlation. The lack of a more positive correlation of the particle-bound ROS, both with ozone as well as other gas phase oxidants, showed the decoupling of the particulate matter ROS from the gas phase oxidants. The comparison of ROS concentrations with OC, EC, and SOC concentrations revealed a statistically significant relationship (P-value < 0.05) only in the case of ROS and SOC. EC and OC, in general exhibited weak, negative correlations with the observed ROS concentrations. The consistency of the positive relationships between ROS and SOC for all the periods suggested that the measured ROS was photochemically driven. The absence of any statistical relevance of primary EC and OC concentrations on the ROS concentrations suggested that primary emissions, especially from motor vehicles, were not a major source of the measured particle-bound ROS. An important objective of this work was to develop a system that could provide a stable throughput of particle-bound ROS, and characterize it in terms of particle size distribution, concentrations, and formed products, such that the results obtained could be viewed in the perspective of atmospheric processes and measurements. A ROS-bearing particle generator was developed, that could deliver known exposures of ROS. It was

  12. Surfactin inducing mitochondria-dependent ROS to activate MAPKs, NF-κB and inflammasomes in macrophages for adjuvant activity.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ping; Gao, Zhenqiu; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-12-14

    Surfactin, a natural lipopeptide, can be used both as parenteral and non-parenteral adjuvant for eliciting immune response. However, the mechanisms that confer its adjuvant properties have not been fully explored. By staining with NHS-Rhodamine B labeled surfactin and Mito-Tracker Green, we found surfactin could penetrate into macrophages to bind with mitochondria, following induce ROS that could be inhibited by mitochondria-dependent ROS inhibitor. ROS enhanced p38 MAPK and JNK expression, as well their phorsphorylation, following activated NF-κB nuclear translocation in macrophages that was obviously inhibited by mitochondria-dependent ROS inhibitor. However, inhibition of ROS production only weakened p38 MAPK and JNK expression, but not their phosphorylation in macrophages. As a result, surfaction could activate NF-κB to release TNF-α by the mitochondria-dependent ROS signalling pathway. ROS also induced macrophages apoptosis to release endogenous danger signals, following activated inflammasomes of NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF and AIM2 in vitro and only NLRP1 in vivo, as well caspase-1 and IL-1 in macrophages, which were significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS inhibitors. Collectively, surfactin as a kind of non-pathogen-associated molecular patterns, modulates host innate immunity by multiple signalling pathways, including induction of mitochondria-dependent ROS, activating MAPKs and NF-κB, and inducing cell apoptosis to realease endogenous danger signals for activation of inflammasomes.

  13. Surfactin inducing mitochondria-dependent ROS to activate MAPKs, NF-κB and inflammasomes in macrophages for adjuvant activity

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ping; Gao, Zhenqiu; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-01-01

    Surfactin, a natural lipopeptide, can be used both as parenteral and non-parenteral adjuvant for eliciting immune response. However, the mechanisms that confer its adjuvant properties have not been fully explored. By staining with NHS-Rhodamine B labeled surfactin and Mito-Tracker Green, we found surfactin could penetrate into macrophages to bind with mitochondria, following induce ROS that could be inhibited by mitochondria-dependent ROS inhibitor. ROS enhanced p38 MAPK and JNK expression, as well their phorsphorylation, following activated NF-κB nuclear translocation in macrophages that was obviously inhibited by mitochondria-dependent ROS inhibitor. However, inhibition of ROS production only weakened p38 MAPK and JNK expression, but not their phosphorylation in macrophages. As a result, surfaction could activate NF-κB to release TNF-α by the mitochondria-dependent ROS signalling pathway. ROS also induced macrophages apoptosis to release endogenous danger signals, following activated inflammasomes of NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF and AIM2 in vitro and only NLRP1 in vivo, as well caspase-1 and IL-1 in macrophages, which were significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS inhibitors. Collectively, surfactin as a kind of non-pathogen-associated molecular patterns, modulates host innate immunity by multiple signalling pathways, including induction of mitochondria-dependent ROS, activating MAPKs and NF-κB, and inducing cell apoptosis to realease endogenous danger signals for activation of inflammasomes. PMID:27966632

  14. Lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction against cancer cells with a high pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingke; Shao, Yiran; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Yingchun

    2015-04-28

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proved to damage cancer cells efficiently. ROS overproduction is thus greatly desirable for cancer therapy. To date, ROS production is generally uncontrollable and outside cells, which always bring severe side-effects in the vasculature. Since most ROS share a very short half-life and primarily react close to their site of formation, it would be more efficient if excess ROS are controllably produced inside cancer cells. Herein, we report an efficient lysosome-controlled ROS overproduction via a pH-responsive catalytic nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs), which catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to produce considerable ROS selectively inside the acidic lysosomes (pH 5.0) of cancer cells. After a further incorporation of ROS-sensitive TMB into the nanosystem (FeOx-MSNs-TMB), both a distinct cell labeling and an efficient death of breast carcinoma cells are obtained. This lysosome-controlled efficient ROS overproduction suggests promising applications in cancer treatments.

  15. Overproduction of NOX-derived ROS in AML promotes proliferation and is associated with defective oxidative stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Hole, Paul S; Zabkiewicz, Joanna; Munje, Chinmay; Newton, Zarabeth; Pearn, Lorna; White, Paul; Marquez, Nuria; Hills, Robert K; Burnett, Alan K; Tonks, Alex; Darley, Richard L

    2013-11-07

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is frequently observed in cancer and is known to strongly influence hematopoietic cell function. Here we report that extracellular ROS production is strongly elevated (mean >10-fold) in >60% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and that this increase is attributable to constitutive activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX). In contrast, overproduction of mitochondrial ROS was rarely observed. Elevated ROS was found to be associated with lowered glutathione levels and depletion of antioxidant defense proteins. We also show for the first time that the levels of ROS generated were able to strongly promote the proliferation of AML cell lines, primary AML blasts, and, to a lesser extent, normal CD34(+) cells, and that the response to ROS is limited by the activation of the oxidative stress pathway mediated though p38(MAPK). Consistent with this, we observed that p38(MAPK) responses were attenuated in patients expressing high levels of ROS. These data show that overproduction of NOX-derived ROS can promote the proliferation of AML blasts and that they also develop mechanisms to suppress the stress signaling that would normally limit this response. Together these adaptations would be predicted to confer a competitive advantage to the leukemic clone.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Sensitizes Leukemia Lymphocytes to Barasertib and Everolimus by ROS-dependent Mechanism Without Affecting the Level of ROS and Viability of Normal Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Ivanova, Donika; Lazarova, Desislava; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was: (i) to investigate the possibility of sensitizing leukemia lymphocytes to anticancer drugs using docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); (ii) to find combinations with synergistic cytotoxic effect on leukemia lymphocytes, without or with only very low cytotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes; (iii) and to clarify the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity by such combinations. The study covered 15 anticancer drugs, conventional and new-generation. Well-expressed synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed after treatment of leukemia lymphocytes (Jurkat) with DHA in combination with: barasertib, lonafarnib, everolimus, and palbociclib. We selected two synergistic combinations, DHA with everolimus or barasertib, and investigated their effects on viability of normal lymphocytes, as well as on the production of ROS and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines (leukemia and normal). At the selected concentrations, DHA, everolimus and barasertib (applied separately) were cytotoxic towards leukemia lymphocytes, but not normal lymphocytes. In leukemia cells, the cytotoxicity of combinations was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis and production of ROS. In normal lymphocytes, drugs alone and in combination with DHA did not affect the level of ROS and did not induce apoptosis. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report synergistic ROS-dependent cytotoxicity between DHA and new-generation anticancer drugs, such as everolimus and barasertib, that is cancer cell-specific (particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells Jurkat). These combinations are harmless to normal lymphocytes and do not induce abnormal production of ROS in these cells. The data suggest that DHA could be used as a supplementary component in anticancer chemotherapy, allowing therapeutic doses of everolimus and barasertib to be reduced, minimizing their side-effects.

  17. Heme-induced ROS in Trypanosoma cruzi activates CaMKII-like that triggers epimastigote proliferation. One helpful effect of ROS.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Natália Pereira de Almeida; de Souza, Cintia Fernandes; Saraiva, Francis Monique de Souza; Sultano, Pedro Elias; Dalmau, Sergio Ranto; Bruno, Roberta Eitler; Gonçalves, Renata de Lima Sales; Laranja, Gustavo Augusto Travassos; Leal, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Masuda, Claudio A; Oliveira, Marcus F; Paes, Marcia Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Heme is a ubiquitous molecule that has a number of physiological roles. The toxic effects of this molecule have been demonstrated in various models, based on both its pro-oxidant nature and through a detergent mechanism. It is estimated that about 10 mM of heme is released during blood digestion in the blood-sucking bug's midgut. The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, proliferates in the midgut of the insect vector; however, heme metabolism in trypanosomatids remains to be elucidated. Here we provide a mechanistic explanation for the proliferative effects of heme on trypanosomatids. Heme, but not other porphyrins, induced T. cruzi proliferation, and this phenomenon was accompanied by a marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in epimastigotes when monitored by ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes. Heme-induced ROS production was time- and concentration-dependent. In addition, lipid peroxidation and the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adducts with parasite proteins were increased in epimastigotes in the presence of heme. Conversely, the antioxidants urate and GSH reversed the heme-induced ROS. Urate also decreased parasite proliferation. Among several protein kinase inhibitors tested only specific inhibitors of CaMKII, KN93 and Myr-AIP, were able to abolish heme-induced ROS formation in epimastigotes leading to parasite growth impairment. Taken together, these data provide new insight into T. cruzi- insect vector interactions: heme, a molecule from the blood digestion, triggers epimastigote proliferation through a redox-sensitive signalling mechanism.

  18. Toxaphene, but not beryllium, induces human neutrophil chemotaxis and apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS): involvement of caspases and ROS in the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavastre, Valérie; Roberge, Charles J; Pelletier, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Girard, Denis

    2002-07-01

    Chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Recent data indicate that some contaminants possess proinflammatory properties by activating neutrophils, an area of research that is still poorly investigated. We have previously documented that toxaphene activates human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accelerates apoptosis by a yet unknown mechanism. In this study, we found that toxaphene induces another neutrophil function, chemotaxis. Furthermore, we found that toxaphene induces both chemotaxis and apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism, since these responses were blocked by the addition of catalase to the culture. In addition, toxaphene was found to induce the degradation of the cytoskeletal proteins gelsolin, paxillin, and vimentin during apoptosis, and this was reversed by the addition of z-VAD-FMK (caspase inhibitor) or catalase, demonstrating the importance of caspases and ROS in this process. In contrast to toxaphene, we found that beryllium does not induce superoxide production, and, this correlates with its inability to induce chemotaxis and apoptosis. We conclude that toxaphene induces chemotaxis and apoptosis via ROS and that caspases and ROS are involved in the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins.

  19. Establishing the subcellular localization of photodynamically-induced ROS using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine: A methodological proposal, with a proof-of-concept demonstration.

    PubMed

    Stockert, Juan C; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso

    2016-10-15

    The critical involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both physiological and pathological processes in cell biology makes their detection and assessment a fundamental topic in biomedical research. Established methodologies to study ROS in cell biology take advantage of oxidation reactions between the ROS and a reduced probe. After reacting the probe reveals the presence of ROS either by the appearance of colour (chromogenic reaction) or fluorescence (fluorogenic reaction). However current methodologies rarely allow for a site-specific detection of ROS production. Here we propose a colorimetric reaction driven by the oxidation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) by photodynamically-produced ROS that allows for fine detection of the ROS production site. The introduced methodology is fast, easy to implement and permits cellular resolution at the submicrometric level. Although the basic protocol is proved in a photodynamic model of ROS generation, the principle is applicable to many different scenarios of intracellular ROS production. As a consequence this proposed methodology should greatly complement other techniques aiming at establishing a precise subcellular localization of ROS generation.

  20. Achieving the Balance between ROS and Antioxidants: When to Use the Synthetic Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Poljsak, Borut; Šuput, Dušan; Milisav, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Free radical damage is linked to formation of many degenerative diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and aging. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can induce oxidative stress, leading to cell damage that can culminate in cell death. Therefore, cells have antioxidant networks to scavenge excessively produced ROS. The balance between the production and scavenging of ROS leads to homeostasis in general; however, the balance is somehow shifted towards the formation of free radicals, which results in accumulated cell damage in time. Antioxidants can attenuate the damaging effects of ROS in vitro and delay many events that contribute to cellular aging. The use of multivitamin/mineral supplements (MVMs) has grown rapidly over the past decades. Some recent studies demonstrated no effect of antioxidant therapy; sometimes the intake of antioxidants even increased mortality. Oxidative stress is damaging and beneficial for the organism, as some ROS are signaling molecules in cellular signaling pathways. Lowering the levels of oxidative stress by antioxidant supplements is not beneficial in such cases. The balance between ROS and antioxidants is optimal, as both extremes, oxidative and antioxidative stress, are damaging. Therefore, there is a need for accurate determination of individual's oxidative stress levels before prescribing the supplement antioxidants. PMID:23738047

  1. Akt mediated ROS-dependent selective targeting of mutant KRAS tumors.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to cell death. Previously, we reported the ability of a small molecule compound, C1, to induce ROS dependent autophagy associated apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells (Wong C. et al. 2010). Our ongoing investigations have unraveled a hitherto undefined novel signaling network involving hyper-phosphorylation of Akt and Akt-mediated ROS production in cancer cell lines. Interestingly, drug-induced Akt activation is selectively seen in cell lines that carry mutant KRAS; HCT116 cells that carry the V13D KRAS mutation respond favorably to C1 while HT29 cells expressing wild type KRAS are relatively resistant. Of note, not only does the compound target mutant KRAS expressing cells but also induces RAS activation as evidenced by the PAK pull down assay. Corroborating this, pharmacological inhibition as well as siRNA mediated silencing of KRAS or Akt, blocked C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony forming ability in HCT116 cells. To further confirm the involvement of KRAS, we made use of mutant KRAS transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. Notably, drug-induced ROS generation and death sensitivity was significantly higher in RWPE-1-KRAS cells than the RWPE-1-vector cells, thus confirming the results obtained with mutant KRAS colorectal carcinoma cell line. Lastly, we made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout cells (KO) where the mutant KRAS allele had been deleted, thus expressing a single wild-type KRAS allele. Exposure of the KO cells to C1 failed to induce Akt activation and mitochondrial ROS production. Taken together, results show the involvement of activated Akt in ROS-mediated selective targeting of mutant KRAS expressing tumors, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of chemotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting KRAS mutant cancers.

  2. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  3. ROS Mediated Stress Response in Illuminated Cattle Feces Derived DOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to increase theexpression of oxidative stress related genes and has been linked to acquisition of antibioticresistance (AR). ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H202), singlet oxygen e o 2), andhydroxyl radicals...

  4. ROS Mediated Stress Response in Illuminated Cattle Feces Derived DOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to increase theexpression of oxidative stress related genes and has been linked to acquisition of antibioticresistance (AR). ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H202), singlet oxygen e o 2), andhydroxyl radicals...

  5. Transferrin receptor regulates pancreatic cancer growth by modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seung Min; Hwang, Sunsook; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-11

    The transferrin receptor (TfR1) is upregulated in malignant cells and its expression is associated with cancer progression. Because of its pre-eminent role in cell proliferation, TfR1 has been an important target for the development of cancer therapy. Although TfR1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, what it carries out in these refractory cancers remains poorly understood. Here we report that TfR1 supports mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells, which is required for their tumorigenic growth. Elevated TfR1 expression in PDAC cells contributes to oxidative phosphorylation, which allows for the generation of ROS. Importantly, mitochondrial-derived ROS are essential for PDAC growth. However, exogenous iron supplement cannot rescue the defects caused by TfR1 knockdown. Moreover, we found that TfR1 expression determines PDAC cells sensitivity to oxidative stress. Together, our findings reveal that TfR1 can contribute to the mitochondrial respiration and ROS production, which have essential roles in growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits an elevated transferrin receptor (TfR1) expression in comparison with non-transformed pancreatic cells. • TfR1 is required for PDAC growth by regulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production. • TfR1 functions as a determinant of cell viability to oxidative stress in PDAC cells.

  6. Nanomedicine in the ROS-mediated pathophysiology: Applications and clinical advances.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kevin M; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in regulating normal cell physiological functions, but when produced in excess lead to the augmented pathogenesis of various diseases. Among these, ischemia reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis are particularly important. Since ROS can be counteracted by a variety of antioxidants, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been developed. However, due to the ubiquitous production of ROS in living systems, poor in vivo efficiency of these agents and lack of target specificity, the current clinical modalities to treat oxidative stress damage are limited. Advances in the developing field of nanomedicine have yielded nanoparticles that can prolong antioxidant activity, and target specificity of these agents. This article reviews recent advances in antioxidant nanoparticles and their applications to manage oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a purely physiological process in many disease conditions. However, excessive and uncontrolled production will lead to oxidative stress and further tissue damage. Advances in nanomedicine have provided many novel strategies to try to combat and counteract ROS. In this review article, the authors comprehensively highlighted the current status and future developments in using nanotechnology for providing novel therapeutic options in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise-induced ROS in heat shock proteins response.

    PubMed

    Dimauro, Ivan; Mercatelli, Neri; Caporossi, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cells have evolved multiple and sophisticated stress response mechanisms aiming to prevent macromolecular (including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) damage and to maintain or re-establish cellular homeostasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are among the most highly conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins in all organisms. Originally discovered more than 50 years ago through heat shock stress, they display multiple, remarkable roles inside and outside cells under a variety of stresses, including also oxidative stress and radiation, recognizing unfolded or misfolded proteins and facilitating their restructuring. Exercise consists in a combination of physiological stresses, such as metabolic disturbances, changes in circulating levels of hormones, increased temperature, induction of mild to severe inflammatory state, increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). As a consequence, exercise is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase in different HSPs in several tissues, which appears to be also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodeling processes related to the training regime. Among all factors involved in the exercise-related modulation of HSPs level, the ROS production in the contracting muscle or in other tissues represents one of the most attracting, but still under discussion, mechanism. Following exhaustive or damaging muscle exercise, major oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is likely involved in HSP expression, together with mechanically induced damage to muscle proteins and the inflammatory response occurring several days into the recovery period. Instead, the transient and reversible oxidation of proteins by physiological concentrations of ROS seems to be involved in the activation of stress response following non-damaging muscle exercise. This review aims to provide a critical update on the role of HSPs response in exercise-induced adaptation or damage in humans, focusing on experimental

  8. Urea-induced ROS cause endothelial dysfunction in chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    D'Apolito, Maria; Du, Xueliang; Pisanelli, Daniela; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo; Giacco, Ferdinando; Maffione, Angela Bruna; Colia, Anna Laura; Brownlee, Michael; Giardino, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathogenic events responsible for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are poorly understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that concentrations of urea associated with CRF and increased ROS production in adipocytes might also increase ROS production directly in arterial endothelial cells, causing the same pathophysiologic changes seen with hyperglycemia. Methods Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to 20 mM urea for 48 hrs. C57BL/6J wild-type mice underwent 5/6 nephrectomy or a sham operation. Randomized groups of 5/6 nephrectomized mice and their controls were also injected i.p. with a SOD/catalase mimetic (MnTBAP) for 15 days starting immediately after the final surgical procedure. Results Urea at concentrations seen in CRF induced mitochondrial ROS production in cultured HAEC. Urea-induced ROS caused the activation of endothelial pro-inflammatory pathways through the inhibition of GAPDH, including increased protein kinase C isoforms activity, increased hexosamine pathway activity, and accumulation of intracellular AGEs (advanced glycation end products). Urea-induced ROS directly inactivated the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme PGI2 synthase and also caused ER stress. Normalization of mitochondrial ROS production prevented each of these effects of urea. In uremic mice, treatment with MnTBAP prevented aortic oxidative stress, PGI2 synthase activity reduction and increased expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins TNFα, IL-6, VCAM1, Endoglin, and MCP-1. Conclusions Taken together, these data show that urea itself, at levels common in patients with CRF, causes endothelial dysfunction and activation of proatherogenic pathways. PMID:25682038

  9. ROS scavenging activity and muscle damage prevention in eccentric exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Maruhashi, Yoshinobu; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Yoshiki, Yumiko; Nakamura, Ryuichi; Okano, Akira; Nakamura, Kenichi; Tsuyama, Takeshi; Shima, Yohsuke; Tomita, Katsuro

    2007-08-01

    Depending on intensity, eccentric exercise is experimentally and clinically documented to have opposing dual effects on skeletal muscle; intense eccentric exercise damages muscle, but daily low-load eccentric exercise prevents damage. To clarify the mechanisms of this dual effect, microscopic damage and oxidative stress were studied in rat quadriceps muscle. Oxidative stress was estimated from an immunostaining of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and a measurement of muscle tissue preparations, the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intense eccentric downhill running (IEE) induced muscle damage that was, microscopically apparent 3 days later. Since AGE-positive cells and decreased ROS scavenging activity were observed earlier (on the day after IEE), cellular damage may be related to ROS production. Intense concentric uphill running (ICE) induced an immediate but transient decrease in ROS scavenging activity, which recovered within a day. Neither AGE-positive cells nor microscopic damage was observed after ICE. Since each contracting muscle fiber develops greater tension during eccentric rather than concentric exercise, the initial trigger of IEE-induced muscle damage may be damage to muscle fibers and connective tissues at the subcellular level. Daily low-load training of eccentric downhill running (LET), but not concentric uphill running, efficiently prevented muscle damage after subsequent IEE. No evident elevation of ROS scavenging activity was evident after LET. We concluded that LET prevents IEE-induced muscle damage not through elevated ROS scavenging activity, but through a suppression of initial subcellular damage that triggers subsequent ROS-producing processes, resulting in cellular delayed damage.

  10. ROS homeostasis as a prerequisite for the accomplishment of plant cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Quader, Hartmut; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging players in several biological processes. The present work investigates their potential involvement in plant cytokinesis by the application of reagents disturbing ROS homeostasis in root-tip cells of Triticum turgidum. In particular, the NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione that leads to ROS overproduction were used. The effects on cytokinetic cells were examined using light, fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. ROS imbalance had a great impact on the cytokinetic process including the following: (a) formation of atypical "phragmoplasts" incapable of guiding vesicles to the equatorial plane, (b) inhibition of the dictyosomal and/or endosomal vesicle production that provides the developing cell plates with membranous and matrix polysaccharidic material, (c) disturbance of the fusion processes between vesicles arriving on the cell plate plane, (d) disruption of endocytic vesicle production that mediates the removal of the excess membrane material from the developing cell plate, and (e) the persistence of large callose depositions in treated cell plates. Consequently, either elevated or low ROS levels in cytokinetic root-tip cells resulted in a total inhibition of cell plate assembly or the formation of aberrant cell plates, depending on the stage of the affected cytokinetic cells. The latter failed to expand towards cell cortex and hence to give rise to complete daughter cell wall. These data revealed for the first time the necessity of ROS homeostasis for accomplishment of plant cytokinesis, since it seems to be a prerequisite for almost every aspect of this process.

  11. How the mitochondrion was shaped by radical differences in substrates: what carnitine shuttles and uncoupling tell us about mitochondrial evolution in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Speijer, Dave

    2014-07-01

    As free-living organisms, alpha-proteobacteria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that diffuse into the surroundings; once constrained inside the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes, however, ROS production presented evolutionary pressures - especially because the alpha-proteobacterial symbiont made more ROS, from a variety of substrates. I previously proposed that ratios of electrons coming from FADH2 and NADH (F/N ratios) correlate with ROS production levels during respiration, glucose breakdown having a much lower F/N ratio than longer fatty acid (FA) breakdown. Evidently, higher endogenous ROS formation did not hinder eukaryotic evolution, so how were its disadvantages mitigated? I propose that the resulting selection pressures favoured the evolution of a variety of eukaryotic 'innovations': peroxisomes for FA breakdown, carnitine shuttles, the linkage of beta-oxidation to antioxidant properties, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and using mitochondrial uncoupling during beta-oxidation to reduce ROS. Recently observed relationships between peroxisomes and mitochondria further support the model.

  12. Fusobacterium nucleatum-Induced Impairment of Autophagic Flux Enhances the Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines via ROS in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yin-ping; Zhu, Pan; Fang, Yao; Zhang, Zhu-jun; Mao, Xu-hu; Li, Qian; Zeng, Dong-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) plays a critical role in gastrointestinal inflammation. However, the exact mechanism by which F. nucleatum contributes to inflammation is unclear. In the present study, it was revealed that F. nucleatum could induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco-2 colorectal) adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, ROS scavengers (NAC or Tiron) could decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines during F. nucleatum infection. In addition, we observed that autophagy is impaired in Caco-2 cells after F. nucleatum infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS induced by F. nucleatum was enhanced with either autophagy pharmacologic inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) or RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (ATG5 or ATG12) in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that F. nucleatum-induced impairment of autophagic flux enhances the expression of proinflammatory cytokines via ROS in Caco-2 Cells. PMID:27828984

  13. The antimicrobial activity of prototype modified honeys that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jonathan; Dryden, Matthew; Patton, Thomas; Brennan, James; Barrett, John

    2015-01-28

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to be a global issue in healthcare organisations. Honey has long been shown to possess wound healing and antimicrobial properties that are dependent on a number of physical and chemical properties of the honey. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a medicinal honey, Surgihoney® (SH) and two prototype modified honeys made by Apis mellifera (honeybee) against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIMB 9518). We also examined the modified honey prototypes for the ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by changing the level of production of hydrogen peroxide from the samples. Surgihoney® (SH) was compared with two modified honeys, Prototype 1 (PT1) and Prototype 2 (PT2) using a bioassay method against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Further work studied the rate of generation of ROS hydrogen peroxide from these preparations. Surgihoney® antimicrobial activity was shown to be largely due to ROS hydrogen peroxide production. By modification of Surgihoney®, two more potent honey prototypes were shown to generate between a two- and three-fold greater antibacterial activity and up to ten times greater ROS peroxide activity. Surgihoney® is a clinically available wound antiseptic dressing that shows good antimicrobial activity. Two further honey prototypes have been shown to have antimicrobial activity that is possible to be enhanced due to demonstrated increases in ROS peroxide activity.

  14. Mitochondria and Mitochondrial ROS in Cancer: Novel Targets for Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhui; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Hartwig, Werner; D'Haese, Jan G; Philippov, Pavel P; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable for energy metabolism, apoptosis regulation, and cell signaling. Mitochondria in malignant cells differ structurally and functionally from those in normal cells and participate actively in metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria in cancer cells are characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which promotes cancer development by inducing genomic instability, modifying gene expression, and participating in signaling pathways. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations caused by oxidative damage that impair the oxidative phosphorylation process will result in further mitochondrial ROS production, completing the "vicious cycle" between mitochondria, ROS, genomic instability, and cancer development. The multiple essential roles of mitochondria have been utilized for designing novel mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents. Selective drug delivery to mitochondria helps to increase specificity and reduce toxicity of these agents. In order to reduce mitochondrial ROS production, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can specifically accumulate in mitochondria by affiliating to a lipophilic penetrating cation and prevent mitochondria from oxidative damage. In consistence with the oncogenic role of ROS, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are found to be effective in cancer prevention and anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the role played by mitochondria in cancer development will help to reveal more therapeutic targets, and will help to increase the activity and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs. In this review we summarized the impact of mitochondria on cancer and gave summary about the possibilities to target mitochondria for anticancer therapies. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2570-2581, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through ROS-AKT-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash C; Singh, Ramesh; Pochampally, Radhika; Watabe, Kounosuke; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2014-12-15

    It is well known that acidic microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through a series of signaling events. First, our study indicates that NF-κB is a key factor for acidosis-induced cell invasion. Acidosis activates NF-κB without affecting STAT3 activity; knockdown of NF-κB p65 abrogates the acidosis-induced invasion activity. Next, we show that the activation of NF-κB is mediated through phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Upstream to NF-κB signaling, AKT is activated under acidic conditions. Moreover, acidosis induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be suppressed by ROS scavengers, reversing the acidosis-induced activation of AKT and NF-κB, and invasiveness. As a negative regulator of AKT, PTEN is oxidized and inactivated by the acidosis-induced ROS. Finally, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) suppresses acidosis-induced ROS production, suggesting involvement of NOX in acidosis-induced signaling cascade. Of considerable interest, acidosis-induced ROS production and activation of AKT and NF-κB can be only detected in cancer cells, but not in non-malignant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a cancer specific acidosis-induced signaling cascade in breast cancer cells, leading to cell invasion.

  16. Acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through ROS-AKT-NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Singh, Ramesh; Pochampally, Radhika; Watabe, Kounosuke; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acidic microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that acidosis promotes invasiveness of breast cancer cells through a series of signaling events. First, our study indicates that NF-κB is a key factor for acidosis-induced cell invasion. Acidosis activates NF-κB without affecting STAT3 activity; knockdown of NF-κB p65 abrogates the acidosis-induced invasion activity. Next, we show that the activation of NF-κB is mediated through phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα; and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Upstream to NF-κB signaling, AKT is activated under acidic conditions. Moreover, acidosis induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be suppressed by ROS scavengers, reversing the acidosis-induced activation of AKT and NF-κB, and invasiveness. As a negative regulator of AKT, PTEN is oxidized and inactivated by the acidosis-induced ROS. Finally, inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) suppresses acidosis-induced ROS production, suggesting involvement of NOX in acidosis-induced signaling cascade. Of considerable interest, acidosis-induced ROS production and activation of AKT and NF-κB can be only detected in cancer cells, but not in non-malignant cells. Together, these results demonstrate a cancer specific acidosis-induced signaling cascade in breast cancer cells, leading to cell invasion. PMID:25504433

  17. Peroxisomes sense and respond to environmental cues by regulating ROS and RNS signalling networks

    PubMed Central

    Sandalio, L. M.; Romero-Puertas, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peroxisomes are highly dynamic, metabolically active organelles that used to be regarded as a sink for H2O2 generated in different organelles. However, peroxisomes are now considered to have a more complex function, containing different metabolic pathways, and they are an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Over-accumulation of ROS and RNS can give rise oxidative and nitrosative stress, but when produced at low concentrations they can act as signalling molecules. Scope This review focuses on the production of ROS and RNS in peroxisomes and their regulation by antioxidants. ROS production is associated with metabolic pathways such as photorespiration and fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturbances in any of these processes can be perceived by the cell as an alarm that triggers defence responses. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that photorespiratory H2O2 can affect nuclear gene expression, regulating the response to pathogen infection and light intensity. Proteomic studies have shown that peroxisomal proteins are targets for oxidative modification, S-nitrosylation and nitration and have highlighted the importance of these modifications in regulating peroxisomal metabolism and signalling networks. The morphology, size, number and speed of movement of peroxisomes can also change in response to oxidative stress, meaning that an ROS/redox receptor is required. Information available on the production and detection of NO/RNS in peroxisomes is more limited. Peroxisomal homeostasis is critical for maintaining the cellular redox balance and is regulated by ROS, peroxisomal proteases and autophagic processes. Conclusions Peroxisomes play a key role in many aspects of plant development and acclimation to stress conditions. These organelles can sense ROS/redox changes in the cell and thus trigger rapid and specific responses to environmental cues involving changes in peroxisomal

  18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and wound healing: the functional role of ROS and emerging ROS-modulating technologies for augmentation of the healing process.

    PubMed

    Dunnill, Christopher; Patton, Thomas; Brennan, James; Barrett, John; Dryden, Matthew; Cooke, Jonathan; Leaper, David; Georgopoulos, Nikolaos T

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the orchestration of the normal wound-healing response. They act as secondary messengers to many immunocytes and non-lymphoid cells, which are involved in the repair process, and appear to be important in coordinating the recruitment of lymphoid cells to the wound site and effective tissue repair. ROS also possess the ability to regulate the formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis) at the wound site and the optimal perfusion of blood into the wound-healing area. ROS act in the host's defence through phagocytes that induce an ROS burst onto the pathogens present in wounds, leading to their destruction, and during this period, excess ROS leakage into the surrounding environment has further bacteriostatic effects. In light of these important roles of ROS in wound healing and the continued quest for therapeutic strategies to treat wounds in general and chronic wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, venous and arterial leg ulcers and pressure ulcers in particular, the manipulation of ROS represents a promising avenue for improving wound-healing responses when they are stalled. This article presents a review of the evidence supporting the critical role of ROS in wound healing and infection control at the wound site, and some of the new emerging concepts associated with ROS modulation and its potential in improving wound healing are discussed.

  19. ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase (NOX) contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C). Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C) vs. 75% in ROS-C), and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously diagnosed UC

  20. ROS homeostasis during development: an evolutionary conserved strategy.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Jos H M; Nguyen, Hung M; Lu, Dandan; Schmidt, Romy; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    The balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation is a key aspect of development in multicellular organisms. Recent studies on Arabidopsis roots revealed distinct roles for different reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these processes. Modulation of the balance between ROS in proliferating cells and elongating cells is controlled at least in part at the transcriptional level. The effect of ROS on proliferation and differentiation is not specific for plants but appears to be conserved between prokaryotic and eukaryotic life forms. The ways in which ROS is received and how it affects cellular functioning is discussed from an evolutionary point of view. The different redox-sensing mechanisms that evolved ultimately result in the activation of gene regulatory networks that control cellular fate and decision-making. This review highlights the potential common origin of ROS sensing, indicating that organisms evolved similar strategies for utilizing ROS during development, and discusses ROS as an ancient universal developmental regulator.

  1. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract.

  2. NOX2-dependent ROS is required for HDAC5 nuclear efflux and contributes to HDAC4 nuclear efflux during intense repetitive activity of fast skeletal muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yewei; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Randall, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to oxidation and nuclear efflux of class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in cardiac muscle. Here we use HDAC-GFP fusion proteins expressed in isolated adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers to study ROS mediation of HDAC localization in skeletal muscle. H2O2 causes nuclear efflux of HDAC4-GFP or HDAC5-GFP, which is blocked by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Repetitive stimulation with 100-ms trains at 50 Hz, 2/s (“50-Hz trains”) increased ROS production and caused HDAC4-GFP or HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux. During 50-Hz trains, HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux was completely blocked by NAC, but HDAC4-GFP nuclear efflux was only partially blocked by NAC and partially blocked by the calcium-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-62. Thus, during intense activity both ROS and CaMK play roles in nuclear efflux of HDAC4, but only ROS mediates HDAC5 nuclear efflux. The 10-Hz continuous stimulation did not increase the rate of ROS production and did not cause HDAC5-GFP nuclear efflux but promoted HDAC4-GFP nuclear efflux that was sensitive to KN-62 but not NAC and thus mediated by CaMK but not by ROS. Fibers from NOX2 knockout mice lacked ROS production and ROS-dependent nuclear efflux of HDAC5-GFP or HDAC4-GFP during 50-Hz trains but had unmodified Ca2+ transients. Our results demonstrate that ROS generated by NOX2 could play important roles in muscle remodeling due to intense muscle activity and that the nuclear effluxes of HDAC4 and HDAC5 are differentially regulated by Ca2+ and ROS during muscle activity. PMID:22648949

  3. The human c-ros gene (ROS) is located at chromosome region 6q16----6q22.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, L; Louie, E; Tsujimoto, Y; Balduzzi, P C; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    1986-09-01

    The human homolog, c-ros, of the transforming gene, v-ros, of the avian sarcoma virus, UR2, has been isolated from a human genomic library. A single-copy fragment from the human c-ros genomic clone has been used to map the human c-ros homolog (ROS) to human chromosome region 6q16----6q22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and chromosomal in situ hybridization. Thus, the c-ros gene joins the c-myb oncogene, which is distal to the c-ros gene on the long arm of human chromosome 6, as a candidate for involvement in chromosome 6q deletions and rearrangements seen in various malignancies.

  4. Targeting extracellular ROS signaling of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2014-04-01

    Expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX1) represents a characteristic feature of malignant cells. NOX1-derived extracellular superoxide anions are the basis for autocrine stimulation of proliferation, but also drive the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathways. This may cause the elimination of transformed cells. Tumor cells express membrane-associated catalase that efficiently protects the cells against apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling. Membrane-associated superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a co-modulatory protective role that is functionally interrelated with the protective effect mediated by catalase. Due to the co-localization of NOX1, catalase and SOD on the outer membrane of tumor cells, specific inhibition of membrane-associated SOD causes superoxide anion-dependent inhibition of catalase. This establishes a strong apoptotic signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite pathway. In parallel, it causes a drastic decrease in the concentration of proliferation-stimulating H2O2. Knowledge of the biochemical network on the surface of tumor cells should, therefore, allow development of specific novel strategies for tumor therapy, based on the specific features of tumor cell-specific extracellular ROS interactions.

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for understanding ROS function in physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Veal, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) are potentially damaging by-products of aerobic metabolism which, unchecked, can have detrimental effects on cell function. However, it is now widely accepted that, at physiological levels, certain ROS play important roles in cell signaling, acting as second messengers to regulate cell choices that contribute to the development, adaptation and survival of plants and animals. Despite important recent advances in the biochemical tools available to study redox-signaling, the molecular mechanisms underlying most of these responses remain poorly understood, particularly in multicellular organisms. As we will review here, C. elegans has emerged as a powerful animal model to elucidate these and other aspects of redox biology.

  6. ROS, Notch, and Wnt signaling pathways: crosstalk between three major regulators of cardiovascular biology.

    PubMed

    Caliceti, C; Nigro, P; Rizzo, P; Ferrari, R

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), traditionally viewed as toxic by-products that cause damage to biomolecules, now are clearly recognized as key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. The development and regulation of the cardiovascular system require orchestrated activities; Notch and Wnt/β -catenin signaling pathways are implicated in many aspects of them, including cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells survival, angiogenesis, progenitor cells recruitment and differentiation, arteriovenous specification, vascular cell migration, and cardiac remodelling. Several novel findings regarding the role of ROS in Notch and Wnt/β-catenin modulation prompted us to review their emerging function in the cardiovascular system during embryogenesis and postnatally.

  7. Astragalus polysaccharide improves cardiac function in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy through ROS-p38 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liangliang; Chen, Lanping; Wang, Jing; Deng, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an antitumor agent, but it is significantly challenged by clinical workers due to the severe and acute cardiotoxitity. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is characterized by an anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant features. In the current study, we explored the effects and specific mechanisms of APS on DOX-induced-cardiomyopathy in mouse primary myocardial cells. To explore the effect of DOX on ROS production, DHE staining and flow cytometry analysis were used in primary cardiomyocytes treated with 1 μM DOX for 24 h. MTT assay was applied to determine the effect of DOX on cell viability. The effects of DOX on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis by Hoechst staining and annexin V-PI staining, while caspase3 activity was determined using an assay kit. Two-dimensional echocardiography of rats was performed to determine left ventricular fraction and relative wall thickness. Activation of p38 and Akt was analyzed using western blot. ROS production was significantly enhanced by DOX stimulation in primary cardiomyocytes. DOX reduced rat cardiomyocytes viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DOX induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes via activation of caspase-3. Cardiac function was significantly impaired by enhanced p38 activation. APS treatment reduced DOX-induced rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis by decreasing ROS production. To conclude, APS reduced DOX-induced cell apoptosis and ROS production by reduced activation of p38 signaling pathway. PMID:26885153

  8. Astragalus polysaccharide improves cardiac function in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy through ROS-p38 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangliang; Chen, Lanping; Wang, Jing; Deng, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used as an antitumor agent, but it is significantly challenged by clinical workers due to the severe and acute cardiotoxitity. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is characterized by an anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant features. In the current study, we explored the effects and specific mechanisms of APS on DOX-induced-cardiomyopathy in mouse primary myocardial cells. To explore the effect of DOX on ROS production, DHE staining and flow cytometry analysis were used in primary cardiomyocytes treated with 1 μM DOX for 24 h. MTT assay was applied to determine the effect of DOX on cell viability. The effects of DOX on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis by Hoechst staining and annexin V-PI staining, while caspase3 activity was determined using an assay kit. Two-dimensional echocardiography of rats was performed to determine left ventricular fraction and relative wall thickness. Activation of p38 and Akt was analyzed using western blot. ROS production was significantly enhanced by DOX stimulation in primary cardiomyocytes. DOX reduced rat cardiomyocytes viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DOX induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes via activation of caspase-3. Cardiac function was significantly impaired by enhanced p38 activation. APS treatment reduced DOX-induced rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis by decreasing ROS production. To conclude, APS reduced DOX-induced cell apoptosis and ROS production by reduced activation of p38 signaling pathway.

  9. Resveratrol inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy by regulating AMPK/NOX4/ROS pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Xiong, Jiachuan; Nie, Ling; Yu, Yanlin; Guan, Xu; Xu, Xinli; Xiao, Tangli; Yang, Ke; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Daohai; Huang, Yunjian; Zhang, Jingbo; Wang, Junping; Sharma, Kumar; Zhao, Jinghong

    2016-12-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a major pathologic feature of diabetic nephropathy, while the pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions of diabetic renal interstitial fibrosis are not well established. In this study, we first demonstrated that high glucose could induce renal fibroblast (NRK-49F) cell proliferation and activation to myofibroblasts, accompanied by a significant increase in the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). ROS-mediated ERK1/2 activation was found to play a crucial role in high glucose-induced fibroblast proliferation and activation. Resveratrol, like the NOX4-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA), markedly inhibited high glucose-induced fibroblast proliferation and activation by reducing NOX4-derived ROS production. It was then revealed that the increase in the expression of NOX4 induced by high glucose was due to the inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which could be reversed by resveratrol. Further in vivo investigation demonstrated that resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated renal fibrosis in db/db mice, accompanied by an evident increase in phospho-AMPK and decrease in NOX4. In summary, our results suggest that high glucose can directly promote renal fibroblasts proliferation and activation in a ROS-dependent manner, and resveratrol is a potential therapeutic agent against diabetic renal fibrosis via regulation of AMPK/NOX4/ROS signaling.

  10. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Davalli, Pierpaola; Mitic, Tijana; Caporali, Andrea; Lauriola, Angela; D'Arca, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS). Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging. PMID:27247702

  11. Sublethal vancomycin-induced ROS mediating antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-qiu; Quan, Feng; Qu, Ting; Lu, Juan; Chen, Shu-lan; Cui, Lan-ying; Guo, Da-wen; Wang, Yong-chen

    2015-09-30

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of many human infectious diseases. Besides infectious dangers, S. aureus is well-known for the quickly developed drug resistance. Although great efforts have been made, mechanisms underlying the antibiotic effects of S. aureus are still not well clarified. Recently, reports have shown that oxidative stress connects with bactericidal antibiotics [Dwyer et al. (2009) Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 12: , 482-489]. Based on this point, we demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by sublethal vancomycin may be partly responsible for the antibiotic resistance in heterogeneous vancomycin resistant S. aureus (hVRSA). Sublethal vancomycin treatment may induce protective ROS productions in hVRSA, whereas reduction in ROS level in hVRSA strains may increase their vancomycin susceptibility. Moreover, low dose of ROS in VSSA (vancomycin susceptible S. aureus) strains may promote their survival under vancomycin conditions. Our findings reveal that modest ROS generation may be protective for vancomycin resistance in hVRSA. These results recover novel insights into the relationship between oxidative stress and bacterial resistance, which has important applications for further use of antibiotics and development of therapeutics strategies for hVRSA.

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived ROS and the regulation of pulmonary vessel tone

    PubMed Central

    Frazziano, G.; Champion, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary vessel constriction results from an imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor factors released by the endothelium including nitric oxide, endothelin, prostanoids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, generated by a variety of enzymatic sources (such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, a.k.a. Nox), appear to play a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, whereas elevated levels effect vascular disease. The pulmonary circulation is very sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and differs from the systemic circulation in its response to this change. In fact, the pulmonary vessels contract in response to low oxygen tension, whereas systemic vessels dilate. Growing evidence suggests that ROS production and ROS-related pathways may be key factors that underlie this differential response to oxygen tension. A major emphasis of our laboratory is the role of Nox isozymes in cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will focus our attention on the role of Nox-derived ROS in the control of pulmonary vascular tone. PMID:22427511

  13. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Davalli, Pierpaola; Mitic, Tijana; Caporali, Andrea; Lauriola, Angela; D'Arca, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS). Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  14. Alternative oxidase impacts ganoderic acid biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Deng-Ke; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Li; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-09-13

    The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT. The content of ganoderic acid (GA) in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 showed significant increases of approximately 42 and 44 %, respectively, compared to WT. Elevated contents of intermediate metabolites in GA biosynthesis and elevated transcription levels of corresponding genes were also observed in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21. In addition, the intracellular ROS content in strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 was significantly increased, by approximately 1.75- and 1.93-fold, respectively, compared with WT. Furthermore, adding N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly depressed the intracellular ROS content and GA accumulation in AOX-silenced strains. These results indicate that AOX affects GA biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels. Our research revealed the important role of AOX in the secondary metabolism of G. lucidum.

  15. Mitochondrial ROS and cancer drug resistance: Implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Okon, Imoh S; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Under physiological conditions, a well-coordinated and balanced redox system exists to ensure that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are appropriately utilized to accomplish specific functions, such as signaling and protein regulation. The influence of ROS within malignant cells, whether for good or bad may depend on several factors, such as tumor and tissue type, disease stage, treatment strategy, as well as duration, specificity and levels of ROS. What then are the known roles of ROS in cancer? Firstly, ROS significantly impacts cancer phenotypes. Secondly, the oxidative ROS property responsible for killing cancer cells, also impact secondary signaling networks. Thirdly, a strong correlation exist between ROS and genetic instability which may promote mutations. Finally, emerging observations suggest a role for mitochondrial ROS in cancer drug resistance, with implications for therapy. The mitochondria is a key regulator of metabolic-redox (meta-redox) alterations within cancer cells. Like a double-edged sword, mitochondrial ROS perturbations in cancer therapy may be beneficial or detrimental. However, harnessing ROS-specific cancer-targeting benefits remain a major challenge.

  16. Nanomedicine in the ROS-Mediated Pathophysiology: Applications and Clinical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin M.; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in regulating normal cell physiological functions, but when produced in excess lead to the augmented pathogenesis of various diseases. Among these ischemia reperfusion injury, Alzheimer’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, are particularly important. Since ROS can be counteracted by a variety of antioxidants, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been developed. However, due to the ubiquitous production of ROS in living systems, poor in vivo efficiency of these agents and lack of target specificity, the current clinical modalities to treat oxidative stress damage are limited. Advances in the developing field of nanomedicine have yielded nanoparticles that can prolong antioxidant activity, and target specificity of these agents. Thus, catalytic antioxidants such as recombinant superoxide dismutase (SOD), in combination with platinum and cerium oxide nanoparticles manifest higher efficacy at smaller doses with potentially lower toxicity. This article reviews recent advances in antioxidant nanoparticles and their applications to manage oxidative stress-mediated diseases. PMID:26255114

  17. ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangwei; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Jing, Ji; Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T; Pandita, Raj K; Charaka, Vijaya K; Pandita, Tej K; Kastan, Michael B; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-10-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy.

  18. Involvement of ROS in Curcumin-induced Autophagic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Ju; Kim, Nam-Yi; Suh, Young-Ah; Lee, Chuhee

    2011-02-01

    Many anticancer agents as well as ionizing radiation have been shown to induce autophagy which is originally described as a protein recycling process and recently reported to play a crucial role in various disorders. In HCT116 human colon cancer cells, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, markedly induced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II and degradation of sequestome-1 (SQSTM1) which is a marker of autophagosome degradation. Moreover, we found that curcumin caused GFP-LC3 formation puncta, a marker of autophagosome, and decrease of GFP-LC3 and SQSTM1 protein level in GFP-LC3 expressing HCT116 cells. It was further confirmed that treatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide induced increase of LC3 conversion and decrease of GFP-LC3 and SQSTM1 levels, but these changes by curcumin were almost completely blocked in the presence of antioxidant, N-acetylcystein (NAC), indicating that curcumin leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in autophagosome development and autolysosomal degradation. In parallel with NAC, SQSTM1 degradation was also diminished by bafilomycin A, a potent inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and cell viability assay was further confirmed that cucurmin-induced cell death was partially blocked by bafilomycin A as well as NAC. We also observed that NAC abolished curcumin-induced activation of extracelluar signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), but not Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK seemed to have no effect on the curcumin-induced autophagy, since both the conversion of LC3 protein and SQSTM1 degradation by curcumin was not changed in the presence of NAC. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin induced ROS production, which resulted in autophagic activation and concomitant cell death in HCT116 human colon cancer cell

  19. Involvement of ROS in Curcumin-induced Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ju; Kim, Nam-Yi; Suh, Young-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Many anticancer agents as well as ionizing radiation have been shown to induce autophagy which is originally described as a protein recycling process and recently reported to play a crucial role in various disorders. In HCT116 human colon cancer cells, we found that curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, markedly induced the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II and degradation of sequestome-1 (SQSTM1) which is a marker of autophagosome degradation. Moreover, we found that curcumin caused GFP-LC3 formation puncta, a marker of autophagosome, and decrease of GFP-LC3 and SQSTM1 protein level in GFP-LC3 expressing HCT116 cells. It was further confirmed that treatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide induced increase of LC3 conversion and decrease of GFP-LC3 and SQSTM1 levels, but these changes by curcumin were almost completely blocked in the presence of antioxidant, N-acetylcystein (NAC), indicating that curcumin leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which results in autophagosome development and autolysosomal degradation. In parallel with NAC, SQSTM1 degradation was also diminished by bafilomycin A, a potent inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and cell viability assay was further confirmed that cucurmin-induced cell death was partially blocked by bafilomycin A as well as NAC. We also observed that NAC abolished curcumin-induced activation of extracelluar signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), but not Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK seemed to have no effect on the curcumin-induced autophagy, since both the conversion of LC3 protein and SQSTM1 degradation by curcumin was not changed in the presence of NAC. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin induced ROS production, which resulted in autophagic activation and concomitant cell death in HCT116 human colon cancer cell

  20. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D; Hiscock, Simon J; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered "receptive" to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility.

  1. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D.; Hiscock, Simon J.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered “receptive” to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  2. Flavone inhibits migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Ma, Long; Yang, Bingwu; Zheng, Zhaodi; Chai, Rongfei; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhaojun; Song, Taiyu; Li, Fenglin; Li, Guorong

    2016-05-01

    Tumor suppressor protein deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is a RhoGTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) and inhibits cancer cell migration by inactivating downstream target protein RhoA. A few studies have reported the regulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on RhoGAP. In this study, we investigated flavone (the core structure of flavonoids)-induced regulation on ROS generation and DLC1/RhoA pathway in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and explored whether flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 is mediated by ROS. Our results showed that flavone decreased ROS production and inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway. To further investigate the role of ROS in flavone-induced regulation on DLC1/RhoA pathway, hydrogen peroxide was added to restore the ROS levels. Flavone-induced upregulation of DLC1 expression, downregulation of RhoA activity, and inhibition of cell migration were all restrained by hydrogen peroxide. We also found that flavone increased DLC1 stability by inhibiting DLC1 protein degradation in breast cancer cells. In summary, our study demonstrated that flavone inhibited cell migration through DLC1/RhoA pathway by decreasing ROS generation and suppressed DLC1 degradation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

  3. C-Peptide Activates AMPKα and Prevents ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission and Endothelial Apoptosis in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Mahendra Prasad; Lim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Vasculopathy is a major complication of diabetes; however, molecular mechanisms mediating the development of vasculopathy and potential strategies for prevention have not been identified. We have previously reported that C-peptide prevents diabetic vasculopathy by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated endothelial apoptosis. To gain further insight into ROS-dependent mechanism of diabetic vasculopathy and its prevention, we studied high glucose–induced cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS production and its effect on altered mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. For the therapeutic strategy, we investigated the vasoprotective mechanism of C-peptide against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial damage through the AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) pathway using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and aorta of diabetic mice. High glucose (33 mmol/L) increased intracellular ROS through a mechanism involving interregulation between cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation. C-peptide (1 nmol/L) activation of AMPKα inhibited high glucose–induced ROS generation, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and endothelial cell apoptosis. Additionally, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside and the antihyperglycemic drug metformin mimicked protective effects of C-peptide. C-peptide replacement therapy normalized hyperglycemia-induced AMPKα dephosphorylation, ROS generation, and mitochondrial disorganization in aorta of diabetic mice. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which C-peptide activates AMPKα and protects against hyperglycemia-induced vasculopathy. PMID:23884890

  4. Oestrous sheep serum balances ROS levels to supply in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo, E; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Garde, J J; Fernández-Santos, M R

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are fundamental for intracellular signalling. In spermatozoa, they are involved both to apoptosis and to capacitation, and changes in ROS levels can alter the balance between these two processes. Oestrous sheep serum (OSS) is considered an efficient agent for in vitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the effects of OSS on ram sperm physiology, especially on ROS production, during in vitro capacitation. Semen samples from 15 rams were cryopreserved. After thawing, samples were submitted to four treatments: control (CTL), 10% OSS supplementation for in vitro sperm capacitation, caspase inhibitor (INH, Z-VAD-FMK 100 μM) and OSS (10%) plus caspase inhibitor (I + E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30 min at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 and evaluated motility and kinetic parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and viability (propidium iodide), apoptotic-like membrane changes (YO-PRO-1), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC), intracellular calcium (FLUO-3), membrane fluidity (M540) and ROS production (CM-H2 DCFDA) by flow cytometry. OSS induced changes in kinetic parameters compatible with capacitation, with a decrease in the percentage of progressive motility and linearity, and an increase in the amplitude of the lateral displacement of the sperm head (p < .05). Moreover, OSS increased the proportion of M540+ viable spermatozoa, YO-PRO-1+ and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (p < .05). After incubation, OSS and I+E achieved lower ROS levels (p < .05). Ca(2+) levels did not change with the incubation, but were slightly higher (p < .05) when both OSS and the inhibitor were present. We suggest that OSS may modulate ROS levels, allowing intracellular signalling for capacitation to occur while preventing higher levels that could trigger apoptosis.

  5. Role of Nox4 and p67phox subunit of Nox2 in ROS production in response to increased tubular flow in the mTAL of Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zheleznova, Nadezhda N.; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Nox4 and Nox2 are the most abundant NADPH oxidases (Nox) in the kidney and have been shown to contribute to hypertension, renal oxidative stress, and injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rats. The present study focused on the role of Nox4 and p67phox/Nox2 in the generation of H2O2 and O2·− in the renal medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (mTAL) of SS rats in response to increasing luminal flow (from 5 to 20 nl/min). Nox4 and p67phox/Nox2 genes were found to be expressed in the mTAL of SS rats. Responses of SS rats were compared with those of SS rats with knockout of Nox4 (SSNox4−/−) or functional mutation of p67phox (SSp67phox−/−). Nox4 was the dominant source of increased intracellular H2O2 production in response to increased luminal flow as determined using the fluorescent dye peroxyfluor 6-AM (PF6-AM). The rate of mitochondrial H2O2 production [as determined by mitochondria peroxy yellow 1 (mitoPY1)] was also significantly reduced in SSNox4−/− compared with SS rats, but not in SSp67phox−/− rats. In contrast, intracellular superoxide (O2·−) production (the ratio of ethidium to dihydroethidium) in the mTAL of SSNox4−/− rats was nearly identical to that of SS rats in response to luminal flow, indicating that Nox4 made no measurable contribution. mTAL O2·− production was reduced in SSp67phox−/− compared with SS rats at the lower luminal flow of 5 nl/min and progressively increased when perfusion was changed to 20 nl/min. We conclude that increased mTAL luminal flow results in increases in intracellular and mitochondrial H2O2, which are dependent on the presence of Nox4, and that p67phox/Nox2 accounts solely for increases in O2·− production. PMID:27279484

  6. Hydrogen sulfide toxicity inhibits primary root growth through the ROS-NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, Qiong; Wang, Ruling; Xu, Jin

    2017-04-13

    High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are toxic to plants and inhibit their growth. Previous research indicated that high concentrations of H2S modulate the root system architecture (RSA) by affecting auxin transport; however, the signaling pathway underlying this process remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, on primary root (PR) growth in Arabidopsis using pharmacological, physiological, and genetic approaches. H2S toxicity repressed PR growth by triggering a signal transduction pathway involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) activation, and nitric oxide (NO) production. Respiratory burst oxidase homolog mutants and an NO synthase mutant were less sensitive to NaHS, suggesting that both ROS and NO mediate the inhibitory effects of H2S on PR growth. We found that exogenous H2S-activated ROS production was required for NO generation and that MPK6 mediated H2S-induced NO production. MPK6 was shown to function downstream of ROS and upstream of NO. Finally, we demonstrated that exogenous H2S repressed the distribution of auxin and reduced the meristematic cell division potential in root tips, and NO was involved in this process.

  7. Aluminium-induced excessive ROS causes cellular damage and metabolic shifts in black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    PubMed

    Chowra, Umakanta; Yanase, Emiko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium-induced oxidative damage caused by excessive ROS production was evaluated in black gram pulse crop. Black gram plants were treated with different aluminium (Al(3+)) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM with pH 4.7) and further the effects of Al(3+) were characterised by means of root growth inhibition, histochemical assay, ROS content analysis, protein carbonylation quantification and (1)H-NMR analysis. The results showed that aluminium induces excessive ROS production which leads to cellular damage, root injury, stunt root growth and other metabolic shifts. In black gram, Al(3+) induces cellular damage at the earliest stage of stress which was characterised from histochemical analysis. From this study, it was observed that prolonged stress can activate certain aluminium detoxification defence mechanism. Probably excessive ROS triggers such defence mechanism in black gram. Al(3+) can induce excessive ROS initially in the root region then transported to other parts of the plant. As much as the Al(3+) concentration increases, the rate of cellular injury and ROS production also increases. But after 72 h of stress, plants showed a lowered ROS level and cellular damage which indicates the upregulation of defensive mechanisms. Metabolic shift analysis also showed that the black gram plant under stress has less metabolic content after 24 h of treatment, but gradually, it was increased after 72 h of treatment. It was assumed that ROS played the most important role as a signalling molecule for aluminium stress in black gram.

  8. Cysteines under ROS attack in plants: a proteomics view.

    PubMed

    Akter, Salma; Huang, Jingjing; Waszczak, Cezary; Jacques, Silke; Gevaert, Kris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of their metabolism and in response to various external stress factors, potentially causing significant damage to biomolecules and cell structures. During the course of evolution, plants have adapted to ROS toxicity, and use ROS as signalling messengers that activate defence responses. Cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins are one of the most sensitive targets for ROS-mediated post-translational modifications, and they have become key residues for ROS signalling studies. The reactivity of Cys residues towards ROS, and their ability to react to different oxidation states, allow them to appear at the crossroads of highly dynamic oxidative events. As such, a redox-active cysteine can be present as S-glutathionylated (-SSG), disulfide bonded (S-S), sulfenylated (-SOH), sulfinylated (-SO2H), and sulfonylated (-SO3H). The sulfenic acid (-SOH) form has been considered as part of ROS-sensing pathways, as it leads to further modifications which affect protein structure and function. Redox proteomic studies are required to understand how and why cysteines undergo oxidative post-translational modifications and to identify the ROS-sensor proteins. Here, we update current knowledge of cysteine reactivity with ROS. Further, we give an overview of proteomic techniques that have been applied to identify different redox-modified cysteines in plants. There is a particular focus on the identification of sulfenylated proteins, which have the potential to be involved in plant signal transduction.

  9. Heme-Induced ROS in Trypanosoma Cruzi Activates CaMKII-Like That Triggers Epimastigote Proliferation. One Helpful Effect of ROS

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Natália Pereira de Almeida; de Souza, Cintia Fernandes; Saraiva, Francis Monique de Souza; Sultano, Pedro Elias; Dalmau, Sergio Ranto; Bruno, Roberta Eitler; de Lima Sales Gonçalves, Renata; Laranja, Gustavo Augusto Travassos; Leal, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Masuda, Claudio A.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Paes, Marcia Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Heme is a ubiquitous molecule that has a number of physiological roles. The toxic effects of this molecule have been demonstrated in various models, based on both its pro-oxidant nature and through a detergent mechanism. It is estimated that about 10 mM of heme is released during blood digestion in the blood-sucking bug's midgut. The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, proliferates in the midgut of the insect vector; however, heme metabolism in trypanosomatids remains to be elucidated. Here we provide a mechanistic explanation for the proliferative effects of heme on trypanosomatids. Heme, but not other porphyrins, induced T. cruzi proliferation, and this phenomenon was accompanied by a marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in epimastigotes when monitored by ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes. Heme-induced ROS production was time-and concentration-dependent. In addition, lipid peroxidation and the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adducts with parasite proteins were increased in epimastigotes in the presence of heme. Conversely, the antioxidants urate and GSH reversed the heme-induced ROS. Urate also decreased parasite proliferation. Among several protein kinase inhibitors tested only specific inhibitors of CaMKII, KN93 and Myr-AIP, were able to abolish heme-induced ROS formation in epimastigotes leading to parasite growth impairment. Taken together, these data provide new insight into T. cruzi- insect vector interactions: heme, a molecule from the blood digestion, triggers epimastigote proliferation through a redox-sensitive signalling mechanism. PMID:22022475

  10. Endothelial mitochondrial ROS, un-coupled from ATP synthesis, determine both physiological endothelial activation for recruitment of patrolling cells, and pathological recruitment of inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyuan; Fang, Pu; Yang, William Y.; Chan, Kylie; Lavallee, Muriel; Xu, Keman; Gao, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are signaling molecules, which drive inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and autoimmune diseases all share common feature of increased mtROS level. Both mtROS and ATP are produced as a result of electron transport chain activity, but it remains enigmatic whether mtROS could be generated independently from ATP synthesis. A recent study shed light to this important question and found that during endothelial cell (EC) activation, mtROS could be upregulated in a proton leak-coupled, but ATP synthesis-uncoupled manner. As a result, EC could upregulate mtROS production for physiological EC activation without compromising mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation, and consequently without causing mitochondrial damage and EC death. Thus, a novel pathophysiological role of proton leak in driving mtROS production was uncovered for low grade physiological EC activation, patrolling immunosurveillance cell trans-endothelial migration and other signaling events without compromising cellular survival. This new working model explains how mtROS could be increasingly generated independently from ATP synthesis and endothelial damage/death. Mapping the connections between mitochondrial metabolism, physiological EC activation, patrolling cell migration and pathological inflammation is significant towards the development of novel therapies for inflammatory diseases and cancers. PMID:27925481

  11. Mitochondrial ROS, uncoupled from ATP synthesis, determine endothelial activation for both physiological recruitment of patrolling cells and pathological recruitment of inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyuan; Fang, Pu; Yang, William Y; Chan, Kylie; Lavallee, Muriel; Xu, Keman; Gao, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are signaling molecules, which drive inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and autoimmune diseases all share a common feature of increased mtROS level. Both mtROS and ATP are produced as a result of electron transport chain activity, but it remains enigmatic whether mtROS could be generated independently from ATP synthesis. A recent study shed light on this important question and found that, during endothelial cell (EC) activation, mtROS could be upregulated in a proton leak-coupled, but ATP synthesis-uncoupled manner. As a result, EC could upregulate mtROS production for physiological EC activation without compromising mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation, and consequently without causing mitochondrial damage and EC death. Thus, a novel pathophysiological role of proton leak in driving mtROS production was uncovered for low grade EC activation, patrolling immunosurveillance cell trans-endothelial migration and other signaling events without compromising cellular survival. This new working model explains how mtROS could be increasingly generated independently from ATP synthesis and endothelial damage or death. Mapping the connections among mitochondrial metabolism, physiological EC activation, patrolling cell migration, and pathological inflammation is significant towards the development of novel therapies for inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  12. Cinnamaldehyde induces apoptosis by ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Ka, Hyeon; Park, Hee-Juhn; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Jong-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seok; Ha, Joohun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2003-07-10

    Cinnamaldehyde is an active compound isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the effects of cinnamaldehyde on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and the putative pathways of its actions in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Using apoptosis analysis, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and assessment of mitochondrial membrane potentials (DeltaPsim), we show that cinnamaldehyde is a potent inducer of apoptosis and that it transduces the apoptotic signal via ROS generation, thereby inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and cytochrome c release to the cytosol. ROS production, mitochondrial alteration, and subsequent apoptotic cell death in cinnamaldehyde-treated cells were blocked by the antioxidant N-acetylcystein. Taken together, our data indicate that cinnamaldehyde induces the ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and resultant cytochrome c release. This is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of cinnamaldehyde.

  13. Loss of the tumor suppressor Hace1 leads to ROS-dependent glutamine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cetinbas, Naniye; Daugaard, Mads; Mullen, Andrew; Hajee, Shamil; Rotblat, Barak; Lopez, Alejandra; Li, Amy; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Sorensen, Poul H

    2014-01-01

    Cellular transformation is associated with altered glutamine (Gln) metabolism. Tumor cells utilize Gln in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to maintain sufficient pools of biosynthetic precursors to support rapid growth and proliferation. However, Gln metabolism also generates NADPH, and Gln-derived glutamate is used for synthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since both NADPH and GSH are antioxidants, Gln may also contribute to redox balance in transformed cells. The Hace1 E3 ligase is a tumor suppressor inactivated in diverse human cancers. Hace1 targets the Rac1 GTPase for degradation at Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase complexes, blocking superoxide generation by the latter. Consequently, loss of Hace1 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in vitro and in vivo. Given the link between Hace1 loss and increased ROS, we investigated whether genetic inactivation of Hace1 alters Gln metabolism. We demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Hace1-/- mice are highly sensitive to Gln withdrawal, leading to enhanced cell death compared to wild type (wt) MEFs, and Gln depletion or chemical inhibition of Gln uptake block soft agar colony formation by Hace1-/- MEFs. Hace1-/- MEFs exhibit increased Gln uptake and ammonia secretion, and metabolic labeling using 13C-Gln revealed that Hace1 loss increases incorporation of Gln carbons into TCA cycle intermediates. Gln starvation markedly increases ROS levels in Hace1-/- but not in wt MEFs, and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the TCA cycle intermediate oxaloacetate efficiently rescues Gln starvation-induced ROS elevation and cell death in Hace1-/- MEFs. Finally, Gln starvation increases superoxide levels in Hace1-/- MEFs, and NADPH oxidase inhibitors block the induction of superoxide and cell death by Gln starvation. Together, these results suggest that increased ROS production due to Hace1 loss leads to Gln addiction as a mechanism to cope with increased ROS-induced oxidative stress

  14. Protective Effects of Carvedilol and Vitamin C against Azithromycin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats via Decreasing ROS, IL1-β, and TNF-α Production and Inhibiting NF-κB and Caspase-3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    El-Shitany, Nagla A.; El-Desoky, Karema

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently warned of the fatal cardiovascular risks of azithromycin in humans. In addition, a recently published study documented azithromycin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. This study aimed to justify the exact cardiovascular events accompanying azithromycin administration in rats, focusing on electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In addition, the underlying mechanisms were studied regarding reactive oxygen species production, cytokine release, and apoptotic cell-death. Finally, the supposed protective effects of both carvedilol and vitamin C were assessed. Four groups of rats were used: (1) control, (2) azithromycin, (3) azithromycin + carvedilol, and (4) azithromycin + vitamin C. Azithromycin resulted in marked atrophy of cardiac muscle fibers and electrocardiographic segment alteration. It increased the heart rate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), and caspase-3. It decreased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Carvedilol and vitamin C prevented most of the azithromycin-induced electrocardiographic and histopathological changes. Carvedilol and vitamin C decreased lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, IL1-β, TNF-α, NF-κB, and caspase-3. Both agents increased glutathione peroxidase. This study shows that both carvedilol and vitamin C protect against azithromycin-induced cardiotoxicity through antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms. PMID:27274777

  15. 17β estradiol induced ROS generation, DNA damage and enzymatic responses in the hepatic tissue of Japanese sea bass.

    PubMed

    Thilagam, Harikrishnan; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Qu, Hai-Dong; Bo, Jun; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2010-10-01

    The importance of endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effects on fish has been documented in recent years. However, little is known about whether the estrogenic compound 17β estradiol (E2) causes oxidative stress in the hepatic tissue of fish. Therefore, this work tested the hypothesis that E2 might cause oxidative stress in the Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus liver. To test this hypothesis, its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, antioxidants and biotransformation enzyme were investigated in two different size groups (fingerling and juvenile groups) following 30 days exposure. Results showed that there was a good relationship between the E2 exposure concentration, plasma E2 level and ROS generation. In addition ROS production correlated negatively with 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and positively with DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase did not show any significant relation with ROS, LPO and DNA damage. In contrast, glutathione mediated enzymes showed a good relationship with the above parameters suggesting that the glutathione system in fish might be responsible for protection against the impact of E2 and also indicating a possible adaptive response during exposure periods. In addition, it was observed that fingerling was more susceptible to E2 exposure than juvenile fish. The present study provided strong evidence that the ROS level increased significantly in the liver of E2 exposed fish, and that ROS might serve as a biomarker to indicate estrogen contamination.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in toxicity of cell wall stress to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Honggang; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus. Interestingly, cell wall stress did not cause mitochondrial dysfunction and elevation of mitochondrial superoxide levels. Furthermore, the iron chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl (BIP) and the hydroxyl radical scavengers could not attenuate cell wall stress-caused growth inhibition and ROS accumulation. However, cell wall stress up-regulated expression of unfold protein response (UPR) genes, enhanced protein secretion and promoted protein folding-related oxidation of Ero1, an important source of ROS production. These results indicated that oxidation of Ero1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), rather than mitochondrial electron transport and Fenton reaction, contributed to cell wall stress-related ROS accumulation and consequent growth inhibition. Our findings uncover a novel link between cell wall integrity (CWI), ER function and ROS production in fungal cells, and shed novel light on development of strategies promoting the antifungal efficacy of cell wall-perturbing agents against fungal infections.

  17. Protective Effects of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields on Cardiomyocytes from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via ROS and NO/ONOO−

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sai; Zhang, Zhengxun; Yi, Fu; Wang, Yabin; Zhang, Xiaotian; Li, Xiujuan; Yuan, Yuan; Cao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cardiac ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Low frequency pulse magnetic fields (LFMFs) have been reported to decrease ROS generation in endothelial cells. Whether LFMFs could assert protective effects on myocardial from I/R injury via ROS regulation remains unclear. Methods. To simulate in vivo cardiac I/R injury, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) with or without exposure to LFMFs. Cell viability, apoptosis index, ROS generation (including O2− and ONOO−), and NO production were measured in control, H/R, and H/R + LFMF groups, respectively. Results. H/R injury resulted in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and decreased cell viability, whereas exposure to LFMFs before or after H/R injury significantly inhibited apoptosis and improved cell viability (P < 0.05). LFMFs treatment could suppress ROS (including O2− and ONOO−) generation induced by H/R injury, combined with decreased NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, LFMFs elevated NO production and enhanced NO/ONOO− balance in cardiomyocytes, and this protective effect was via the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Conclusion. LFMFs could protect myocardium against I/R injury via regulating ROS generation and NO/ONOO− balance. LFMFs treatment might serve as a promising strategy for cardiac I/R injury. PMID:24312697

  18. Stomatal Closure and Rise in ROS/NO of Arabidopsis Guard Cells by Tobacco Microbial Elicitors: Cryptogein and Harpin

    PubMed Central

    Gayatri, Gunja; Agurla, Srinivas; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Anil, Kondreddy; Podile, Appa R.; Raghavendra, Agepati S.

    2017-01-01

    Plants use stomatal closure mediated by elicitors as the first step of the innate immune response to restrict the microbial entry. We present a comprehensive study of the effect of cryptogein and harpin, two elicitors from microbial pathogens of tobacco, on stomatal closure and guard cell signaling components in Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant. Cryptogein as well as harpin induced stomatal closure, while elevating the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the guard cells of A. thaliana. Kinetic studies with fluorescent dyes revealed that the rise in ROS levels preceded that of NO in guard cells, when treated with these two elicitors. The restriction of NO levels in guard cells, even by ROS modulators indicates the essentiality of ROS for NO production during elicitor-triggered stomatal closure. The signaling events during elicitor-induced stomatal closure appear to converge at NADPH oxidase and ROS production. Our results provide the first report on stomatal closure associated with rise in ROS/NO of guard cells by cryptogein and harpin in A. thaliana. Our results establish that A. thaliana can be used to study stomatal responses to the typical elicitors from microbial pathogens of other plants. The suitability of Arabidopsis opens up an excellent scope for further studies on signaling events leading to stomatal closure by microbial elicitors. PMID:28680439

  19. ROS and Brain Gliomas: An Overview of Potential and Innovative Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Caffo, Maria; Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Abbritti, Rosaria Viola; Squadrito, Francesco; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Valenti, Andrea; Barresi, Valeria; Altavilla, Domenica; Passalacqua, Marcello; Caruso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent reactive products belonging to the partial reduction of oxygen. It has been reported that ROS are involved in different signaling pathways to control cellular stability. Under normal conditions, the correct function of redox systems leads to the prevention of cell oxidative damage. When ROS exceed the antioxidant defense system, cellular stress occurs. The cellular redox impairment is strictly related to tumorigenesis. Tumor cells, through the generation of hydrogen peroxide, tend to the alteration of cell cycle phases and, finally to cancer progression. In adults, the most common form of primary malignant brain tumors is represented by gliomas. The gliomagenesis is characterized by numerous molecular processes all characterized by an altered production of growth factor receptors. The difficulty to treat brain cancer depends on several biological mechanisms such as failure of drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier, tumor response to chemotherapy, and intrinsic resistance of tumor cells. Understanding the mechanisms of ROS action could allow the formulation of new therapeutic protocols to treat brain gliomas. PMID:27338365

  20. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Defining the function of ROS and NO.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Hemmelgarn, Benjamin T; Best, Thomas M

    2015-10-15

    The understanding of complex molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure (HF) is constantly under revision. Recent research has paid much attention to understanding the growing number of patients that exhibit HF symptoms yet have an ejection fraction similar to a normal phenotype. Termed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), this novel hypothesis traces its roots to a proinflammatory state initiated in part by the existence of comorbidities that create a favorable environment for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Triggering a cascade that involves reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability, elevated ROS levels in the coronary endothelium eventually contribute to hypertrophy and increased resting tension in cardiomyocytes. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways associated with HFpEF has led to studies that concentrate on reducing ROS production in the heart, boosting NO availability, and increasing exercise capacity for HFpEF patients. This review will explore the latest research into the role of ROS and NO in the progression of HFpEF, as well as discuss the encouraging results of numerous therapeutic studies.

  1. The Rac activator Tiam1 prevents keratinocyte apoptosis by controlling ROS-mediated ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mertens, Alexander E; Strumane, Kristin; van der Kammen, Rob; Collard, John G

    2008-04-15

    Tiam1 is a ubiquitously expressed activator of the small GTPase Rac. Previously, we found that Tiam1 knockout (KO) mice are resistant to DMBA-induced skin tumorigenicity, which correlated with increased apoptosis in keratinocytes of the skin epidermis. Here, we have studied the mechanisms by which Tiam1 protects against apoptosis. We found that Tiam1-KO keratinocytes show increased apoptosis in response to apoptotic stimuli, including growth factor deprivation and heat-shock treatment. Expression of catalytically active Tiam1, but not inactive Tiam1, rescues the apoptosis susceptibility of Tiam1-KO keratinocytes, indicating that this defect is caused by impaired Tiam1-mediated Rac activation. Apoptosis induced by growth factor starvation correlates with impaired ERK phosphorylation in Tiam1-KO keratinocytes. Moreover, Tiam1-KO keratinocytes contain lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) when compared with wild-type cells. The ROS content of keratinocytes is dependent on both Tiam1 and the activity of NADPH oxidase (Nox), and is required for ERK-mediated survival signaling. Indeed, Tiam1 deficiency or the inhibition of intracellular ROS production blocks ERK phosphorylation and sensitizes wild-type keratinocytes to apoptotic stimuli. Our results indicate that the Rac activator Tiam1 controls the intracellular redox balance by Nox-mediated ROS production, which regulates ERK phosphorylation and the susceptibility of keratinocytes to apoptotic signaling.

  2. TMEPAI regulates EMT in lung cancer cells by modulating the ROS and IRS-1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; He, Kai; Wang, Dongmei; Yuan, Xinwang; Liu, Yi; Ji, Hongbin; Song, Jianguo

    2013-08-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in various pathophysiological processes, including cancer cell migration and distal metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) are important in cancer progression and regulation of EMT. To explore the biological significance and regulatory mechanism of EMT, we determined the expression, the biological function and the signaling pathway of prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced-1 (TMEPAI), during the induction of EMT and cell migration. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 significantly upregulated the expression of TMEPAI during EMT in human lung adenocarcinoma. Depletion of TMEPAI abolished TGF-β1-induced downregulation of ferritin heavy chain and the subsequent generation of ROS, thus suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. In addition, increased ROS production and overexpression of TMEPAI downregulated the level of IRS-1. Both the addition of H2O2 and IRS-1 small interfering RNA rescued the ability of TGF-β1 to induce EMT in TMEPAI-depleted cells. Remarkably, the levels of TMEPAI in lung tumor tissues are very high, whereas its expression in normal lung epithelium is very low. Moreover, TMEPAI expression was positively correlated with the cell mesenchymal phenotype and migration potential. Our work reveals that TMEPAI contributes to TGF-β1-induced EMT through ROS production and IRS-1 downregulation in lung cancer cells.

  3. Mitochondrial and Cytoplasmic ROS Have Opposing Effects on Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Schaar, Claire E.; Dues, Dylan J.; Spielbauer, Katie K.; Machiela, Emily; Cooper, Jason F.; Senchuk, Megan; Hekimi, Siegfried; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can cause molecular damage within the cell. While the accumulation of ROS-mediated damage is widely believed to be one of the main causes of aging, ROS also act in signaling pathways. Recent work has demonstrated that increasing levels of superoxide, one form of ROS, through treatment with paraquat, results in increased lifespan. Interestingly, treatment with paraquat robustly increases the already long lifespan of the clk-1 mitochondrial mutant, but not other long-lived mitochondrial mutants such as isp-1 or nuo-6. To genetically dissect the subcellular compartment in which elevated ROS act to increase lifespan, we deleted individual superoxide dismutase (sod) genes in clk-1 mutants, which are sensitized to ROS. We find that only deletion of the primary mitochondrial sod gene, sod-2 results in increased lifespan in clk-1 worms. In contrast, deletion of either of the two cytoplasmic sod genes, sod-1 or sod-5, significantly decreases the lifespan of clk-1 worms. Further, we show that increasing mitochondrial superoxide levels through deletion of sod-2 or treatment with paraquat can still increase lifespan in clk-1;sod-1 double mutants, which live shorter than clk-1 worms. The fact that mitochondrial superoxide can increase lifespan in worms with a detrimental level of cytoplasmic superoxide demonstrates that ROS have a compartment specific effect on lifespan – elevated ROS in the mitochondria acts to increase lifespan, while elevated ROS in the cytoplasm decreases lifespan. This work also suggests that both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms contribute to the longevity of clk-1 worms. PMID:25671321

  4. Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ROS have opposing effects on lifespan.

    PubMed

    Schaar, Claire E; Dues, Dylan J; Spielbauer, Katie K; Machiela, Emily; Cooper, Jason F; Senchuk, Megan; Hekimi, Siegfried; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can cause molecular damage within the cell. While the accumulation of ROS-mediated damage is widely believed to be one of the main causes of aging, ROS also act in signaling pathways. Recent work has demonstrated that increasing levels of superoxide, one form of ROS, through treatment with paraquat, results in increased lifespan. Interestingly, treatment with paraquat robustly increases the already long lifespan of the clk-1 mitochondrial mutant, but not other long-lived mitochondrial mutants such as isp-1 or nuo-6. To genetically dissect the subcellular compartment in which elevated ROS act to increase lifespan, we deleted individual superoxide dismutase (sod) genes in clk-1 mutants, which are sensitized to ROS. We find that only deletion of the primary mitochondrial sod gene, sod-2 results in increased lifespan in clk-1 worms. In contrast, deletion of either of the two cytoplasmic sod genes, sod-1 or sod-5, significantly decreases the lifespan of clk-1 worms. Further, we show that increasing mitochondrial superoxide levels through deletion of sod-2 or treatment with paraquat can still increase lifespan in clk-1;sod-1 double mutants, which live shorter than clk-1 worms. The fact that mitochondrial superoxide can increase lifespan in worms with a detrimental level of cytoplasmic superoxide demonstrates that ROS have a compartment specific effect on lifespan - elevated ROS in the mitochondria acts to increase lifespan, while elevated ROS in the cytoplasm decreases lifespan. This work also suggests that both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms contribute to the longevity of clk-1 worms.

  5. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Munoz, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  6. Resveratrol protects rabbit articular chondrocyte against sodium nitroprusside-induced apoptosis via scavenging ROS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which resveratrol (RV) prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Rabbit articular chondrocytes were pre-incubated with 100 μM RV for 18 h before 1.5 mM SNP co-treatment for 6 h. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8. Annexin V/PI double staining and Hoechst 33258 staining were used to determine the fashion of SNP-induced chondrocytes death. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured by using flow cytometry (FCM) with TMRM and Rhodamine 123 staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were confirmed by FCM analysis with DCFH-DA and DAF-FM DA staining. Cytoskeleton proteins of chondrocytes co-stained with Actin-Trakcer Green and Tubulin-Trakcer Red were validated by confocal microscopy. SNP induced time- and dose-dependent chondrocytes apoptosis with decline of ΔΨm, activation of caspases as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. SNP induced a significant induction of both ROS and NO. RV remarkably prevented SNP-induced ROS production and apoptosis as well as cytoskeletal remodeling, but did not prevent SNP-induced NO production. Pretreatment with NO scavengers did not significantly prevent SNP-induced apoptosis and cytoskeletal remodeling. SNP induces NO-independent ROS production which dominates rabbit articular chondrocyte apoptosis, and RV protects chondrocytes against SNP-induced apoptosis via scavenging ROS instead of NO.

  7. Inhibition of autophagy increased AGE/ROS-mediated apoptosis in mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Fan, Qiuling; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Lining

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of autophagy, a homeostatic process involved in the lysosomal degradation of damaged cell organelles and proteins, in regulating the survival of mesangial cells treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, AGEs induced mitochondrial depolarization and led to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells, as shown by the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential; increased Bax processing; increased Caspase-9, Caspase-3 and PARP cleavage; and decreased Bcl-2 expression. Meanwhile, AGEs also triggered autophagy flux in mesangial cells, as confirmed by the presence of autophagic vesicles, the conversion of LC3II/LC3I and the increase/decrease in Beclin-1/p62 expression. Interestingly, this study reported apparent apoptosis and autophagy that were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Scavenging ROS with N-acetyl-l-cysteine could prevent the appearance of the autophagic features and reverse AGE-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AGE-triggered mitophagy, which was confirmed by the colocalization of autophagosomes and mitochondria and Parkin translocation to mitochondria, played a potential role in reducing ROS production in mesangial cells. Additionally, inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced AGE-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS were the mediators of AGE-induced mesangial cell apoptosis and that autophagy was likely to be the mechanism that was triggered to repair the ROS-induced damage in the AGE-treated cells and thereby promote cell survival. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in AGE-induced apoptosis in mesangial cells. PMID:27809300

  8. Stressing the (epi)genome: dealing with ROS in cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Akshay V; Hora, Shainan; Pal, Ananya; Jha, Sudhakar; Taneja, Reshma

    2017-08-17

    Growing evidence indicates cross-talk between Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several key epigenetic processes like DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in normal physiology and human pathologies including cancer. This review focuses on how ROS-induced oxidative stress, metabolic intermediates and epigenetic processes influence each other in various cancers. Recent Advances: ROS alters chromatin structure and metabolism which impact the epigenetic landscape in cancer cells. Several site-specific DNA methylation changes have been identified in different cancers and are discussed in the review. We also discuss the interplay of epigenetic enzymes and miRNAs in influencing malignant transformation in a ROS-dependent manner. Loss of ROS-mediated signalling mostly by epigenetic regulation may promote tumorigenesis. On the other hand, augmented oxidative stress because of high ROS levels may precipitate epigenetic alterations to effect various phases of carcinogenesis. We address both aspects in the review. Several drugs targeting ROS are under various stages of clinical development. Recent analysis of human cancers has revealed pervasive de-regulation of the epigenetic machinery. Thus, a better understanding of the cross-talk between ROS and epigenetic alterations in cancer could lead to the identification of new drug targets and more effective treatment modalities.

  9. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Resseguie, Emily A; Staversky, Rhonda J; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity.

  10. Serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Roscino, Maria Teresa; Minoia, Giuseppe; Trisolini, Carmelinda; Spedicato, Massimo; Mutinati, Maddalena; Pantaleo, Marianna; Jirillo, Felicita; Sciorsci, Raffaele L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the serum concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the different phases of the estrous cycle in the bitch, in order to establish their physiological values. 56 healthy mixed-breed bitches were enrolled at this purpose and divided into 4 groups, standing on the different phases of the estrus cycle. Blood samples were collected in all groups and serum ROS concentrations were determined. Proestral concentrations were statistically higher than anestral ones, and statistically lower than those found in estrus (p<0.001). The highest concentrations of ROS were detected at estrus, that is, in the peri-ovulatory period. This sharp increase in ROS concentrations is related to the acute inflammatory process underlying ovulation and to the increase in immune and metabolic activities, cytological changes and myometrial contractility promoted by the high levels of estrogens. In diestrus, the mean concentration of ROS decreases. This reduction did not show any statistically significant difference with the mean value observed in proestrus. In this phase, in fact, the high concentrations of progesterone, exerting an antioxidant and immunodepressive effect, justify the lower mean concentration of ROS detected. In anestrus, the lowest concentrations of ROS were observed, for the reduced metabolic and endocrine activity occurring in this phase of the estrous cycle. In conclusion our results establish the physiologic levels of ROS during the estrous cycle in the bitch and reflect the endocrine morphologic and metabolic changes occurring during it.

  11. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Resseguie, Emily A.; Staversky, Rhonda J.; Brookes, Paul S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12 h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24 h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity. PMID:25967673

  12. Analysis of PAMP-Triggered ROS Burst in Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuying; Macho, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the measurement of elicitor-triggered ROS burst in a simple, fast, and easy manner.

  13. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Lavinia; Groeger, Gillian; McDermott, Kieran; Cotter, Thomas G

    2010-02-23

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating that both rods and cones generated ROS in

  14. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Lavinia; Groeger, Gillian; McDermott, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. Methods Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8–10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. Results Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. Conclusions Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating that

  15. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  16. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1–dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1–dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1–dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  17. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots.

  18. The Dehydratase ADT3 Affects ROS Homeostasis and Cotyledon Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Para, Alessia; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Naldrett, Michael J.; Warpeha, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    During the transition from seed to seedling, emerging embryos strategically balance available resources between building up defenses against environmental threats and initiating the developmental program that promotes the switch to autotrophy. We present evidence of a critical role for the phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthetic activity of AROGENATE DEHYDRATASE3 (ADT3) in coordinating reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cotyledon development in etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. We show that ADT3 is expressed in the cotyledon and shoot apical meristem, mainly in the cytosol, and that the epidermis of adt3 cotyledons contains higher levels of ROS. Genome-wide proteomics of the adt3 mutant revealed a general down-regulation of plastidic proteins and ROS-scavenging enzymes, corroborating the hypothesis that the ADT3 supply of Phe is required to control ROS concentration and distribution to protect cellular components. In addition, loss of ADT3 disrupts cotyledon epidermal patterning by affecting the number and expansion of pavement cells and stomata cell fate specification; we also observed severe alterations in mesophyll cells, which lack oil bodies and normal plastids. Interestingly, up-regulation of the pathway leading to cuticle production is accompanied by an abnormal cuticle structure and/or deposition in the adt3 mutant. Such impairment results in an increase in cell permeability and provides a link to understand the cell defects in the adt3 cotyledon epidermis. We suggest an additional role of Phe in supplying nutrients to the young seedling. PMID:27540109

  19. The carboxy-terminal domain of ROS1 is essential for 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase activity

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samuel; Hashimoto, Hideharu; Kow, Yoke Wah; Zhang, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana Repressor of silencing 1 (ROS1) is a multi-domain bifunctional DNA glycosylase/lyase, which excises 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as well as thymine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (i.e., the deamination products of 5mC and 5hmC) when paired with a guanine, leaving an apyrimidinic (AP) site that is subsequently incised by the lyase activity. ROS1 is slow in base excision and fast in AP lyase activity, indicating that the recognition of pyrimidine modifications might be a rate-limiting step. In the C-terminal half, the enzyme harbors a Helix-hairpin-Helix DNA glycosylase domain followed by a unique C-terminal domain. We show that the isolated glycosylase domain is inactive for base excision, but retains partial AP lyase activity. Addition of the C-terminal domain restores the base excision activity and increases the AP lyase activity as well. Furthermore, the two domains remain tightly associated and can be co-purified by chromatography. We suggest that the C-terminal domain of ROS1 is indispensable for the 5mC DNA glycosylase activity of ROS1. PMID:25240767

  20. ROS-mediated vascular homeostatic control of root-to-shoot soil Na delivery in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Caifu; Belfield, Eric J; Mithani, Aziz; Visscher, Anne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Sodium (Na) is ubiquitous in soils, and is transported to plant shoots via transpiration through xylem elements in the vascular tissue. However, excess Na is damaging. Accordingly, control of xylem-sap Na concentration is important for maintenance of shoot Na homeostasis, especially under Na stress conditions. Here we report that shoot Na homeostasis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in saline soils is conferred by reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation of xylem-sap Na concentrations. We show that lack of A. thaliana respiratory burst oxidase protein F (AtrbohF; an NADPH oxidase catalysing ROS production) causes hypersensitivity of shoots to soil salinity. Lack of AtrbohF-dependent salinity-induced vascular ROS accumulation leads to increased Na concentrations in root vasculature cells and in xylem sap, thus causing delivery of damaging amounts of Na to the shoot. We also show that the excess shoot Na delivery caused by lack of AtrbohF is dependent upon transpiration. We conclude that AtrbohF increases ROS levels in wild-type root vasculature in response to raised soil salinity, thereby limiting Na concentrations in xylem sap, and in turn protecting shoot cells from transpiration-dependent delivery of excess Na. PMID:23064146

  1. Tuberatolide B Suppresses Cancer Progression by Promoting ROS-Mediated Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Junseong; Lee, Kang Min; Choi, Yu-Jeong; Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Min-Sun; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Tuberatolide B (TTB, C27H34O4) is a diastereomeric meroterpenoid isolated from the Korean marine algae Sargassum macrocarpum. However, the anticancer effects of TTB remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that TTB inhibits tumor growth in breast, lung, colon, prostate, and cervical cancer cells. To examine the mechanism by which TTB suppresses cell growth, we determined the effect of TTB on apoptosis, ROS generation, DNA damage, and signal transduction. TTB induced ROS production in MDA-MB-231, A549, and HCT116 cells. Moreover, TTB enhanced DNA damage by inducing γH2AX foci formation and the phosphorylation of DNA damage-related proteins such as Chk2 and H2AX. Furthermore, TTB selectively inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction in cyclin D1, MMP-9, survivin, VEGF, and IL-6. In addition, TTB-induced ROS generation caused STAT3 inhibition, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death. Therefore, TTB suppresses cancer progression by promoting ROS-mediated inhibition of STAT3 signaling, suggesting that TTB is useful for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28245605

  2. Tuberatolide B Suppresses Cancer Progression by Promoting ROS-Mediated Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Kim, Junseong; Lee, Kang Min; Choi, Yu-Jeong; Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Min-Sun; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2017-02-25

    Tuberatolide B (TTB, C27H34O₄) is a diastereomeric meroterpenoid isolated from the Korean marine algae Sargassum macrocarpum. However, the anticancer effects of TTB remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that TTB inhibits tumor growth in breast, lung, colon, prostate, and cervical cancer cells. To examine the mechanism by which TTB suppresses cell growth, we determined the effect of TTB on apoptosis, ROS generation, DNA damage, and signal transduction. TTB induced ROS production in MDA-MB-231, A549, and HCT116 cells. Moreover, TTB enhanced DNA damage by inducing γH2AX foci formation and the phosphorylation of DNA damage-related proteins such as Chk2 and H2AX. Furthermore, TTB selectively inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction in cyclin D1, MMP-9, survivin, VEGF, and IL-6. In addition, TTB-induced ROS generation caused STAT3 inhibition, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death. Therefore, TTB suppresses cancer progression by promoting ROS-mediated inhibition of STAT3 signaling, suggesting that TTB is useful for the treatment of cancer.

  3. The effects of Mg enrichment of vegetable sprouts on Mg concentration, yield and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Wrochna, Mariola; Małecka-Przybysz, Monika; Gawrońska, Helena; Gawroński, Stanisław W

    2016-08-01

    Two-thirds of the world's population do not consume the recommended amount of Mg, hence the demand for the production of Mg-enriched plants. Sprouts represent promising targets for enrichment. This study evaluated the effects of enriching broccoli, radish, alfalfa and mung bean sprouts with Mg (50-300 mg L(-1) ) on (i) the concentration of Mg and other ions, (ii) biomass accumulation, (iii) levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and (iv) the activity/content of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of antioxidative systems. Enrichment of sprouts with Mg led to a significant increase in Mg concentration, especially in alfalfa (increase of 23-152 %), without depletion of other ions. A higher Mg concentration had a minor effect on biomass accumulation, but increased, often significantly, ROS generation and affected enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative systems. The level of O2 (•-) increased most in broccoli, by 59-158%, while OH(•) increased most in radish, by 200-350%. Enrichment of sprouts with Mg is possible, but attention must be paid to elevated ROS levels in food. Mung bean sprouts are best suited to enrichment as they make a considerable contribution to the daily supplementation of Mg, at still low levels of ROS in enriched plants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses.

    PubMed

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) - overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses.

  5. The senescent bystander effect is caused by ROS-activated NF-κB signalling.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Glyn; Kucheryavenko, Olena; Wordsworth, James; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2017-08-25

    Cell senescence is an important driver of the ageing process. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues is accelerated by stress signals from senescent cells that induce DNA damage and ultimately senescence in bystander cells. We examine here the interplay of senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction (SAMD)-driven production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in causing the bystander effect. We show that in various modes of fibroblast senescence ROS are necessary and sufficient to activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), which facilitates a large part of the SASP. This ROS-NF-κB axis causes the DNA damage response in bystander cells. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are major components of the pro-inflammatory SASP in senescent fibroblasts. However, their activation in senescence is only partially controlled by NF-κB, and they are thus not strong candidates as intercellular mediators of the bystander effect as mediated by the ROS-NF-κB axis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxidase-Generated Apoplastic ROS Impair Cuticle Integrity and Contribute to DAMP-Elicited Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Survila, Mantas; Davidsson, Pär R.; Pennanen, Ville; Kariola, Tarja; Broberg, Martin; Sipari, Nina; Heino, Pekka; Palva, Erkki T.

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular defects trigger a battery of reactions including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. However, the source of ROS generated by such impaired cuticles has remained elusive. Here, we report the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana ohy1 mutant, a Peroxidase 57 (PER57) – overexpressing line that demonstrates enhanced defense responses that result both from increased accumulation of ROS and permeability of the leaf cuticle. The ohy1 mutant was identified in a screen of A. thaliana seedlings for oligogalacturonides (OGs) insensitive/hypersensitive mutants that exhibit altered growth retardation in response to exogenous OGs. Mutants impaired in OG sensitivity were analyzed for disease resistance/susceptibility to the necrotrophic phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In the ohy1 line, the hypersensitivity to OGs was associated with resistance to the tested pathogens. This PER57 overexpressing line exhibited a significantly more permeable leaf cuticle than wild-type plants and this phenotype could be recapitulated by overexpressing other class III peroxidases. Such peroxidase overexpression was accompanied by the suppressed expression of cutin biosynthesis genes and the enhanced expression of genes associated with OG-signaling. Application of ABA completely removed ROS, restored the expression of genes associated with cuticle biosynthesis and led to decreased permeability of the leaf cuticle, and finally, abolished immunity to B. cinerea. Our work demonstrates that increased peroxidase activity increases permeability of the leaf cuticle. The loss of cuticle integrity primes plant defenses to necrotrophic pathogens via the activation of DAMP-responses. PMID:28066496

  7. Stress turns on the heat: Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 by ROS in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Sara P; Chouchani, Edward T; Boudina, Sihem

    2017-01-02

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress (OS) in adipose tissue are associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The nature of this relationship i.e., cause and effect or consequence has not been clearly determined. We provide evidence that elevated mitochondrial ROS generated by adipocytes from mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) represents an adaptive mechanism that precipitates fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial uncoupling in an effort to defend against weight gain. Consistent with that, mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) exhibit increased adipocyte superoxide generation and are protected from weight gain and insulin resistance which otherwise develops in wild-type (WT) mice that consume an obesogenic diet. The defense mechanism displayed by MnSOD-deficiency in fat cells appears to be mediated by a dual effect of ROS on inefficient substrate oxidation through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. The aim of this commentary is to summarize and contextualize additional evidence supporting the importance of mitochondrial ROS in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression and activation in both white and brown adipocytes.

  8. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in bacterial stress adaptation

  9. DspA/E Contributes to Apoplastic Accumulation of ROS in Non-host A. thaliana.

    PubMed

    Launay, Alban; Patrit, Oriane; Wénès, Estelle; Fagard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Erwinia amylovora is responsible for the fire blight disease of Maleae, which provokes necrotic symptoms on aerial parts. The pathogenicity of this bacterium in hosts relies on its type three-secretion system (T3SS), a molecular syringe that allows the bacterium to inject effectors into the plant cell. E. amylovora-triggered disease in host plants is associated with the T3SS-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although ROS are generally associated with resistance in other pathosystems. We showed previously that E. amylovora can multiply transiently in the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana and that a T3SS-dependent production of intracellular ROS occurs during this interaction. In the present work we characterize the localization and source of hydrogen peroxide accumulation following E. amylovora infection. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of infected tissues showed that hydrogen peroxide accumulation occurs in the cytosol, plastids, peroxisomes, and mitochondria as well as in the apoplast. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed that an E. amylovora dspA/E-deficient strain does not induce hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the apoplast. Consistently, a transgenic line expressing DspA/E accumulated ROS in the apoplast. The NADPH oxidase-deficient rbohD mutant showed a very strong reduction in hydrogen peroxide accumulation in response to E. amylovora inoculation. However, we did not find an increase in bacterial titers of E. amylovora in the rbohD mutant and the rbohD mutation did not suppress the toxicity of DspA/E when introgressed into a DspA/E-expressing transgenic line. Co-inoculation of E. amylovora with cycloheximide (CHX), which we found previously to suppress callose deposition and allow strong multiplication of E. amylovora in A. thaliana leaves, led to a strong reduction of apoplastic ROS accumulation but did not affect intracellular ROS. Our data strongly suggest that apoplastic ROS accumulation is one layer of

  10. Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate), the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions) and stages where there is an intense

  11. DspA/E Contributes to Apoplastic Accumulation of ROS in Non-host A. thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Launay, Alban; Patrit, Oriane; Wénès, Estelle; Fagard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Erwinia amylovora is responsible for the fire blight disease of Maleae, which provokes necrotic symptoms on aerial parts. The pathogenicity of this bacterium in hosts relies on its type three-secretion system (T3SS), a molecular syringe that allows the bacterium to inject effectors into the plant cell. E. amylovora-triggered disease in host plants is associated with the T3SS-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), although ROS are generally associated with resistance in other pathosystems. We showed previously that E. amylovora can multiply transiently in the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana and that a T3SS-dependent production of intracellular ROS occurs during this interaction. In the present work we characterize the localization and source of hydrogen peroxide accumulation following E. amylovora infection. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of infected tissues showed that hydrogen peroxide accumulation occurs in the cytosol, plastids, peroxisomes, and mitochondria as well as in the apoplast. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed that an E. amylovora dspA/E-deficient strain does not induce hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the apoplast. Consistently, a transgenic line expressing DspA/E accumulated ROS in the apoplast. The NADPH oxidase-deficient rbohD mutant showed a very strong reduction in hydrogen peroxide accumulation in response to E. amylovora inoculation. However, we did not find an increase in bacterial titers of E. amylovora in the rbohD mutant and the rbohD mutation did not suppress the toxicity of DspA/E when introgressed into a DspA/E-expressing transgenic line. Co-inoculation of E. amylovora with cycloheximide (CHX), which we found previously to suppress callose deposition and allow strong multiplication of E. amylovora in A. thaliana leaves, led to a strong reduction of apoplastic ROS accumulation but did not affect intracellular ROS. Our data strongly suggest that apoplastic ROS accumulation is one layer of

  12. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia

    2010-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0.25 and 2.0% DMSO. Both artemisinin and its precursor, dihydroartemisinic acid, increased with the former continuing 7 days after DMSO treatment. There was no stimulation of artemisinin production in DMSO-treated unrooted shoots. The first gene in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, amorphadiene synthase, showed no increase in transcript level in response to DMSO compared to controls. In contrast, the second gene in the pathway, CYP71AV1, did respond to DMSO but at a level of transcripts inverse to artemisinin levels. When rooted shoots were stained for the reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, ROS increased with increasing DMSO concentration; unrooted shoots produced no ROS in response to DMSO. Both the increases in DMSO-induced ROS response and corresponding artemisinin levels were inhibited by addition of vitamin C. Together these data show that at least in response to DMSO, artemisinin production and ROS increase and that when ROS is reduced, so also is artemisinin suggesting that ROS may play a role in artemisinin production in A. annua. PMID:20084379

  13. Mechanistic Investigation on ROS Resistance of Phosphorothioated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tingting; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Shi, Ting; Bai, Linquan; Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Zhijun; Deng, Zixin; Zhao, Yi-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorothioated DNA (PT-DNA) exhibits a mild anti-oxidant property both in vivo and in vitro. It was found that 8-OHdG and ROS levels were significantly lower in dnd+ (i.e. S+) E. coli., compared to a dnd− (i.e. S−) strain. Furthermore, different from traditional antioxidants, phosphorothioate compound presents an unexpectedly high capacity to quench hydroxyl radical. Oxidative product analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantum mechanistic computation supported its unique anti-oxidant characteristic of the hydroxyl selectivity: phosphorothioate donates an electron to either hydroxyl radical or guanine radical derived from hydroxyl radical, leading to a PS• radical; a complex of PS• radical and OH− (i.e. the reductive product of hydroxyl radical) releases a highly reductive HS• radical, which scavenges more equivalents of oxidants in the way to high-covalent sulphur compounds such as sulphur, sulphite and sulphate. The PS-PO conversion (PS and PO denote phosphorus-sulphur and phosphorus-oxygen compounds, respectively) made a switch of extremely oxidative OH• to highly reductive HS• species, endowing PT-DNA with the observed high capacity in hydroxyl-radical neutralization. This plausible mechanism provides partial rationale as to why bacteria develop the resource-demanding PT modification on guanine-neighboring phosphates in genome. PMID:28216673

  14. ROS-IGTL-Bridge: an open network interface for image-guided therapy using the ROS environment.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tobias; Krieger, Axel; Leonard, Simon; Patel, Niravkumar A; Tokuda, Junichi

    2017-08-01

    With the growing interest in advanced image-guidance for surgical robot systems, rapid integration and testing of robotic devices and medical image computing software are becoming essential in the research and development. Maximizing the use of existing engineering resources built on widely accepted platforms in different fields, such as robot operating system (ROS) in robotics and 3D Slicer in medical image computing could simplify these tasks. We propose a new open network bridge interface integrated in ROS to ensure seamless cross-platform data sharing. A ROS node named ROS-IGTL-Bridge was implemented. It establishes a TCP/IP network connection between the ROS environment and external medical image computing software using the OpenIGTLink protocol. The node exports ROS messages to the external software over the network and vice versa simultaneously, allowing seamless and transparent data sharing between the ROS-based devices and the medical image computing platforms. Performance tests demonstrated that the bridge could stream transforms, strings, points, and images at 30 fps in both directions successfully. The data transfer latency was <1.2 ms for transforms, strings and points, and 25.2 ms for color VGA images. A separate test also demonstrated that the bridge could achieve 900 fps for transforms. Additionally, the bridge was demonstrated in two representative systems: a mock image-guided surgical robot setup consisting of 3D slicer, and Lego Mindstorms with ROS as a prototyping and educational platform for IGT research; and the smart tissue autonomous robot surgical setup with 3D Slicer. The study demonstrated that the bridge enabled cross-platform data sharing between ROS and medical image computing software. This will allow rapid and seamless integration of advanced image-based planning/navigation offered by the medical image computing software such as 3D Slicer into ROS-based surgical robot systems.

  15. Nutrient deprivation induces the Warburg effect through ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-An; Chao, Yee; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The Warburg effect is known to be crucial for cancer cells to acquire energy. Nutrient deficiencies are an important phenomenon in solid tumors, but the effect on cancer cell metabolism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrate that starvation of HeLa cells by incubation with Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) induced cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Notably, HBSS starvation increased lactate production, cytoplasmic pyruvate content and decreased oxygen consumption, but failed to change the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or the glucose uptake. We found that HBSS starvation rapidly induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activation and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), NAC (a ROS scavenger), and the dominant negative mutant of AMPK. Our data further revealed the involvement of ROS production in AMPK activation. Moreover, DCA (a PDK inhibitor), NAC, and compound C all significantly decreased HBSS starvation-induced lactate production accompanied by enhancement of HBSS starvation-induced cell apoptosis. Not only in HeLa cells, HBSS-induced lactate production and PDH phosphorylation were also observed in CL1.5, A431 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, we for the first time demonstrated that a low-nutrient condition drives cancer cells to utilize glycolysis to produce ATP, and this increases the Warburg effect through a novel mechanism involving ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of PDK. Such an event contributes to protecting cells from apoptosis upon nutrient deprivation.

  16. MaROS: Information Management Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  17. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K.; Makino, Clint L.

    2015-01-01

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca2+]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mm for ROS-GC1 and 39 mm for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca2+ nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca2+]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  18. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity.

  19. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cancer: Role of antioxidative nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Gupta, Subash C; Tyagi, Amit K

    2017-02-28

    Extensive research over the past half a century indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cancer. Although low levels of ROS can be beneficial, excessive accumulation can promote cancer. One characteristic of cancer cells that distinguishes them from normal cells is their ability to produce increased numbers of ROS and their increased dependence on an antioxidant defense system. ROS are produced as a byproduct intracellularly by mitochondria and other cellular elements and exogenously by pollutants, tobacco, smoke, drugs, xenobiotics, and radiation. ROS modulate various cell signaling pathways, which are primarily mediated through the transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, kinases, growth factors, cytokines and other proteins, and enzymes; these pathways have been linked to cellular transformation, inflammation, tumor survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer. ROS are also associated with epigenetic changes in genes, which is helpful in diagnosing diseases. This review considers the role of ROS in the various stages of cancer development. Finally, we provide evidence that nutraceuticals derived from Mother Nature are highly effective in eliminating cancer cells.

  20. Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 μM in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

  1. New inhibitors of ROS generation and T-cell proliferation from Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, M Iqbal; Khan, Noureen; Ahmad, Manzoor; Yousuf, Sammer; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Soomro, Samreen; Asif, M; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Shaheen, Farzana

    2013-04-19

    Phytochemical investigation on Myrtus communis Linn. afforded myrtucommuacetalone (1) with an unprecedented carbon skeleton and a new phloroglucinol-type compound, myrtucommulone M (2), along with four known constituents 3-6. Their structures were established by extensive analyses of NMR and mass spectral data as well as by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These constituents were evaluated for their ability to modulate the immune response, based on their effects on various components of immune system. Compounds 1 and 5 exhibited significant inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO(•)) production. Compound 1 also exhibited significant antiproliferative activity (IC50 < 0.5 μg/mL) against T-cell proliferation. Myricetin (3) exerted a significant inhibition (IC50 = 1.6 μg/mL) on zymosan-stimulated whole blood phagocytes ROS production. Compounds 1 and 3 were active against PMA-stimulated ROS generation.

  2. The NOX2-mediated ROS producing capacity of recipient cells is associated with reduced T cell infiltrate in an experimental model of chronic renal allograft inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, Marina D; Koekkoek, Karin M; Gelderman, Kyra A; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-03-01

    We previously showed that anti-inflammatory Mph (Mph2) can both in vitro and in vivo induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent fashion. As influx of Mph is an important characteristic of chronic inflammatory responses, we investigated the impact of NOX2-mediated ROS production by recipient cells in an experimental model of chronic allograft inflammation. We used a kidney transplantation (Tx) model with Lewis (Lew) rats as donor and congenic DA.Ncf1(DA/DA) (low ROS) and DA.Ncf1(E3/E3) (normal ROS) rats as recipients. At day 7 the contralateral kidney was removed, and the animals were sacrificed four weeks after Tx. Renal function and injury were monitored in serum and urine and the composition of the infiltrate was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Four weeks after Tx, large leukocyte clusters were observed in the allograft, in which signs of ROS production could be demonstrated. These clusters showed no difference regarding composition of myeloid cells or the number of FoxP3 positive cells. However, T cell infiltrate was significantly reduced in the DA.Ncf1(E3/E3) recipients having normal ROS production. Therefore, this study suggests a regulatory effect of ROS on T cell infiltration, but no effect on other inflammatory cells in the allograft.

  3. Sensitivity of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to gamma radiation: Photosynthetic performance and ROS formation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tânia; Xie, Li; Brede, Dag; Lind, Ole-Christian; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Salbu, Brit; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2017-02-01

    The aquatic environment is continuously exposed to ionizing radiation from both natural and anthropogenic sources, making the characterization of ecological and health risks associated with radiation of large importance. Microalgae represent the main source of biomass production in the aquatic ecosystem, thus becoming a highly relevant biological model to assess the impacts of gamma radiation. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma radiation on microalgal species, making environmental radioprotection of this group of species challenging. In this context, the present study aimed to improve the understanding of the effects and toxic mechanisms of gamma radiation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii focusing on the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and ROS formation. Algal cells were exposed to gamma radiation (0.49-1677mGy/h) for 6h and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters obtained by PAM fluorometry, while two fluorescent probes carboxy-H2DFFDA and DHR 123 were used for the quantification of ROS. The alterations seen in functional parameters of C. reinhardtii PSII after 6h of exposure to gamma radiation showed modifications of PSII energy transfer associated with electron transport and energy dissipation pathways, especially at the higher dose rates used. Results also showed that gamma radiation induced ROS in a dose-dependent manner under both light and dark conditions. The observed decrease in photosynthetic efficiency seems to be connected to the formation of ROS and can potentially lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage in chloroplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters associated with photosynthetic performance and ROS formation in microalgae after exposure to gamma radiation.

  4. Po2 cycling protects diaphragm function during reoxygenation via ROS, Akt, ERK, and mitochondrial channels.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Re, Anthony T; Best, Thomas M; Wagner, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Po2 cycling, often referred to as intermittent hypoxia, involves exposing tissues to brief cycles of low oxygen environments immediately followed by hyperoxic conditions. After experiencing long-term hypoxia, muscle can be damaged during the subsequent reintroduction of oxygen, which leads to muscle dysfunction via reperfusion injury. The protective effect and mechanism behind Po2 cycling in skeletal muscle during reoxygenation have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that Po2 cycling effectively increases muscle fatigue resistance through reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and certain mitochondrial channels during reoxygenation. Using a dihydrofluorescein fluorescent probe, we detected the production of ROS in mouse diaphragmatic skeletal muscle in real time under confocal microscopy. Muscles treated with Po2 cycling displayed significantly attenuated ROS levels (n = 5; P < 0.001) as well as enhanced force generation compared with controls during reperfusion (n = 7; P < 0.05). We also used inhibitors for signaling molecule