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Sample records for meister stefan werner

  1. Todd Meister Discusses Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Todd Meister(center), high school student of the Bronx High School of Science, discusses his experiment 'An Invitro Study of Selected Isolated Immune Phenomena' with his advisor, Dr. Robert Allen (right) and Henry Floyd, both of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). His experiment was aimed at discovering whether or not the absence of gravity affects the representative life processes. Meister was one of the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  2. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  3. A nonlinear supercooled Stefan problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briozzo, Adriana C.; Natale, Maria F.

    2017-04-01

    We study the supercooled one-phase Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity at the fixed face x=0. We obtain sufficient conditions for data in order to have existence of a solution of similarity type, local in time and finite-time blow-up occurs. This explicit solution is obtained through the unique solution of an integral equation with the time as a parameter.

  4. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship: The Paradox of a Liberating Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosevelt, Jinx

    1980-01-01

    In analyzing the educational sequences of Goethe's novel, "Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship," the author suggests ways that this literary genre, the bildungsroman, which portrays an individual's development through a series of educational encounters, can provide teacher education students with material for studying the riddlelike quality…

  5. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship: The Paradox of a Liberating Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosevelt, Jinx

    1980-01-01

    In analyzing the educational sequences of Goethe's novel, "Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship," the author suggests ways that this literary genre, the bildungsroman, which portrays an individual's development through a series of educational encounters, can provide teacher education students with material for studying the riddlelike quality…

  6. Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Werner syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cell's nucleus , where it normally interacts with DNA. Evidence also suggests that the altered protein is broken down more quickly in the cell than the normal Werner protein. Researchers do not ... protein may allow DNA damage to accumulate, which could impair normal cell ...

  8. Werner, Johann (1468-1522)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, mathematician, instrument-maker and geographer, born in Nuremberg, Germany, follower of Regiomontanus. Regiomontanus had suggested that the timing of eclipses and the orbits of comets could be used as clocks to determine longitude. Werner developed a practical version of this idea with the method of lunar distances (i.e. measuring the angle of the Moon from the Sun). He published this...

  9. A Stefan problem on an evolving surface

    PubMed Central

    Alphonse, Amal; Elliott, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a Stefan problem on an evolving hypersurface and study the well posedness of weak solutions given L1 data. To do this, we first develop function spaces and results to handle equations on evolving surfaces in order to give a natural treatment of the problem. Then, we consider the existence of solutions for data; this is done by regularization of the nonlinearity. The regularized problem is solved by a fixed point theorem and then uniform estimates are obtained in order to pass to the limit. By using a duality method, we show continuous dependence, which allows us to extend the results to L1 data. PMID:26261364

  10. Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Werner Heisenberg was one of the greatest physicists of all times. When he started out as a young research worker, the world of physics was in a very confused and frustrating state, which Abraham Pais has described1 as: It was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair using Charles Dickens' words in A Tale of Two Cities. People were playing a guessing game: There were from time to time great triumphs in proposing, through sheer intuition, make-shift schemes that amazingly explained some regularities in spectral physics, leading to joy. But invariably such successes would be followed by further work which reveal the inconsistency or inadequacy of the new scheme, leading to despair...

  11. Linkage disequilibrium, haplotype analysis and Werner`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wijsman, E.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-09-01

    Werner`s syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal, recessive disorder of premature aging. Although the underlying defect is unknown, the gene for the disorder, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region. We have assembled a sample of 30 Japanese and 24 non-Japanese (primary Caucasian) WS patients, as well as a control sample from each population. 25 of the Japanese patients and 10 of the Caucasian patients are from consanguineous marriages. We recently presented evidence from these families which places WRN in the 10.2 cM interval between D8S87 and D8S137. However, because WS is so rare and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. The existence of linkage disequilibrium is now recognized as a key piece of evidence in defining a small region (typically under 1-2 cM) containing a gene of interest. Thus an alternative approach for refining the location of WRN may be to identify linked markers which are in linkage disequilibrium with the disease. We recently suggested that WRN may be close to D8S339 and GSR in the above interval because of the presence of statistically significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in the Japanese sample. In addition, there was evidence in both populations that a limited number of haplotypes was associated with the disease. Here we report an extension of this study to include a number of additional markers. We present additional evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between many of these markers and WRN in both the Japanese and Caucasian samples. In addition, the additional markers do not markedly subdivide the disease haplotypes defined by D8S339 and GSR, while at the same time they introduce substantial numbers of new haplotypes into the control populations. These results suggest that the haplotypes associated with WS may be used to further define the limits of WRN.

  12. Chronotopoi of the Good Life and Utopia: Bakhtin on Goethe's "Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister" and the Carnivalesque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Norman

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Bakhtin's reception of Goethe's "Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre" with a view to assess how Bakhtin's interest in this early chronotopical masterpiece can be understood in the wider context of his utopian thinking and his political eschatologies. Bakhtin reads Goethe's novel as a critique of totalitarian forms of Socialist…

  13. Acoustic scattering by a modified Werner method

    PubMed

    Ravel; Trad

    2000-02-01

    A modified integral Werner method is used to calculate pressure scattered by an axisymmetric body immersed in a perfect and compressible fluid subject to a harmonic acoustic field. This integral representation is built as the sum of a potential of a simple layer and a potential of volume. It is equivalent to the exterior Helmholtz problem with Neumann boundary condition for all real wave numbers of the incident acoustic field. For elastic structure scattering problems, the modified Werner method is coupled with an elastodynamic integral formulation in order to account for the elastic contribution of the displacement field at the fluid/structure interface. The resulting system of integral equations is solved by the collocation method with a quadratic interpolation. The introduction of a weighting factor in the modified Werner method decreases the number of volume elements necessary for a good convergence of results. This approach becomes very competitive when it is compared with other integral methods that are valid for all wave numbers. A numerical comparison with an experiment on a tungsten carbide end-capped cylinder allows a glimpse of the interesting possibilities for using the coupling of the modified Werner method and the integral elastodynamic equation used in this research.

  14. An Interview with Werner F. Leopold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakuta, Kenji

    A 1983 interview with Werner F. Leopold (1896-1984), a key figure in the study of bilingualism and child language, is presented. An introductory section gives some background to the interview. The discussion itself reviews Leopold's personal and professional background, work, and writing, and focuses largely on the linguistic development of…

  15. [The suicide problem in Stefan Zweig's works].

    PubMed

    Haenel, T

    1981-01-01

    The life of the Vienna-born writer Stefan Zweig, whose centenary will be on November 28th, 1981, is portrayed in the light of some external data. His works - mainly novellas - in which the theme of suicide plays a central role, are briefly presented, and his preference for describing psychological borderline and extreme states is stressed. One of his first poems and his last one - more than forty years lie between them - are discussed with reference to his depression and suicidal tendencies. Zweig, who at least since the First World war had been periodically suffering from depressions, was looked after and in a sense also treated by his first wife Friderike von Winternitz, until he had to leave his home in Salzburg in 1935. In 1939, he divorced from his wife and married his sickly secretary, Lotte Altmann, who suffered from asthma and depression. After prolonged stays in England, North and South America he settled in Petropolis near Rio de Janeiro in Brasil, where he spent the last months of his life. Zweig was the second son of a dominating, self-willed mother and a dignified, almost "motherly" father. He felt his childhood to have been constricted and hemmed in. His narcissism, which has played an essential role in relation to his suicide, has its roots in his childhood. Direct as well as indirect hints at suicide were not lacking during the last two years of Zweig's life, which were increasingly filled with depression and anxiety. The preface to his autobiography "The World of Yesterday" may be interpreted as an indirect announcement of suicide. On February 22nd, 1942, Zweig committed suicide together with his second wife in Petropolis.

  16. [Werner syndrome with torpid trophic ulcera cruris].

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, A F; Schnyder, U W

    1991-11-01

    Werner's syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder with a distinctive clinical picture. The characteristic physiognomy, shortness of stature with thin extremities, and large trophic ulcers are the key signs for the diagnosis. Premature greying of the hair and baldness, juvenile cataracts, a tendency to diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, calcifications of the blood vessels, osteoporosis, metastatic calcifications of the soft tissue and an elevated incidence of neoplasms are further important features. We describe two patients with this disorder.

  17. Analytic expressions of discord and geometric discord in Werner derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haojie; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Jianlan; Ye, Biaoliang; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2014-06-01

    Werner derivatives are a special kind of mixing states transformed from Werner states by unitary operations (Hiroshima and Ishizaka in Phys Rev A 62:044302, 2000). In this paper, the inherent quantum correlations in Werner derivatives are quantified by two different quantifiers, i.e., quantum discord and geometric discord. Different analytic expressions of the two discords in Werner derivatives are derived out. Some distinct features of the discords and their underlying physics are exposed via discussions and analyses. Moreover, it is found that the amount of quantum correlations quantified by either quantifier in each derivative cannot exceed that in the original Werner state. In other words, no unitary operation can increase quantum correlation in a Werner state as far as the two quantifiers are concerned.

  18. Radiographic presentation of musculoskeletal involvement in Werner syndrome (adult progeria).

    PubMed

    David, A; Vincent, M; Arrigoni, P P; Barbarot, S; Pistorius, M A; Isidor, B; Frampas, E

    2016-12-05

    Werner syndrome (i.e., adult progeria) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the WRN gene, which is characterized by the premature appearance of features associated with normal aging and cancer predisposition. Patients with Werner syndrome can present with musculoskeletal complaints, associated with suggestive radiographic features with a potential prognostic or therapeutic impact. This review illustrates the main radiographic features of Werner syndrome, focusing on the musculoskeletal system, such as soft-tissue calcification, muscular atrophy, osteoporosis, foot deformities, osteitis and osteomyelitis, and bone or soft-tissues malignancies. The identification of these features by radiologists can therefore be useful in the clinical screening of Werner syndrome.

  19. Determining Planetary Temperatures with the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hagoort, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    What follows is a description of several activities involving the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law that can provide laboratory experience beyond what is normally found in traditional introductory thermodynamics experiments on thermal expansion, specific heat, and heats of transformation. The activities also provide more extensive coverage of and…

  20. Determining Planetary Temperatures with the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hagoort, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    What follows is a description of several activities involving the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law that can provide laboratory experience beyond what is normally found in traditional introductory thermodynamics experiments on thermal expansion, specific heat, and heats of transformation. The activities also provide more extensive coverage of and…

  1. Quantum nondemolition measurement of the Werner state

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Pei Pei; Song Heshan

    2010-10-15

    We propose a theoretical scheme of quantum nondemolition measurement of two-qubit Werner state. We discuss our scheme with the two qubits restricted in a local place and then extend the scheme to the case in which two qubits are separated. We also consider the experimental realization of our scheme based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is very interesting that our scheme is robust against the dissipative effects introduced by the probe process. We also give a brief interpretation of our scheme finally.

  2. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H.; Moses, R.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents.

  3. 100 Years Werner Heisenberg: Works and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenfuß, Dietrich; Lüst, Dieter; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2003-09-01

    Over 40 renowned scientists from all around the world discuss the work and influence of Werner Heisenberg. The papers result from the symposium held by the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Heisenberg's birth, one of the most important physicists of the 20th century and cofounder of modern-day quantum mechanics. Taking atomic and laser physics as their starting point, the scientists illustrate the impact of Heisenberg's theories on astroparticle physics, high-energy physics and string theory right up to processing quantum information.

  4. Analysis of an Incompressible Navier-Stokes-Maxwell-Stefan System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiuqing; Jüngel, Ansgar

    2015-12-01

    The Maxwell-Stefan equations for the molar fluxes, supplemented by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the fluid velocity dynamics, are analyzed in bounded domains with no-flux boundary conditions. The system models the dynamics of a multicomponent gaseous mixture under isothermal conditions. The global-in-time existence of bounded weak solutions to the strongly coupled model and their exponential decay to the homogeneous steady state are proved. The mathematical difficulties are due to the singular Maxwell-Stefan diffusion matrix, the cross-diffusion terms, and the different molar masses of the fluid components. The key idea of the proof is the use of a new entropy functional and entropy variables, which allows for a proof of positive lower and upper bounds of the mass densities without the use of a maximum principle.

  5. Behavior of Werner states under relativistic boosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palge, Veiko; Dunningham, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    We study the structure of maps that Lorentz boosts induce on the spin degree of freedom of a system consisting of two massive spin- 1 / 2 particles. We consider the case where the spin state is described by the Werner state and the momenta are discrete. Transformations on the spins are systematically investigated in various boost scenarios by calculating the orbit and concurrence of the bipartite spin state with different kinds of product and entangled momenta. We confirm the general conclusion that Lorentz boosts cause non-trivial behavior of bipartite spin entanglement. Visualization of the evolution of the spin state is shown to be valuable in explaining the pattern of concurrence. The idealized model provides a basis of explanation in terms of which phenomena in systems involving continuous momenta can be understood.

  6. ['Physica' of Hildegard von Bingen as a source for the 'Kochbuch Meister Eberhards'].

    PubMed

    Weiss-Amer, M

    1992-01-01

    In this article a previously unknown fragment of Saint Hildegards 'Physica' is added to the list of extant manuscripts. Extracts from three books of the 'Physica' ("De Plantis", "De Piscibus", and "De Avibus") were found to be incorporated in a late-medieval German cookbook, the 'Kochbuch Meister Eberhards'. While the German sources for the cookbook, such as the 'Regel der Gesundheit' and the 'Breslauer Arzneibuch' have been known for some time, the Latin parts have traditionally been neglected by scholars. Neither were they included in the 1963-edition of the cookbook nor studied in any detail in the past. The discovery of the 'Physica' as their source provides us with new insights into Eberhard's compiler-work and the literature which was available to him, as well as the reception of Hildegard's medical writings in the fifteenth century.

  7. Reflections on My Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Editor’s note: This article represents one student’s perspective on her experiences as a Werner H. Kirsten student intern. Failure isn’t just a possibility, it is a certainty; yet failure is what leads you to success. Above all else, that is what I will retain from my experience in the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP).

  8. Reflections on My Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Editor’s note: This article represents one student’s perspective on her experiences as a Werner H. Kirsten student intern. Failure isn’t just a possibility, it is a certainty; yet failure is what leads you to success. Above all else, that is what I will retain from my experience in the Werner H. Kirsten Student Intern Program (WHK SIP).

  9. Single-phase Stefan problem in selectively absorbing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleptsov, S. D.; Rubtsov, N. A.; Savvinova, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal state of a translucent selectively absorbing medium was studied by the methods of numerical simulation at different values of the optical properties of boundaries and heat transfer from the left surface in approximation of one-phase Stefan problem. The temperature fields and densities of resultant radiation fluxes as well as the thermal state of the left boundary and dynamics of layer reduction in the melting process were analyzed. The processes of phase transition in a flat layer of selective and gray absorbing media and emitting media were compared, and their fundamental differences were shown.

  10. The Stefan problem for the Fisher-KPP equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yihong; Guo, Zongming

    We study the Fisher-KPP equation with a free boundary governed by a one-phase Stefan condition. Such a problem arises in the modeling of the propagation of a new or invasive species, with the free boundary representing the propagation front. In one space dimension this problem was investigated in Du and Lin (2010) [11], and the radially symmetric case in higher space dimensions was studied in Du and Guo (2011) [10]. In both cases a spreading-vanishing dichotomy was established, namely the species either successfully spreads to all the new environment and stabilizes at a positive equilibrium state, or fails to establish and dies out in the long run; moreover, in the case of spreading, the asymptotic spreading speed was determined. In this paper, we consider the non-radially symmetric case. In such a situation, similar to the classical Stefan problem, smooth solutions need not exist even if the initial data are smooth. We thus introduce and study the "weak solution" for a class of free boundary problems that include the Fisher-KPP as a special case. We establish the existence and uniqueness of the weak solution, and through suitable comparison arguments, we extend some of the results obtained earlier in Du and Lin (2010) [11] and Du and Guo (2011) [10] to this general case. We also show that the classical Aronson-Weinberger result on the spreading speed obtained through the traveling wave solution approach is a limiting case of our free boundary problem here.

  11. Multiplex cytokine analysis of Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Hayata, Koichiro; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Summary We reported a minor inflammation-driven ageing (inflammageing) assessed by highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in normal individuals and patients with Werner syndrome (WS), followed by an ageing associated Th2-biased cytokine change in normal ageing in the previous papers. To further study the association of hsCRP and 26 cytokines/chemokines in 35 WS patients, a multiple cytokine array system was used in the same serum samples as were examined for hsCRP. The serum levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and GM-CSF), Th1 products (IL-2, TNFα, IL-12, and IFNγ) and monocyte/macrophage products (MCP-1, basic FGF and G-CSF) in WS were significantly elevated compared with normal ageing. Elevated hsCRP level in WS was significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-12 and VEGF levels, if age and sex were taken into account. A pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine circuit-stimulated immunological shift to Th2 in WS was similar to normal ageing. These cytokine/chemokine changes may induce a systemic chronic inflammation monitored by hsCRP, though these immunological changes in WS were more complicated than normal ageing, possibly due to the WS-specific chronic inflammation such as skin ulcer, diabetes mellitus and central obesity with visceral fat deposition. Further study may warrant the pathophysiology of Th2 shift and Th2-biased inflammageing in normal ageing and WS. PMID:26668779

  12. Oxidative stress and antioxidant response in fibroblasts from Werner and atypical Werner syndromes.

    PubMed

    Seco-Cervera, Marta; Spis, Marta; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibañez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Velázquez-Ledesma, Ana; Esmorís, Isabel; Bañuls, Sergio; Pérez-Machado, Giselle; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-03-01

    Werner Syndrome (WS, ICD-10 E34.8, ORPHA902) and Atypical Werner Syndrome (AWS, ICD-10 E34.8, ORPHA79474) are very rare inherited syndromes characterized by premature aging. While approximately 90% of WS individuals have any of a range of mutations in theWRN gene, there exists a clinical subgroup in which the mutation occurs in the LMNA/C gene in heterozygosity. Although both syndromes exhibit an age-related pleiotropic phenotype, AWS manifests the onset of the disease during childhood, while major symptoms in WS appear between the ages of 20 and 30. To study the molecular mechanisms of progeroid diseases provides a useful insight into the normal aging process. Main changes found were the decrease in Cu/Zn and Mn SOD activities in the three cell lines. In AWS, both mRNA SOD and protein levels were also decreased. Catalase and glutathione peroxidases decrease, mainly in AWS. Glutaredoxin (Grx) and thioredoxin (Trx) protein expression was lower in the three progeroid cell lines. Grx and Trx were subjected to post-transcriptional regulation, because protein expression was reduced although mRNA levels were not greatly affected in WS. Low antioxidant defense and oxidative stress occur simultaneously in these rare genetic instability disorders at the onset of progeroid disease.

  13. Solution of the Classical Stefan Problem: Neumann Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    A polynomial solution of the classical one-phase Stefan problem with a Neumann boundary condition is presented. As a result of the multiple integration of the heat-conduction equation, a sequence of identical equalities has been obtained. On the basis of these equalities, solutions were constructed in the form of the second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-degree polynomials. It is shown by test examples that the approach proposed is highly efficient and that the approximation errors of the solutions in the form of the fourth- and fifth-degree polynomials are negligible small, which allows them to be considered in fact as exact. The polynomial solutions obtained substantially surpass the analogous numerical solutions in the accuracy of determining the position of the moving interphase boundary in a body and are in approximate parity with them in the accuracy of determining the temperature profile in it.

  14. Correlations and Werner states in finite spin linear arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, P. R.; Chaves, C. M.; d'Albuquerque e Castro, J.; Koiller, Belita

    2013-10-01

    Pairwise quantum correlations in the ground state of an N-spins antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain are investigated. By varying the exchange coupling between two neighboring sites, it is possible to reversibly drive spins from entangled to disentangled states. For even N, the two-spin density matrix is written in the form of a Werner state, allowing identification of its single parameter with the usual spin-spin correlation function. The N = 4 chain is identified as a promising system for practical demonstrations of non-classical correlations and the realization of Werner states in familiar condensed matter systems. Fabrication and measurement ingredients are within current capabilities.

  15. Diverse dealings of the Werner helicase/nuclease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2003-08-06

    The human Werner syndrome is a model for the process of aging. The protein that is mutated in Werner syndrome, WRN, exhibits three catalytic activities: a 3'-to-5' helicase, a 3'-to-5' exonuclease, and an adenosine triphosphatase activity. WRN interacts with a variety of proteins and has been implicated in many aspects of DNA metabolism. A recent paper by Chen et al. published in the August 2003 issue of Aging Cell sheds some light on the multifunctional nature of WRN. It suggests that WRN may be considered as a structural protein, providing a plausible conceptual basis for the many WRN protein-protein interactions.

  16. [Werner syndrome. A prototypical form of segmental progeria.

    PubMed

    Lessel, D; Oshima, J; Kubisch, C

    2012-12-01

    Werner syndrome is a segmental progeroid disorder with onset in adolescence or early adulthood. Typical symptoms contributing to patients' prematurely aged appearance include postpubertal development of short stature, cataracts, premature greying/thinning of scalp hair, scleroderma-like skin changes and regional atrophy of subcutaneous fat tissue. In addition, an increased rate and early onset of typical age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and various malignancies is observed. Werner syndrome is autosomal recessively inherited and caused by mutations in the Werner gene (WRN). To date, more than 70 WRN mutations have been identified. These are spread over the entire gene and typically represent loss of function mutations. WRN encodes a RecQ type helicase involved in DNA repair and the maintenance of DNA integrity, which is reflected by an increased genetic instability in patient cells. Despite the relative rarity of Werner syndrome, its analysis provides important general insights into the roles of DNA stability and integrity for the ageing process and the development of age-associated diseases.

  17. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE AND MEDIAN. REPLICATING WERNER HEGEMANN PHOTO TAKEN CIRCA 1909 SEEN FROM TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT CHANNING WAY LOOKING NW. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  18. A case of Werner's syndrome associated with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Hatamochi, A; Shinkai, H; Ishikawa, Y; Kawaguchi, N; Goto, M

    1999-10-01

    We described a case of Werner's syndrome associated with osteosarcoma. A 37-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having Werner's syndrome by the presence of juvenile cataracts, skin sclerosis and hyperpigmentation of the feet, high-pitched voice, characteristic bird-like appearance of the face with beak-shaped nose, thinning of the entire skin and hyperkeratoses on soles, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes melitus, and the mutated responsible gene (WRN). He had a 3-month history of a tumor on his left forearm. Histologically, the tumor included four histological patterns; a malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like, a desmoid-like, a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-like, and a chondrosarcoma-like pattern. Tumoral osteoid formation was also found in the tumor. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as osteosarcoma.

  19. Pathways and functions of the Werner syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Wan; Harrigan, Jeanine; Opresko, Patricia L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in human WRN (also known as RECQ3) gene give rise to a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, Werner syndrome (WS). WS is a premature aging disease characterized by predisposition to cancer and early onset of symptoms related to normal aging including osteoporosis, ocular cataracts, graying and loss of hair, diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerosis, and atherosclerosis. This review focuses on the functional role of Werner protein (WRN) in guarding the genetic stability of cells, particularly by playing an integral role in the base excision repair, and at the telomere ends. Furthermore, in-depth biochemical investigations have significantly advanced our understanding of WRN protein regarding its binding partners and the site of protein-protein interaction. The mapping analysis of protein interaction sites in WRN for most of its binding partners have revealed a common site of protein-protein interaction in the RecQ conserved (RQC) region of WRN.

  20. Verification of the Violation of WWZB Inequality Using Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Martins, Luís P.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2015-04-01

    The generation and manipulation of entangled particles presents itself as one of the most important results in quantum mechanics. With the work from Bell, it was possible to prove the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics, which is nowadays widely accepted. Apart from being possible to prove entanglement from Bell's inequality, it is difficult to compute the system as it increases the number of particles. Such a system containing N qubits can be described by Werner-Wolf-Zukowski-Brukner (WWZB) inequality. In this work, we show how to obtain the maximum of violation of WWZB inequality using a Werner state, simplifying the problem considerably. We get two different results; one for a system containing an odd number of particles and other for a system containing an even number.

  1. Werner-Wheeler mass tensor for fusionlike configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gherghescu, R.A.; Poenaru, D.N.

    2005-08-01

    The Werner-Wheeler approach is used to calculate the components of the mass tensor for a binary configuration of two intersected spheroids. Four free coordinates form the deformation space: the small semiaxis of the projectile, the two semiaxis ratios of the spheroids, and the distance between centers. A correction term is also calculated, due to the center of mass motion. Final results are presented for the fusion channel {sup 54}Cr+{sup 240}Pu, and all possible couplings are analyzed.

  2. Werner Reutter: A Visionary Pioneer in Molecular Glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Hinderlich, Stephan; Tauber, Rudolf; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2017-07-04

    A creative pioneer: Werner Reutter (1937-2016) was a scientist who both made fundamental discoveries in glycobiology and reached out to disciplines beyond his core field. Many of his former colleagues and students will remember his desire to exchange research ideas, which ultimately contributed to the birth of new research fields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mutations in the consensus helicase domains of the Werner syndrome gene. Werner's Syndrome Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C E; Oshima, J; Wijsman, E M; Nakura, J; Miki, T; Piussan, C; Matthews, S; Fu, Y H; Mulligan, J; Martin, G M; Schellenberg, G D

    1997-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease with a complex phenotype that is suggestive of accelerated aging. WS is caused by mutations in a gene, WRN, that encodes a predicted 1,432-amino-acid protein with homology to DNA and RNA helicases. Previous work identified four WS mutations in the 3' end of the gene, which resulted in predicted truncated protein products of 1,060-1,247 amino acids but did not disrupt the helicase domain region (amino acids 569-859). Here, additional WS subjects were screened for mutations, and the intron-exon structure of the gene was determined. A total of 35 exons were defined, with the coding sequences beginning in the second exon. Five new WS mutations were identified: two nonsense mutations at codons 369 and 889; a mutation at a splice-junction site, resulting in a predicted truncated protein of 760 amino acids; a 1-bp deletion causing a frameshift; and a predicted truncated protein of 391 amino acids. Another deletion is >15 kb of genomic DNA, including exons 19-23; the predicted protein is 1,186 amino acids long. Four of these new mutations either partially disrupt the helicase domain region or result in predicted protein products completely missing the helicase region. These results confirm that mutations in the WRN gene are responsible for WS. Also, the location of the mutations indicates that the presence or absence of the helicase domain does not influence the WS phenotype and suggests that WS is the result of complete loss of function of the WRN gene product. PMID:9012406

  4. Werner's Measure on Self-Avoiding Loops and Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Angel; Pickrell, Doug

    2014-08-01

    Werner's conformally invariant family of measures on self-avoiding loops on Riemann surfaces is determined by a single measure μ_0 on self-avoiding loops in C setminus{0} which surround 0. Our first major objective is to show that the measure μ_0 is infinitesimally invariant with respect to conformal vector fields (essentially the Virasoro algebra of conformal field theory). This makes essential use of classical variational formulas of Duren and Schiffer, which we recast in representation theoretic terms for efficient computation. We secondly show how these formulas can be used to calculate (in principle, and sometimes explicitly) quantities (such as moments for coefficients of univalent functions) associated to the conformal welding for a self-avoiding loop. This gives an alternate proof of the uniqueness of Werner's measure. We also attempt to use these variational formulas to derive a differential equation for the (Laplace transform of) the ''diagonal distribution'' for the conformal welding associated to a loop; this generalizes in a suggestive way to a deformation of Werner's measure conjectured to exist by Kontsevich and Suhov (a basic inspiration for this paper).

  5. Compatible quantum correlations: Extension problems for Werner and isotropic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Peter D.; Viola, Lorenza

    2013-09-01

    We investigate some basic scenarios in which a given set of bipartite quantum states may consistently arise as the set of reduced states of a global N-partite quantum state. Intuitively, we say that the multipartite state “joins” the underlying correlations. Determining whether, for a given set of states and a given joining structure, a compatible N-partite quantum state exists is known as the quantum marginal problem. We restrict to bipartite reduced states that belong to the paradigmatic classes of Werner and isotropic states in d dimensions and focus on two specific versions of the quantum marginal problem which we find to be tractable. The first is Alice-Bob, Alice-Charlie joining, with both pairs being in a Werner or isotropic state. The second is m-n sharability of a Werner state across N subsystems, which may be seen as a variant of the N-representability problem to the case where subsystems are partitioned into two groupings of m and n parties, respectively. By exploiting the symmetry properties that each class of states enjoys, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions for three-party joinability and 1-n sharability for arbitrary d. Our results explicitly show that although entanglement is required for sharing limitations to emerge, correlations beyond entanglement generally suffice to restrict joinability, and not all unentangled states necessarily obey the same limitations. The relationship between joinability and quantum cloning as well as implications for the joinability of arbitrary bipartite states are discussed.

  6. Well-posedness for the Classical Stefan Problem and the Zero Surface Tension Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadžić, Mahir; Shkoller, Steve

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for a unified treatment of well-posedness for the Stefan problem with or without surface tension. In the absence of surface tension, we establish well-posedness in Sobolev spaces for the classical Stefan problem. We introduce a new velocity variable which extends the velocity of the moving free-boundary into the interior domain. The equation satisfied by this velocity is used for the analysis in place of the heat equation satisfied by the temperature. Solutions to the classical Stefan problem are then constructed as the limit of solutions to a carefully chosen sequence of approximations to the velocity equation, in which the moving free-boundary is regularized and the boundary condition is modified in a such a way as to preserve the basic nonlinear structure of the original problem. With our methodology, we simultaneously find the required stability condition for well-posedness and obtain new estimates for the regularity of the moving free-boundary. Finally, we prove that solutions of the Stefan problem with positive surface tension {σ} converge to solutions of the classical Stefan problem as {σ to 0}.

  7. [Stefan Boleslaw Szuman (1889-1972), the Torun surgeon, psychologist and educator, the Jagiellonski University professor].

    PubMed

    Łysiak, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Professor Stefan Szuman was an outstanding offspring of dr med Leon Szuman, the Torun surgeon. He was born in Torun on 3.01.1889. Encouraged by his father he successfully graduated from medical school. Father's hopes that his private surgery clinic in Torun could be runned by his son were shattered when Stefan found a pretext for quitting surgery. It turned out that his real passion was psychology and education. Luckily, he survived the two world wars. In years 1948-1949, a 28 year old priest Karol Wojtyla listened to his lectures on characterology. It seems that among others, Stefan Szuman's views on human attitude towards death exerted a noticeable influence on the later Pope John Paul II.

  8. Pyometra and Pregnancy with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reis, Maria Inês; Vicente, Ana Patrícia; Cominho, Joana; Gomes, Andrea Sousa; Martins, Luísa; Nunes, Filomena

    2016-12-01

    We describe a Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) patient with previous history of infertility who got pregnant without treatment and presented a pyometra in the contralateral uterus throughout the gestational period, despite multiple antibiotic treatments. Due to the uterus' congenital anomaly and the possibility of ascending infection with subsequent abortion, this pregnancy was classified as high-risk. We believe that the partial horizontal septum in the vagina may have contributed to the closure of the gravid uterus cervix, thus ensuring that the pregnancy came to term, with an uneventful vaginal delivery.

  9. [Werner Leibbrand as psychiatric opponent of National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Seidel, R

    2013-09-01

    The psychiatrist and medical historian Werner Leibbrand resigned from the Berlin Medical Association after the seizure of power in protest against the exclusion of Jewish colleagues and lost both the license to practice as well as his professional position in the public health service. After the end of the war the American military authorities appointed him as expert witness for the prosecution in the Nürnberg Doctors Trial. In addition to a biographical review, Leibbrand's resolute although still undisputed attitude as ethical expert in the trials will be roughly outlined.

  10. Bayesian Nash equilibria using extended Werner-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Soto, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    We study quantum strategies in games of incomplete information using a formalism of game theory based on multi-sector probability matrix. We analyze an extension of the well-known game of Battle of Sexes using an extended Werner-like state focusing in how its mixedness and entanglement affect the Bayesian Nash payoffs of the player. It is shown that entanglement is needed to outperform classical payoffs but not all entangled states are useful due to the presence of mixedness. A threshold for the mixedness parameter and the minimum entanglement value were found.

  11. Podolsky electromagnetism at finite temperature: Implications on the Stefan-Boltzmann law

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, C. A.; Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2010-01-15

    In this work we study Podolsky electromagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium. We show that a Podolsky mass-dependent modification to the Stefan-Boltzmann law is induced and we use experimental data to limit the possible values for this free parameter.

  12. [Research on antiviral chemotherapy at the Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology in 1984-1989].

    PubMed

    Eşanu, V

    1989-01-01

    The paper is a review of researches done at the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology, in Bucharest, the last five years, in the antiviral chemotherapy field, as well as of the chemotherapeutical implications of studies conducted about other aspects of virology.

  13. The Spectrum of WRN Mutations in Werner Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shurong; Lee, Lin; Hanson, Nancy B.; Lenaerts, Catherine; Hoehn, Holger; Poot, Martin; Rubin, Craig D.; Chen, Da-Fu; Yang, Chih-Chao; Juch, Heike; Dorn, Thomas; Spiegel, Roland; Oral, Elif Arioglu; Abid, Mohammed; Battisti, Carla; Lucci-Cordisco, Emanuela; Neri, Giovanni; Steed, Erin H.; Kidd, Alexa; Isley, William; Showalter, David; Vittone, Janet L.; Konstantinow, Alexander; Ring, Johannes; Meyer, Peter; Wenger, Sharon L.; von Herbay, Axel; Wollina, Uwe; Schuelke, Markus; Huizenga, Carin R.; Leistritz, Dru F.; Martin, George M.; Mian, I. Saira; Oshima, Junko

    2007-01-01

    The International Registry of Werner syndrome (www.wernersyndrome.org) has been providing molecular diagnosis of the Werner syndrome (WS) for the past decade. The present communication summarizes, from among 99 WS subjects, the spectrum of 50 distinct mutations discovered by our group and by others since the WRN gene (also called RECQL2 or REQ3) was first cloned in 1996; 25 of these have not previously been published. All WRN mutations reported thus far have resulted in the elimination of the nuclear localization signal at the C-terminus of the protein, precluding functional interactions in the nucleus; thus, all could be classified as null mutations. We now report two new mutations in the N-terminus that result in instability of the WRN protein. Clinical data confirm that the most penetrant phenotype is bilateral ocular cataracts. Other cardinal signs were seen in more than 95% of the cases. The median age of death, previously reported to be in the range of 46–48 years, is 54 years. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been cryopreserved from the majority of our index cases, including material from nuclear pedigrees. These, as well as inducible and complemented hTERT (catalytic subunit of human telomerase) immortalized skin fibroblast cell lines are available to qualified investigators. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.† PMID:16673358

  14. Using molecular dynamics to obtain Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients in liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Ven-Lucassen Thijs, Irma M. J. J.; Vlugt Antonius, J. H.; van der Zanden Piet, J. J.; Kerkhof, J. A. M.

    Two methods are compared for the calculation of Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients. The first method is a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) algorithm, in which the system is driven away from equilibrium and the system response is monitored. The second method is the equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) calculation of the appropriate GreenKubo equation. Simulations were performed for systems of 250 and 300 Lennard-Jones particles at various densities and temperatures. The systems were divided into two or three components by attaching a colour label to the particles. Since a colour label plays no role in the dynamics, the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of the binary and ternary systems are equal to the self-diffusion coefficient. In dense fluids, the system response to an external perturbation is not a first-order process, and the diffusion coefficients cannot be determined from the short term response in the NEMD method. Only the long term response can be used, after a steady state has been reached. In binary systems the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, determined by the Green-Kubo (EMD) method, are more accurate than the NEMD coefficients. Since in the NEMD method only the long term response can be used, the GreenKubo method is also less time consuming and is therefore preferred for the calculation of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients. In ternary systems the Green-Kubo method is tested for the 250 particle system. The Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients agree well with the selfdiffusion coefficient. For low mole fractions of the coloured components the diffusion coefficients were less accurate.

  15. "Wenn ich leben soll, so sei es mit dir!" The relationship of father and son in Goethe's "Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre".

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between father and son is a highly nuanced and persistent theme in Goethe's late novel Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre, but has received relatively little critical attention. Drawing on various aspects of the text, from the relationship between Wilhelm and his own son Felix, to the theme of migration from the ‘fatherland’, this essay contends that the relationship of the younger generation to the older traces a pattern of departure and return. The development in the son of an identity distinct and independent from that of the father is a preoccupation of the earlier chapters of the Wanderjahre in particular; but this process of individuation tends to be accompanied in the novel by continued, even increased, identification with the father, which may be conscious or unconscious. All the various stages of this fluctuating relationship are telescoped into a few rich, enigmatic images in the novel's closing scene, in which the threat of separation and the desire for proximity are held in suspension.

  16. Werner syndrome through the lens of tissue and tumour genomics

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Mari; Kennedy, Scott R.; Risques, Rosa Ana; Chun, Stephen G.; Pritchard, Colin; Oshima, Junko; Liu, Yan; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter K.; Welcsh, Piri; Monnat, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is the canonical adult human progeroid (‘premature aging’) syndrome. Patients with this autosomal recessive Mendelian disorder display constitutional genomic instability and an elevated risk of important age-associated diseases including cancer. Remarkably few analyses of WS patient tissue and tumors have been performed to provide insight into WS disease pathogenesis or the high risk of neoplasia. We used autopsy tissue from four mutation-typed WS patients to characterize pathologic and genomic features of WS, and to determine genomic features of three neoplasms arising in two of these patients. The results of these analyses provide new information on WS pathology and genomics; provide a first genomic characterization of neoplasms arising in WS; and provide new histopathologic and genomic data to test several popular models of WS disease pathogenesis. PMID:27559010

  17. Werner Heisenberg zum 100. Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2001-11-01

    Werner Heisenberg war eine der prägendsten Gestalten der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zu seinen wichtigsten Verdiensten gehören die Grundlegung der Quantenmechanik, die Formulierung der Unschärferelationen sowie die Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung der Kopenhagener Deutung der Quantenmechanik. Darüber hinaus lieferte er Arbeiten von fundamentalem Charakter zur Theorie des Atomkerns, zur kosmischen Strahlung und zur Quantenfeldtheorie. Während des Krieges war er an den Arbeiten des Uranvereins beteiligt, der die Möglichkeit einer Entwicklung von Kernwaffen untersuchte, jedoch über Vorarbeiten zur Reaktorphysik nicht hinauskam. Wegen dieser Tätigkeit wurde er bei Kriegsende für einige Monate in England interniert. Nach seiner Rückkehr widmete er sich vor allem dem Aufbau der Physik in Deutschland, die während der NS-Zeit nahezu ihrer gesamten Substanz beraubt worden war.

  18. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  19. Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, A. G.

    2006-11-01

    In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 1472] on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. This work and its history are briefly reviewed in this paper.

  20. The history of Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen.

    PubMed

    Williams, D J

    1999-12-01

    Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen is one of the most elegantly illustrated anatomical atlases of all time. Originally published in Leipzig as three volumes from 1895 to 1903, the atlas is still widely used and remains highly regarded by many. The atlas was remarkably popular during the first half of the 20th century, especially the English version in North America and the UK. Unfortunately, the original illustrations and printing plates for the work disappeared following the Second World War and their fate remains a mystery. And, in spite of the atlas's popularity, little is known to the men who prepared the artwork for Spalteholz. It is commonly believed that Max Brödel contributed illustrations to the atlas, but a close examination of the work does not confirm this. A century after its inception, Spalteholz's atlas remains a classic milestone in the history of anatomical illustration.

  1. A Convection Stefan Problem by Lagrange-Bürmann Expansions. I. Small Time Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Naoyuki

    1985-12-01

    A convection Stefan problem with Newton’s radiation condition has been solved by a power series method based on the method of Lagrange-Bürmann expansion. After formulating the moving boundary problem as a fixed boundary problem by variable transformation, a series solution is developed in powers of a new ‘time-like’ variable. The nonlinear interfacial and boundary conditions reduce to Lagrange-Bürmann expansions for new dependent variables from which the interface position and the wall temperature functions are recovered by inverting the transformation. Compared with the classical series solution, the convergence of the new expansions is markedly improved, in fact extending over the entire physical time domain of t{\\in}[0, ∞) for sufficiently small Stefan number.

  2. Galilean covariance, Casimir effect and Stefan-Boltzmann law at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulhoa, S. C.; Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2017-06-01

    The Galilean covariance, formulated in 5-dimensions space, describes the nonrelativistic physics in a way similar to a Lorentz covariant quantum field theory being considered for relativistic physics. Using a nonrelativistic approach the Stefan-Boltzmann law and the Casimir effect at finite temperature for a particle with spin zero and 1/2 are calculated. The thermo field dynamics is used to include the finite temperature effects.

  3. Solving ball lightning—A reply to Stefan and Massey (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Peter Francis

    2009-06-01

    Comments are made on the ball lightning paper of Stephan and Massey [Stefan, K.D., Massey, N., 2008. Burning molten metallic sphere: One class of ball lightning? Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 70, 1589-1596] that describes their [`]welding drop' theory. An alternative theory is offered based on combustion inside an atmospheric vortex. The [`]vortex fireball' hypothesis has good explanatory capability in regard to published ball lightning properties.

  4. Development of scientific tools: an innovative activity of the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L

    1989-01-01

    The innovative activity of the research team of the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology in the field of scientific tool design is presented, in a brief description of the devices, apparatuses and systems claimed in 32 patents registered not only in Romania, but also in the United States of America, United Kingdom, West Germany, France and Belgium, applied in usual virology diagnosis, research and production, for analytical purposes of computer assisted absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry and for bichromatic ultramicroanalysis.

  5. Stefan Model of the Post-Transition Plasma Environment Encountered in Solid Armature Railguns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    decreasing the operational lifetime of the launcher (Zielinski and Denny , 2009). 2 2. Overview of Stefan & Interface Model The physical...interface that carries the current are estimated to be =6×105 A (Zielinski and Denny , 2009), =5 mm (Powell et al., 2005), and =2 cm (total width of...presented in Zielinski and Denny , 2009. Note that there is significant preferential corner erosion and a sharpening of the trailing edge of the

  6. Stefan’s Problem in a Finite Domain with Constant Boundary and Initial Conditions Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    AD-AlSO 558 STEFAN’S PROBLEM IN A FINITE DONAIN WITH CONSTSAT / BOUNDARY AND INITIAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS(U) COLD REGIONS RESERCH AND ENGINEERING LAB...parameters defining the solution vary with time. Only the analytical result is reported in this paper . I oil DD t om 173 Eonom or I NOV 6S IS ORSOLETE... Scientist , Geophysical Sciences Branch, Research Division, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Funding was provided under DA Project

  7. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  8. Werner's syndrome may be lost in the shadow of the scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Gonullu, Emel; Bilge, Nazife Sule Yaşar; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2013-05-01

    We describe three patients with Werner's syndrome (WS), two of whom had been mistakenly diagnosed as having scleroderma. We would like to discuss briefly the importance of differentiation of these two disorders from each other.

  9. Entanglement of Formation for Werner States and Isotropic States via Logical Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Cesarino; Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Leporini, Roberto

    To what extent is a logical characterization of entanglement possible? We investigate some correlations that hold between the concept of entanglement of formation for Werner states and for isotropic states and the probabilistic behavior of some quantum logical gates.

  10. A comparison of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion formulations in PEMFC gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Michael; Wetton, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical formulations of Fick and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion in the context of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell cathode gas diffusion layers. The simple Fick law with a diagonal diffusion matrix is an approximation of Maxwell-Stefan. Formulations of diffusion combined with mass-averaged Darcy flow are considered for three component gases. For this application, the formulations can be compared computationally in a simple, one dimensional setting. Despite the models' seemingly different structure, it is observed that the predictions of the formulations are very similar on the cathode when air is used as oxidant. The two formulations give quite different results when the Nitrogen in the air oxidant is replaced by helium (this is often done as a diagnostic for fuel cells designs). The two formulations also give quite different results for the anode with a dilute Hydrogen stream. These results give direction to when Maxwell-Stefan diffusion, which is more complicated to implement computationally in many codes, should be used in fuel cell simulations.

  11. Integral Method of Boundary Characteristics in Solving the Stefan Problem: Dirichlet Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kot, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    The integral method of boundary characteristics is considered as applied to the solution of the Stefan problem with a Dirichlet condition. On the basis of the multiple integration of the heat-conduction equation, a sequence of identical equalities with boundary characteristics in the form of n-fold integrals of the surface temperature has been obtained. It is shown that, in the case where the temperature profile is defined by an exponential polynomial and the Stefan condition is not fulfilled at a moving interphase boundary, the accuracy of solving the Stefan problem with a Dirichlet condition by the integral method of boundary characteristics is higher by several orders of magnitude than the accuracy of solving this problem by other known approximate methods and that the solutions of the indicated problem with the use of the fourth-sixth degree polynomials on the basis of the integral method of boundary characteristics are exact in essence. This method surpasses the known numerical methods by many orders of magnitude in the accuracy of calculating the position of the interphase boundary and is approximately equal to them in the accuracy of calculating the temperature profile.

  12. An experimental study of laminar film condensation with Stefan number greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.; Dickinson, D.A. ); Chu, T.Y. )

    1991-05-01

    Experimental laminar condensation heat transfer data are reported for fluids with Stefan number up to 3.5. The fluid is a member of a family of fluorinated fluids, which have been used extensively in the electronics industry for soldering, cooling, and testing applications. Experiments were performed by suddenly immersing cold copper spheres in the saturated vapor of this fluid, and heat transfer rates were calculated using the quasi-steady temperature response of the spheres. In these experiments, the difference between saturation and wall temperature varied from 0.5C to 190C. Over this range of temperature difference, the condensate properties vary significantly; viscosity of the condensate varies by a factor of nearly 50. Corrections for the temperature-dependent properties of the condensate therefore were incorporated in calculating the Nusselt number based on the average heat transfer coefficient. The results are discussed in light of past experimental data and theory for Stefan number less than unity. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first reported study of condensation heat transfer examining the effects of Stefan number greater than unity.

  13. An experimental study of laminar film condensation with Stefan number greater than unity

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.; Dickinson, D.A. ); Chu, T.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    Experimental laminar condensation heat transfer data is reported for fluids with Stefan number up to 3.5. The fluid is a member of a family of fluorinated fluids developed in the last decade which have been extensively used in the electronics industry for soldering, cooling, and testing applications. Experiments were performed by suddenly immersing cold copper spheres in the saturated vapor of this fluid, and heat transfer rates were calculated using the quasi-steady temperature response of the spheres. In these experiments, the difference between saturation and wall temperature varied from 0.5{degree}C to 190{degree}C. Over this range of temperature difference, the condensate properties vary significantly. For example, viscosity of the condense varies by a factor of over 50. Corrections for the temperature dependent properties of the condensate therefore were incorporated in calculating the Nusselt number based on the average heat transfer coefficient. The results are discussed in light of past experimental data theory for Stefan number less than 1. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first reported study of condensation heat transfer for Stefan number greater that unity. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [A case of Werner syndrome with chromosomal abnormality].

    PubMed

    Ochi, Masayuki; Igase, Michiya; Nagai, Ayako; Nakamura, Syunpei; Nagai, Tokihisa; Kawajiri, Masakazu; Nakura, Jun; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsurou

    2006-09-01

    A 52-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus (DM) complained of weakness of the arms and legs. She was referred to our hospital in November 2002 because of anemia, thyroid tumor and meningioma including DM. She was short in stature, juvenile bilateral cataract, intractable skin ulcers, clavus on the sole of her foot, a bird-like face and high-pitched voice. Typical physical features led to the final diagnosis of Werner's syndrome. Although the myelogram revealed no abnormal findings except erythroid hypoplasia, cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells showed deletion of chromosome 20 in 10% of the analyzed cells, which suggested the possibility of that myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) could occur. She had a thyroidectomy because both lobes of the thyroid gland were enlarged and caused hoarseness, In addition, it is common knowledge that the goiter could become malignant. We need to follow her carefully because she might be vulnerable to malignant disease, including leukemia and malignant meningioma.

  15. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M⊙ Pop III stars in 105-107 M⊙ haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  16. [The birth of acknowledgement: Michel Foucault and Werner Leibbrand].

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2006-01-01

    In 1964, Werner Leibbrand (1896-1974) was the first German medical historian to present, in Sudhoffs Archiv, a review of the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984). This paper examines some of the reasons leading to the fact that Leibbrand's own generation refused to acknowledge the importance of Foucault's ideas, while, later on, younger German medical historians, although impressed with Foucault's writings, failed to acknowledge, first, the close relationship between Leibbrand's and Foucault's world views, and, second, Leibbrand's attempts at introducing Foucault to German medical historians. Leibbrand with his Jewish wife had survived the Nazi period partly in hiding. His attempts at clearing post-war German psychiatry and medical historiography of NS-sympathizers isolated him among his colleagues, many of whom had begun their career during the Third Reich. Leibbrand enjoyed the support by the Swiss medical historian and avowed Communist Erwin Ackerknecht (1906-1988), but later turned against him, possibly because Acknerknecht had called Leibbrand's writings "unscientific". Leibbrand was unable to overcome his antagonisms with his contemporaries. At the same time, opposition to Ackerknecht made him appear a respresentative of the past in the eyes of the younger generation. Thus, when Foucault was accepted by the latter, they were not prepared to examine the work of Leibbrand and realize how close some of the ideas developed by Leibbrand and Foucault had been.

  17. Aether field in extra dimensions: Stefan-Boltzmann law and Casimir effect at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. F.; Khanna, Faqir C.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorentz and C P T symmetries are not violated at the highest laboratory energies available. However these symmetries may be violated at Planck scale. A particular development is to investigate the breakdown of Lorentz and C P T symmetries by introducing an aether field that exhibits nonzero vacuum expectation value along the fifth dimension. The interactions of the aether field with scalar, electromagnetic, and fermions fields are analyzed. The Stefan-Boltzmann law and Casimir effect at finite temperature are calculated using the Thermo Field Dynamics formalism.

  18. Stefan-Boltzmann law for the tungsten filament of a light bulb: Revisiting the experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlà, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    A classical laboratory experiment to verify the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law with the tungsten filaments of commercial incandescent lamps has been fully revisited, collecting a fairly large amount of data with a computer-controlled four-channel power supply. In many cases, the total power dissipated by the lamp is well described by a sum of two power-law terms, with one exponent very close to 4, as predicted by the radiation law, and the other very close to 1, as for simple heat conduction. This result was true even for filament surfaces with a shiny metallic appearance, whose emissivity should vary with temperature.

  19. Performance evaluation of spectral analysis and Werner deconvolution interpretation techniques in magnetic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.; Gebissa, Fekadu Tamiru

    2017-03-01

    Determining the depth of anomalous geological subsurface structure is an important parameter in any of geophysical methods. Though, numerous magnetic interpretation techniques are available in literature for locating depth to the causative source, no specific information is found on the performance of any of the techniques. Werner deconvolution and Spectral methods are widely used to determine the approximate depth to the causative sources, which are then used in modeling methods. An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the performance of Werner and spectral methods. Synthetic magnetic anomalies are generated over sheet, dyke and fault models for different combinations of geometric dimensions of the bodies and magnetization angles. These anomalies were interpreted with the two methods: Werner deconvolution and Spectral analysis. The error percentages are calculated as the difference between the theoretical and interpreted values. In addition, the results are discussed for their performance. It is observed that Werner method yields more reasonable values for depth compared to spectral methods particularly when body widths are more and deep seated or faulting is deep. In case of dyke model, the Werner method determines width also reliably.

  20. Lyman-Werner escape fractions from the first galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Latif, Muhammad A.; Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Whalen, Daniel J.; Zackrisson, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Direct collapse black holes forming in pristine, atomically cooling haloes at z ≈ 10-20 may act as the seeds of supermassive black holes (BHs) at high redshifts. In order to create a massive BH seed, the host halo needs to be prevented from forming stars. H2 therefore needs to be irradiated by a large flux of Lyman-Werner (LW) UV photons in order to suppress H2 cooling. A key uncertainty in this scenario is the escape fraction of LW radiation from first galaxies, which is the dominant source of UV photons at this epoch. To better constrain this escape fraction, we have performed radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the growth of H ii regions and their associated photodissociation regions in the first galaxies using the zeus-mp code. We find that the LW escape fraction crucially depends on the propagation of the ionization front (I-front). For an R-type I-front overrunning the halo, the LW escape fraction is always larger than 95 per cent. If the halo recombines later from the outside-in, due to a softened and weakened spectrum, the LW escape fraction in the rest frame of the halo (the near-field) drops to zero. A detailed and careful analysis is required to analyse slowly moving, D-type I-fronts, where the escape fraction depends on the microphysics and can be as small as 3 per cent in the near-field and 61 per cent in the far-field or as large as 100 per cent in both the near-field and the far-field.

  1. Homozygosity mapping of the Werner syndrome locus (WRN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakura, J.; Miki, T.; Kamino, K.

    1994-10-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the early onset of several age-related diseases. The locus for this disease was recently mapped to 8p12. We studied 27 WS kindreds of mixed ethnic origins, 26 of which were consanguineous. In 24 of these families, the affected subject was given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}definite{close_quotes} WS and affected subjects in the remaining 3 pedigrees were given the diagnosis of {open_quotes}probable{close_quotes} WS. Affected subjects from each kindred were genotyped for 13 short tandem repeat polymorphic sites. Two-point linkage analysis yielded significant evidence for linkage to D8S137, D8S339, D8S87, PLAT, D8S165, and D8S166. The locus yielding a maximum lod score at the smallest recombination fraction was D8S339, suggesting that this marker is the closest to the WS gene (WRN locus) of those tested. D8S339 gave significant lod scores (Z{sub max}{>=}3.0) for both Japanese and non-Japanese (mostly Caucasian) families, demonstrating that a single locus is responsible for WS in both groups. Multipoint analysis of these markers yielded a maximum lod score of 17.05 at a distance of approximately 0.6 cM from D8S339. The combined evidence from 2-point analysis, multipoint analysis, and analysis of regions of homozygosity in subjects from inbred pedigrees indicates that the WRN locus is between D8S131 and D8S87, in an 8.3-cM interval containing D8S339. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis with a small aortic annulus in a patient having Werner's syndrome and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, M; Kasuya, S; Yamamoto, K; Koshika, M; Oguma, F; Hayashi, J

    2001-12-01

    Werner's syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by premature aging and scleroderma-like involvement of the skin. We report a case of aortic valve replacement for severely calcified aortic valve stenosis with a small annulus in a patient suffering from Werner's syndrome and liver cirrhosis

  3. Nonexistence of entangled continuous-variable Werner states with positive partial transpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Daniel; Tatham, Richard; Mišta, Ladislav

    2014-03-01

    We address an open question about the existence of entangled continuous-variable (CV) Werner states with positive partial transpose (PPT). We prove that no such state exists by showing that all PPT CV Werner states are separable. The separability follows by observing that these CV Werner states can be approximated by truncating the states into a finite-dimensional convex mixture of product states. In addition, the constituents of the product states comprise a generalized non-Gaussian measurement which gives, rather surprisingly, a strictly tighter upper bound on quantum discord than photon counting. These results uncover the presence of only negative partial transpose entanglement and illustrate the complexity of more general nonclassical correlations in this paradigmatic class of genuine non-Gaussian quantum states.

  4. Hypermutable ligation of plasmid DNA ends in cells from patients with Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rünger, T M; Bauer, C; Dekant, B; Möller, K; Sobotta, P; Czerny, C; Poot, M; Martin, G M

    1994-01-01

    Werner Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an increased cancer risk and by symptoms suggestive of premature aging. Cells from these patients demonstrate a typical pattern of chromosomal instability and a spontaneous hypermutability with a high rate of unusually large deletions. We have studied the in vivo DNA ligation in three lymphoblast cell lines from Werner syndrome patients and three from normal donors. In our host cell ligation assay we transfected linearized plasmid pZ189 and measured the amount of plasmid DNA ends rejoined by these host cells as the ability of the recovered plasmid to transform bacteria. A mutagenesis marker gene close to the ligation site allowed screening for mutations. Subsequent mutation analysis provided information about the accuracy of the ligation process. The cells from Werner syndrome patients were as effective as normal cells in ligating DNA ends. However, mutation analysis revealed that the three Werner syndrome cell lines introduced 2.4-4.6 times more mutations (p < 0.001) than the normal cell lines during ligation of the DNA ends: the mutation rates were 69.4, 97.2, and 58.7%, as compared to 23.6, 21.7, and 24.4% in the normal cell lines. These increased mutation frequencies in plasmids ligated during passage through Werner syndrome cells were mainly due to a significant (p < 0.001) increase in deletions. This error-prone DNA ligation might be responsible for the spontaneous hypermutability and the genomic instability in Werner syndrome cells and related to the apparently accelerated aging and high cancer risk in affected patients.

  5. [Utilization of Werner syndrome mouse model in studying premature aging and tumor].

    PubMed

    Jia, Shu-Ting; Yang, Shi-Hua; Luo, Ying

    2009-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in human. It is considered as a good model disease in studying human premature syndrome. Werner protein (WRN) is a nuclear protein mutated in WS. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicated that WRN plays important roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reviewed the molecular genetics of WS and the importance of telomere and WRN in the development of WS. Knocking out both telomerase and Wrn genes in mouse faithfully manifests human WS. The mouse model provides a unique genetic platform to explore the crosstalk of premature aging and tumor.

  6. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  7. Super-resolved fluorescence microscopy: Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 for Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, and William E. Moerner.

    PubMed

    Möckl, Leonhard; Lamb, Don C; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2014-12-15

    A big honor for small objects: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was jointly awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell, and William E. Moerner "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy". This Highlight describes how the field of super-resolution microscopy developed from the first detection of a single molecule in 1989 to the sophisticated techniques of today.

  8. [The results of research conducted at the Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology on the herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Muţiu, A

    1989-01-01

    The report is a review of the research and results of the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology scientists in the field of herpes viruses, as they were materialized in the great number of published or communicated scientific papers these last ten years.

  9. Computer Series, 85. Werner and Jorgensen: Presenting History with a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation which deals with the Werner-Jorgensen controversy from the standpoint of Kuhn's description of scientific change. Encourages the use of such instructional approaches to introduce general chemistry students to the process of science, including how (1) theories develop, (2) change occurs, and (3) scientists behave.…

  10. Computer Series, 85. Werner and Jorgensen: Presenting History with a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation which deals with the Werner-Jorgensen controversy from the standpoint of Kuhn's description of scientific change. Encourages the use of such instructional approaches to introduce general chemistry students to the process of science, including how (1) theories develop, (2) change occurs, and (3) scientists behave.…

  11. Telomere Shortening Exposes Functions for the Mouse Werner and Bloom Syndrome Genes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaobing; Shen, Johnny; Kugan, Nishan; Furth, Emma E.; Lombard, David B.; Cheung, Catherine; Pak, Sally; Luo, Guangbin; Pignolo, Robert J.; DePinho, Ronald A.; Guarente, Leonard; Johnson, F. Brad

    2004-01-01

    The Werner and Bloom syndromes are caused by loss-of-function mutations in WRN and BLM, respectively, which encode the RecQ family DNA helicases WRN and BLM, respectively. Persons with Werner syndrome displays premature aging of the skin, vasculature, reproductive system, and bone, and those with Bloom syndrome display more limited features of aging, including premature menopause; both syndromes involve genome instability and increased cancer. The proteins participate in recombinational repair of stalled replication forks or DNA breaks, but the precise functions of the proteins that prevent rapid aging are unknown. Accumulating evidence points to telomeres as targets of WRN and BLM, but the importance in vivo of the proteins in telomere biology has not been tested. We show that Wrn and Blm mutations each accentuate pathology in later-generation mice lacking the telomerase RNA template Terc, including acceleration of phenotypes characteristic of latest-generation Terc mutants. Furthermore, pathology not observed in Terc mutants but similar to that observed in Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome, such as bone loss, was observed. The pathology was accompanied by enhanced telomere dysfunction, including end-to-end chromosome fusions and greater loss of telomere repeat DNA compared with Terc mutants. These findings indicate that telomere dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome. PMID:15367665

  12. Exact solution of two phase spherical Stefan problem with two free boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavokin, Alexey A.; Nauryz, Targyn; Bizhigitova, Nazerke T.

    2016-08-01

    Solution of the heat equation in a spherical domain with two free boundaries (two-phase Stefan problem) when one of the subdomains degenerates at the initial time is considered. The use of conventional finite-difference methods in these cases is not expedient because of the degenerate domain. The solution is found in the form of combination of Integral Error functions series, [M. Sarsengeldin, and S. Kharin, Filomat, (2016), (in Press)] and then recurrent solvability of nonlinear algebraic equations for determining the coefficients of the series is proved. Such problems are of practical interest for the simulation of laser material processing as well for the modeling of thermal effects of electric arc that ignites during the opening of electric contacts [S. N. Kharin, and M. Sarsengeldin, Influence of contact materials on phenomena in a short electrical arc, in Key Engineering Materials, Trans tech publications, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2012, pp. 321-329].

  13. Research in the field of antiviral chemotherapy performed in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology.

    PubMed

    Eşanu, V

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is made of the research in the field of antiviral chemotherapy performed in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology during the 35 years since its foundation. The investigations have mainly focused on influenza and herpes virus, but the chemotherapy of other viral infections (mumps, vaccinia, Coxsackie, etc.) has also been approached. Most of the chemotherapy agents assayed have been represented by natural preparations: immunoglobulins, interferon, hormones, vitamins, plant extracts (garlic, horse radish), bee products (propolis, royal jelly); attempts have also been made with numerous synthetic compounds. Stress is laid on the preparations already tested with a view to application in human clinic, and the prospects of chemotherapy research in the Institute of Virology are discussed.

  14. A Finite-Difference Solution of a Crystal Growth Stefan Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Naoyuki

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a finite-difference solution of a crystal growth Stefan problem in an isothermal binary component melt system. To ensure the accuracy of the computation without increasing the computational time, a variable scheme of grid size has been introduced whereby a smaller grid size is chosen at small times when the effective number of grid points available for computations is small. The numerical results are obtained for several values of the equilibrium parameter ue of the problem. The present results confirm that both the small time Lagrange-Bürmann solution and the large time asymptotic solution of the same problem given earlier by the author predict a correct behavior of the solution over considerably extended physical time domains. An excellent experimental verification is also obtained.

  15. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    PubMed

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  16. [Medical students movement in Stefan Batory university in Vilno between 1919-1939].

    PubMed

    Brozek, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1938 Stefan Batory University counted 3110 students of whom 736 studied in Medical Faculty. The students were of the following nationalities: Poles - 76.6%, Jews - 13.4%, Russians - 6.8%, White Russians 3.0%, Lithuanians - 2.7%, Ukrainians - 0.9%, Germans - 0.4%, others - 0.1%. The students had 77 associations: 25 scientific (included Medicale Circle and Jewish Medical Students Association); 3 of Selfhelp (Fellowship Help and 2 Jewish selfhelp organizations); 20 of political, religious and national characters; 10 regional (eg. Lodz, Grodno, Bialystok, Inflanty, Kowno, Silesia and Zaglebie); 12 corporations; 2 sport organizations: Academic Sport Federation and Jewish Academic Sport Club; in 5 of different character was Academic Choir. Students had their own journal "Alma Mater Vilnensis".

  17. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    PubMed

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  18. The type localities of Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 (Sauria: Iguania: Dactyloidae) and Pristimantis appendiculatus (Werner, 1894) (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F

    2017-01-04

    The eminent Austrian zoologist Franz Werner described several new species of amphibians and reptiles from America, including Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 and Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894. Both species were described based on single specimens, with no more specific type localities than "Ecuador" (Werner 1894a,b). After its description, A. aequatorialis remained unreported until Peters (1967) and Fitch et al. (1976) published information on its distribution and natural history. Anolis aequatorialis is currently known to inhabit low montane and cloud forest on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to central Ecuador, between 1300 and 2300 m elevation (Ayala-Varela & Velasco 2010; Ayala-Varela et al. 2014; Lynch et al. 2014; D.F. Cisneros-Heredia pers. obs.). Likewise, Hylodes appendiculatus (now Pristimantis appendiculatus) remained only known from its type description until Lynch (1971) and Miyata (1980) provided certain localities and information on its natural history. Pristimantis appendiculatus is currently known to occur in low montane, cloud, and high montane forests on the western slopes of the Andes from extreme southern Colombia to northern Ecuador between 1460 and 2800 m elevation (Lynch 1971; Miyata 1980; Lynch & Burrowes 1990; Lynch & Duellman 1997; Frost 2016). To this date, the type localities of both species remain obscure. The purpose of this paper is to restrict the type localities of Hylodes appendiculatus Werner, 1894 and Anolis aequatorialis Werner, 1894 based on analyses of the travel journals of their original collector.

  19. Several theorems about the interference of particle beams and the theoretical interpretation of Collela-Overhauser-Werner and Marton experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.Y.; Shen, Z.J.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-07-15

    A new theorem about the interference between particle beams is established. The Collela-Overhauser-Werner and Marton experiments are theoretically explained with a theorem established by Chiu and Stodolsky. The Feynman theory is applied to obtaining the propagator for a particle beam in a gravitational field, and the Collela-Overhauser-Werner experiment is further analyzed. Another theorem, established by Chiu and Stodolsky, and our new theorem are proved with the method of Feynman's path integrals.

  20. General relativistic treatment of the Colella-Overhauser-Werner experiment on neutron interference in a gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjú, Katalin; Ryder, Lewis H.

    2000-05-01

    In the Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment a gravity-induced phase shift of spin 1/2 particles was detected. The experimental results were explained by using the Newtonian theory of gravity. The explanation can be easily given using general relativistic arguments and the highest order term reproduces the result of Colella, Overhauser, and Werner together with additional, lower order corrections. The derivation can be considered as an interesting exercise for students with basic knowledge of the field of general relativity.

  1. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    PubMed

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  2. Quantum information transmission in the quantum wireless multihop network based on Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-Hui; Yu, Xu-Tao; Cai, Xiao-Fei; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2015-05-01

    Many previous studies about teleportation are based on pure state. Study of quantum channel as mixed state is more realistic but complicated as pure states degenerate into mixed states by interaction with environment, and the Werner state plays an important role in the study of the mixed state. In this paper, the quantum wireless multihop network is proposed and the information is transmitted hop by hop through teleportation. We deduce a specific expression of the recovered state not only after one-hop teleportation but also across multiple intermediate nodes based on Werner state in a quantum wireless multihop network. We also obtain the fidelity of multihop teleportation. Project supported by the Prospective Future Network Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BY2013095-1-18) and the Independent Project of State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves (Grant No. Z201504).

  3. Excitation of the Werner bands of H2 by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. J.; Zipf, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for the excitation of the H2 Werner band system were measured from energy threshold to 300 eV for electron impact on H2. The bands were observed in emission in the wavelength region 1100A to 1250A. The measured cross sections were compared with published transition probabilities, leading to the conclusion that the Werner bands are suitable as the basis for a relative spectral response calibration only when the bands are observed under sufficiently high resolution. The effect of the perturbation between the C 1Pi u and B 1 Sigma-u states of the hydrogen molecule was clearly observed in anomalies in the rotational intensity distribution in bands of the (3 v '') progression.

  4. WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients: genomic rearrangements, unusual intronic mutations and ethnic-specific alterations.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Katrin; Lee, Lin; Leistritz, Dru F; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saha, Bidisha; Hisama, Fuki M; Eyman, Daniel K; Lessel, Davor; Nürnberg, Peter; Li, Chumei; Garcia-F-Villalta, María J; Kets, Carolien M; Schmidtke, Joerg; Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Van den Akker, Peter C; Boak, Joseph; Peter, Dincy; Compoginis, Goli; Cefle, Kivanc; Ozturk, Sukru; López, Norberto; Wessel, Theda; Poot, Martin; Ippel, P F; Groff-Kellermann, Birgit; Hoehn, Holger; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2010-07-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by null mutations at the WRN locus, which codes for a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Since 1988, the International Registry of Werner syndrome had enrolled 130 molecularly confirmed WS cases from among 110 worldwide pedigrees. We now report 18 new mutations, including two genomic rearrangements, a deep intronic mutation resulting in a novel exon, a splice consensus mutation leading to utilization of the nearby splice site, and two rare missense mutations. We also review evidence for founder mutations among various ethnic/geographic groups. Founder WRN mutations had been previously reported in Japan and Northern Sardinia. Our Registry now suggests characteristic mutations originated in Morocco, Turkey, The Netherlands and elsewhere.

  5. WRN mutations in Werner syndrome patients: genomic rearrangements, unusual intronic mutations and ethnic-specific alterations

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Katrin; Lee, Lin; Leistritz, Dru F.; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Saha, Bidisha; Hisama, Fuki M.; Eyman, Daniel K.; Lessel, Davor; Nürnberg, Peter; Li, Chumei; Garcia-F-Villalta, María J.; Kets, Carolien M.; Schmidtke, Joerg; Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Van den Akker, Peter C.; Boak, Joseph; Peter, Dincy; Compoginis, Goli; Cefle, Kivanc; Ozturk, Sukru; López, Norberto; Wessel, Theda; Poot, Martin; Ippel, P. F.; Groff-Kellermann, Birgit; Hoehn, Holger; Martin, George M.; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by null mutations at the WRN locus, which codes for a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Since 1988, the International Registry of Werner syndrome had enrolled 130 molecularly confirmed WS cases from among 110 worldwide pedigrees. We now report 18 new mutations, including two genomic rearrangements, a deep intronic mutation resulting in a novel exon, a splice consensus mutation leading to utilization of the nearby splice site, and two rare missense mutations. We also review evidence for founder mutations among various ethnic/geographic groups. Founder WRN mutations had been previously reported in Japan and Northern Sardinia. Our Registry now suggests characteristic mutations originated in Morocco, Turkey, The Netherlands and elsewhere. PMID:20443122

  6. Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker: A Fifty-Year Friendship*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper follows Werner Heisenberg and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker during their fifty-year friendship from 1926, when they first met in Copenhagen, to Heisenberg's death in Munich in 1976. The relationship underwent profound changes during that period, as did physics, philosophy, and German society and politics, all of which exerted important influences on their lives, work, and interactions with each other. The nature of these developments and their impact are explored in this paper.

  7. Werner and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndromes: mechanistic basis of human progeroid diseases.

    PubMed

    Kudlow, Brian A; Kennedy, Brian K; Monnat, Raymond J

    2007-05-01

    Progeroid syndromes have been the focus of intense research in part because they might provide a window into the pathology of normal ageing. Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases. Mutated genes that are associated with these syndromes have been identified, mouse models of disease have been developed, and molecular studies have implicated decreased cell proliferation and altered DNA-damage responses as common causal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both diseases.

  8. Schrödinger cat and Werner state disentanglement simulated by trapped ion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.

    2017-04-01

    Disentanglement and loss of quantum correlations due to one global collective noise effect are described for two-qubit Schrödinger cat and Werner states of a four level trapped ion quantum system. Once the Jaynes–Cummings ionic interactions are mapped onto a Dirac spinor structure, the elementary tools for computing quantum correlations of two-qubit ionic states are provided. With two-qubit quantum numbers related to the total angular momentum and to its projection onto the direction of an external magnetic field (which lifts the degeneracy of the ion’s internal levels), a complete analytical profile of entanglement for the Schrödinger cat and Werner states is obtained. Under vacuum noise (during spontaneous emission), the two-qubit entanglement in the Schrödinger cat states is shown to vanish asymptotically. Otherwise, the robustness of Werner states is concomitantly identified, with the entanglement content recovered by their noiseless-like evolution. Most importantly, our results point to a firstly reported sudden transition between classical and quantum decay regimes driven by a classical collective noise on the Schrödinger cat states, which has been quantified by the geometric discord.

  9. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. From alfred werner to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    von Zelewsky, Alex

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the scientific symposium, November 22nd, 2013, commemorating the Nobel Prize awarded to Alfred Werner in 1913, a presentation of the development of stereochemistry of coordination compounds during the past 120 years was given. Stereochemistry was fundamental to Werner's theory of coordination compounds. After Werner's death in 1919, stereochemistry in this field did not progress much further for almost 20 years, but then developed continuously. It was realized that stereochemical features of elements showing coordination numbers larger than four are responsible for an almost unlimited number of stereochemical possibilities, thus opening a molecular world of new structures. In the beginning of the 21st century, interest in the field rose again considerably, mainly due to the potential of stereoselective catalysis, and the self-assembly of supramolecular structures. An end of these developments is not in sight. Here an abbreviated version of the lecture is given. A PowerPoint(®) file, or a video of the presentation, can be downloaded.

  10. A high brightness proton injector for the Tandetron accelerator at Jožef Stefan Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelicon, Primož; Podaru, Nicolae C.; Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potocnik, Nina; Ondračka, Simon; Gottdang, Andreas; Mous, Dirk J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Jožef Stefan Institute recently commissioned a high brightness H- ion beam injection system for its existing tandem accelerator facility. Custom developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa, the multicusp ion source has been tuned to deliver at the entrance of the Tandetron™ accelerator H- ion beams with a measured brightness of 17.1 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1 at 170 μA, equivalent to an energy normalized beam emittance of 0.767 π mm mrad MeV1/2. Upgrading the accelerator facility with the new injection system provides two main advantages. First, the high brightness of the new ion source enables the reduction of object slit aperture and the reduction of acceptance angle at the nuclear microprobe, resulting in a reduced beam size at selected beam intensity, which significantly improves the probe resolution for micro-PIXE applications. Secondly, the upgrade strongly enhances the accelerator up-time since H and He beams are produced by independent ion sources, introducing a constant availability of 3He beam for fusion-related research with NRA. The ion beam particle losses and ion beam emittance growth imply that the aforementioned beam brightness is reduced by transport through the ion optical system. To obtain quantitative information on the available brightness at the high-energy side of the accelerator, the proton beam brightness is determined in the nuclear microprobe beamline. Based on the experience obtained during the first months of operation for micro-PIXE applications, further necessary steps are indicated to obtain optimal coupling of the new ion source with the accelerator to increase the normalized high-energy proton beam brightness at the JSI microprobe, currently at 14 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1, with the output current at 18% of its available maximum.

  11. Werner Forssmann - A Nobel Prize Winner and His Political Attitude before and after 1945.

    PubMed

    Packy, Lisa-Maria; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    In 1956, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Werner Forssmann, André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson W. Richards for their development of cardiac catheterization. Forssmann performed a self-experiment in 1929 by inserting a urethral catheter into his right ventricular cavity via his antecubital vein. Despite his popularity as one of the first German Nobel Laureates after 1945, little is known about Forssmann personally. This contribution aims to close this gap regarding the Nazi period and early post-war Germany. Primary historical sources from Forssmann's private archive were examined, evaluated and interpreted for the first time. Additionally, a comparative analysis based on further archival and secondary sources was performed. Werner Forssmann joined the Nazi Party, the Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers, SA) and the Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Ärztebund (Nazi Doctors' Association) in 1932, a year before Hitler's assumption of power. In his autobiography, Forssmann referred to the political situation in passing. However, he expressed his personal thoughts in private letters which he wrote as a medical officer during the war. After World War II, Forssmann underwent denazification and was banned from practicing medicine for 3 years. He did not seem to be averse to Hitler's politics and in some ways expressed his approval. However, correspondence from the 1960s with 2 Jewish colleagues reveals that Forssmann may have changed his attitude toward National Socialism later. Werner Forssmann's political attitudes during the Third Reich and in the post-war era can be characterized as early agreement that gradually changed to a more critical distance to Nazi ideology. In this respect, Forssmann appears to be quite a typical example of a larger proportion of German medical doctors during these eras. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Results in the study of virus--tumor relationships obtained in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E

    1979-01-01

    The results of over 200 scientific papers in the field of in vivo and in vitro virus--tumor relationships, worked out in the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute of Virology during a period of over 25 years, are very briefly reviewed. Stress is laid on the original theoretical and practical contributions of the institute to the knowledge of viral carcinogenesis in animals and humans. Some personal viewpoints in the interpretation of results are presented and new research prospects in this field--which represents a traditional concern of the institute--are lutlined.

  13. A numerical analysis of Stefan problems for generalized multi-dimensional phase-change structures using the enthalpy transforming model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yiding; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon

    1989-01-01

    An enthalpy transforming scheme is proposed to convert the energy equation into a nonlinear equation with the enthalpy, E, being the single dependent variable. The existing control-volume finite-difference approach is modified so it can be applied to the numerical performance of Stefan problems. The model is tested by applying it to a three-dimensional freezing problem. The numerical results are in agreement with those existing in the literature. The model and its algorithm are further applied to a three-dimensional moving heat source problem showing that the methodology is capable of handling complicated phase-change problems with fixed grids.

  14. A numerical analysis of Stefan problems for generalized multi-dimensional phase-change structures using the enthalpy transforming model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yiding; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon

    1989-01-01

    An enthalpy transforming scheme is proposed to convert the energy equation into a nonlinear equation with the enthalpy, E, being the single dependent variable. The existing control-volume finite-difference approach is modified so it can be applied to the numerical performance of Stefan problems. The model is tested by applying it to a three-dimensional freezing problem. The numerical results are in agreement with those existing in the literature. The model and its algorithm are further applied to a three-dimensional moving heat source problem showing that the methodology is capable of handling complicated phase-change problems with fixed grids.

  15. A new tool for modeling dune field evolution based on an accessible, GUI version of the Werner dune model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, Thomas E.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.

    2012-02-01

    Research into aeolian dune form and dynamics has benefited from simple and abstract cellular automata computer models. Many of these models are based upon a seminal framework proposed by Werner (1995). Unfortunately, most versions of this model are not publicly available or are not provided in a format that promotes widespread use. In our view, this hinders progress in linking model simulations to empirical data (and vice versa). To this end, we introduce an accessible, graphical user interface (GUI) version of the Werner model. The novelty of this contribution is that it provides a simple interface and detailed instructions that encourage widespread use and extension of the Werner dune model for research and training purposes. By lowering barriers for researchers to develop and test hypotheses about aeolian dune and dune field patterns, this release addresses recent calls to improve access to earth surface models.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of a pyrazolyl ketone library for evaluation as p38 MAPK inhibitors in Werner syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Dix, Matthew C; Murziani, Paola Gs; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David

    2010-02-01

    The pyrazolyl ketone motif of RO3201195, which exhibits good oral bioavailability and high selectivity for p38 MAPK over other kinases, is a key pharmacophore that could find application in the treatment of Werner syndrome. Microwave irradiation promotes Knoevenagel condensation of a β-ketonitrile and formamidine, to give β-aminovinyl ketones, and their subsequent cyclocondensation with a subset of hydrazines to provide rapid access to a 24-membered library of pyrazolyl ketones. The library was evaluated in human hTERT-immortalized HCA2 dermal cells and Werner syndrome cells. Four compounds display comparable, if not slightly improved, potency over RO3201195.

  17. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

    2014-08-01

    Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency.

  18. POLD1 Germline Mutations in Patients Initially Diagnosed with Werner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lessel, Davor; Hisama, Fuki M.; Szakszon, Katalin; Saha, Bidisha; Sanjuanelo, Alexander Barrios; Salbert, Bonnie A.; Steele, Pamela D.; Baldwin, Jennifer; Brown, W. Ted; Piussan, Charles; Plauchu, Henri; Szilvássy, Judit; Horkay, Edit; Hoögel, Josef; Martin, George M.; Herr, Alan J.; Oshima, Junko; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Segmental progeroid syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by signs of premature aging affecting more than one tissue or organ. A prototypic example is the Werner syndrome (WS), caused by biallelic germline mutations in the Werner helicase gene (WRN). While heterozygous lamin A/C (LMNA) mutations are found in a few nonclassical cases of WS, another 10%–15% of patients initially diagnosed with WS do not have mutations in WRN or LMNA. Germline POLD1 mutations were recently reported in five patients with another segmental progeroid disorder: mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features syndrome. Here, we describe eight additional patients with heterozygous POLD1 mutations, thereby substantially expanding the characterization of this new example of segmental progeroid disorders. First, we identified POLD1 mutations in patients initially diagnosed with WS. Second, we describe POLD1 mutation carriers without clinically relevant hearing impairment or mandibular underdevelopment, both previously thought to represent obligate diagnostic features. These patients also exhibit a lower incidence of metabolic abnormalities and joint contractures. Third, we document postnatal short stature and premature greying/loss of hair in POLD1 mutation carriers. We conclude that POLD1 germline mutations can result in a variably expressed and probably underdiagnosed segmental progeroid syndrome. PMID:26172944

  19. Catalytic activities of Werner protein are affected by adduction with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Jolanta; Poznański, Jarosław; Dębski, Janusz; Bukowy, Zuzanna; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Tudek, Barbara; Speina, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde generated during oxidative stress and subsequent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, Werner protein (WRN) was identified as a novel target for modification by HNE. Werner syndrome arises through mutations in the WRN gene that encodes the RecQ DNA helicase which is critical for maintaining genomic stability. This hereditary disease is associated with chromosomal instability, premature aging and cancer predisposition. WRN appears to participate in the cellular response to oxidative stress and cells devoid of WRN display elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage. We demonstrated that helicase/ATPase and exonuclease activities of HNE-modified WRN protein were inhibited both in vitro and in immunocomplexes purified from the cell extracts. Sites of HNE adduction in human WRN were identified at Lys577, Cys727, His1290, Cys1367, Lys1371 and Lys1389. We applied in silico modeling of the helicase and RQC domains of WRN protein with HNE adducted to Lys577 and Cys727 and provided a potential mechanism of the observed deregulation of the protein catalytic activities. In light of the obtained results, we postulate that HNE adduction to WRN is a post-translational modification, which may affect WRN conformational stability and function, contributing to features and diseases associated with premature senescence.

  20. DNA binding residues in the RQC domain of Werner protein are critical for its catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Takashi; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Dawut, Lale; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-06-01

    Werner protein (WRN), member of the RecQ helicase family, is a helicase and exonuclease, and participates in multiple DNA metabolic processes including DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. Mutations in the WRN gene cause Werner syndrome, associated with premature aging, genome instability and cancer predisposition. The RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN, containing α2-α3 loop and β-wing motifs, is important for DNA binding and for many protein interactions. To better understand the critical functions of this domain, we generated recombinant WRN proteins (using a novel purification scheme) with mutations in Arg-993 within the α2-α3 loop of the RQC domain and in Phe-1037 of the -wing motif. We then studied the catalytic activities and DNA binding of these mutant proteins as well as some important functional protein interactions. The mutant proteins were defective in DNA binding and helicase activity, and interestingly, they had deficient exonuclease activity and strand annealing function. The RQC domain of WRN has not previously been implicated in exonuclease or annealing activities. The mutant proteins could not stimulate NEIL1 incision activity as did the wild type. Thus, the Arg-993 and Phe-1037 in the RQC domain play essential roles in catalytic activity, and in functional interactions mediated by WRN.

  1. Catalytic activities of Werner protein are affected by adduction with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    PubMed Central

    Czerwińska, Jolanta; Poznański, Jarosław; Dębski, Janusz; Bukowy, Zuzanna; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Tudek, Barbara; Speina, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde generated during oxidative stress and subsequent peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, Werner protein (WRN) was identified as a novel target for modification by HNE. Werner syndrome arises through mutations in the WRN gene that encodes the RecQ DNA helicase which is critical for maintaining genomic stability. This hereditary disease is associated with chromosomal instability, premature aging and cancer predisposition. WRN appears to participate in the cellular response to oxidative stress and cells devoid of WRN display elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage. We demonstrated that helicase/ATPase and exonuclease activities of HNE-modified WRN protein were inhibited both in vitro and in immunocomplexes purified from the cell extracts. Sites of HNE adduction in human WRN were identified at Lys577, Cys727, His1290, Cys1367, Lys1371 and Lys1389. We applied in silico modeling of the helicase and RQC domains of WRN protein with HNE adducted to Lys577 and Cys727 and provided a potential mechanism of the observed deregulation of the protein catalytic activities. In light of the obtained results, we postulate that HNE adduction to WRN is a post-translational modification, which may affect WRN conformational stability and function, contributing to features and diseases associated with premature senescence. PMID:25170083

  2. POLD1 Germline Mutations in Patients Initially Diagnosed with Werner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lessel, Davor; Hisama, Fuki M; Szakszon, Katalin; Saha, Bidisha; Sanjuanelo, Alexander Barrios; Salbert, Bonnie A; Steele, Pamela D; Baldwin, Jennifer; Brown, W Ted; Piussan, Charles; Plauchu, Henri; Szilvássy, Judit; Horkay, Edit; Högel, Josef; Martin, George M; Herr, Alan J; Oshima, Junko; Kubisch, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Segmental progeroid syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by signs of premature aging affecting more than one tissue or organ. A prototypic example is the Werner syndrome (WS), caused by biallelic germline mutations in the Werner helicase gene (WRN). While heterozygous lamin A/C (LMNA) mutations are found in a few nonclassical cases of WS, another 10%-15% of patients initially diagnosed with WS do not have mutations in WRN or LMNA. Germline POLD1 mutations were recently reported in five patients with another segmental progeroid disorder: mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features syndrome. Here, we describe eight additional patients with heterozygous POLD1 mutations, thereby substantially expanding the characterization of this new example of segmental progeroid disorders. First, we identified POLD1 mutations in patients initially diagnosed with WS. Second, we describe POLD1 mutation carriers without clinically relevant hearing impairment or mandibular underdevelopment, both previously thought to represent obligate diagnostic features. These patients also exhibit a lower incidence of metabolic abnormalities and joint contractures. Third, we document postnatal short stature and premature greying/loss of hair in POLD1 mutation carriers. We conclude that POLD1 germline mutations can result in a variably expressed and probably underdiagnosed segmental progeroid syndrome.

  3. DNA binding residues in the RQC domain of Werner protein are critical for its catalytic activities

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Takashi; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Dawut, Lale; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2012-01-01

    Werner protein (WRN), member of the RecQ helicase family, is a helicase and exonuclease, and participates in multiple DNA metabolic processes including DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. Mutations in the WRN gene cause Werner syndrome, associated with premature aging, genome instability and cancer predisposition. The RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN, containing α2-α3 loop and β-wing motifs, is important for DNA binding and for many protein interactions. To better understand the critical functions of this domain, we generated recombinant WRN proteins (using a novel purification scheme) with mutations in Arg-993 within the α2-α3 loop of the RQC domain and in Phe-1037 of the μ-wing motif. We then studied the catalytic activities and DNA binding of these mutant proteins as well as some important functional protein interactions. The mutant proteins were defective in DNA binding and helicase activity, and interestingly, they had deficient exonuclease activity and strand annealing function. The RQC domain of WRN has not previously been implicated in exonuclease or annealing activities. The mutant proteins could not stimulate NEIL1 incision activity as did the wild type. Thus, the Arg-993 and Phe-1037 in the RQC domain play essential roles in catalytic activity, and in functional interactions mediated by WRN. PMID:22713343

  4. Lattice Boltzmann scheme for mixture modeling: analysis of the continuum diffusion regimes recovering Maxwell-Stefan model and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Asinari, Pietro

    2009-11-01

    A finite difference lattice Boltzmann scheme for homogeneous mixture modeling, which recovers Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model in the continuum limit, without the restriction of the mixture-averaged diffusion approximation, was recently proposed [P. Asinari, Phys. Rev. E 77, 056706 (2008)]. The theoretical basis is the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-type kinetic model for gas mixtures [P. Andries, K. Aoki, and B. Perthame, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)]. In the present paper, the recovered macroscopic equations in the continuum limit are systematically investigated by varying the ratio between the characteristic diffusion speed and the characteristic barycentric speed. It comes out that the diffusion speed must be at least one order of magnitude (in terms of Knudsen number) smaller than the barycentric speed, in order to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for mixtures in the incompressible limit. Some further numerical tests are also reported. In particular, (1) the solvent and dilute test cases are considered, because they are limiting cases in which the Maxwell-Stefan model reduces automatically to Fickian cases. Moreover, (2) some tests based on the Stefan diffusion tube are reported for proving the complete capabilities of the proposed scheme in solving Maxwell-Stefan diffusion problems. The proposed scheme agrees well with the expected theoretical results.

  5. Active Control of Repetitive Structural Transitions between Replication Forks and Holliday Junctions by Werner Syndrome Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soochul; Lee, Jinwoo; Yoo, Sangwoon; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Ahn, Byungchan; Hohng, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The reactivation of stalled DNA replication via fork regression invokes Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and the recovery of the replication fork after DNA repair or error-free DNA synthesis. The coordination mechanism for these DNA structural transitions by molecular motors, however, remains unclear. Here we perform single-molecule fluorescence experiments with Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and model replication forks. The Holliday junction is readily formed once the lagging arm is unwound, and migrated unidirectionally with 3.2 ± 0.03 bases/s velocity. The recovery of the replication fork was controlled by branch migration reversal of WRN, resulting in repetitive fork regression. The Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and migration direction reversal are all ATP dependent, revealing that WRN uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively coordinate the structural transitions of DNA. PMID:27427477

  6. [From Nobody to Nobel laureate? The case of Werner Forßmann].

    PubMed

    Hansson, N; Packy, L-M; Halling, T; Groß, D; Fangerau, H

    2015-03-01

    The surgeon and urologist Werner Forßmann (1904-1979) was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1956. At the time of the prize ceremony, several newspapers portrayed Forssmann as an unknown rural physician who suddenly had become an international star. Drawing on nominations and reports in the Nobel Prize Archive for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm as well as correspondence from the private archive of the Forßmann family, this paper reconstructs why the Nobel Committee chose to award Forßmann. We show that Forssmann's work was appreciated in medical textbooks and that he enjoyed a relatively sound reputation in the international scientific community even before he became a Nobel Prize laureate. At a more general level, we use his example to explore some mechanisms of scientific recognition.

  7. Aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the premature aging disorders Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria and Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation gradiently changes with age and is likely to be involved in aging-related processes with subsequent phenotype changes and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. The Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGP) and Werner Syndrome (WS) are two premature aging diseases showing features of common natural aging early in life. Mutations in the LMNA and WRN genes were associated to disease onset; however, for a subset of patients the underlying causative mechanisms remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate the role of epigenetic alteration on premature aging diseases by performing comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of HGP and WS patients. We observed profound changes in the DNA methylation landscapes of WRN and LMNA mutant patients, which were narrowed down to a set of aging related genes and processes. Although of low overall variance, non-mutant patients revealed differential DNA methylation at distinct loci. Hence, we propose DNA methylation to have an impact on premature aging diseases.

  8. Redescription Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) and Phylogeny of the Prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael B; O'connell, Kyle A; Wostl, Elijah; Riyanto, Awal; Kurniawan, Nia; Smith, Eric N; Grismer, L Lee

    2016-05-04

    We redescribe Cyrtodactylus lateralis (Werner) on the basis of new specimens. Cyrtodactylus lateralis is a prehensile-tailed species, known from scattered lowland to mid-elevation localities in northern Sumatra. The prehensile-tailed Cyrtodactylus are more speciose and have a wider distribution than previously thought. This group includes a mainland SE Asian clade consisting of C. elok, C. interdigitalis, and C. brevipalmatus and an insular clade containing C. durio, C. lateralis, C. nuaulu, C. serratus, C. spinosus, and C. stresemanni. However, a distinctive color pattern in the Wallacean and Papuan species and uncertainty surrounding the type locality of C. stresemanni raise unresolved questions about the inclusiveness of the insular clade. DNA sequence data supports a close relationship between C. elok and C. interdigitalis, but also reveals that C. lateralis and C. durio are not closely related to these species.

  9. Werner states and the two-spinors Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    We ascertain, following ideas of Arnesen, Bose, and Vedral concerning thermal entanglement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 017901] and using the statistical tool called entropic non-triviality [P.W. Lamberti, M.T. Martin, A. Plastino, O.A. Rosso, Physica A 334 (2004) 119], that there is a one-to-one correspondence between (i) the mixing coefficient x of a Werner state, on the one hand, and (ii) the temperature T of the one-dimensional Heisenberg two-spin chain with a magnetic field B along the z-axis, on the other one. This is true for each value of B below a certain critical value B. The pertinent mapping depends on the particular B-value one selects within such a range.

  10. Observability, Anschaulichkeit and Abstraction: A Journey into Werner Heisenberg's Science and Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Werner Heisenberg was one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. He participated as a front rank actor in the shaping of a good part of XXth century physics and directly witnessed most of the intellectual struggles which led to what he called “Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der exakten Naturwissenschaft”. This expression is borrowed from one of the many talks and writings he devoted to the analysis of the scientific and philosophical implications of his, and his fellows physicists, findings. Indeed, Heisenberg's scientific activity increasingly reflected his more general intellectual views. This makes him another magnificent representative of a glorious linage going from the remote times of modern science to Einstein, Bohr and the like. This “philosophical” vein started early in his scientific life, and got stronger with time, prompted by the highly demanding scientific, but also social and political context of his mature years.

  11. [Werner Schäfer. A life as researcher and teacher].

    PubMed

    Rott, R; Thiel, H J; Moennig, V

    2000-07-01

    The following short biography recalls Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Werner Schäfer, emeritus professor and director of the Medical Biology Department of the Max-Planck-Institut für Virusforschung in Tübingen and scientific member of the Max-Planck Society who died on 25th April 2000. He was one of the most distinguished pioneers of animal virology and one of the great personalities who since the Second World War have helped German science to regain its international reputation. In a brief synopsis the important results of his work on the viruses he used as models to conduct his research have been portrayed. As a result of Schäfer's scientific conception to gain insights into the functional characteristics of viruses by looking at their structure, the field of virology has taken new directions and founded a school whose pupils try to continue his successful and much honoured life's work.

  12. Active Control of Repetitive Structural Transitions between Replication Forks and Holliday Junctions by Werner Syndrome Helicase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soochul; Lee, Jinwoo; Yoo, Sangwoon; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Ahn, Byungchan; Hohng, Sungchul

    2016-08-02

    The reactivation of stalled DNA replication via fork regression invokes Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and the recovery of the replication fork after DNA repair or error-free DNA synthesis. The coordination mechanism for these DNA structural transitions by molecular motors, however, remains unclear. Here we perform single-molecule fluorescence experiments with Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and model replication forks. The Holliday junction is readily formed once the lagging arm is unwound, and migrated unidirectionally with 3.2 ± 0.03 bases/s velocity. The recovery of the replication fork was controlled by branch migration reversal of WRN, resulting in repetitive fork regression. The Holliday junction formation, branch migration, and migration direction reversal are all ATP dependent, revealing that WRN uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to actively coordinate the structural transitions of DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multicomponent diffusion in molten salt NaF-ZrF4: Dynamical correlations and Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Mohammad Saad; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2016-05-01

    NaF-ZrF4 is used as a waste incinerator and as a coolant in Generation IV reactors.Structural and dynamical properties of molten NaF-ZrF4 system were studied along with Onsagercoefficients and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) Diffusivities applying Green-Kubo formalism and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The zirconium ions are found to be 8 fold coordinated with fluoride ions for all temperatures and concentrations. All the diffusive flux correlations show back-scattering. Even though the MS diffusivities are expected to depend very lightly on the composition because of decoupling of thermodynamic factor, the diffusivity ĐNa-F shows interesting behavior with the increase in concentration of ZrF4. This is because of network formation in NaF-ZrF4. Positive entropy constraints have been plotted to authenticate negative diffusivities observed.

  14. Multicomponent diffusion in molten salt NaF-ZrF{sub 4}: Dynamical correlations and Maxwell–Stefan diffusivities

    SciTech Connect

    Baig, Mohammad Saad Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2016-05-23

    NaF-ZrF{sub 4} is used as a waste incinerator and as a coolant in Generation IV reactors.Structural and dynamical properties of molten NaF-ZrF{sub 4} system were studied along with Onsagercoefficients and Maxwell–Stefan (MS) Diffusivities applying Green–Kubo formalism and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The zirconium ions are found to be 8 fold coordinated with fluoride ions for all temperatures and concentrations. All the diffusive flux correlations show back-scattering. Even though the MS diffusivities are expected to depend very lightly on the composition because of decoupling of thermodynamic factor, the diffusivity Đ{sub Na-F} shows interesting behavior with the increase in concentration of ZrF{sub 4}. This is because of network formation in NaF-ZrF{sub 4}. Positive entropy constraints have been plotted to authenticate negative diffusivities observed.

  15. On the Maxwell-Stefan approach to diffusion: a general resolution in the transient regime for one-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Erminia; Angeli, Celestino

    2010-01-14

    The diffusion process in a multicomponent system can be formulated in a general form by the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations. This formulation is able to describe the diffusion process in different systems, such as, for instance, bulk diffusion (in the gas, liquid, and solid phase) and diffusion in microporous materials (membranes, zeolites, nanotubes, etc.). The Maxwell-Stefan equations can be solved analytically (only in special cases) or by numerical approaches. Different numerical strategies have been previously presented, but the number of diffusing species is normally restricted, with only few exceptions, to three in bulk diffusion and to two in microporous systems, unless simplifications of the Maxwell-Stefan equations are considered. In the literature, a large effort has been devoted to the derivation of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix and therefore to the symbolic inversion of a square matrix with dimensions n x n (n being the number of independent components). This step, which can be easily performed for n = 2 and remains reasonable for n = 3, becomes rapidly very complex in problems with a large number of components. This paper addresses the problem of the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations in the transient regime for a one-dimensional system with a generic number of components, avoiding the definition of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix. To this aim, two approaches have been implemented in a computational code; the first is the simple finite difference second-order accurate in time Crank-Nicolson scheme for which the full mathematical derivation and the relevant final equations are reported. The second is based on the more accurate backward differentiation formulas, BDF, or Gear's method (Shampine, L. F. ; Gear, C. W. SIAM Rev. 1979, 21, 1.), as implemented in the Livermore solver for ordinary differential equations, LSODE (Hindmarsh, A. C. Serial

  16. The generalized correlation for the evaluation of the influence of the Stefan flow on the heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Rakov, O. A.

    2013-11-01

    The analytical equations for the steady-state heat-and-mass transfer in the steam evaporation/condensation processes from the steam-gas mixtures on the planar and spherical surfaces are derived. The vapor flow through the motionless dry gas is considered according to the method proposed by Maxwell for the solution of the diffusion problems. The relationships for the calculation of the coefficients taking into account an increase in the mass output and an increase or a decrease in the heat emission (depending on the directions of the heat-and-mass flows) as a result of the influence of the Stefan flow are presented. The derived relationships can be used to calculate the apparatuses in which the steam evaporation or condensation from the steam-gas mixture occurs (the coolers of the vapor from deaerators, the apparatuses for the deep utilization of the heat of the combustion products, the condensation boilers, etc.).

  17. Genetics and aging; the Werner syndrome as a segmental progeroid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, G M

    1985-01-01

    The maximum lifespan potential is a constitutional feature of speciation and must be subject to polygenic controls acting both in the domain of development and in the domain of the maintenance of macromolecular integrity. The enormous genetic heterogeneity that characterizes our own species, the complexities of numerous nature-nurture interactions, and the quantitative and qualitative variations of the senescent phenotype that are observed suggest that precise patterns of aging in each of us may be unique. Patterns of aging may also differ sharply among species (for example, semelparous vs. multiparous mammals). Some potential common denominators, however, allow one to identify progeroid syndromes in man that could lead to the elucidation of important pathways of gene action. (The suffix "-oid" means "like"; it does not mean identity.) Unimodal progeroid syndromes (eg., familial dementia of the Alzheimer type, an autosomal dominant) can help us understand the pathogenesis of a particular aspect of the senescent phenotype of man. Segmental progeroid syndromes (eg. the Werner syndrome, an autosomal recessive) may be relevant to multiple aspects of the senescent phenotype. Some results of research on the Werner syndrome may be interpreted as support for "peripheral" as opposed to "central" theories of aging; they are consistent with the view that gene action in the domain of development (adolescence, in this instance) can set the stage for patterns of aging in the adult; they point to the importance of mesenchymal cell populations in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders; finally, they underscore the role of chromosomal instability, especially in the pathogenesis of neoplasia.

  18. Prematurely aged children: molecular alterations leading to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria and Werner syndromes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gerpe, Lourdes; Araújo-Vilar, David

    2008-12-01

    Ageing is thought to be a polygenic and stochastic process in which multiple mechanisms operate at the same time. At the level of the individual organism ageing is associated with a progressive deterioration of health and quality of life, sharing common features such as: alopecia and grey hair, loss of audition, macular degeneration, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, cataract formation, type-2 diabetes, lipodystrophies; a generally increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disorders and diseases such as cancer; and an impaired ability to cope with stress. Recent studies of mechanisms involved in the ageing process are contributing to the identification of genes involved in longevity. Monogenic heritable disorders causing premature ageing, and animal models have contributed to the understanding of some of the characteristic organism-level features associated with human ageing. Werner syndrome and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are the best characterized human disorders. Werner syndrome patients have a median life expectancy of 47 years with clinical conditions from the second decade of life. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome patients die at a median age of 11-13 years with clinical conditions appearing soon after birth. In both syndromes, alterations in specific genes have been identified, with mutations in the WRN and LMNA genes respectively being the most closely associated with each syndrome. Results from molecular studies strongly suggest an increase in DNA damage and cell senescence as the underlying mechanism of pathological premature ageing in these two human syndromes. The same general mechanism has also been observed in human cells undergoing the normal ageing process. In the present article the molecular mechanisms currently proposed for explaining these two syndromes, which may also partly explain the normal ageing process, are reviewed.

  19. A Radiometric Determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant and Thermodynamic Temperatures between -40 degrees C and +100 degrees C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, T. J.; Martin, J. E.

    1985-11-01

    The total radiant exitance of a black body at the temperature of the triple point of water, Ttp (273.16 K), and at a series of other temperatures in the range from about 233 K (-40 degrees C) to 373 K (100 degrees C), has been measured by using a cryogenic radiometer. From the measurements at Ttp a value for the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ has been calculated: σ = (5.669 67 ± 0.000 76) × 10-8 W m-2 K-4. This is the first radiometric determination of σ having an uncertainty comparable with that calculated directly from fundamental physical constants. This measured value differs from the calculated one by 13 parts in 105, which is less than the combined standard deviations of the measured and calculated values. From the measurements of exitance at the other temperatures, values of the corresponding thermodynamic temperature T have been calculated by using Stefan's fourth-power law. Since the temperature of the radiating black body was also measured by platinum resistance thermometers calibrated on IPTS-68, values of (T-T68) were obtained. These range from about -(5 ± 1.6) mK at 20 degrees C to -(28 ± 2.5) mK at 100 degrees C and +(5 ± 1.5) mK at -40 degrees C. The results confirm to within a few millikelvins the departure of T68 from T above 0 degrees C already discovered by gas thermometry and show that similar departures, but of opposite sign, exist down to the lowest temperature measured, -40 degrees C. The uncertainties associated with these new values of T and (T-T68) are similar to those of the best gas thermometry.

  20. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  1. Partial lipodystrophy with severe insulin resistance and adult progeria Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donadille, Bruno; D'Anella, Pascal; Auclair, Martine; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Sorel, Marc; Grigorescu, Romulus; Ouzounian, Sophie; Cambonie, Gilles; Boulot, Pierre; Laforêt, Pascal; Carbonne, Bruno; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2013-07-12

    Laminopathies, due to mutations in LMNA, encoding A type-lamins, can lead to premature ageing and/or lipodystrophic syndromes, showing that these diseases could have close physiopathological relationships. We show here that lipodystrophy and extreme insulin resistance can also reveal the adult progeria Werner syndrome linked to mutations in WRN, encoding a RecQ DNA helicase. We analysed the clinical and biological features of two women, aged 32 and 36, referred for partial lipodystrophic syndrome which led to the molecular diagnosis of Werner syndrome. Cultured skin fibroblasts from one patient were studied. Two normal-weighted women presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome with hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis. One of them had also diabetes. Both patients showed a peculiar, striking lipodystrophic phenotype with subcutaneous lipoatrophy of the four limbs contrasting with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation. Their oral glucose tolerance tests showed extremely high levels of insulinemia, revealing major insulin resistance. Low serum levels of sex-hormone binding globulin and adiponectin suggested a post-receptor insulin signalling defect. Other clinical features included bilateral cataracts, greying hair and distal skin atrophy. We observed biallelic WRN null mutations in both women (p.Q748X homozygous, and compound heterozygous p.Q1257X/p.M1329fs). Their fertility was decreased, with preserved menstrual cycles and normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels ruling out premature ovarian failure. However undetectable anti-müllerian hormone and inhibin B indicated diminished follicular ovarian reserve. Insulin-resistance linked ovarian hyperandrogenism could also contribute to decreased fertility, and the two patients became pregnant after initiation of insulin-sensitizers (metformin). Both pregnancies were complicated by severe cervical incompetence, leading to the preterm birth of a healthy newborn in one case, but to a second trimester

  2. Application of the Stefan-Maxwell Equations to determine limitations of Fick's law when modeling organic vapor transport in sand columns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Bruell, Clifford J.

    1990-01-01

    The organic component of the vapor phase of a porous medium contaminated by an immiscible organic liquid can be significant enough to violate the condition of a dilute species diffusing in a bulk phase assumed by Fick's law. The Stefan-Maxwell equations provide a more comprehensive model for quantifying steady state transport for a vapor phase composed of arbitrary proportions of its constituents. The application of both types of models to the analysis of column experiments demonstrates that use of a Fickian-based transport model can lead to significant overestimates of soil tortuosity constants. Further, the physical displacement of naturally occurring gases (e.g., O2), predicted by the Stefan-Maxwell model but not by application of Fick's Law, can be attributed improperly to a sink term such as microbial degradation in a Fickian-based transport model.

  3. [Research conducted at the Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology of Bucharest in the area of nucleic acids and genetic engineering].

    PubMed

    Popa, L M; Repanovici, R; Iliescu, R

    1989-01-01

    A brief review is done of some of the most important studies realised by the "Stefan S. Nicolau" Institute researchers in the field of nucleic acids. It is worth mentioning among these the investigations about interactions between nucleic acids and some biologically active substances, the recombinant DNA, as well as the most recent works on DNA-DNA hybridization in the avidine-biotine system.

  4. Modeling mass transfer in solid oxide fuel cell anode: I. Comparison between Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and dusty-gas models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Cheng; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-04-01

    Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and dusty-gas model have been widely used in modeling mass transfer in porous electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells. Suwanwarangkul et al. (J. Power Sources 122 (2003) 9-18) implement a survey for performance comparison among these models to predict the concentration overpotential of a solid oxide fuel cell anode. In their work, the flux ratio of species is calculated by Graham's law and contradictorily the equimolar counter transport is used for isobaric assumption. Focused on the flux-ratio approaches and usually neglected pressure gradient, a comparison between Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and dusty-gas model is done again in this article. The dusty gas model combined with the 'Stoich' flux-ratio approach, i.e. the species flux is dictated by its stoichiometry of the electrochemical reaction, is validated to make the best performance. And all models by the 'Graham' flux-ratio approach, i.e. the flux of species satisfies Graham's law, underestimate the concentration overpotential when the molecular weights of species are quite different. The extended Stefan-Maxwell model is an alternative, although it generally exaggerates the role of Knudsen diffusion. The effect of pore size on the Knudsen diffusion and pressure gradient is also discussed.

  5. Structure and function of the human Werner syndrome gene promoter: evidence for transcriptional modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Hunt, K E; Martin, G M; Oshima, J

    1998-01-01

    The Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive segmental progeroid syndrome caused by mutations in a novel member ( WRN ) of the RecQ family of helicases. Somatic WS cells are hypermutable and have elongated S phases, suggesting possible defects in DNA replication and/or repair. As an initial approach to the investigation of how this locus might be responsive to DNA damage, we determined the structure of the human WRN promoter. The WRN promoter region has two transcription initiation sites and exhibits several features characteristic of so-called constitutive promoters, including the absence of TATA and CAAT boxes. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that the upstream promoter was used 2-10-fold less frequently than the downstream promoter, the variation being a function of cell type. The activity of the WRN promoter was dramatically reduced in cells from WS patients. The reduction of activity was not seen in three other promoters tested, including one TATA-less promoter and one TATA-containing promoter. This is consistent with the presence of a positive regulatory mechanism of WRN expression. PMID:9671808

  6. Werner syndrome and mutations of the WRN and LMNA genes in France.

    PubMed

    Uhrhammer, Nancy A; Lafarge, Laurence; Dos Santos, Laetitia; Domaszewska, Anna; Lange, Magdalena; Yang, Yong; Aractingi, Selim; Bessis, Didier; Bignon, Yves-Jean

    2006-07-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a pleiotropic disease of premature aging involving short stature, tight, atrophied, and/or ulcerated skin; a characteristic 'birdlike' facies and high, squeaky or hoarse voice; premature greying and thinning of the hair; and early onset cataracts. Additional common symptoms include diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, osteoporosis, osteosclerosis of the digits, soft tissue calcification, premature atherosclerosis, rare or multiple neoplasms, malformed teeth, and flat feet. Diagnosis can be difficult due to the variable presentation and rarity of the disorder. Transmission is usually autosomal recessive. The WS gene, WRN, is member of the RecQ DNA helicase family. Biallelic mutations of WRN are responsible for most patients. Although heterozygous missense mutations in the LMNA gene have been observed in severely affected WS patients, this only accounts for a small fraction of non-WRN patients. Eighteen WS cases were referred to us for molecular analysis. Eleven had definite and three had probable WS according to the University of Washington Registry clinical criteria. All exons of the WRN gene and their splice junctions were sequenced. Of the fourteen definite or probable cases, 11 had one or more WRN mutation. Thirteen different mutations were found, and ten of these were previously undescribed. There were few phenotypic differences between patients with WRN mutation(s) and those who met clinical criteria though lacking WRN mutations. However, patients with mutations tended to have more symptoms overall, and mutations were not observed in the two cases with cardiomyopathy. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Camptothecin sensitivity in Werner syndrome fibroblasts as assessed by the COMET technique.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J; Sheerin, A; Jennert-Burston, K; Burton, D; Ostler, E L; Bird, J; Green, M H L; Faragher, R G A

    2004-06-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an inherited genetic disease in which individuals display the premature aging of a selected subset of tissues. The disorder results from the loss of function mutations in the wrn gene. Wrn codes for a member of the RecQ helicase family with a unique nuclease domain. There is significant evidence that the role of wrn is to assist in the repair and reinitiation of DNA replication forks that have stalled. Loss of the wrn helicase imposes a distinct set of phenotypes at the cellular level. These include premature replicative senescence (in a subset of cell types), chromosomal instability, a distinct mutator phenotype, and hypersensitivity to a limited number of DNA damaging agents. Unfortunately, most of these phenotypes are not suitable for the rapid assessment of loss of function of the wrn gene product. However, WS cells have been reported to show abnormal sensitivity to the drug camptothecin (an inhibitor of topoisomerase type I). A rapid assay for this sensitivity would be a useful marker of loss of wrn function. The COMET (single-cell gel electrophoresis) assay is a rapid, sensitive, versatile, and robust technique for the quantitative assessment of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. Using this assay, we have found that a significantly increased level of strand breaks can be demonstrated in WS cells treated with camptothecin compared with normal controls.

  8. The Werner's Syndrome protein collaborates with REV1 to promote replication fork progression on damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lara G.; Sale, Julian E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance pathways facilitate the bypass of DNA lesions encountered during replication. These pathways can be mechanistically divided into recombinational damage avoidance and translesion synthesis, in which the lesion is directly bypassed by specialised DNA polymerases. We have recently shown distinct genetic dependencies for lesion bypass at and behind the replication fork in the avian cell line DT40, bypass at the fork requiring REV1 and bypass at post-replicative gaps requiring PCNA ubiquitination by RAD18. The WRN helicase/exonuclease, which is mutated in the progeroid and cancer predisposition disorder Werner's Syndrome, has previously been implicated in a RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathway. However, WRN has also been shown to be required to maintain normal replication fork progression on a damaged DNA template, a defect reminiscent of REV1-deficient cells. Here we use the avian cell line DT40 to demonstrate that WRN assists REV1-dependent translesion synthesis at the replication fork and that PCNA ubiquitination-dependent post-replicative lesion bypass provides an important backup mechanism for damage tolerance in the absence of WRN protein. PMID:20691646

  9. Scoliosis in Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2014-12-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) is a congenital Müllerian duct anomaly characterized by uterine didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with this syndrome. This study presents a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of HWWS and explores the possible association between the 2 diseases. A previously unreported scoliosis in HWWS is described. The patient is a 12-year-old Chinese female with scoliosis that underwent a posterior correction at thoracic 5-thoracic 12 (T5-T12) levels, using the Moss-SI (Johnson & Johnson, American) spinal system. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was clinically pain free and well balanced. Plain radiographs showed solid spine fusion with no loss of deformity correction. Six months after scoliosis correction surgery, the patient went to our clinics for the treatment of HWWS. She was performed a vaginal septum resection and detected with pyocolpos. Her follow-up was symptom free at the fourth postoperative month. The prevalence of scoliosis among patients with HWWS was 8.57% that is much higher than the incidence of congential scoliosis among general population (1/1000). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HWWS with thoracic scoliosis. During surgery, surgeons and anesthesiologists must pay particular attention to the Müllerian duct anomaly and renal agenesis associated with HWWS. There is a potential association between congenital scoliosis and HWWS.

  10. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model.

  11. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  12. How personalized medicine became genetic, and racial: Werner Kalow and the formations of pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S

    2013-01-01

    Physicians have long puzzled over a well-known phenomenon: different patients respond differently to the same treatment. Although many explanations exist, pharmacogenetics has now captured the medical imagination. While this might seem part of the broader interest in all things genetic, the early history of pharmacogenetics reveals the specific factors that contributed to the emergence of genetics within pharmacology. This paper examines the work of one pioneering pharmacologist, Werner Kalow, to trace the evolving intellectual formations of pharmacogenetics and, in particular, the focus on race. Working in the 1950s and 1960s, Kalow made three arguments to demonstrate the relevance of genetics to pharmacology, based on laboratory techniques, analogies to differences between other animal species, and appeals to the logic of natural selection. After contributing to the emergence of the field, Kalow maintained his advocacy for pharmacogenetics for four decades, collecting more evidence for its relevance, navigating controversies about race and science, and balancing genetics against other possible explanations of patient variability. Kalow's work demonstrates the deep roots of the genetic and racial preoccupations in pharmacology. Understanding this history can restore attention to other explanations of individuality in medical practice, something of increasing importance given the current interest in personalized medicine.

  13. Clinical outcome and mechanism of soft tissue calcification in Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Satoshi; Yokote, Koutaro; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takemoto, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Shimoyama, Tatsushi; Satoh, Seiya; Koshizaka, Masaya; Takada, Aki; Irisuna, Hiroki; Saito, Yasushi

    2008-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive progeroid disorder caused by mutations in RecQ DNA helicase. Ectopic soft tissue calcification is one of the well known symptoms in WS. However, the prevalence, clinical outcome, and mechanism of such calcification remain to be elucidated. The clinical features and mechanism of ectopic calcification were examined in seven patients with WS whose diagnosis were confirmed by a genomic DNA analysis. X-ray examinations revealed subcutaneous calcification in 35 of 41 major joints (85.3%). The patients complained of dermal pain at 23 joints among 35 joints (65.7%) with calcification. Refractory skin ulcers were found at the area of the skin overlaying the calcification in 16 joints (45.7%). In contrast, no pain or ulcers were observed in the joints without calcification. The presence of ectopic calcification could not be explained by a systemic hormonal abnormality. Cultured fibroblasts from WS patients underwent spontaneous mineralization in vitro in the normal phosphate condition, and overexpressed Pit-1, a transmembrane type III Na-Pi cotransporter both at the mRNA and protein levels. Phosphonophormic acid, a specific inhibitor for Pit-1, inhibited mineralization in the WS fibroblasts. Both calcification and Pit-1 overexpression were detected in the skin of WS in situ. WS showed a high prevalence of ectopic calcification, which was associated with dermal pain and refractory skin ulcers. An overexpression of Pit-1 therefore seems to play a key role in the formation of soft tissue calcification in this syndrome.

  14. DNA damage accumulation and TRF2 degradation in atypical Werner syndrome fibroblasts with LMNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Saha, Bidisha; Zitnik, Galynn; Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Quyen; Risques, Rosa A; Martin, George M; Oshima, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Segmental progeroid syndromes are groups of disorders with multiple features suggestive of accelerated aging. One subset of adult-onset progeroid syndromes, referred to as atypical Werner syndrome, is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes a class of nuclear intermediate filaments, lamin A/C. We previously described rapid telomere attrition and accelerated replicative senescence in cultured fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A. In this study, we investigated the cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated telomere shortening in LMNA mutant primary fibroblasts. In early passage primary fibroblasts with R133L or L140R LMNA mutations, shelterin protein components were already reduced while cells still retained telomere lengths comparable to those of controls. There was a significant inverse correlation between the degree of abnormal nuclear morphology and the level of TRF2, a shelterin subunit, suggesting a potential causal relationship. Stabilization of the telomeres via the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase), did not prevent degradation of shelterin components, indicating that reduced TRF2 in LMNA mutants is not mediated by short telomeres. Interestingly, γ-H2AX foci (reflecting double strand DNA damage) in early passage LMNA mutant primary fibroblasts and LMNA mutant hTERT fibroblasts were markedly increased in non-telomeric regions of DNA. Our results raise the possibility that mutant lamin A/C causes global genomic instability with accumulation of non-telomeric DNA damage as an early event, followed by TRF2 degradation and telomere shortening.

  15. Gene expression profiling in Werner syndrome closely resembles that of normal aging.

    PubMed

    Kyng, Kasper J; May, Alfred; Kølvraa, Steen; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2003-10-14

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder, displaying defects in DNA replication, recombination, repair, and transcription. It has been hypothesized that several WS phenotypes are secondary consequences of aberrant gene expression and that a transcription defect may be crucial to the development of the syndrome. We used cDNA microarrays to characterize the expression of 6,912 genes and ESTs across a panel of 15 primary human fibroblast cell lines derived from young donors, old donors, and WS patients. Of the analyzed genes, 6.3% displayed significant differences in expression when either WS or old donor cells were compared with young donor cells. This result demonstrates that the WS transcription defect is specific to certain genes. Transcription alterations in WS were strikingly similar to those in normal aging: 91% of annotated genes displayed similar expression changes in WS and in normal aging, 3% were unique to WS, and 6% were unique to normal aging. We propose that a defect in the transcription of the genes as identified in this study could produce many of the complex clinical features of WS. The remarkable similarity between WS and normal aging suggests that WS causes the acceleration of a normal aging mechanism. This finding supports the use of WS as an aging model and implies that the transcription alterations common to WS and normal aging represent general events in the aging process.

  16. The Werner syndrome. A model for the study of human aging.

    PubMed

    Nehlin, J O; Skovgaard, G L; Bohr, V A

    2000-06-01

    Human aging is a complex process that leads to the gradual deterioration of body functions with time. Various models to approach the study of aging have been launched over the years such as the genetic analysis of life span in the yeast S. cerevisiae, the worm C. elegans, the fruitfly, and mouse, among others. In human models, there have been extensive efforts using replicative senescence, the study of centenerians, comparisons of young versus old at the organismal, cellular, and molecular levels, and the study of premature aging syndromes to understand the mechanisms leading to aging. One good model for studying human aging is a rare autosomal recessive disorder known as the Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by accelerated aging in vivo and in vitro. A genetic defect implicated in WS was mapped to the WRN locus. Mutations in this gene are believed to be associated, early in adulthood, with clinical symptoms normally found in old individuals. WRN functions as a DNA helicase, and recent evidence, summarized in this review, suggests specific biochemical roles for this multifaceted protein. The interaction of WRN protein with RPA (replication protein A) and p53 will undoubtedly direct efforts to further dissect the genetic pathway(s) in which WRN protein functions in DNA metabolism and will help to unravel its contribution to the human aging process.

  17. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion and dynamical correlation in molten LiF-KF: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Richa Naja; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work our main objective is to compute Dynamical correlations, Onsager coefficients and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities for molten salt LiF-KF mixture at various thermodynamic states through Green-Kubo formalism for the first time. The equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using BHM potential for LiF-KF mixture. The velocity autocorrelations functions involving Li ions reflect the endurance of cage dynamics or backscattering with temperature. The magnitude of Onsager coefficients for all pairs increases with increase in temperature. Interestingly most of the Onsager coefficients has almost maximum magnitude at the eutectic composition indicating the most dynamic character of the eutectic mixture. MS diffusivity hence diffusion for all ion pairs increases in the system with increasing temperature. Smooth variation of the diffusivity values denies any network formation in the mixture. Also, the striking feature is the noticeable concentration dependence of MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair, ĐLi-K which remains negative for most of the concentration range but changes sign to become positive for higher LiF concentration. The negative MS diffusivity is acceptable as it satisfies the non-negative entropy constraint governed by 2nd law of thermodynamics. This high diffusivity also vouches the candidature of molten salt as a coolant.

  18. Continuum Model for Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agent from a Rubbery Polymer using the Maxwell-Stefan Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, Mark; Bringuier, Stefan; Pearl, Thomas; Stevenson, Shawn; Mantooth, Brent

    Decontamination of polymers exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) often proceeds by application of a liquid solution. Absorption of some decontaminant components proceed concurrently with extraction of the CWA, resulting in multicomponent diffusion in the polymer. In this work, the Maxwell-Stefan equations were used with the Flory-Huggins model of species activity to mathematically describe the transport of two species within a polymer. This model was used to predict the extraction of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) from a silicone elastomer into both water and methanol. Comparisons with experimental results show good agreement with minimal fitting of model parameters from pure component uptake data. Reaction of the extracted VX with sodium hydroxide in the liquid-phase was also modeled and used to predict the overall rate of destruction of VX. Although the reaction proceeds more slowly in the methanol-based solution compared to the aqueous solution, the extraction rate is faster due to increasing VX mobility as methanol absorbs into the silicone, resulting in an overall faster rate of VX destruction.

  19. Multicomponent diffusion in molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2}: Dynamical correlations and Maxwell–Stefan diffusivities

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2015-06-24

    Applying Green–Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have studied the dynamic correlation, Onsager coeeficients and Maxwell–Stefan (MS) Diffusivities of molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2}, which is used as coolant in high temperature reactor. All the diffusive flux correlations show back-scattering or cage dynamics which becomes pronouced at higher temperature. Although the MS diffusivities are expected to depend very lightly on the composition due to decoupling of thermodynamic factor, the diffusivity Đ{sub Li-F} and Đ{sub Be-F} decreases sharply for higher concentration of LiF and BeF{sub 2} respectively. Interestingly, all three MS diffusivities have highest magnitude for eutectic mixture at 1000K (except Đ{sub Be-F} at lower LiF mole fraction) which is desirable from coolant point of view. Although the diffusivity for positive-positive ion pair is negative it is not in violation of the second law of thermodynamics as it satisfies the non-negative entropic constraints.

  20. Maxwell–Stefan diffusion and dynamical correlation in molten LiF-KF: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Richa Naja Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2016-05-23

    In this work our main objective is to compute Dynamical correlations, Onsager coefficients and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities for molten salt LiF-KF mixture at various thermodynamic states through Green–Kubo formalism for the first time. The equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using BHM potential for LiF–KF mixture. The velocity autocorrelations functions involving Li ions reflect the endurance of cage dynamics or backscattering with temperature. The magnitude of Onsager coefficients for all pairs increases with increase in temperature. Interestingly most of the Onsager coefficients has almost maximum magnitude at the eutectic composition indicating the most dynamic character of the eutectic mixture. MS diffusivity hence diffusion for all ion pairs increases in the system with increasing temperature. Smooth variation of the diffusivity values denies any network formation in the mixture. Also, the striking feature is the noticeable concentration dependence of MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair, Đ{sub Li-K} which remains negative for most of the concentration range but changes sign to become positive for higher LiF concentration. The negative MS diffusivity is acceptable as it satisfies the non-negative entropy constraint governed by 2{sup nd} law of thermodynamics. This high diffusivity also vouches the candidature of molten salt as a coolant.

  1. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice.

  2. The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Werner Arber, Physiology or Medicine 1978

    PubMed Central

    Arber, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Swiss microbial geneticist, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for their discovery of restriction endonucleases. Werner Arber was born in Granichen, Switzerland in 1929. Following a public school education, he entered the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich in 1949, working toward a diploma in natural sciences. There, his first research experience involved isolating and characterizing an isomer of chlorine. Following graduation in 1953, Arber joined a graduate program at the University of Geneva, taking on an assistanceship in electron microscopy (EM), in which he studied gene transfer in the bacterial virus (bacteriophage) lambda. Eventually encountering limitations with EM as a tool, he began using microbial genetics as a methodology for his studies. The study of microbial genetics had been possible for a relatively short time: DNA had been discovered to carry genetic information only a decade before he d entered the field. After earning his Ph.D. in 1958, Arber continued to develop skills in microbial genetics, working with colleagues in the United States for a short time before returning to Geneva at beginning of 1960. There, he continued working on lambda transduction in E. coli, but found that the virus would not efficiently propagate. Recalling research done seven years earlier by Joe Bertani and Jean Weigle on "host-controlled restriction-modification", he realized there must be a host-controlled modification of the invading DNA, and sought to identify the mechanism. Based on Grete Kallengerger s work that demonstrated degradation of both irradiated and non-irradiated phage lambda following injection in a host, Arber and his graduate student, Daisy Dussoix further investigated the fate of DNA, and found that restriction and modification (later determined to be postreplicative nuclotide methylation) directly affected DNA, but did not cause mutations. They also found that theses were

  3. The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Werner Arber, physiology or medicine 1978.

    PubMed

    Arber, Werner

    2010-03-10

    Swiss microbial geneticist, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for their discovery of restriction endonucleases. Werner Arber was born in Granichen, Switzerland in 1929. Following a public school education, he entered the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich in 1949, working toward a diploma in natural sciences. There, his first research experience involved isolating and characterizing an isomer of chlorine. Following graduation in 1953, Arber joined a graduate program at the University of Geneva, taking on an assistanceship in electron microscopy (EM), in which he studied gene transfer in the bacterial virus (bacteriophage) lambda. Eventually encountering limitations with EM as a tool, he began using microbial genetics as a methodology for his studies. The study of microbial genetics had been possible for a relatively short time: DNA had been discovered to carry genetic information only a decade before he d entered the field. After earning his Ph.D. in 1958, Arber continued to develop skills in microbial genetics, working with colleagues in the United States for a short time before returning to Geneva at beginning of 1960. There, he continued working on lambda transduction in E. coli, but found that the virus would not efficiently propagate. Recalling research done seven years earlier by Joe Bertani and Jean Weigle on "host-controlled restriction-modification", he realized there must be a host-controlled modification of the invading DNA, and sought to identify the mechanism. Based on Grete Kallengerger s work that demonstrated degradation of both irradiated and non-irradiated phage lambda following injection in a host, Arber and his graduate student, Daisy Dussoix further investigated the fate of DNA, and found that restriction and modification (later determined to be postreplicative nuclotide methylation) directly affected DNA, but did not cause mutations. They also found that theses were

  4. Mutations in the consensus helicase domains of the Werner syndrome gene

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Oshima, Junko; Wijsman, E.M.

    1997-02-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease with a complex phenotype that is suggestive of accelerated aging. WS is caused by mutations in a gene, WRN, that encodes a predicted 1,432-amino-acid protein with homology to DNA and RNA helicases. Previous work identified four WS mutations in the 3{prime} end of the gene, which resulted in predicted truncated protein products of 1,060-1,247 amino acids but did not disrupt the helicase domain region (amino acids 569-859). Here, additional WS subjects were screened for mutations, and the intron-exon structure of the gene was determined. A total of 35 exons were defined, with the coding sequences beginning in the second exon. Five new WS mutations were identified: two nonsense mutations at codons 369 and 889; a mutation at a splice-junction site, resulting in a predicted truncated protein of 760 amino acids; a 1-bp deletion causing a frameshift; and a predicted truncated protein of 391 amino acids. Another deletion is >15 kb of genomic DNA, including exons 19-23; the predicted protein is 1,186 amino acids long. Four of these new mutations either partially disrupt the helicase domain region or result in predicted protein products completely missing the helicase region. These results confirm that mutations in the WRN gene are responsible for WS. Also, the location of the mutations indicates that the presence or absence of the helicase domain does not influence the WS phenotype and suggests that WS is the result of complete loss of function of the WRN gene product. 63 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Werner Syndrome-specific induced pluripotent stem cells: recovery of telomere function by reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yokote, Koutaro; Tahara, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare human autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by early onset of aging-associated diseases, chromosomal instability, and cancer predisposition. The function of the DNA helicase encoded by WRN, the gene responsible for WS, has been studied extensively. WRN helicase is involved in the maintenance of chromosome integrity through DNA replication, repair, and recombination by interacting with a variety of proteins associated with DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The accelerated aging associated with WS is reportedly caused by telomere dysfunction, and the underlying mechanism of the disease is yet to be elucidated. Although it was reported that the life expectancy for patients with WS has improved over the last two decades, definitive therapy for these patients has not seen much development. Severe symptoms of the disease, such as leg ulcers, cause a significant decline in the quality of life in patients with WS. Therefore, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies for the disease is of utmost importance. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be established by the introduction of several pluripotency genes, including Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-myc into differentiated cells. iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types that constitute the human body, and possess infinite proliferative capacity. Recent studies have reported the generation of iPSCs from the cells of patients with WS, and they have concluded that reprogramming represses premature senescence phenotypes in these cells. In this review, we summarize the findings of WS patient-specific iPSCs (WS iPSCs) and focus on the roles of telomere and telomerase in the maintenance of these cells. Finally, we discuss the potential use of WS iPSCs for clinical applications. PMID:25688260

  6. Narrowing the position of the Werner syndrome locus by homozygosity analysis - extension of homozygosity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakura, Jun; Miki, Tetsuro; Ye, Lin

    1996-08-15

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the premature occurrence of many age-related features. Previously, the WS gene (WRN) was mapped between D8S131 and D8S87, in an 8.3-cM interval. In this study, regions of homozygosity in 36 WS patients from inbred families were searched for by genotyping for 35 dinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers to narrow down the W-RN critical region. The region most consistently homozygous in these patients was between the D8S1219/D8S1220 cluster and D8S278, within a 4.4-cM interval. For 16 markers mapped in this interval, 24 WS patients (22 Japanese patients and 2 Caucasian patients) in whom consanguinity failed to be proved were also genotyped, under the assumption that some of these patients might still be from consanguineous marriages. The data were analyzed by Fisher`s exact test with a 2 x 2 contingency table for the 22 Japanese patients, excluding the 2 Caucasian patients. The frequencies of homozygosity in the 22 patients at 10 of 16 markers tested were significantly higher than those detected in the general population. Analysis of homozygosity patterns indicated that the region most consistently homozygous was between D8S1445 and D8S278. Thus the WRN locus is most likely between the two markers D8S1445 and D8S278, in a 1.6-cM interval. 49 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Early Diagnosis of Werner's Syndrome Using Exome-Wide Sequencing in a Single, Atypical Patient

    PubMed Central

    Raffan, Eleanor; Hurst, Liam A.; Turki, Saeed Al; Carpenter, Gillian; Scott, Carol; Daly, Allan; Coffey, Alison; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Howard, Eleanor; Khan, Naz; Kingston, Helen; Palotie, Aarno; Savage, David B.; O'Driscoll, Mark; Smith, Claire; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Barroso, Inês; Semple, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease is conventionally achieved through syndrome recognition and targeted gene sequencing, but many patients receive no specific diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing allied to capture of expressed sequences from genomic DNA now offers a powerful new diagnostic approach. Barriers to routine diagnostic use include cost, and the complexity of interpreting results arising from simultaneous identification of large numbers of variants. We applied exome-wide sequencing to an individual, 16-year-old daughter of consanguineous parents with a novel syndrome of short stature, severe insulin resistance, ptosis, and microcephaly. Pulldown of expressed sequences from genomic DNA followed by massively parallel sequencing was undertaken. Single nucleotide variants were called using SAMtools prior to filtering based on sequence quality and existence in control genomes and exomes. Of 485 genetic variants predicted to alter protein sequence and absent from control data, 24 were homozygous in the patient. One mutation – the p.Arg732X mutation in the WRN gene – has previously been reported in Werner's syndrome (WS). On re-evaluation of the patient several early features of WS were detected including loss of fat from the extremities and frontal hair thinning. Lymphoblastoid cells from the proband exhibited a defective decatenation checkpoint, consistent with loss of WRN activity. We have thus diagnosed WS some 15 years earlier than average, permitting aggressive prophylactic therapy and screening for WS complications, illustrating the potential of exome-wide sequencing to achieve early diagnosis and change management of rare autosomal recessive disease, even in individual patients of consanguineous parentage with apparently novel syndromes. PMID:22654791

  8. High-redshift star formation in a time-dependent Lyman-Werner background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbal, Eli; Haiman, Zoltán; Terrazas, Bryan; Bryan, Greg L.; Barkana, Rennan

    2014-11-01

    The first generation of stars produces a background of Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation which can photodissociate molecular hydrogen, increasing the mass of dark matter haloes required to host star formation. Previous studies have determined the critical mass required for efficient molecular cooling with a constant LW background. However, the true background is expected to increase rapidly at early times. Neglecting this evolution could underestimate star formation in small haloes that may have started to cool in the past when the LW intensity was much lower. Background evolution is a large source of uncertainty in pre-reionization predictions of the cosmological 21cm signal, which can be observed with future radio telescopes. To address this, we perform zero-dimensional one-zone calculations that follow the density, chemical abundances, and temperature of gas in the central regions of dark matter haloes, including hierarchical growth and an evolving LW background. We begin by studying the physics of haloes subjected to a background that increases exponentially with redshift. We find that when the intensity increases more slowly than JLW(z)∝10-z/5, cooling in the past is a relatively small effect. We then self-consistently compute the cosmological LW background over z = 15-50 and find that cooling in the past due to an evolving background has a modest impact. Finally, we compare these results to three-dimensional hydrodynamical cosmological simulations with varying LW histories. While only a small number of haloes were simulated, the results are consistent with our one-zone calculations.

  9. Inflammageing assessed by MMP9 in normal Japanese individuals and the patients with Werner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Makoto; Chiba, Junji; Matsuura, Masaaki; Iwaki-Egawa, Sachiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Age-associated minor inflammation: inflammageing may explain human ageing mechanism(s). Our previous study reported a significant increase in the serum level of highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with normal ageing and the patients with Werner syndrome (WS). To further study the minor inflammatory condition associated with ageing, another possible ageing biomarker: matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was examined in the sera from 217 normal Japanese individuals aged between 1 and 100 years and 41 mutation-proven Japanese WS aged between 32 and 70 years. MMP9 was assayed by ELISA. The serum level of MMP9 was elevated significantly (p < 0.001) with normal ageing from both sexes as hsCRP. In contrast to normal ageing, the serum MMP9 level in WS decreased significantly with calendar age (p < 0.05). The MMP9 level (ng/mL) in WS (147.2 ± 28.5) was not significantly different in comparison with those from age-matched normal adult population aged between 25 and 70 years (109.1 ± 9.4), nor normal elderly population aged between 71 and 100 years (179.9 ± 16.1). Although both normal ageing and WS were associated with minor inflammation, the inflammatory parameters such as serum MMP9 and hsCRP changed differently between normal ageing and WS. The WS-specific chronic inflammation including skin ulcer and diabetes mellitus may contribute the different behavior of both ageing biomarkers from normal ageing. PMID:27195193

  10. The Drosophila Werner Exonuclease Participates in an Exonuclease-Independent Response to Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolterstein, Elyse; Rivero, Rachel; Marquez, Melissa; McVey, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Members of the RecQ family of helicases are known for their roles in DNA repair, replication, and recombination. Mutations in the human RecQ helicases, WRN and BLM, cause Werner and Bloom syndromes, which are diseases characterized by genome instability and an increased risk of cancer. While WRN contains both a helicase and an exonuclease domain, the Drosophila melanogaster homolog, WRNexo, contains only the exonuclease domain. Therefore the Drosophila model system provides a unique opportunity to study the exonuclease functions of WRN separate from the helicase. We created a null allele of WRNexo via imprecise P-element excision. The null WRNexo mutants are not sensitive to double-strand break-inducing reagents, suggesting that the exonuclease does not play a key role in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DSBs. However, WRNexo mutant embryos have a reduced hatching frequency and larvae are sensitive to the replication fork-stalling reagent, hydroxyurea (HU), suggesting that WRNexo is important in responding to replication stress. The role of WRNexo in the HU-induced stress response is independent of Rad51. Interestingly, the hatching defect and HU sensitivity of WRNexo mutants do not occur in flies containing an exonuclease-dead copy of WRNexo, suggesting that the role of WRNexo in replication is independent of exonuclease activity. Additionally, WRNexo and Blm mutants exhibit similar sensitivity to HU and synthetic lethality in combination with mutations in structure-selective endonucleases. We propose that WRNexo and BLM interact to promote fork reversal following replication fork stalling and in their absence regressed forks are restarted through a Rad51-mediated process. PMID:24709634

  11. The Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome – A Case Report with Radiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Kamal, Vigyat; Kamal, Anubhav; Kondapavuluri, Sushen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background HWW syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of urogenital tract involving Mullerian ducts and mesonephric ducts. It is characterised by a triad of symptoms - uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It can be classified based on a completely or incompletely obstructed hemivagina. It presents soon after menarche or shows delayed presentation depending on the type. It can exhibit acute pelvic pain shortly after menarche and may show non-specific and variable symptoms with resultant delay in diagnosis. The most common presentation is pain and dysmenorrhea, and pain and abdominal mass in the lower abdomen secondary to haematocolpos and/or haematometra. Case Report Presentation of a clinical case of a 13-year-old patient with HWW syndrome presenting with regular menses, dysmenorrhea and painful lump in hypogastric region on the left side of midline. We described the role of imaging modalities in diagnosis of the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome with a review of literature. USG and MRI showed left renal agenesis with compensatory hypertrophy of the right kidney, uterus didelphys with haematometra and haematocervix in the left uterus with evidence of blood in a dilated retort-shaped left fallopian tube and a normal right uterus. The unique feature of our case is haematometra and haematocervix with cervical and vaginal atresia found on the left side (classification 1.2) with associated left renal agenesis. Conclusions HWW syndrome can present early or late, depending on the type. In patients with uterine and vaginal abnormalities, a work-up for associated renal anomalies should be performed. Early intervention is needed to reduce the risk of endometriosis and infertility. PMID:28058067

  12. The Werner Syndrome Protein Is Involved in RNA Polymerase II Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Machwe, Amrita; May, Alfred; Gray, Matthew D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, George M.; Nehlin, Jan O.; Brosh, Robert; Orren, David K.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    1999-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a human progeroid syndrome characterized by the early onset of a large number of clinical features associated with the normal aging process. The complex molecular and cellular phenotypes of WS involve characteristic features of genomic instability and accelerated replicative senescence. The gene involved (WRN) was recently cloned, and its gene product (WRNp) was biochemically characterized as a helicase. Helicases play important roles in a variety of DNA transactions, including DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. We have assessed the role of the WRN gene in transcription by analyzing the efficiency of basal transcription in WS lymphoblastoid cell lines that carry homozygous WRN mutations. Transcription was measured in permeabilized cells by [3H]UTP incorporation and in vitro by using a plasmid template containing the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II)–dependent adenovirus major late promoter. With both of these approaches, we find that the transcription efficiency in different WS cell lines is reduced to 40–60% of the transcription in cells from normal individuals. This defect can be complemented by the addition of normal cell extracts to the chromatin of WS cells. Addition of purified wild-type WRNp but not mutated WRNp to the in vitro transcription assay markedly stimulates RNA pol II–dependent transcription carried out by nuclear extracts. A nonhelicase domain (a direct repeat of 27 amino acids) also appears to have a role in transcription enhancement, as revealed by a yeast hybrid–protein reporter assay. This is further supported by the lack of stimulation of transcription when mutant WRNp lacking this domain was added to the in vitro assay. We have thus used several approaches to show a role for WRNp in RNA pol II transcription, possibly as a transcriptional activator. A deficit in either global or regional transcription in WS cells may be a primary molecular defect responsible for the WS clinical phenotype

  13. DNA damage accumulation and TRF2 degradation in atypical Werner syndrome fibroblasts with LMNA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bidisha; Zitnik, Galynn; Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Quyen; Risques, Rosa A.; Martin, George M.; Oshima, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Segmental progeroid syndromes are groups of disorders with multiple features suggestive of accelerated aging. One subset of adult-onset progeroid syndromes, referred to as atypical Werner syndrome, is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes a class of nuclear intermediate filaments, lamin A/C. We previously described rapid telomere attrition and accelerated replicative senescence in cultured fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A. In this study, we investigated the cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated telomere shortening in LMNA mutant primary fibroblasts. In early passage primary fibroblasts with R133L or L140R LMNA mutations, shelterin protein components were already reduced while cells still retained telomere lengths comparable to those of controls. There was a significant inverse correlation between the degree of abnormal nuclear morphology and the level of TRF2, a shelterin subunit, suggesting a potential causal relationship. Stabilization of the telomeres via the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase), did not prevent degradation of shelterin components, indicating that reduced TRF2 in LMNA mutants is not mediated by short telomeres. Interestingly, γ-H2AX foci (reflecting double strand DNA damage) in early passage LMNA mutant primary fibroblasts and LMNA mutant hTERT fibroblasts were markedly increased in non-telomeric regions of DNA. Our results raise the possibility that mutant lamin A/C causes global genomic instability with accumulation of non-telomeric DNA damage as an early event, followed by TRF2 degradation and telomere shortening. PMID:23847654

  14. Werner complex deficiency in cells disrupts the Nuclear Pore Complex and the distribution of lamin B1.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhu, Yizhou; Zhai, Yujia; R Castroagudin, Michelle; Bao, Yifei; White, Tommy E; Glavy, Joseph S

    2013-12-01

    From the surrounding shell to the inner machinery, nuclear proteins provide the functional plasticity of the nucleus. This study highlights the nuclear association of Pore membrane (POM) protein NDC1 and Werner protein (WRN), a RecQ helicase responsible for the DNA instability progeria disorder, Werner Syndrome. In our previous publication, we connected the DNA damage sensor Werner's Helicase Interacting Protein (WHIP), a binding partner of WRN, to the NPC. Here, we confirm the association of the WRN/WHIP complex and NDC1. In established WRN/WHIP knockout cell lines, we further demonstrate the interdependence of WRN/WHIP and Nucleoporins (Nups). These changes do not completely abrogate the barrier of the Nuclear Envelope (NE) but do affect the distribution of FG Nups and the RAN gradient, which are necessary for nuclear transport. Evidence from WRN/WHIP knockout cell lines demonstrates changes in the processing and nucleolar localization of lamin B1. The appearance of "RAN holes" void of RAN corresponds to regions within the nucleolus filled with condensed pools of lamin B1. From WRN/WHIP knockout cell line extracts, we found three forms of lamin B1 that correspond to mature holoprotein and two potential post-translationally modified forms of the protein. Upon treatment with topoisomerase inhibitors lamin B1 cleavage occurs only in WRN/WHIP knockout cells. Our data suggest the link of the NDC1 and WRN as one facet of the network between the nuclear periphery and genome stability. Loss of WRN complex leads to multiple alterations at the NPC and the nucleolus. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scheme for directly measuring the concurrences of Collins-Gisin and Werner classes polarization entangled mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ting; Chu, Wen-Jing; Yang, Qing; Yang, Ming; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2017-10-01

    We present a two-copy-based protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of two-photon polarization entangled mixed states (Collins-Gisin class state and the more complicated bipartite mixed entangled state—Werner class state) without quantum state tomography. The quantum circuit designed for directly measuring concurrence can be realized in an optical system. Our protocol works without the sophisticated controlled-NOT gate, which makes it much simpler than the previous ones. Because all the operations used here are local, the scheme can be used for directly measuring remote mixed entanglement too.

  16. Homozygosity for the WRN Helicase-Inactivating Variant, R834C, does not confer a Werner syndrome clinical phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kamath-Loeb, Ashwini S.; Zavala-van Rankin, Diego G.; Flores-Morales, Jeny; Emond, Mary J.; Sidorova, Julia M.; Carnevale, Alessandra; Cárdenas-Cortés, Maria del Carmen; Norwood, Thomas H.; Monnat, Raymond J.; Loeb, Lawrence A.; Mercado-Celis, Gabriela E.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the WRN helicase gene cause Werner syndrome- a progeroid syndrome with an elevated risk of cancer and other age-associated diseases. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in WRN. We report here the organismal, cellular, and molecular phenotypes of variant rs3087425 (c. 2500C > T) that results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at residue 834 (R834C) and up to 90% reduction of WRN helicase activity. This variant is present at a high (5%) frequency in Mexico, where we identified 153 heterozygous and three homozygous individuals among 3,130 genotyped subjects. Family studies of probands identified ten additional TT homozygotes. Biochemical analysis of WRN protein purified from TT lymphoblast cell lines confirmed that the R834C substitution strongly and selectively reduces WRN helicase, but not exonuclease activity. Replication track analyses showed reduced replication fork progression in some homozygous cells following DNA replication stress. Among the thirteen TT homozygotes, we identified a previously unreported and statistically significant gender bias in favor of males (p = 0.0016), but none of the clinical findings associated with Werner syndrome. Our results indicate that WRN helicase activity alone is not rate-limiting for the development of clinical WS. PMID:28276523

  17. Sudden birth versus sudden death of entanglement for the extended Werner-like state in a dissipative environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chuan-Jia; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ji-Bing; Cheng, Wei-Wen; Liu, Tang-Kun; Huang, Yan-Xia; Li, Hong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival.

  18. Modulation of Werner syndrome protein function by a single mutation in the conserved RecQ domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Wan; Kusumoto, Rika; Doherty, Kevin M; Lin, Guang-Xin; Zeng, Wangyong; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; von Kobbe, Cayetano; Brosh, Robert M; Hu, Jin-Shan; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-11-25

    Naturally occurring mutations in the human RECQ3 gene result in truncated Werner protein (WRN) and manifest as a rare premature aging disorder, Werner syndrome. Cellular and biochemical studies suggest a multifaceted role of WRN in DNA replication, DNA repair, recombination, and telomere maintenance. The RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN was determined previously to be the major site of interaction for DNA and proteins. By using site-directed mutagenesis in the WRN RQC domain, we determined which amino acids might be playing a critical role in WRN function. A site-directed mutation at Lys-1016 significantly decreased WRN binding to fork or bubble DNA substrates. Moreover, the Lys-1016 mutation markedly reduced WRN helicase activity on fork, D-loop, and Holliday junction substrates in addition to reducing significantly the ability of WRN to stimulate FEN-1 incision activities. Thus, DNA binding mediated by the RQC domain is crucial for WRN helicase and its coordinated functions. Our nuclear magnetic resonance data on the three-dimensional structure of the wild-type RQC and Lys-1016 mutant proteins display a remarkable similarity in their structures.

  19. Integrated mapping analysis of the Werner syndrome region of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Oshima, J; Yu, C E; Boehnke, M; Weber, J L; Edelhoff, S; Wagner, M J; Wells, D E; Wood, S; Disteche, C M; Martin, G M

    1994-09-01

    The Werner syndrome locus (WRN) is located at 8p11-p12. To facilitate eventual cloning of the WRN gene, a 10,000-rad radiation-reduced hybrid (RH) cell panel was generated to map genetic markers, sequence-tagged sites (STSs), and genes in this region. A hamster cell line carrying an intact human chromosome 8 was fused with another hamster cell line. Two sets of hybrid cell panels from 2 separate fusions were generated; each panel consisted of 50 independent clones; 33 and 34 cell lines from the 2 fusions retained human chromsome material as determined by inter-Alu PCR. The combined panel was genotyped for 52 markers spanning the entire chromosome, including 10 genes, 29 anonymous polymorphic loci, and 13 STSs. Seventeen of these markers have not been previously described. Markers near the centromere were retained at a higher frequency than more distal markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was also used to localize and order a subset of the markers. A RH map of the WRN region was constructed using a maximum likelihood method, giving the following most likely order: D8S131-D8S339 (GSR)-D8S124-D8S278-D8S259-(D8S71)-D8S283- D8S87-D8S105-D8S135 (FGFR1)-D8S135PB-D8S255-ANK1. A genetic map of 15 short tandem repeat polymorphic loci in the WRN region was also constructed. The marker orders from the genetic and RH maps were consistent. In addition, an integrated map of 24 loci in the WRN region was generated using information from both genetic and RH mapping methods. A 1000:1 framework map for 6 loci (LPL-D8S136-D8S137-D8S87-FGFR1-ANK1) was determined by genetic mapping, and the resulting locus order was fixed during analysis of the RH genotype data. The resulting integrated map contained more markers than could confidently be ordered by either genetic or RH mapping alone.

  20. Diverse gene sequences are overexpressed in werner syndrome fibroblasts undergoing premature replicative senescence.

    PubMed

    Murano, S; Thweatt, R; Shmookler Reis, R J; Jones, R A; Moerman, E J; Goldstein, S

    1991-08-01

    Genes that play a role in the senescent arrest of cellular replication are likely to be overexpressed in human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) derived from subjects with Werner syndrome (WS) because these cells have a severely curtailed replicative life span. To identify some of these genes, a cDNA library was constructed from WS HDF after they had been serum depleted and repleted (5 days in medium containing 1% serum followed by 24 h in medium containing 20% serum). Differential screening of 7,500 colonies revealed 102 clones that hybridized preferentially with [32P]cDNA derived from RNA of WS cells compared with [32P]cDNA derived from normal HDF. Cross-hybridization and partial DNA sequence determination identified 18 independent gene sequences, 9 of them known and 9 unknown. The known genes included alpha 1(I) procollagen, alpha 2(I) procollagen, fibronectin, ferritin heavy chain, insulinlike growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), osteonectin, human tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor type I, thrombospondin, and alpha B-crystallin. The nine unknown clones included two novel gene sequences and seven additional sequences that contained both novel segments and the Alu class of repetitive short interspersed nuclear elements; five of these seven Alu+ clones also contained the long interpersed nuclear element I (KpnI) family of repetitive elements. Northern (RNA) analysis, using the 18 sequences as probes, showed higher levels of these mRNAs in WS HDF than in normal HDF. Five selected mRNAs studied in greater detail [alpha 1(I) procollagen, fibronectin, insulinlike growth factor-binding protein-3, WS3-10, and WS9-14] showed higher mRNA levels in both WS and late-passage normal HDF than in early-passage normal HDF at various intervals following serum depletion/repletion and after subculture and growth from sparse to high-density confluent arrest. These results indicate that senescence of both WS and normal HDF is accompanied by overexpression of similar sets of

  1. Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities in binary mixtures of ionic liquids with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and H2O.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Bardow, André

    2011-07-07

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for applications ranging from CO2 capture to the pretreatment of biomass. However, slow diffusion often restricts their applicability. A thorough understanding of diffusion in ILs is therefore highly desirable. Previous research largely focused on self-diffusion in ILs. For practical applications, mutual diffusion is by far more important than self-diffusion. For describing mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, the Maxwell-Stefan (MS) approach is commonly used. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain MS diffusivities from experiments, but they can be directly extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this work, MS diffusivities were computed in binary systems containing 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(n)mimCl, n = 2, 4, 8), water, and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) using MD. The dependence of self- and MS diffusivities on mixture composition was investigated. Our results show the following: (1) For solutions of ILs in water and DMSO, self-diffusivities decrease strongly with increasing IL concentration. For DMSO-IL, a single exponential decay is observed. (2) In both water-IL and DMSO-IL, MS diffusivities vary by a factor of 10 within the concentration range which is, however, still significantly smaller than the variation of the self-diffusion coefficients. (3) The MS diffusivities of the IL are almost independent of the alkyl chain length. (4) ILs stay in a form of isolated ions in C(n)mimCl-H2O mixtures; however, dissociation into ions is much less observed in C(n)mimCl-DMSO systems. This has a large effect on the concentration dependence of MS diffusivities. (5) Recently, we proposed a new model for predicting the MS diffusivity at infinite dilution, that is, Đ(ij)(x(k-->)1) (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2011, 50, 4776-4782). This quantity describes the friction between components i and j when both are infinitely diluted in component k. In contrast to earlier empirical models, our model is based on

  2. The Historical Foundation of Learning Disabilities: A Quantitative Synthesis Assessing the Validity of Strauss and Werner's Exogenous versus Endogenous Distinction of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews research of A. Strauss and H. Werner on behavioral differences between exogeneous (brain injured) and endogeneous (familial-cultural) mental retardation using quantitative methods of research synthesis. Findings offer little empirical support for the presumed behavioral differences and reveal considerable overlap among the…

  3. Ethnic-Specific WRN Mutations in South Asian Werner Syndrome Patients: Potential Founder Effect in Patients with Indian or Pakistani Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Bidisha; Lessel, Davor; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Rao, Anuradha S; Hisama, Fuki M; Peter, Dincy; Bennett, Chris; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2013-05-01

    Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple features consistent with accelerated aging. It is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a RecQ type helicase. To date, more than 70 disease-causing mutations have been reported. While founder mutations and a corresponding relatively high incidence of WS have been reported in Japan and Sardinia, such mutations have not been previously described among patients of South Asian descent. Here we report two novel WRN mutations in three pedigrees. A homozygous c.561A>G mutation in exon 6 was identified both in a pedigree from Kerala, India and in a British patient of Pakistani ancestry. Although c.561A>G does not alter the corresponding amino acid (p.K187K), it creates a cryptic splice site resulting in a 98bp deletion at the mRNA level (r.557-654del98) followed by a frameshift (p.K187fs). These two cases shared the same haplotype across the WRN gene, and were distinct from another Indian Werner patient with a homozygous stop codon mutation, c.2855 C>A (p.S952*) in exon 24. As the Indian population increases and the awareness of Werner syndrome grows, we anticipate that more cases will be identified with these founder mutations among South Asian Werner syndrome patients.

  4. Quantum discord with weak measurement operators of quasi-Werner states based on bipartite entangled coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.

    2013-11-01

    Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.

  5. GENERAL: Thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a Heisenberg chain through a Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Yuan; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2008-07-01

    The thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXX chain under the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction through a noisy quantum channel given by a Werner state is investigated. The dependences of the thermal entanglement of the teleported state on the DM coupling constant, the temperature and the entanglement of the noisy quantum channel are studied in detail for both the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic cases. The result shows that a minimum entanglement of the noisy quantum channel must be provided in order to realize the entanglement teleportation. The values of fidelity of the teleported state are also studied for these two cases. It is found that under certain conditions, we can transfer an initial state with a better fidelity than that for any classical communication protocol.

  6. A novel Werner Syndrome mutation: pharmacological treatment by read-through of nonsense mutations and epigenetic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Agrelo, Ruben; Sutz, Miguel Arocena; Setien, Fernando; Aldunate, Fabian; Esteller, Manel; Da Costa, Valeria; Achenbach, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Werner Syndrome (WS) is a rare inherited disease characterized by premature aging and increased propensity for cancer. Mutations in the WRN gene can be of several types, including nonsense mutations, leading to a truncated protein form. WRN is a RecQ family member with both helicase and exonuclease activities, and it participates in several cell metabolic pathways, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reported a novel homozygous WS mutation (c.3767 C > G) in 2 Argentinian brothers, which resulted in a stop codon and a truncated protein (p.S1256X). We also observed increased WRN promoter methylation in the cells of patients and decreased messenger WRN RNA (WRN mRNA) expression. Finally, we showed that the read-through of nonsense mutation pharmacologic treatment with both aminoglycosides (AGs) and ataluren (PTC-124) in these cells restores full-length protein expression and WRN functionality. PMID:25830902

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease in Werner Syndrome: A Case Report of a 55-Year-Old Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Goletto, Tiphaine; Crockett, Flora; Aractingi, Selim; Toper, Cecile; Senet, Patricia; Cadranel, Jacques; Naccache, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a progeroid or premature aging syndrome characterized by early onset of age-related pathologies and cancer. The average life expectancy of affected people is 52.8 years and tends to increase. The major causes of death are malignancy and myocardial infarction. Increased telomere attrition and decay are thought to play a causative role in the clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. Although telomere length, with or without germline mutation, is known to be associated with interstitial lung disease, the latter is not associated with WS. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case describing a WS patient with fatal ILD. This case suggests that older patients with WS could develop ILD. Clinical outcome of WS patients may thus be improved by counselling them regarding smoking cessation or other exposure and by proposing antifibrotic therapy. PMID:26788395

  8. Genetic association between chromosome 8 microsatellite (MS8-134) and Werner syndrome (WRN): Chromosome microdissection and homozygosity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Lin; Nakura, Jun; Mitsuda, Noriaki; Miki, Tetsuro

    1995-08-10

    Werner syndrome (WRN) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature aging that has been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 8, 8p11.2-p12. To refine the genetic map around the WRN region, we have isolated eight microsatellites for this region from a microdissection library. We typed members of Japanese families with WRN on the basis of homozygosity mapping analysis. There was no obligate recombination between the WRN locus and microsatellite clone, MS8-134 (D8S1055). The maximum lod score was 20.28 at {theta} = 0.00. Alleles for MS8-134 showed association with WRN in a case-control study (OR = 3.55, 95% CI 1.56-8.07, P < 0.01). Such microsatellites from a microdissection library of the definite chromosome region may be useful for positional cloning of the WRN gene. 23 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Aging stem cells. A Werner syndrome stem cell model unveils heterochromatin alterations as a driver of human aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqi; Li, Jingyi; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Qu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Junzhi; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Xu, Xiuling; Ocampo, Alejandro; Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Jiping; Li, Ying; Shi, Liang; Guan, Dee; Pan, Huize; Duan, Shunlei; Ding, Zhichao; Li, Mo; Yi, Fei; Bai, Ruijun; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Chang; Yang, Fuquan; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zimei; Aizawa, Emi; Goebl, April; Soligalla, Rupa Devi; Reddy, Pradeep; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua

    2015-06-05

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by WRN protein deficiency. Here, we report on the generation of a human WS model in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Differentiation of WRN-null ESCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recapitulates features of premature cellular aging, a global loss of H3K9me3, and changes in heterochromatin architecture. We show that WRN associates with heterochromatin proteins SUV39H1 and HP1α and nuclear lamina-heterochromatin anchoring protein LAP2β. Targeted knock-in of catalytically inactive SUV39H1 in wild-type MSCs recapitulates accelerated cellular senescence, resembling WRN-deficient MSCs. Moreover, decrease in WRN and heterochromatin marks are detected in MSCs from older individuals. Our observations uncover a role for WRN in maintaining heterochromatin stability and highlight heterochromatin disorganization as a potential determinant of human aging. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Werner syndrome protein: functions in the response to DNA damage and replication stress in S-phase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Muftuoglu, Meltem; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-09-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an excellent model system for the study of human aging. WRN, a nuclear protein mutated in WS, plays multiple roles in DNA metabolism. Our understanding about the metabolic regulation and function of this RecQ helicase has advanced greatly during the past decade, largely due to the availability of purified WRN protein, WRN knockdown cells, and WRN knockout mice. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicate that WRN plays significant roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Interestingly, many WRN functions require handling of DNA ends during S-phase, and evidence suggests that WRN plays both upstream and downstream roles in the response to DNA damage. Future research should focus on the mechanism(s) of WRN in the regulation of the various DNA metabolism pathways and development of therapeutic approaches to treat premature aging syndromes such as WS.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum Werner homologue is a nuclear protein and its biochemical activities reside in the N-terminal region.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Farhana; Tarique, Mohammed; Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2016-01-01

    RecQ helicases, also addressed as a gatekeeper of genome, are an inevitable family of genome scrutiny proteins conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and play a vital role in DNA metabolism. The deficiencies of three RecQ proteins out of five are involved in genetic abnormalities like Bloom syndrome (BS), Werner syndrome (WS), and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS). It is noteworthy that Plasmodium falciparum contains only two members of the RecQ family as opposed to five members present in the host Homo sapiens. In the present study, we report the biochemical characterization of the homologue of Werner (Wrn) helicase from P. falciparum 3D7 strain. Although there are significant sequence conservations between Wrn helicases of both H. sapiens and P. falciparum as well as among all the other Plasmodium species, they contain some peculiar differences also. In silico studies reveal that PfWrn is evolutionarily close to the bacterial RecQ protein. The N-terminal fragment (PfWrnN) contains all the helicase motifs along with all the functional domains and the predicted structure resembles with the human RecQ1 protein, whereas the C-terminal fragment (PfWrnC) contains no significant domain. Biochemical characterization further revealed that purified recombinant PfWrnN shows ATPase and DNA helicase activity in 3' to 5' direction, but PfWrnC lacks the ATPase and helicase activities. Immunofluorescence study shows that PfWrn is expressed in all the stages of intraerythrocytic development of the P. falciparum 3D7 strain and localizes distinctly in the nucleus. This study can be used for further characterization of RecQ helicases that will aid in understanding the physiological significance of these helicases in the malaria parasite.

  12. A level set approach for diffusion and Stefan-type problems with Robin boundary conditions on quadtree/octree adaptive Cartesian grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papac, Joseph; Helgadottir, Asdis; Ratsch, Christian; Gibou, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical method for simulating diffusion dominated phenomena on irregular domains and free moving boundaries with Robin boundary conditions on quadtree/octree adaptive meshes. In particular, we use a hybrid finite-difference and finite-volume framework that combines the level-set finite difference discretization of Min and Gibou (2007) [13] with the treatment of Robin boundary conditions of Papac et al. (2010) [19] on uniform grids. We present numerical results in two and three spatial dimensions on the diffusion equation and on a Stefan-type problem. In addition, we present an application of this method to the case of the simulation of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier in the context of epitaxial growth.

  13. Stefan blowing effects on MHD bioconvection flow of a nanofluid in the presence of gyrotactic microorganisms with active and passive nanoparticles flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Shib Sankar; Das, Kalidas; Kundu, Prabir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of Stefan blowing on the hydro-magnetic bioconvection of a water-based nanofluid flow containing gyrotactic microorganisms through a permeable surface. Also we studied both actively and passively the controlled flux of nanoparticles and the effect of a surface slip at the wall. We adopt a similarity approach to reduce the leading partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations along with two separate boundary conditions (active and passive) and solve the resulting equations numerically by employing the RK-4 method through the shooting technique to perform the flow analysis. Discussions on the effect of emerging flow parameter on the flow characteristic are made properly through graphs and charts. We observed that the effects of the traditional Lewis number and suction/blowing parameter on temperature distribution and microorganism concentration are converse to each other. A fair result comparison of the present paper with formerly obtained results is given.

  14. The effect of RO3201195 and a pyrazolyl ketone P38 MAPK inhibitor library on the proliferation of Werner syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Dwyer, Jessica E; Baashen, Mohammed; Dix, Matthew C; Murziani, Paola G S; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David; Davis, Terence

    2016-01-21

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of the pyrazolyl ketone p38 MAPK inhibitor RO3201195 in 7 steps and 15% overall yield, and the comparison of its effect upon the proliferation of Werner Syndrome cells with a library of pyrazolyl ketones, strengthens the evidence that p38 MAPK inhibition plays a critical role in modulating premature cellular senescence in this progeroid syndrome and the reversal of accelerated ageing observed in vitro on treatment with SB203580.

  15. Sgs1, a Homologue of the Bloom's and Werner's Syndrome Genes, Is Required for Maintenance of Genome Stability in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P. M.; Hickson, I. D.; Borts, R. H.; Louis, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 gene is homologous to Escherichia coli RecQ and the human BLM and WRN proteins that are defective in the cancer-prone disorder Bloom's syndrome and the premature aging disorder Werner's syndrome, respectively. While recQ mutants are deficient in conjugational recombination and DNA repair, Bloom's syndrome cell lines show hyperrecombination. Bloom's and Werner's syndrome cell lines both exhibit chromosomal instability. sgs1Δ strains show mitotic hyperrecombination, as do Bloom's cells. This was manifested as an increase in the frequency of interchromosomal homologous recombination, intrachromosomal excision recombination, and ectopic recombination. Hyperrecombination was partially independent of both RAD52 and RAD1. Meiotic recombination was not increased in sgs1Δ mutants, although meiosis I chromosome missegregation has been shown to be elevated. sgs1Δ suppresses the slow growth of a top3Δ strain lacking topoisomerase III. Although there was an increase in subtelomeric Y' instability in sgs1Δ strains due to hyperrecombination, no evidence was found for an increase in the instability of terminal telomeric sequences in a top3Δ or a sgs1Δ strain. This contrasts with the telomere maintenance defects of Werner's patients. We conclude that the SGS1 gene product is involved in the maintenance of genome stability in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8913739

  16. Strand exchange of telomeric DNA catalyzed by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is specifically stimulated by TRF2

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Deanna N.; Orren, David K.; Machwe, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS), caused by loss of function of the RecQ helicase WRN, is a hereditary disease characterized by premature aging and elevated cancer incidence. WRN has DNA binding, exonuclease, ATPase, helicase and strand annealing activities, suggesting possible roles in recombination-related processes. Evidence indicates that WRN deficiency causes telomeric abnormalities that likely underlie early onset of aging phenotypes in WS. Furthermore, TRF2, a protein essential for telomere protection, interacts with WRN and influences its basic helicase and exonuclease activities. However, these studies provided little insight into WRN's specific function at telomeres. Here, we explored the possibility that WRN and TRF2 cooperate during telomeric recombination processes. Our results indicate that TRF2, through its interactions with both WRN and telomeric DNA, stimulates WRN-mediated strand exchange specifically between telomeric substrates; TRF2's basic domain is particularly important for this stimulation. Although TRF1 binds telomeric DNA with similar affinity, it has minimal effects on WRN-mediated strand exchange of telomeric DNA. Moreover, TRF2 is displaced from telomeric DNA by WRN, independent of its ATPase and helicase activities. Together, these results suggest that TRF2 and WRN act coordinately during telomeric recombination processes, consistent with certain telomeric abnormalities associated with alteration of WRN function. PMID:24880691

  17. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies of chromosome 8p 11. 1-21. 1 markers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang-En; Schellenberg, G.D.; Oshima, Junko; Martin, G.M.; Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M. ); Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio ); Poot, M.; Hoehn, H. )

    1994-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.2-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here the authors present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. They present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering [approximately] 16.5 cM in total. They show that three of the markers examined - D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus - show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, they show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. 36 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. The Direct Collapse of a Massive Black Hole Seed under the Influence of an Anisotropic Lyman-Werner Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2014-11-01

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H2 is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that a radiation source, emitting >1054 (~ 103 J21) photons s-1, is required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ~ 105 M ⊙. The resulting accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ~0.25 M ⊙ yr-1. Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case, in terms of the H2 fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly affect the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ~ 105 M ⊙. This is consistent with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a supermassive black hole.

  19. Niels Bohr's discussions with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger: the origins of the principles of uncertainty and complementarity

    SciTech Connect

    Mehra, J.

    1987-05-01

    In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schroedinger during 1920-1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925-1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory - formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan - Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of quantum mechanics and of physical theory as such - formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930 - were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.

  20. Enhancement of human DNA polymerase η activity and fidelity is dependent upon a bipartite interaction with the Werner syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Maddukuri, Leena; Ketkar, Amit; Eddy, Sarah; Zafar, Maroof K; Griffin, Wezley C; Eoff, Robert L

    2012-12-07

    We have investigated the interaction between human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) and the Werner syndrome protein (WRN). Functional assays revealed that the WRN exonuclease and RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domains are necessary for full stimulation of hpol η-catalyzed formation of correct base pairs. We find that WRN does not stimulate hpol η-catalyzed formation of mispairs. Moreover, the exonuclease activity of WRN prevents stable mispair formation by hpol η. These results are consistent with a proofreading activity for WRN during single-nucleotide additions. ATP hydrolysis by WRN appears to attenuate stimulation of hpol η. Pre-steady-state kinetic results show that k(pol) is increased 4-fold by WRN. Finally, pulldown assays reveal a bipartite physical interaction between hpol η and WRN that is mediated by the exonuclease and RQC domains. Taken together, these results are consistent with alteration of the rate-limiting step in polymerase catalysis by direct protein-protein interactions between WRN and hpol η. In summary, WRN improves the efficiency and fidelity of hpol η to promote more effective replication of DNA.

  1. Werner syndrome protein directly binds to the AAA ATPase p97/VCP in an ATP-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Indig, Fred Eliezer; Partridge, Juneth Joaquin; von Kobbe, Cayetano; Aladjem, Mirit I; Latterich, Martin; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Werner syndrome helicase, WRNp, a member of the RecQ helicase family, forms a tight molecular complex with the p97/Valosin containing protein (VCP), a member of the AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family of proteins. This interaction is disrupted by chemical agents that confer DNA damage, suggesting that VCP plays an important role in the signal-dependent release of WRNp from its nucleolar sequestration site. Here, we characterized the structural requirements for interactions between WRNp and VCP and for the nuclear localization of VCP. We discovered that VCP directly binds to the RQC (RecQ conserved) domain of WRNp, which is a highly conserved motif common to the RecQ helicase family. This interaction is ATP-dependent, suggesting that VCP plays a mechanistic role in releasing WRNp from the nucleolus. Immunohistochemical analysis of various VCP domains and mutated proteins expressed in vitro demonstrated that VCP may contain several hierarchical cellular localization motifs within its domain structure.

  2. The human Werner syndrome protein stimulates repair of oxidative DNA base damage by the DNA glycosylase NEIL1.

    PubMed

    Das, Aditi; Boldogh, Istvan; Lee, Jae Wan; Harrigan, Jeanine A; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Piotrowski, Jason; de Souza Pinto, Nadja; Ramos, William; Greenberg, Marc M; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2007-09-07

    The mammalian DNA glycosylase, NEIL1, specific for repair of oxidatively damaged bases in the genome via the base excision repair pathway, is activated by reactive oxygen species and prevents toxicity due to radiation. We show here that the Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, associates with NEIL1 in the early damage-sensing step of base excision repair. WRN stimulates NEIL1 in excision of oxidative lesions from bubble DNA substrates. The binary interaction between NEIL1 and WRN (K(D) = 60 nM) involves C-terminal residues 288-349 of NEIL1 and the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) region of WRN, and is independent of the helicase activity WRN. Exposure to oxidative stress enhances the NEIL-WRN association concomitant with their strong nuclear co-localization. WRN-depleted cells accumulate some prototypical oxidized bases (e.g. 8-oxoguanine, FapyG, and FapyA) indicating a physiological function of WRN in oxidative damage repair in mammalian genomes. Interestingly, WRN deficiency does not have an additive effect on in vivo damage accumulation in NEIL1 knockdown cells suggesting that WRN participates in the same repair pathway as NEIL1.

  3. Telomeric protein TRF2 protects Holliday junctions with telomeric arms from displacement by the Werner syndrome helicase.

    PubMed

    Nora, Gerald J; Buncher, Noah A; Opresko, Patricia L

    2010-07-01

    WRN protein loss causes Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by premature aging as well as genomic and telomeric instability. WRN prevents telomere loss, but the telomeric protein complex must regulate WRN activities to prevent aberrant telomere processing. Telomere-binding TRF2 protein inhibits telomere t-loop deletion by blocking Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase cleavage activity, but whether TRF2 also modulates HJ displacement at t-loops is unknown. In this study, we used multiplex fluorophore imaging to track the fate of individual strands of HJ substrates. We report the novel finding that TRF2 inhibits WRN helicase strand displacement of HJs with telomeric repeats in duplex arms, but unwinding of HJs with a telomeric center or lacking telomeric sequence is unaffected. These data, together with results using TRF2 fragments and TRF2 HJ binding assays, indicate that both the TRF2 B- and Myb domains are required to inhibit WRN HJ activity. We propose a novel model whereby simultaneous binding of the TRF2 B-domain to the HJ core and the Myb domain to telomeric arms promote and stabilize HJs in a stacked arm conformation that is unfavorable for unwinding. Our biochemical study provides a mechanistic basis for the cellular findings that TRF2 regulates WRN activity at telomeres.

  4. An analytic resolution to the competition between Lyman-Werner radiation and metal winds in direct collapse black hole hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Bhaskar; Regan, John; Klessen, Ralf S.; Downes, Turlough P.; Zackrisson, Erik

    2017-10-01

    A near pristine atomic cooling halo close to a star forming galaxy offers a natural pathway for forming massive direct collapse black hole (DCBH) seeds, which could be the progenitors of the z > 6 redshift quasars. The close proximity of the haloes enables a sufficient Lyman-Werner flux to effectively dissociate H2 in the core of the atomic cooling halo. A mild background may also be required to delay star formation in the atomic cooling halo, often attributed to distant background galaxies. In this paper, we investigate the impact of metal pollution from both the background galaxies and the close star forming galaxy under extremely unfavourable conditions such as instantaneous metal mixing. We find that within the time window of DCBH formation, the level of pollution never exceeds the critical threshold (Zcr ˜ 1 × 10-5 Z⊙) and attains a maximum metallicity of Z ˜ 2 × 10- 6 Z⊙. As the system evolves, the metallicity eventually exceeds the critical threshold, long after the DCBH has formed.

  5. Increased frequency of DNA deletions in pink-eyed unstable mice carrying a mutation in the Werner syndrome gene homologue.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genomic instability and the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases, including cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the WS gene product is involved in resolving aberrant DNA structures that may arise during the process of DNA replication and/or transcription. To estimate the frequency of DNA deletions directly in the skin of mouse embryos, mice with a deletion of part of the murine WRN helicase domain were created. These mutant mice were then crossed to the pink-eyed unstable animals, which have a 70 kb internal duplication at the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene. This report indicates that the frequency of deletion of the duplicated sequence at the p locus is elevated in mice with a mutation in the WRN allele when compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the inhibitor of topoisomerase I camptothecin also increases the frequency of deletion at the p locus. This frequency is even more elevated in WRN mutant mice treated with camptothecin. In contrast, while the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity by 3-aminobenzamide increases the frequency of DNA deletion, mutant WRN mice are not significantly more sensitive to the inhibition of PARP activity than wild-type animals.

  6. Strand exchange of telomeric DNA catalyzed by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is specifically stimulated by TRF2.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Deanna N; Orren, David K; Machwe, Amrita

    2014-07-01

    Werner syndrome (WS), caused by loss of function of the RecQ helicase WRN, is a hereditary disease characterized by premature aging and elevated cancer incidence. WRN has DNA binding, exonuclease, ATPase, helicase and strand annealing activities, suggesting possible roles in recombination-related processes. Evidence indicates that WRN deficiency causes telomeric abnormalities that likely underlie early onset of aging phenotypes in WS. Furthermore, TRF2, a protein essential for telomere protection, interacts with WRN and influences its basic helicase and exonuclease activities. However, these studies provided little insight into WRN's specific function at telomeres. Here, we explored the possibility that WRN and TRF2 cooperate during telomeric recombination processes. Our results indicate that TRF2, through its interactions with both WRN and telomeric DNA, stimulates WRN-mediated strand exchange specifically between telomeric substrates; TRF2's basic domain is particularly important for this stimulation. Although TRF1 binds telomeric DNA with similar affinity, it has minimal effects on WRN-mediated strand exchange of telomeric DNA. Moreover, TRF2 is displaced from telomeric DNA by WRN, independent of its ATPase and helicase activities. Together, these results suggest that TRF2 and WRN act coordinately during telomeric recombination processes, consistent with certain telomeric abnormalities associated with alteration of WRN function.

  7. Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Studies of Chromosome 8p 11.1-21.1 Markers and Werner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-En; Oshima, Junko; Goddard, Katrina A. B.; Miki, Tetsuro; Nakura, Jun; Ogihara, Toshio; Poot, Martin; Hoehn, Holger; Fraccaro, Marco; Piussan, Charles; Martin, George M.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Wijsman, Ellen M.

    1994-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized as a progeroid syndrome, previously mapped to the 8p 11.1-21.1 region. Because WS is so rare, and because many patients are from consanguineous marriages, fine localization of the gene by traditional meiotic mapping methods is unlikely to succeed. Here we present the results of a search for a region that exhibits linkage disequilibrium with the disorder, under the assumption that identification of such a region may provide an alternative method of narrowing down the location of WRN, the gene responsible for WS. We present allele frequencies in Japanese and Caucasian cases and controls for D8S137, D8S131, D8S87, D8S278, D8S259, D8S283, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, ankyrin 1, D8S339, and two polymorphisms in glutathione reductase (GSR), covering ∼16.5 cM in total. We show that three of the markers examined—D8S339 and both polymorphisms in the GSR locus—show strong statistically significant evidence of disequilibrium with WRN in the Japanese population but not in the Caucasian population. In addition, we show that a limited number of haplotypes are associated with the disease in both populations and that these haplotypes define clusters of apparently related haplotypes that may identify as many as eight or nine independent WRN mutations in these two populations. PMID:8037212

  8. Law of cooling, heat conduction and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation laws fitted to experimental data for bones irradiated by CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The rate of cooling of domesticated pig bones is investigated within the temperature range of 20°C-320°C. Within the afore-mentioned temperature range, it was found that different behaviors in the rate of cooling were taking place. For bones reaching a temperature within the lower temperature range of 20°C-50°C, it was found that the rate of cooling is mostly governed by the empirical Newton’s law of cooling. It is also shown that a transition is taking place somewhere within 50°C-100°C, where both the heat conduction equation and Newton’s law apply. As bones can be raised at a fairly high temperature before burning, it was found that the rate of cooling within the range 125°C-320°C is mostly behaving according to the heat conduction equation and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to heat the bones up to a given temperature and the change of temperature as a function of time was recorded by non-contact infrared thermometer during the cooling period. PMID:24688807

  9. Law of cooling, heat conduction and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation laws fitted to experimental data for bones irradiated by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Luc

    2014-03-01

    The rate of cooling of domesticated pig bones is investigated within the temperature range of 20°C-320°C. Within the afore-mentioned temperature range, it was found that different behaviors in the rate of cooling were taking place. For bones reaching a temperature within the lower temperature range of 20°C-50°C, it was found that the rate of cooling is mostly governed by the empirical Newton's law of cooling. It is also shown that a transition is taking place somewhere within 50°C-100°C, where both the heat conduction equation and Newton's law apply. As bones can be raised at a fairly high temperature before burning, it was found that the rate of cooling within the range 125°C-320°C is mostly behaving according to the heat conduction equation and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to heat the bones up to a given temperature and the change of temperature as a function of time was recorded by non-contact infrared thermometer during the cooling period.

  10. A Level Set Approach for Stefan Problems with Robin Boundary Conditions and Applications to Epitaxial Growth with a Step Edge Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papac, Joseph Edward

    Epitaxial growth of nanocrystals, including quantum dots, is leading to promising new technologies and facilitating the creation of novel and beneficial devices such as efficient solar cells and lasers, in vivo biological sensing, and quantum computing and cryptography. This work is intended to numerically simulate the growth of a thin film formed by molecular beam epitaxy with a modified island dynamics model. In particular, we extend the model to include the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier over step edges in order to investigate its influence on island morphology and roughening, which leads to the formation of mounds. Quantum dots are created when mounds are formed on a substrate and encapsulated with a larger band gap material. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier manifests as a Robin boundary condition in continuum-based models for epitaxial growth. As a consequence, this necessitates the development of a level set approach for the Poisson, diffusion, and moving-boundary Stefan-type problems with Robin boundary conditions. These equations are of practical significance in a variety of fields. For example, they arise in: heat transfer applications involving internal conduction and convection; tissue imaging with near-infrared tomography; and continuum models of epitaxial growth involving the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier on step edges. We propose a straightforward and efficient level set approach to these problems on uniform and adaptive Cartesian grids in two and three spatial dimensions. This approach is then utilized in numerical simulations of epitaxial growth with the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier.

  11. The DNA repair endonuclease XPG interacts directly and functionally with the WRN helicase defective in Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Trego, Kelly S.; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Davalos, Albert R.; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Finger, L. David; Ng, Cliff; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Yannone, Steven M.; Tainer, John A.; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2011-04-20

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG incision defects result in the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, whereas truncating mutations of XPG cause the severe postnatal progeroid developmental disorder Cockayne syndrome. We show that XPG interacts directly with WRN protein, which is defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, and that the two proteins undergo similar sub-nuclear redistribution in S-phase and co-localize in nuclear foci. The co-localization was observed in mid- to late-S-phase, when WRN moves from nucleoli to nuclear foci that have been shown to contain protein markers of both stalled replication forks and telomeric proteins. We mapped the interaction between XPG and WRN to the C-terminal domains of each and show that interaction with the C-terminal domain of XPG strongly stimulates WRN helicase activity. WRN also possesses a competing DNA single-strand annealing activity that, combined with unwinding, has been shown to coordinate regression of model replication forks to form Holliday junction/chicken foot intermediate structures. We tested whether XPG stimulated WRN annealing activity and found that XPG itself has intrinsic strand annealing activity that requires the unstructured R- and C-terminal domains, but not the conserved catalytic core or endonuclease activity. Annealing by XPG is cooperative, rather than additive, with WRN annealing. Taken together, our results suggest a novel function for XPG in S-phase that is at least in part carried out coordinately with WRN, and which may contribute to the severity of the phenotypes that occur upon loss of XPG.

  12. THE WERNER AND BLOOM SYNDROME PROTEINS HELP RESOLVE REPLICATION BLOCKAGE BY CONVERTING (REGRESSED) HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS TO FUNCTIONAL REPLICATION FORKS

    PubMed Central

    Machwe, Amrita; Karale, Rajashree; Xu, Xioahua; Liu, Yilun; Orren, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Cells cope with blockage of replication fork progression in a manner so that DNA synthesis can be completed and genomic instability minimized. Models for resolution of blocked replication involve fork regression to form Holliday junction structures. The human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM (deficient in Werner and Bloom syndromes, respectively) are critical for maintaining genomic stability and postulated to function in accurate resolution of replication blockage. Consistent with this notion, WRN and BLM localize to sites of blocked replication after certain DNA damaging treatments and exhibit enhanced activity on replication and recombination intermediates. Here we examined the actions of WRN and BLM on a special Holliday junction substrate reflective of a regressed replication fork. Our results demonstrate that, in reactions requiring ATP hydrolysis, both WRN and BLM convert this Holliday junction substrate primarily to a four-stranded replication fork structure, suggesting they target the Holliday junction to initiate branch migration. In agreement, the Holliday junction binding protein RuvA inhibits the WRN- and BLM-mediated conversion reactions. Importantly, this conversion product is suitable for replication with its leading daughter strand readily extended by DNA polymerases. Furthermore, binding to and conversion of this Holliday junction is optimal in low MgCl2, suggesting that WRN and BLM preferentially act on the square planar (open) conformation of Holliday junctions. Our findings suggest that, subsequent to fork regression events, WRN and/or BLM could re-establish functional replication forks to help overcome fork blockage. Such a function is highly consistent with phenotypes associated with WRN- and BLM-deficient cells. PMID:21736299

  13. Metabolic and Phenotypic Differences between Mice Producing a Werner Syndrome Helicase Mutant Protein and Wrn Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aumailley, Lucie; Garand, Chantal; Dubois, Marie Julie; Johnson, F. Brad; Marette, André; Lebel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter mean life span. In contrast, mice lacking the entire Wrn protein (i.e. Wrn null mice) do not exhibit a premature aging phenotype. In this study, we used a targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to identify serum metabolites that are differentially altered in young Wrn helicase mutant and Wrn null mice. An antibody-based quantification of 43 serum cytokines and markers of cardiovascular disease risk complemented this study. We found that Wrn helicase mutants exhibited elevated and decreased levels, respectively, of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Wrn helicase mutants also exhibited an increase in serum hydroxyproline and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, markers of extracellular matrix remodeling of the vascular system and inflammation in aging. We also observed an abnormal increase in the ratio of very long chain to short chain lysophosphatidylcholines in the Wrn helicase mutants underlying a peroxisome perturbation in these mice. Remarkably, the Wrn mutant helicase protein was mislocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisomal fractions in liver tissues. Additional analyses with mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated a severe defect of the autophagy flux in cells derived from Wrn helicase mutants compared to wild type and Wrn null animals. These results indicate that the deleterious effects of the helicase-deficient Wrn protein are mediated by the dysfunction of several cellular organelles. PMID:26447695

  14. The direct collapse of a massive black hole seed under the influence of an anisotropic Lyman-Werner source

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2014-11-10

    The direct collapse model of supermassive black hole seed formation requires that the gas cools predominantly via atomic hydrogen. To this end we simulate the effect of an anisotropic radiation source on the collapse of a halo at high redshift. The radiation source is placed at a distance of 3 kpc (physical) from the collapsing object and is set to emit monochromatically in the center of the Lyman-Werner (LW) band. The LW radiation emitted from the high redshift source is followed self-consistently using ray tracing techniques. Due to self-shielding, a small amount of H{sub 2} is able to form at the very center of the collapsing halo even under very strong LW radiation. Furthermore, we find that a radiation source, emitting >10{sup 54} (∼ 10{sup 3} J{sub 21}) photons s{sup –1}, is required to cause the collapse of a clump of M ∼ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. The resulting accretion rate onto the collapsing object is ∼0.25 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Our results display significant differences, compared to the isotropic radiation field case, in terms of the H{sub 2} fraction at an equivalent radius. These differences will significantly affect the dynamics of the collapse. With the inclusion of a strong anisotropic radiation source, the final mass of the collapsing object is found to be M ∼ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. This is consistent with predictions for the formation of a supermassive star or quasi-star leading to a supermassive black hole.

  15. Fluctuations in the high-redshift Lyman-Werner background: close halo pairs as the origin of supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark; Haiman, Zoltán; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2008-12-01

    The earliest generation of stars and black holes must have established an early `Lyman-Werner' background (LWB) at high redshift, prior to the epoch of reionization. Because of the long mean free path of photons with energies hν < 13.6eV, the LWB was nearly uniform. However, some variation in the LWB is expected due to the discrete nature of the sources, and their highly clustered spatial distribution. In this paper, we compute the probability distribution function (PDF) of the LW flux that irradiates dark matter (DM) haloes collapsing at high redshift (z ~ 10). Our model accounts for (i) the clustering of DM haloes, (ii) Poisson fluctuations in the number of corresponding star-forming galaxies and (iii) scatter in the LW luminosity produced by haloes of a given mass (calibrated using local observations). We find that >99 per cent of the DM haloes are illuminated by an LW flux within a factor of 2 of the global mean value. However, a small fraction, ~10-8 to 10-6, of DM haloes with virial temperatures Tvir >~ 104 K have a close luminous neighbour within <~10 kpc, and are exposed to an LW flux exceeding the global mean by a factor of >20, or to J21,LW > 103 (in units of 10-21 erg s-1 Hz-1 sr-1 cm-2). This large LW flux can photodissociate H2 molecules in the gas collapsing due to atomic cooling in these haloes, and prevent its further cooling and fragmentation. Such close halo pairs therefore provide possible sites in which primordial gas clouds collapse directly into massive black holes (MBH ~ 104-6Msolar), and subsequently grow into supermassive (MBH >~ 109Msolar) black holes by z ~ 6.

  16. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 regulates both the exonuclease and helicase activities of the Werner syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    von Kobbe, Cayetano; Harrigan, Jeanine A; Schreiber, Valérie; Stiegler, Patrick; Piotrowski, Jason; Dawut, Lale; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2004-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a genetic premature aging disorder in which patients appear much older than their chronological age. The gene mutated in WS encodes a nuclear protein (WRN) which possesses 3'-5' exonuclease and ATPase-dependent 3'-5' helicase activities. The genomic instability associated with WS cells and the biochemical characteristics of WRN suggest that WRN plays a role in DNA metabolic pathways such as transcription, replication, recombination and repair. Recently we have identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as a new WRN interacting protein. In this paper, we further mapped the interacting domains. We found that PARP-1 bound to the N-terminus of WRN and to the C-terminus containing the RecQ-conserved (RQC) domain. WRN bound to the N-terminus of PARP-1 containing DNA binding and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains. We show that unmodified PARP-1 inhibited both WRN exonuclease and helicase activities, and to our knowledge is the only known WRN protein partner that inactivates both of the WRN's catalytic activities suggesting a biologically significant regulation. Moreover, this dual inhibition seems to be specific for PARP-1, as PARP-2 did not affect WRN helicase activity and only slightly inhibited WRN exonuclease activity. The differential effect of PARP-1 and PARP-2 on WRN catalytic activity was not due to differences in affinity for WRN or the DNA substrate. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of WRN by PARP-1 was influenced by the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation state of PARP-1. The biological relevance of the specific modulation of WRN catalytic activities by PARP-1 are discussed in the context of pathways in which these proteins may function together, namely in the repair of DNA strand breaks.

  17. Werner Ernst Reichardt Ph.D: founder of modern computational visual neurophysiology and anti-Nazi resistance fighter.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J T

    1999-01-01

    Werner Ernst Reichardt was born on January 30, 1924 in Berlin and at age 19 was drafted into the Luftwaffe and assigned to an electronic signals section laboratory. He became an active member of a resistance group and supplied radios for the movement in Germany. He emerged from the ashes of the Second World War and dedicated his scientific life to the development of the newborn specialty of biological physics. Following graduation from the Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg, he did a fellowship at CalTech under Max Delbrück. On returning to Germany he joined the Max Planck Institut and later became Director of the Max Planck Institut für Biologische Kybernetik in Tübingen, West Germany. Reichardt was one of the founders of the quantitative study of visually controlled orientation in animals. His work is very nearly unique in its close dialectic between elegant non-linear mathematical theory and quantitative experimental test of their predictions. During the 1950s Reichardt and his collaborators jointly developed an autocorrelation model (i.e. the firing rate of the involved visual neurones is closely correlated with the features of the pattern stimulating them) of how moving patterns are perceived by motion detectors in the visual system of the fly. This was the first mathematical description of a biological abstraction process. His findings apply to vertebrate vision, including motion detection and figure-ground description in human vision. His Max Planck Institute became a world renowned center for the computational approach to information processing by the nervous system. At his retirement party from the Institute he founded, Reichardt died on the evening of September 11th, 1992.

  18. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  19. From the Peenemuende 'Aggregates' to the American moon rocket - The development of the Saturn V Apollo rocket by Werner von Braun's team based on the Peenemuende concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisig, G. H. R.

    The origin of active space flight and the important role played in it by the innovations made in the Peenemuende rocket program are discussed. The rocket development carried out by the Werner von Braun team is chronologically recalled. The A4 rocket and its aerodynamic configuration are discussed, including the ballistic demands on its configuration, the development of the Peenemuende supersonic wind tunnel, and the pretesting of the A4 configuration using the A5 rocket. Rocket development in the U.S. from the Redstone to the Saturn is reviewed.

  20. Bernard Lerer: recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Vural; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Aynacıoğlu, Sükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J D; Llerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Umit

    2014-04-01

    This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21(st) century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry--pharmacoepigenetics--that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a long way

  1. Sign Crossover in All Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivities for Molten Salt LiF-BeF2: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2015-08-20

    Applying Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have studied for the first time the dynamic correlation, Onsager coefficients, and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities of molten salt LiF-BeF2, which is a potential candidate for a coolant in a high temperature reactor. We observe an unusual composition dependence and strikingly a crossover in sign for all the MS diffusivities at a composition of around 7% of LiF where the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair (Đ(BeF) and Đ(LiF)) jumps from positive to negative value while the MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair (Đ(LiBe)) becomes positive from a negative value. Even though the negative MS diffusivities have been observed for electrolyte solutions between cation-cation pair, here we report negative MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair where Đ(BeF) shows a sharp rise around 66% of BeF2, reaches maximum value at 70% of BeF2, and then decreases almost exponentially with a sign change for BeF2 around 93%. For low mole fraction of LiF, Đ(BeF) follows the Debye-Huckel theory and rises with the square root of LiF mole fraction similar to the MS diffusivity between cation-anion pair in aqueous solution of electrolyte salt. Negative MS diffusivities while unusual are, however, shown to satisfy the non-negative entropy constraints at all thermodynamic states as required by the second law of thermodynamics. We have established a strong correlation between the structure and dynamics and predict that the formation of flouride polyanion network between Be and F ions and coulomb interaction is responsible for sharp variation of the MS diffusivities which controls the multicomponent diffusion phenomenon in LiF-BeF2 which has a strong impact on the performance of the reactor.

  2. Ethnic-specific WRN mutations in South Asian Werner syndrome patients: potential founder effect in patients with Indian or Pakistani ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bidisha; Lessel, Davor; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Rao, Anuradha S; Hisama, Fuki M; Peter, Dincy; Bennett, Chris; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple features consistent with accelerated aging. It is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a RecQ type helicase. To date, more than 70 disease-causing mutations have been reported. While founder mutations and a corresponding relatively high incidence of WS have been reported in Japan and Sardinia, such mutations have not been previously described among patients of South Asian descent. Here, we report two novel WRN mutations in three pedigrees. A homozygous c.561A>G mutation in exon 6 was identified both in a pedigree from Kerala, India and in a British patient of Pakistani ancestry. Although c.561A>G does not alter the corresponding amino acid (p.Lys187), it creates a cryptic splice site resulting in a 98 bp deletion at the mRNA level (r.557_654del98) followed by a frameshift (p.Lys187Trpfs*13). These two cases shared the same haplotype across the WRN gene, and were distinct from another Indian Werner patient with a homozygous stop codon mutation, c.2855 C > A (p.Ser952*), in exon 24. As the Indian population increases and the awareness of WS grows, we anticipate that more cases will be identified with these founder mutations among South Asian WS patients. PMID:23936869

  3. Trapping of Li(+) Ions by [ThFn](4-n) Clusters Leading to Oscillating Maxwell-Stefan Diffusivity in the Molten Salt LiF-ThF4.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Kidwai, Sharif; Ramaniah, Lavanya M

    2016-08-18

    A molten salt mixture of lithium fluoride and thorium fluoride (LiF-ThF4) serves as a fuel as well as a coolant in the most sophisticated molten salt reactor (MSR). Here, we report for the first time dynamic correlations, Onsager coefficients, Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities, and the concentration dependence of density and enthalpy of the molten salt mixture LiF-ThF4 at 1200 K in the composition range of 2-45% ThF4 and also at eutectic composition in the temperature range of 1123-1600 K using Green-Kubo formalism and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We have observed an interesting oscillating pattern for the MS diffusivity for the cation-cation pair, in which ĐLi-Th oscillates between positive and negative values with the amplitude of the oscillation reducing as the system becomes rich in ThF4. Through the velocity autocorrelation function, vibrational density of states, radial distribution function analysis, and structural snapshots, we establish an interplay between the local structure and multicomponent dynamics and predict that formation of negatively charged [ThFn](4-n) clusters at a higher ThF4 mole % makes positively charged Li(+) ions oscillate between different clusters, with their range of motion reducing as the number of [ThFn](4-n) clusters increases, and finally Li(+) ions almost get trapped at a higher ThF4% when the electrostatic force on Li(+) exerted by various surrounding clusters gets balanced. Although reports on variations of density and enthalpy with temperature exist in the literature, for the first time we report variations of the density and enthalpy of LiF-ThF4 with the concentration of ThF4 (mole %) and fit them with the square root function of ThF4 concentration, which will be very useful for experimentalists to obtain data over a range of concentrations from fitting the formula for design purposes. The formation of [ThFn](4-n) clusters and the reduction in the diffusivity of the ions at a higher ThF4% may limit the

  4. Promyelocytic leukemia protein interacts with werner syndrome helicase and regulates double-strand break repair in γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilai; Song, Yi; Qian, Junjie; Liu, Bin; Dong, Yan; Tian, Baolei; Sun, Zhixian

    2011-05-01

    We show here that γ-irradiation leads to the translocation of endogenous Werner syndrome helicase (WRN) from nucleoli to nucleoplasmic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and WRN plays a role in damage repair. The relocation of WRN after irradiation was perturbed by promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) knockdown and enhanced by PML IV overexpression. PML IV physically interacted with WRN after irradiation. Amino acids (a.a.) 394 to 433 of PML were necessary for this interaction and the nucleoplasmic translocation of WRN and were involved in DSB repair and cellular sensitivity to γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results provide molecular support for a model in which PML IV physically interacts with and regulates the translocation of WRN for DNA damage repair through its 394-433 a.a. domain.

  5. Colella-Overhauser-Werner test of the weak equivalence principle: A low-energy window to look into the noncommutative structure of space-time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    We construct the quantum mechanical model of the Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) experiment assuming that the underlying space time has a granular structure, described by a canonical noncommutative algebra of coordinates xμ. The time-space sector of the algebra is shown to add a mass-dependent contribution to the gravitational acceleration felt by neutron de Brogli waves measured in a COW experiment. This makes time-space noncommutativity a potential candidate for an apparent violation of the weak equivalence principle even if the ratio of the inertial mass mi and gravitational mass mg is a universal constant. The latest experimental result based on the COW principle is shown to place an upper bound several orders of magnitude stronger than the existing one on the time-space noncommutative parameter. We argue that the evidence of noncommutative structure of space-time may be found if the COW-type experiment can be repeated with several particle species.

  6. rqh1+, a fission yeast gene related to the Bloom's and Werner's syndrome genes, is required for reversible S phase arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E; Chapman, C R; Al-Khodairy, F; Carr, A M; Enoch, T

    1997-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, S phase can be reversibly arrested by drugs that inhibit DNA synthesis or DNA damage. Here we show that recovery from such treatments is under genetic control and is defective in fission yeast rqh1 mutants. rqh1+, previously known as hus2+, encodes a putative DNA helicase related to the Escherichia coli RecQ helicase, with particular homology to the gene products of the human BLM and WRN genes and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 gene. BLM and WRN are mutated in patients with Bloom's syndrome and Werner's syndrome respectively. Both syndromes are associated with genomic instability and cancer susceptibility. We show that, like BLM and SGS1, rqh1+ is required to prevent recombination and that in fission yeast suppression of inappropriate recombination is essential for reversible S phase arrest. PMID:9184215

  7. Bernard Lerer: Recipient of the 2014 Inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine (Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics)

    PubMed Central

    Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dove, Edward S.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hafen, Ernst; Kesim, Belgin Eroğlu; Kolker, Eugene; Lee, Edmund J.D.; LLerena, Adrian; Nacak, Muradiye; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Someya, Toshiyuki; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tomlinson, Brian; Vayena, Effy; Warnich, Louise; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article announces the recipient of the 2014 inaugural Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize in Global Omics and Personalized Medicine by the Pacific Rim Association for Clinical Pharmacogenetics (PRACP): Bernard Lerer, professor of psychiatry and director of the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. The Werner Kalow Responsible Innovation Prize is given to an exceptional interdisciplinary scholar who has made highly innovative and enduring contributions to global omics science and personalized medicine, with both vertical and horizontal (transdisciplinary) impacts. The prize is established in memory of a beloved colleague, mentor, and friend, the late Professor Werner Kalow, who cultivated the idea and practice of pharmacogenetics in modern therapeutics commencing in the 1950s. PRACP, the prize's sponsor, is one of the longest standing learned societies in the Asia-Pacific region, and was founded by Kalow and colleagues more than two decades ago in the then-emerging field of pharmacogenetics. In announcing this inaugural prize and its winner, we seek to highlight the works of prize winner, Professor Lerer. Additionally, we contextualize the significance of the prize by recalling the life and works of Professor Kalow and providing a brief socio-technical history of the rise of pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine as a veritable form of 21st century scientific practice. The article also fills a void in previous social science analyses of pharmacogenetics, by bringing to the fore the works of Kalow from 1995 to 2008, when he presciently noted the rise of yet another field of postgenomics inquiry—pharmacoepigenetics—that railed against genetic determinism and underscored the temporal and spatial plasticity of genetic components of drug response, with invention of the repeated drug administration (RDA) method that estimates the dynamic heritabilities of drug response. The prize goes a

  8. The Werner syndrome protein limits the error-prone 8-oxo-dG lesion bypass activity of human DNA polymerase kappa.

    PubMed

    Maddukuri, Leena; Ketkar, Amit; Eddy, Sarah; Zafar, Maroof K; Eoff, Robert L

    2014-10-29

    Human DNA polymerase kappa (hpol κ) is the only Y-family member to preferentially insert dAMP opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) during translesion DNA synthesis. We have studied the mechanism of action by which hpol κ activity is modulated by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a RecQ helicase known to influence repair of 8-oxo-dG. Here we show that WRN stimulates the 8-oxo-dG bypass activity of hpol κ in vitro by enhancing the correct base insertion opposite the lesion, as well as extension from dC:8-oxo-dG base pairs. Steady-state kinetic analysis reveals that WRN improves hpol κ-catalyzed dCMP insertion opposite 8-oxo-dG ∼10-fold and extension from dC:8-oxo-dG by 2.4-fold. Stimulation is primarily due to an increase in the rate constant for polymerization (kpol), as assessed by pre-steady-state kinetics, and it requires the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain. In support of the functional data, recombinant WRN and hpol κ were found to physically interact through the exo and RQC domains of WRN, and co-localization of WRN and hpol κ was observed in human cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. Thus, WRN limits the error-prone bypass of 8-oxo-dG by hpol κ, which could influence the sensitivity to oxidative damage that has previously been observed for Werner's syndrome cells.

  9. The Werner Protein Acts as a Coactivator of Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) on HIV-1 and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Promoters.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Taketoshi; Ishizaka, Aya; Furuichi, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-24

    The Werner syndrome helicase (WRN) plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. The lack of WRN results in Werner syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which causes premature aging accompanied by many complications such as rare forms of cancer and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of these complications, arising due to the loss of WRN, are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated the function of WRN in transcriptional regulation of NF-κB targets. WRN physically interacts via its RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain with the Rel homology domain of both the RelA (p65) and the p50 subunits of NF-κB. In the steady state, WRN is recruited to HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), a typical NF-κB-responsive promoter, as well as the p50/p50 homodimer, in an NF-κB site-dependent manner. The amount of WRN on LTR increased along with the transactivating RelA/p50 heterodimer in response to TNF-α stimulation. Further, a knockdown of WRN reduced the transactivation of LTR in exogenous RelA/p50-introduced or TNF-α-stimulated cells. Additionally, knockdown of WRN reduced TNF-α stimulation-induced activation of the endogenous promoter of IL-8, an NF-κB-responsive gene, and WRN increased its association with the IL-8 promoter region together with RelA/p50 after TNF-α stimulation. In conjunction with studies that have shown NF-κB to be a key regulator of aging and inflammation, our results indicate a novel role of WRN in transcriptional regulation. Along with NF-κB, the loss of WRN is expected to result in incorrect regulation of downstream targets and leads to immune abnormalities and homeostatic disruption.

  10. The Werner Protein Acts as a Coactivator of Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) on HIV-1 and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Promoters*

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Taketoshi; Ishizaka, Aya; Furuichi, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Werner syndrome helicase (WRN) plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. The lack of WRN results in Werner syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which causes premature aging accompanied by many complications such as rare forms of cancer and type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of these complications, arising due to the loss of WRN, are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated the function of WRN in transcriptional regulation of NF-κB targets. WRN physically interacts via its RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain with the Rel homology domain of both the RelA (p65) and the p50 subunits of NF-κB. In the steady state, WRN is recruited to HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), a typical NF-κB-responsive promoter, as well as the p50/p50 homodimer, in an NF-κB site-dependent manner. The amount of WRN on LTR increased along with the transactivating RelA/p50 heterodimer in response to TNF-α stimulation. Further, a knockdown of WRN reduced the transactivation of LTR in exogenous RelA/p50-introduced or TNF-α-stimulated cells. Additionally, knockdown of WRN reduced TNF-α stimulation-induced activation of the endogenous promoter of IL-8, an NF-κB-responsive gene, and WRN increased its association with the IL-8 promoter region together with RelA/p50 after TNF-α stimulation. In conjunction with studies that have shown NF-κB to be a key regulator of aging and inflammation, our results indicate a novel role of WRN in transcriptional regulation. Along with NF-κB, the loss of WRN is expected to result in incorrect regulation of downstream targets and leads to immune abnormalities and homeostatic disruption. PMID:26037922

  11. The Werner syndrome protein limits the error-prone 8-oxo-dG lesion bypass activity of human DNA polymerase kappa

    PubMed Central

    Maddukuri, Leena; Ketkar, Amit; Eddy, Sarah; Zafar, Maroof K.; Eoff, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase kappa (hpol κ) is the only Y-family member to preferentially insert dAMP opposite 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) during translesion DNA synthesis. We have studied the mechanism of action by which hpol κ activity is modulated by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a RecQ helicase known to influence repair of 8-oxo-dG. Here we show that WRN stimulates the 8-oxo-dG bypass activity of hpol κ in vitro by enhancing the correct base insertion opposite the lesion, as well as extension from dC:8-oxo-dG base pairs. Steady-state kinetic analysis reveals that WRN improves hpol κ-catalyzed dCMP insertion opposite 8-oxo-dG ∼10-fold and extension from dC:8-oxo-dG by 2.4-fold. Stimulation is primarily due to an increase in the rate constant for polymerization (kpol), as assessed by pre-steady-state kinetics, and it requires the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain. In support of the functional data, recombinant WRN and hpol κ were found to physically interact through the exo and RQC domains of WRN, and co-localization of WRN and hpol κ was observed in human cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. Thus, WRN limits the error-prone bypass of 8-oxo-dG by hpol κ, which could influence the sensitivity to oxidative damage that has previously been observed for Werner's syndrome cells. PMID:25294835

  12. Niels Bohr's discussions with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger: The origins of the principles of uncertainty and complementarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Jagdish

    1987-05-01

    In this paper, the main outlines of the discussions between Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrödinger during 1920 1927 are treated. From the formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925 1926 and wave mechanics in 1926, there emerged Born's statistical interpretation of the wave function in summer 1926, and on the basis of the quantum mechanical transformation theory—formulated in fall 1926 by Dirac, London, and Jordan—Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in early 1927. At the Volta Conference in Como in September 1927 and at the fifth Solvay Conference in Brussels the following month, Bohr publicly enunciated his complementarity principle, which had been developing in his mind for several years. The Bohr-Einstein discussions about the consistency and completeness of qnautum mechanics and of physical theory as such—formally begun in October 1927 at the fifth Solvay Conference and carried on at the sixth Solvay Conference in October 1930—were continued during the next decades. All these aspects are briefly summarized.

  13. Detection by Epitope-defined Monoclonal Antibodies of Werner DNA Helicases in the Nucleoplasm and Their Upregulation by Cell Transformation and Immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Miwa; Sakamoto, Sakae; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Tokutake, Yoshiki; Kawabe, Yoichi; Enomoto, Takemi; Sugimoto, Masanobu; Goto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Furuichi, Yasuhiro

    1999-01-01

    We prepared several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of the DNA helicase (WRN helicase) responsible for Werner's syndrome known as a premature aging disease. With these antibodies, we detected by immunoblot analysis the endogenous WRN helicase of a relative mass of 180 kD in several lines of cultured cells, but not in patient cells with a defined mutation. Immunocytochemical staining of proliferating fibroblasts and tumor cells showed that the major part of WRN helicase is in the nucleoplasm and not in the nucleolus. Similar experiments with a rat mAb specific to the mouse homologue of human WRN helicase yielded an identical conclusion. Although this nucleoplasmic staining was evident in cells in interphase, the condensed chromatin structure in metaphase was not stained by the same mAbs, suggesting that WRN helicases exist perhaps in a soluble form or bound to the unfolded chromatin structure. From quantitative immunoblot analysis, higher levels of WRN helicase were observed in all transformed cells and tumor cells examined than those of normal cells. The expression of WRN helicase was enhanced consistently in fibroblasts and B-lymphoblastoid cells by transformation with SV-40 and Epstein-Barr virus, respectively, suggesting that rapidly proliferating cells require a high copy numbers of WRN helicase. PMID:9885239

  14. Coronary artery disease in a Werner syndrome-like form of progeria characterized by low levels of progerin, a splice variant of lamin A.

    PubMed

    Hisama, Fuki M; Lessel, Davor; Leistritz, Dru; Friedrich, Katrin; McBride, Kim L; Pastore, Matthew T; Gottesman, Gary S; Saha, Bidisha; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2011-12-01

    Classical Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by LMNA mutations that generate an alternatively spliced form of lamin A, termed progerin. HGPS patients present in early childhood with atherosclerosis and striking features of accelerated aging. We report on two pedigrees of adult-onset coronary artery disease with progeroid features, who were referred to our International Registry of Werner Syndrome (WS) because of clinical features consistent with the diagnosis. No mutations were identified in the WRN gene that is responsible for WS, among these patients. Instead, we found two novel heterozygous mutations at the junction of exon 10 and intron 11 of the LMNA gene. These mutations resulted in the production of progerin at a level substantially lower than that of HGPS. Our findings indicate that LMNA mutations may result in coronary artery disease presenting in the fourth to sixth decades along with short stature and a progeroid appearance resembling WS. The absence of early-onset cataracts in this setting should suggest the diagnosis of progeroid laminopathy. This study illustrates the evolving genotype-phenotype relationship between the amount of progerin produced and the age of onset among the spectrum of restrictive dermopathy, HGPS, and atypical forms of WS.

  15. Association of the rs1346044 Polymorphism of the Werner Syndrome Gene RECQL2 with Increased Risk and Premature Onset of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zins, Karin; Frech, Barbara; Taubenschuss, Eva; Schneeberger, Christian; Abraham, Dietmar; Schreiber, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Like other RECQ helicases, WRN/RECQL2 plays a crucial role in DNA replication and the maintenance of genome stability. Inactivating mutations in RECQL2 lead to Werner syndrome, a rare autosomal disease associated with premature aging and an increased susceptibility to multiple cancer types. We analyzed the association of two coding single-nucleotide polymorphisms in WRN, Cys1367Arg (rs1346044), and Arg834Cys (rs3087425), with the risk, age at onset, and clinical subclasses of breast cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of an Austrian population of 272 breast cancer patients and 254 controls. Here we report that the rare homozygous CC genotype of rs1346044 was associated with an approximately two-fold elevated breast cancer risk. Moreover, patients with the CC genotype exhibited a significantly increased risk of developing breast cancer under the age of 55 in both recessive and log-additive genetic models. CC patients developed breast cancer at a mean age of 55.2 ± 13.3 years and TT patients at 60.2 ± 14.7 years. Consistently, the risk of breast cancer was increased in pre-menopausal patients in the recessive model. These findings suggest that the CC genotype of WRN rs1346044 may contribute to an increased risk and a premature onset of breast cancer. PMID:26690424

  16. Improved Laboratory Values of the H{sub 2} Lyman and Werner Lines for Constraining Time Variation of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Salumbides, E. J.; Khramov, A.; Wolf, A. L.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.; Bailly, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2008-11-28

    Two distinct high-accuracy laboratory spectroscopic investigations of the H{sub 2} molecule are reported. Anchor lines in the EF{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}-X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} system are calibrated by two-photon deep-UV Doppler-free spectroscopy, while independent Fourier-transform spectroscopic measurements are performed that yield accurate spacings in the B{sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}-EF{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} and I{sup 1}{pi}{sub g}-C{sup 1}{pi}{sub u} systems. From combination differences accurate transition wavelengths for the B-X Lyman and the C-X Werner lines can be determined with accuracies better than {approx}5x10{sup -9}, representing a major improvement over existing values. This metrology provides a practically exact database to extract a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio based on H{sub 2} lines in high-redshift objects. Moreover, it forms a rationale for equipping a future class of telescopes, carrying 30-40 m dishes, with novel spectrometers of higher resolving powers.

  17. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism, V114I of the Werner syndrome gene, is associated with risk of osteoporosis and femoral fracture in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heying; Mori, Seijiro; Tanaka, Masashi; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Mieno, Makiko Naka; Shinkai, Shoji; Yamada, Yoshiji; Miyachi, Motohiko; Murakami, Haruka; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hideki

    2015-11-01

    Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the human WRN gene and characterized by the early onset of normal aging symptoms. Given that patients with this disease exhibit osteoporosis, the present study aimed to determine whether the WRN gene contributes to the etiology of osteoporosis. A genetic association study of eight non-synonymous polymorphisms in the WRN gene and the incidence of femoral fracture was undertaken in 1,632 consecutive Japanese autopsies in which 140 patients had experienced the fracture during their lifetime. The results were validated in 251 unrelated postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis and 269 non-institutionalized, community-dwelling Japanese adults. A statistically significant association was observed between rs2230009 (c.340G > A)--which results in a Val to Ile substitution--and fracture risk; the incidence of femoral fracture increased dose-dependently with the number of A alleles (p = 0.0120). Femoral neck bone and whole bone densities were lower among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and community-dwelling adults, respectively, if they were of the AG instead of the GG genotype. The results suggest that Japanese subjects bearing at least one A allele of rs2230009 of the WRN gene are at a significantly higher risk of femoral fracture, possibly due to decreased bone density.

  18. A novel ZRS mutation leads to preaxial polydactyly type 2 in a heterozygous form and Werner mesomelic syndrome in a homozygous form.

    PubMed

    VanderMeer, Julia E; Lozano, Reymundo; Sun, Miao; Xue, Yuan; Daentl, Donna; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wilcox, William R; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-08-01

    Point mutations in the zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) are known to cause human limb malformations. Although most mutations cause preaxial polydactyly (PPD), triphalangeal thumb (TPT) or both, a mutation in position 404 of the ZRS causes more severe Werner mesomelic syndrome (WMS) for which malformations include the distal arm or leg bones in addition to the hands and/or feet. Of more than 15 reported families with ZRS mutations, only one homozygous individual has been reported, with no change in phenotype compared with heterozygotes. Here, we describe a novel point mutation in the ZRS, 402C>T (AC007097.4:g.105548C>T), that is transmitted through two Mexican families with one homozygous individual. The homozygous phenotype for this mutation, WMS, is more severe than the numerous heterozygous individuals genotyped from both families who have TPT and PPD. A mouse transgenic enhancer assay shows that this mutation causes an expansion of the enhancer's expression domain in the developing mouse limb, confirming its pathogenicity. Combined, our results identify a novel ZRS mutation in the Mexican population, 402C>T, and suggest that a dosage effect exists for this ZRS mutation.

  19. Werner's syndrome protein is phosphorylated in an ATR/ATM-dependent manner following replication arrest and DNA damage induced during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Pietro; Rosselli, Filippo; Franchitto, Annapaola

    2003-03-13

    Werner's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized at the cellular level by genomic instability in the form of variegated translocation mosaicism and extensive deletions. Individuals with WS prematurely develop multiple age-related pathologies and exhibit increased incidence of cancer. WRN, the gene defective in WS, encodes a 160-kDa protein (WRN), which has 3'-5'exonuclease, DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. WRN-defective cells are hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause replication arrest and/or double-strand breaks at the replication fork, suggesting a pivotal role for WRN in the protection of the integrity of the genoma during the DNA replication process. Here, we show that WRN is phosphorylated through an ATR/ATM dependent pathway in response to replication blockage. However, we provide evidence that WRN phosphorylation is not essential for its subnuclear relocalization after replication arrest. Finally, we show that WRN and ATR colocalize after replication fork arrest, suggesting that WRN and the ATR kinase collaborate to prevent genome instability during the S phase.

  20. Toward localization of the Werner syndrome gene by linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotyping: Lessons learned from analysis of 35 chromosome 8p11.1-21.1 markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, K.A.B.; Wijsman, E.M.; Martin, G.M.

    1996-06-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene for WS, WRN, has been mapped to the 8p11.1-21.1 region with further localization through linkage disequilibrium mapping. Here we present the results of linkage disequilibrium and ancestral haplotype analyses of 35 markers to further refine the location of WRN. We identified an interval in this region in which 14 of 18 markers tested show significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium in at least one of the two populations tested. Analysis of extended and partial haplotypes covering 21 of the markers studied supports the existence of both obligate and probable ancestral recombinant events which localize WRN almost certainly to the interval between DSS2196 and D8S2186, and most likely to the narrower interval between D8S2168 and D8S2186. These haplotype analyses also suggest that there are multiple WRN mutations in each of the two populations under study. We also present a comparison of approaches to performing disequilibrium tests with multiallelic markers, and show that some commonly used approximations for such tests perform poorly in comparison to exact probability tests. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties introduced by the high mutation rate at microsatellite markers which influence our ability to use ancestral haplotype analysis to localize disease genes. 51 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Serines 440 and 467 in the Werner syndrome protein are phosphorylated by DNA-PK and affects its dynamics in response to DNA double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Ghosh, Deblina; Karmakar, Parimal; May, Alfred; Ramsden, Dale; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2014-01-01

    WRN protein, defective in Werner syndrome (WS), a human segmental progeria, is a target of serine/threonine kinases involved in sensing DNA damage. DNA-PK phosphorylates WRN in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the main phosphorylation sites and functional importance of the phosphorylation of WRN has remained unclear. Here, we identify Ser-440 and −467 in WRN as major phosphorylation sites mediated by DNA-PK. In vitro, DNA-PK fails to phosphorylate a GST-WRN fragment with S440A and/or S467A substitution. In addition, full length WRN with the mutation expressed in 293T cells was not phosphorylated in response to DSBs produced by bleomycin. Accumulation of the mutant WRN at the site of laser-induced DSBs occurred with the same kinetics as wild type WRN in live HeLa cells. While the wild type WRN relocalized to the nucleoli after 24 hours recovery from etoposide-induced DSBs, the mutant WRN remained mostly in the nucleoplasm. Consistent with this, WS cells expressing the mutants exhibited less DNA repair efficiency and more sensitivity to etoposide, compared to those expressing wild type. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation of Ser-440 and −467 in WRN are important for relocalization of WRN to nucleoli, and that it is required for efficient DSB repair. PMID:24429382

  2. Coronary Artery Disease in a Werner Syndrome-Like Form of Progeria Characterized by Low Levels of Progerin, a Splice Variant of Lamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hisama, Fuki M.; Lessel, Davor; Leistritz, Dru; Friedrich, Katrin; McBride, Kim L.; Pastore, Matthew T.; Gottesman, Gary S.; Saha, Bidisha; Martin, George M.; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Classical Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by LMNA mutations that generate an alternatively spliced form of lamin A, termed progerin. HGPS patients present in early childhood with atherosclerosis and striking features of accelerated aging. We report on two pedigrees of adult-onset coronary artery disease with progeroid features, who were referred to our International Registry of Werner Syndrome (WS) because of clinical features consistent with the diagnosis. No mutations were identified in the WRN gene that is responsible for WS, among these patients. Instead, we found two novel heterozygous mutations at the junction of exon 10 and intron 11 of the LMNA gene. These mutations resulted in the production of progerin at a level substantially lower than that of HGPS. Our findings indicate that LMNA mutations may result in coronary artery disease presenting in the fourth to sixth decades along with short stature and a progeroid appearance resembling WS. The absence of early-onset cataracts in this setting should suggest the diagnosis of progeroid laminopathy. This study illustrates the evolving genotype–phenotype relationship between the amount of progerin produced and the age of onset among the spectrum of restrictive dermopathy, HGPS, and atypical forms of WS. PMID:22065502

  3. [Werner Leibbrand, Annemarie Wettley and controversies on "euthanasia" the background of medico-historical and ethical debates in the Post World War II era].

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Christine; Frewer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists and medical historians Werner Leibbrand (1896 - 1974) and Annemarie Wettley (1913 - 1996) are amongst the most striking figures in the field of history of medicine. Leibbrand was appointed director of the "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" in Erlangen shortly after the war. Fuelled by his own experiences of suppression and persecution during the Nazi era he promised to unearth the crimes and atrocities which had happened under watch of the Nazi regime. He was joined by Annemarie Wettley, who worked as a physician at the hospital and had developed an increasing interest in the history of medicine. In 1946 they published "Um die Menschenrechte der Geisteskranken" ("Human Rights of the Mentally Ill") about the "euthanasia" campaign of the Nazi regime. Although a number of substantial works followed, Leibbrand and Wettley failed to inform in more depth on crimes and atrocities, for instance killings of patients and forced malnutrition. Doubts and charges against Wettley regarding her role in dietary programmes at the Erlangen hospital and against Leibbrand regarding special expert's reports--both had a short-term arrest warrant--might have contributed to stagnation in their efforts. In 1953 Leibbrand accepted the offer of a chair at the University in Munich, Wettley followed and habilitated in history of medicine; in the year 1962 they married. Contacts and exchange amongst medico-historical experts shed light on developments during the post-war era; still, a critical and fundamental review of the crimes within the medical system of the Nazi regime did not take place during this time.

  4. Cobalt(III) Werner Complexes with 1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine Ligands: Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Modular Chiral Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts for Enantioselective Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kyle G; Ghosh, Subrata K; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A

    2015-03-25

    In the quest for new catalysts that can deliver single enantiomer pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals, chemists have extensively mined the "chiral pool", with little in the way of inexpensive, readily available building blocks now remaining. It is found that Werner complexes based upon the D3 symmetric chiral trication [Co(en)3](3+) (en = 1,2-ethylenediamine), which features an earth abundant metal and cheap ligand type, and was among the first inorganic compounds resolved into enantiomers 103 years ago, catalyze a valuable carbon-carbon bond forming reaction, the Michael addition of malonate esters to nitroalkenes, in high enantioselectivities and without requiring inert atmosphere conditions. The title catalysts, [Co((S,S)-dpen)3](3+) ((S,S)-3 (3+)) 3X(-), employ a commercially available chiral ligand, (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The rates and ee values are functions of the configuration of the cobalt center (Λ/Δ) and the counteranions, which must be lipophilic to solubilize the trication in nonaqueous media. The highest enantioselectivities are obtained with Λ and 2Cl(-)BArf (-), 2BF4 (-)BArf (-), or 3BF4 (-) salts (BArf (-) = B(3,5-C6H3(CF3)2)4 (-)). The substrates are not activated by metal coordination, but rather by second coordination sphere hydrogen bonding involving the ligating NH2 groups. Crystal structures and NMR data indicate enthalpically stronger interactions with the NH moieties related by the C3 symmetry axis, as opposed to those related by the C2 symmetry axes; rate trends and other observations suggest this to be the catalytically active site. Both Λ- and Δ-(S,S)-3 (3+) 2Cl(-)BArf (-) are effective catalysts for additions of β-ketoesters to RO2CN=NCO2R species (99-86% yields, 81-76% ee), which provide carbon-nitrogen bonds and valuable precursors to α-amino acids.

  5. Cobalt(III) Werner Complexes with 1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine Ligands: Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Modular Chiral Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts for Enantioselective Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the quest for new catalysts that can deliver single enantiomer pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals, chemists have extensively mined the “chiral pool”, with little in the way of inexpensive, readily available building blocks now remaining. It is found that Werner complexes based upon the D3 symmetric chiral trication [Co(en)3]3+ (en = 1,2-ethylenediamine), which features an earth abundant metal and cheap ligand type, and was among the first inorganic compounds resolved into enantiomers 103 years ago, catalyze a valuable carbon–carbon bond forming reaction, the Michael addition of malonate esters to nitroalkenes, in high enantioselectivities and without requiring inert atmosphere conditions. The title catalysts, [Co((S,S)-dpen)3]3+ ((S,S)-33+) 3X–, employ a commercially available chiral ligand, (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The rates and ee values are functions of the configuration of the cobalt center (Λ/Δ) and the counteranions, which must be lipophilic to solubilize the trication in nonaqueous media. The highest enantioselectivities are obtained with Λ and 2Cl–BArf–, 2BF4–BArf–, or 3BF4– salts (BArf– = B(3,5-C6H3(CF3)2)4–). The substrates are not activated by metal coordination, but rather by second coordination sphere hydrogen bonding involving the ligating NH2 groups. Crystal structures and NMR data indicate enthalpically stronger interactions with the NH moieties related by the C3 symmetry axis, as opposed to those related by the C2 symmetry axes; rate trends and other observations suggest this to be the catalytically active site. Both Λ- and Δ-(S,S)-33+ 2Cl–BArf– are effective catalysts for additions of β-ketoesters to RO2CN=NCO2R species (99–86% yields, 81–76% ee), which provide carbon–nitrogen bonds and valuable precursors to α-amino acids. PMID:27162946

  6. Residues in the RecQ C-terminal Domain of the Human Werner Syndrome Helicase Are Involved in Unwinding G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Ketkar, Amit; Voehler, Markus; Mukiza, Tresor; Eoff, Robert L

    2017-02-24

    The structural and biophysical properties typically associated with G-quadruplex (G4) structures render them a significant block for DNA replication, which must be overcome for cell division to occur. The Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is a RecQ family helicase that has been implicated in the efficient processing of G4 DNA structures. The aim of this study was to identify the residues of WRN involved in the binding and ATPase-driven unwinding of G4 DNA. Using a c-Myc G4 DNA model sequence and recombinant WRN, we have determined that the RecQ-C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN imparts a 2-fold preference for binding to G4 DNA relative to non-G4 DNA substrates. NMR studies identified residues involved specifically in interactions with G4 DNA. Three of the amino acids in the WRN RQC domain that exhibited the largest G4-specific changes in NMR signal were then mutated alone or in combination. Mutating individual residues implicated in G4 binding had a modest effect on WRN binding to DNA, decreasing the preference for G4 substrates by ∼25%. Mutating two G4-interacting residues (T1024G and T1086G) abrogated preferential binding of WRN to G4 DNA. Very modest decreases in G4 DNA-stimulated ATPase activity were observed for the mutant enzymes. Most strikingly, G4 unwinding by WRN was inhibited ∼50% for all three point mutants and >90% for the WRN double mutant (T1024G/T1086G) relative to normal B-form dsDNA substrates. Our work has helped to identify residues in the WRN RQC domain that are involved specifically in the interaction with G4 DNA.

  7. Expression profiling of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the helicase domain of the Werner Syndrome gene homologue treated with hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Werner Syndrome (WS) is a rare disorder characterized by the premature onset of a number of age-related diseases. The gene responsible for WS encodes a DNA helicase/exonuclease protein believed to affect different aspects of transcription, replication, and/or DNA repair. In addition to genomic instability, human WS cells exhibit oxidative stress. In this report, we have examined the impact of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on the expression profile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN homologue (here referred to as WrnΔhel/Δhel). Results WrnΔhel/Δhel mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit increased oxidative stress. This was reflected by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased oxidative damage in genomic DNA, changes in ATP/ADP ratios, and a disruption of the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential when compared to wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Expression profile analyses of hydrogen peroxide-treated wild type cells have indicated significant decreases in the expression of genes involved in mitosis, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, and cell cycle control, as well as protein modification and stability. Such decreases in these biological processes were not observed in hydrogen peroxide-treated WrnΔhel/Δhel cells. Importantly, untreated WrnΔhel/Δhel cells already exhibited down regulation of several biological processes decreased in wild type cells that had been treated with hydrogen peroxide. Conclusion Expression profiling of WrnΔhel/Δhel mutant cells revealed a very different response to exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide in culture compared to wild type cells. This is due in part to the fact that WrnΔhel/Δhel mutant cells already exhibited a modest chronic intracellular oxidative stress. PMID:20175907

  8. ROVIBRATIONALLY RESOLVED DIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION THROUGH THE LYMAN AND WERNER TRANSITIONS OF H{sub 2} FOR FUV/X-RAY-IRRADIATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, C. D.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R. E-mail: ryanlporter@gmail.com E-mail: npabel2@gmail.com E-mail: gargishaw@gmail.com E-mail: robin.williams@awe.co.uk

    2012-02-10

    Using ab initio potential curves and dipole transition moments, cross-section calculations were performed for the direct continuum photodissociation of H{sub 2} through the B{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub u} <- X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g} (Lyman) and C{sup 1}{Pi}{sub u} <- X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g} (Werner) transitions. Partial cross-sections were obtained for wavelengths from 100 A to the dissociation threshold between the upper electronic state and each of the 301 bound rovibrational levels v''J'' within the ground electronic state. The resulting cross-sections are incorporated into three representative classes of interstellar gas models: diffuse clouds, photon-dominated regions, and X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs). The models, which used the CLOUDY plasma/molecular spectra simulation code, demonstrate that direct photodissociation is comparable to fluorescent dissociation (or spontaneous radiative dissociation, the Solomon process) as an H{sub 2} destruction mechanism in intense far-ultraviolet or X-ray-irradiated gas. In particular, changes in H{sub 2} rotational column densities are found to be as large as 20% in the XDR model with the inclusion of direct photodissociation. The photodestruction rate from some high-lying rovibrational levels can be enhanced by pumping from H Ly{beta} due to a wavelength coincidence with cross-section resonances resulting from quasi-bound levels of the upper electronic states. Given the relatively large size of the photodissociation data set, a strategy is described to create truncated, but reliable, cross-section data consistent with the wavelength resolving power of typical observations.

  9. Entanglement teleportation via werner states

    PubMed

    Lee; Kim

    2000-05-01

    Transfer of entanglement and information is studied for quantum teleportation of an unknown entangled state through noisy quantum channels. We find that the quantum entanglement of the unknown state can be lost during the teleportation even when the channel is quantum correlated. We introduce a fundamental parameter of correlation information which dissipates linearly during the teleportation through the noisy channel. Analyzing the transfer of correlation information, we show that the purity of the initial state is important in determining the entanglement of the replica state.

  10. [Two traditions in the scientific learning of the world. A case study of creation and reception of quantum mechanics over the period 1925-1927, on the bases of discussion between Werner Heisenberg and Albert Einstein].

    PubMed

    Krajniak, Wiktor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas.

  11. Down regulation of miR-124 in both Werner syndrome DNA helicase mutant mice and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans wrn-1 reveals the importance of this microRNA in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Alexandra; Garand, Chantal; Paquel, Eric R; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Simard, Martin J; Lebel, Michel

    2012-09-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs are believed to be involved in the mechanism of aging but nothing is known on the impact of microRNAs in the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome (WS). WS is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-like DNA helicase. Mice lacking the helicase domain of the WRN ortholog exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including a pro-oxidant status and a shorter mean life span.Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) with a nonfunctional wrn-1 DNA helicase also exhibit a shorter life span. Thus, both models are relevant to study the expression of microRNAs involved in WS. In this study, we show that miR-124 expression is lost in the liver of Wrn helicase mutant mice. Interestingly, the expression of this conserved miR-124 in whole wrn-1 mutant worms is also significantly reduced. The loss of mir-124 in C. elegans increases reactive oxygen species formation and accumulation of the aging marker lipofuscin, reduces whole body ATP levels and results in a reduction in life span. Finally, supplementation of vitamin C normalizes the median life span of wrn-1 and mir-124 mutant worms. These results suggest that biological pathways involving WRN and miR-124 are conserved in the aging process across different species.

  12. Down regulation of miR-124 in both Werner syndrome DNA helicase mutant mice and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans wrn-1 reveals the importance of this microRNA in accelerated aging

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Alexandra; Garand, Chantal; Paquet, Eric R.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; de Cabo, Rafael; Simard, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs are believed to be involved in the mechanism of aging but nothing is known on the impact of microRNAs in the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome (WS). WS is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-like DNA helicase. Mice lacking the helicase domain of the WRN ortholog exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including a pro-oxidant status and a shorter mean life span. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) with a nonfunctional wrn-1 DNA helicase also exhibit a shorter life span. Thus, both models are relevant to study the expression of microRNAs involved in WS. In this study, we show that miR-124 expression is lost in the liver of Wrn helicase mutant mice. Interestingly, the expression of this conserved miR-124 in whole wrn-1 mutant worms is also significantly reduced. The loss of mir-124 in C. elegans increases reactive oxygen species formation and accumulation of the aging marker lipofuscin, reduces whole body ATP levels and results in a reduction in life span. Finally, supplementation of vitamin C normalizes the median life span of wrn-1 and mir-124 mutant worms. These results suggest that biological pathways involving WRN and miR-124 are conserved in the aging process across different species. PMID:23075628

  13. An Algorithm for the One-Phase Stefan Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    problem (1 )Indiana University, A1no.mington, IN 474nS. (2)Istituto di Matematica Applicata, Universit; di Padova, Italy. Sponsored by the United States...standard barriers estimates (10,7], as in Lemma 3.3, we have 0 4 u(x,t) 4 C (s(t) - x), (x,t) e DT o ( u(x,t) 4 Cl(; (t) - x), (x,t) e - Proposition 5.1...aWt,t) C 3l(t), 0 < t 4 T• It gives -22- t 11 12 K f t 2 14 o 0 A -- Proposition 5.2% There exist a constant ; depending upon H, b, G 1, G2, T such

  14. Hawking radiation, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-03-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the "firewall" argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or "atmosphere," whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in "nonviolent" scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  15. Philip Werner Baumeister (1929-2003): in memoriam.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J A

    2006-03-01

    Philip Baumeister pioneered the design of optical thin films by computer methods. He has published many important papers on various aspects of optical coatings, and he initiated the Optical Society of America's Topical Meetings on Optical Interference Coatings. Most important, during his time at the University of Rochester and thereafter, he trained and mentored generations of researchers and engineers in the theory and practice of thin-film interference coatings. Originally, a talk was prepared to celebrate his 75th birthday at the ninth Topical Meeting on Optical Interference Coatings. Because of his untimely demise on 22 October 2003, it was presented at the conference to honor his memory. This is a written version of the tribute that contains a comprehensive list of Philip Baumeister's various publications.

  16. Vygotsky, Werner, and English Composition: Paradigms for Thinking and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambeck, Karen K.; Winder, Barbara D.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that creating focus which leads to formulating a thesis is a task with which many writers have trouble. Describes a process model of conceptual development that helps students gain confidence in abstracting, conceptualizing, and formulating a thesis. (NH)

  17. The Technical Division (of the Werner Heisenberg Institute of Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmuecker, H.

    1990-12-01

    The organization of the technical division, whose task is to design and build devices and appliances for physical experiments, is presented. From Oct. 1989 to Sep. 1990, the tasks covered the H detector for HERA, the ALEPH minivertex detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy (HEGRA) detectors. The tasks carried out in coooperation with industrial companies are reported.

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Werner Heisenberg].

    PubMed

    Cassidy, David C

    2014-01-01

    The 50-year relationship between Weizsäcker and Heisenberg spanned the highpoints of discovery and dictatorship during the 1930s, extended into the war-time uranium project, the post-war controversy over that project, debates over West German nuclear policy, and the philosophical implications of modern physics. This paper explores the interaction between these two leading figures during that difficult and significant half-century.

  19. Stefan Jellinek (1871-1968): The only professor of electro-pathology.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, E H

    2016-08-01

    The exploding use of electricity in homes and industry in the second half of the 19th century was accompanied by many injuries and fatalities from electric currents. Their study by my father was the serendipitous outcome of his early work on possible blood pressure changes from electric currents in a career that started in internal medicine. It became his limited field of electro-pathology which embraced first aid, the care of the injured, histopathology and accident prevention. He was an enthusiastic teacher and collector of specimens, from tree trunks struck by lightning down to the microscopy of accidental and experimental electric lesions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A solution to a crystal growth stefan problem by Lagrange-Bürmann expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Naoyuki

    1984-07-01

    Crystal growth in an isothermal binary component-melt system has been analyzed by the method of Lagrange-Bürmann expansions. The interfacial conditions between the environmental melt phase and the crystal phase being formed are simulated by a first order kinetic model equation of Ghez which predicts not only the surface limiting rate at small times but also the diffusion limiting rate at large times when the growth rate is sufficiently retarded. We obtained the first three terms of the expansions. The Lagrange-Bürmann solution obtained not only reproduces the classical small time expansion in power of t {1}/{2} to the order considered but also simulates correctly a large time behavior of the solution as t → ∞, suggesting that the present solution remains valid over a considerably extended physical time domain.

  1. The Bidimensional Stefan Problem with Convection: The Time-Dependent Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Section 6 we prove our theorem by assuming certain facts ( Propositions 6.1, 6.2,), which are demonstrated in Sections 7, 8. It is a pleasure to acknowledge...I CC(KC) (a aV’,K 4 𔃾(Kc Proposition 6.2: The net [u.) is equicontinuous over 2T th&t is for every compact K C DT, there exists a nondecreasing...1/2) for every pair (xi,t l ) e K, i - 1,2. By Proposition 6.1, the nets {u) , are weakly compact in W 1 ,0 (0 and 2 T i a respectively. Hence for a

  2. Relation of the One-Phase Stefan Problem to the Seepage of Liquids and Electrochemical Machining,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Haim Brezis , Alan E. Berger, and Joel C. W. Rogers, "A Numerical Method for Solving the Problem ut - Af(u) = 0," to appear. 6. Haim Brezis , Alan E...D , (1.lc) where L is an appropriate linear operator and the function f is given by f(u) = max(u - 1,0) . (1.2) Under most conditions of interest, the... function t v(x,t) - f(u(x,t’)dt’ (1.5) when uo(x) > 1 for x e n(O) D , (1.6a) u0 (x) 0 for x c D - Q(0) (1.6b) vt &V + U0 - 1 , X C (t) , 0 < t < , (1.7a

  3. Analysis of acrylamide in food: dedicated to Professor Dr. Werner Baltes.

    PubMed

    Matissek, Reinhard; Raters, Marion

    2005-01-01

    Since the first discovery of the presence of acrylamide in a variety of food products in April 2002, numerous methods have been developed to determine the acrylamide monomer in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food. These detection methods are mainly MS-based, coupled with a chromatographic step using LC or GC. The Food Chemistry Institute (LCI) of the Association of the German Confectionery Industry (BDSI) therefore established a detection method by means of aqueous extraction plus a cleaning step and LC-MS/MS detection, making great efforts to ensure internal and external validation. Citing potato crisps as an example, we will in the following show how the German manufacturing companies have gone to great pains to reduce acrylamide levels in their products.

  4. [Rainer Werner Fassbinder's "Garbage, the city and death"-- a German landscape of the soul].

    PubMed

    Vogt, R

    1995-04-01

    No other recent "art event" has aroused so much public debate in Germany as Fassbinder's play "Garbage, City, Death" (1976). The controversy it sparked on its appearance has still not entirely died down. In a painstaking psychoanalytic interpretation Vogt first shows that the play achieves an artistic representation of the unconscious dilemma besetting the second generation of non-Jewish Germans in their relationship to National Socialism. In Fassbinder's play this dilemma, which is bound up with vicarious guilt feelings, is however only presented and not in any way worked out. The upshot is that all those forms of identification with German traditions that have been repudiated on a conscious level re-enter, as it were by the back door, and attain a new virulence. The author demonstrates that at the heart of the play a mechanism of guilt-refusal is operative that inverts the historical culprit-victim relation and makes the Germans themselves into the real victims. In the second part of his article Vogt is concerned to situate the play and the controversy surrounding it in a broader political context--Bitburg (1985), the "historians' conflict" (1986), Jenninger's speech (1988)--revealing a specific collective psychological inscape in present-day Germany for which, in its profounder well-springs, Fassbinder's play may be legitimately regarded as symptomatic. Fassbinder (born 1945) articulates for his generation aspects of an "ethnic disturbance" (George Devereux) which continues to persist precisely because there is a German past "that refuses to go away" (Ernst Nolte).

  5. The 16th Werner Brandt Workshop on charged particle penetration phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: impact parameter dependence of charge transfer and energy loss; nonlinear dynamical response of the electron gas: comparison of some simple theories; stopping of ultrarelativistic ions in solids (33.2-TeV {sup 108}Pb); collective excitation in reduced dimensionality; collective states in atoms and cluster; plasmon coupling with external probes; atomic collisions with antiprotons; layer-number scaling in ultra-thin film stopping and energetics; atom-surface scattering under classical conditions; nonlinear effect of sweeping-out electrons in stopping power and electron emission in cluster impacts; electron emission from fast grazing collisions of ions with silicon surfaces; electron emission from ultra-thin carbon foils by kiV ions; Auger rates for highly charged ions in metals; Auger and plasmon assisted neutralization at surfaces; low energy (< 5eV) F{sup +} and F{sup -} ions transmission through condensed layers of water: enhancement and attenuation processes; charge transfer for H interacting with Al: atomic levels and linewidths; scattered projectile angular and charge state distributions for grazing collisions of multicharged ions with metal and insulator single crystal targets; the prolate hyperboloidat model in scanning probe microscopy; scanning probe microscopy of large biomolecules; microcantilever sensors; solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport using analytic spatial moments; and effective charge parametrization for z = 3-17 projectiles in composite targets.

  6. Inelastic near-surface interactions. Proceedings of the Werner Brandt workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This workshop is one of an annual series covering penetration phenomena of charged particles in matter. This specific workshop includes electron scattering, ion and atom scattering, stopping powers, and cluster ion impacts on solids. Abstracts were prepared for individual items in the proceedings for inclusion in the data base. (GHT)

  7. Activities report of the Werner-Heisenberg Institute for Physics, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical research work was done in the fields of perturbative renormalization, statistical mechanics in the quantum field theory, geometrically formulated description of elementary particles, basic problems of the quantum field theory, the standard model (supersymmetry, strings), elementary particle physics and cosmology, non-relativistic particle physics, and history of physics. The Experimental Division A contributed to experiments on particle physics (CERN), on the tevatron accelerator of the Fermilab (FNAL), on the electron positron storage ring PETRA with the CELLO detector, and on the electron-positron storage ring HERA; a detector for low-energy particles was developed. The Experimental Division B contributed to the LRP project ALEPH, to the CERN SPS experiment NA 32, and to the HEGRA experiment; several detectors were developed.

  8. Extreme genetic diversity in the lizard Atlantolacerta andreanskyi (Werner, 1929): A montane cryptic species complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantolacerta andreanskyi is an enigmatic lacertid lizard that, according to the most recent molecular analyses, belongs to the tribe Eremiadini, family Lacertidae. It is a mountain specialist, restricted to areas above 2400 m of the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco with apparently no connection between the different populations. In order to investigate its phylogeography, 92 specimens of A. andreanskyi were analyzed from eight different populations across the distribution range of the species for up to 1108 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (12S, ND4 and flanking tRNA-His) and 2585 base pairs of nuclear DNA including five loci (PDC, ACM4, C-MOS, RAG1, MC1R). Results The results obtained with both concatenated and coalescent approaches and clustering methods, clearly show that all the populations analyzed present a very high level of genetic differentiation for the mitochondrial markers used and are also generally differentiated at the nuclear level. Conclusions These results indicate that A. andreanskyi is an additional example of a montane species complex. PMID:22946997

  9. The Application of Werner and Kaplan's Concept of "Distancing" to Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Through the process of distancing, children develop an understanding of the differences between themselves and others, themselves and objects, and objects and representations. Adults can support progressive distancing in children who are congenitally deaf-blind by applying strategies, such as the hand-under-hand exploration of objects, the…

  10. Stagnation point flow, heat transfer and species transfer over a shrinking sheet with coupled Stefan blowing effects from species transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Rohana Abdul; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan

    2016-11-01

    The problem of stagnation-point flow and heat transfer with the effect of the blowing from species transfer over an impermeable shrinking sheet is studied. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into the ordinary differential equations using the similarity transformations which are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in Matlab. The focus of this study is the effect of the blowing parameter to the velocity of the flow, the rate of heat transfer and the mass of species transfer over a flat surface of shrinking sheet. From the numerical results, it is found that the blowing parameter substantially affects the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  11. Discussion of "Simple design criterion for residual energy on embankment dam stepped spillways" by Stefan Felder and Hubert Chanson

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers from the University of Queensland of New South Wales provided guidance to designers regarding the hydraulic performance of embankment dam stepped spillways. Their research compares a number of high-quality physical model data sets from multiple laboratories, emphasizing the variability ...

  12. 78 FR 57178 - NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-1557, fax (202) 358-4118, or peter.g.meister@nasa.gov... contacting Peter Meister via email at peter.g.meister@nasa.gov or by telephone at (202) 358-1557. Patricia D... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Applied Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics...

  13. Integrated map of the chromosome 8p12-p21 region, a region involved in human cancers and Werner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, A.; Chaffanet, M.; Birnbaum, D.; Pebusque, M.J.

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the genetic mapping of the specific region on human chromosome 8, 8p12-p21, and its implications to human hereditary cancers and diseases. The localization of disease genes such as NEFL and FGFR1 are given, accomplished using contigs which span the region of deletion involved in these hereditary diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Optimal measurements for tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with no detection loophole using two-qubit Werner states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. A.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown in earlier works that the vertices of Platonic solids are good measurement choices for tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering using isotropically entangled pairs of qubits. Such measurements are regularly spaced, and measurement diversity is a good feature for making EPR-steering inequalities easier to violate in the presence of experimental imperfections. However, such measurements are provably suboptimal. Here, we develop a method for devising optimal strategies for tests of EPR-steering, in the sense of being most robust to mixture and inefficiency (while still closing the detection loophole, of course), for a given number n of measurement settings. We allow for arbitrary measurement directions, and arbitrary weightings of the outcomes in the EPR-steering inequality. This is a difficult optimization problem for large n , so we also consider more practical ways of constructing near-optimal EPR-steering inequalities in this limit.

  15. Off the Beat. An Appreciation of Werner Heisenberg and Some Talk About How Physics Was in the Good Old Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is an insight into man's idea about physics and being a physicist in the days when Heisenberg, P. A. M. Dirac, Louis de Broglic and other famous physicists were young men. Heisenberg is compared to Newton, inventing new math as he needed it. Emphasis is placed on the fact that he was not a Nazi sympathizer. (EB)

  16. Off the Beat. An Appreciation of Werner Heisenberg and Some Talk About How Physics Was in the Good Old Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is an insight into man's idea about physics and being a physicist in the days when Heisenberg, P. A. M. Dirac, Louis de Broglic and other famous physicists were young men. Heisenberg is compared to Newton, inventing new math as he needed it. Emphasis is placed on the fact that he was not a Nazi sympathizer. (EB)

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Tc IV, Tc V and Tc VI oscillator strengths (Werner+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kucas, S.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of technetium (Tc) in the atmospheres of red giants by Merrill (1952ApJ...116...21M) constituted convincing proof that s-process nucleosynthesis is indeed occurring in evolved stars. In principle, Tc should still be present in the atmospheres of hot post-AGB stars and (pre-) white dwarfs although, due to radioactive decay, it should be present in decreasing quantities along post-AGB evolution. The recent discovery of a large number of trans-iron group elements in hot white dwarfs with atomic numbers in the range A=30-56 (Zn to Ba) raises the prospect that Tc (A=43) may also be detected. However, this is currently not feasible because no atomic data exist for ionization stages beyond TcII. As an initial step, we calculated atomic energy levels and oscillator strengths of Tc IV-VI and used these data to compute non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres to estimate at which minimum abundance level Tc could be detected. We show that Tc lines can be found in ultraviolet spectra of hot white dwarfs provided Tc is as abundant as other detected trans-Fe elements. We find that radiative levitation can keep Tc in large, easily detectable quantities in the atmosphere. A direct identification of Tc lines is still not feasible because wavelength positions cannot be computed with necessary precision. Laboratory measurements are necessary to overcome this problem. Our results suggest that such efforts are beneficial to the astrophysical community. (6 data files).

  18. The master and the telescopes - the interplay between astronomy and optics in history (German Title: Der Meister und die Fernrohre - Das Wechselspiel zwischen Astronomie und Optik in der Geschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen; Keil, Inge

    The use of the telescope for astronomical observations since 1609 was one of the milestones in the celestial research. The contributions in this volume present new insights into the invention of the telescope and its relations to reading stones and spectacles, present investigations of special telescope types of early manufacturers, and analyze the telescopes of some historical observatories and the investigations carried out with them. Other contributions deal with the pictorial appearance of telescopes in baroque art, the connection of telescopes with photography, as well as the development of reflectors in the 20th century. The volume is dedicated to Rolf Riekher, an internationally established specialist ior the history of the telescope, on the occasion of his 85th birthday.

  19. Revision of the phylogeny and chorology of the tribe Iphisini with the revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cacciali, Pier; Martínez, Nicolás; Köhler, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic (C. modesta). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini. Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion. PMID:28769654

  20. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and spectroscopy of a Werner-type host Co(II) complex, trans-bisisothiocyanatotetrakis( trans-4-styrylpyridine)cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Thomas, K. R. J.; Shunmugasundaram, A.; Murugesan, R.

    2000-05-01

    Single crystals of the title Co(II) complex, [Co(stpy)4(NCS)2] [stpy=trans-4-styrylpyridine] are prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure determination. The complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna21 with unit-cell parameters, a=32.058(3), b=15.362(5), c=9.818(5) Å, and Z=4. The structure consists of discrete monomeric units of [Co(stpy)4(NCS)2]. The equatorial positions of the Co(II) polyhedron are occupied by nitrogen atoms of the four stpy ligands and the axial positions are occupied by the nitrogen atoms of the two thiocyanate ions. The unit cell packing reveals interpenetration of styryl groups owing to conformational flexibility of phenyl and pyridyl rings in stpy ligands. Thus, it leads to efficient packing of the crystal lattice leaving no space available for guest inclusion. IR spectra reveal nitrogen coordination from stpy and terminal -NCS coordination of the thiocyanate group. The optical reflectance bands 475, 540 (shoulder) and 1022 nm suggest octahedral geometry in accordance with the X-ray data. However, the optical spectrum of acetonitrile solution shows an intense band at 615 nm and a weak shoulder at 570 nm suggesting participation of the solvent molecules in the coordination sphere. These bands indicate the presence of both tetrahedral and octahedral species in solution.

  1. Back from the dead! Resurrection and revalidation of the Indian endemic snake genus Wallophis Werner, 1929 (Squamata: Colubridae) insights from molecular data.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeeshan A; Patel, Harshil

    2017-01-27

    The monotypic colubrid snake genus Wallophis is revalidated and rediagnosed. Partial sequence for nuclear gene Oocyte maturation factor Mos (c-mos), mitochondrial Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome b (cyt b) were used to assess phylogenetic relationship. Wallophis brachyura type species for the genus was found to be a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is recovered as a sister taxa to Wallaceophis gujaratensis. Wallophis differs from Wallaceophis in an uncorrected pairwise p-distance of 17% for mitochondrial ND4 gene. Wallaceophis gujaratensis was described in three different spellings in the literature hence we here propose Wallaceophis gujaratensis as the correct spelling for the species based on provisions in the article 24.2.3. of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of 5-aminopyrazol-4-yl ketones and the p38(MAPK) inhibitor RO3201195 for study in Werner syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Dix, Matthew C; Murziani, Paola G S; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David

    2008-07-01

    5-Aminopyrazol-4-yl ketones are prepared rapidly and efficiently using microwave dielectric heating from beta-ketonitriles by treatment with N,N'-diphenylformamidine followed by heterocyclocondensation by irradiation with a hydrazine. The inhibitory activity of RO3201195 prepared by this methodology was confirmed in hTERT-immortalized HCA2 and WS dermal fibroblasts at 200nM concentration, both by ELISA and immunoblot assay, and displays excellent kinase selectivity for p38alpha MAPK over the related stress-activated kinase JNK.

  3. Revision of the phylogeny and chorology of the tribe Iphisini with the revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Cacciali, Pier; Martínez, Nicolás; Köhler, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic (C. modesta). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini. Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion.

  4. Improving Training and Performance of Navy Teams: A Design for a Research Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Glanzer and Glaser, 1955; Haggard, 1963; Engel , 1970; Meister, 1976). However, Meister (1976) concludes that "a satisfactory taxonomy of team...State College, Pa., 1967. Engel , J. D., An Approach to Standardizing Human Performance Assessment, Professional Paper 26-70, Human Resources Research...Training Technol- ogy, 1976. Engel , J. D., An Approach to Standardizing Human Performance Assessment, Professional Paper 26-70, Human Resources Research

  5. Magnetic levitation servo for flexible assembly automation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Masahiro; Higuchi, Toshiro )

    1992-08-01

    This article develops an application of magnetic levitation for actuation and force sensing and calls such a system magnetic levitation servo to distinguish from conventional suspension-only systems. Flexible assembly automation is a technical and engineering challenge to be accomplished promptly. For this purpose, the authors have developed a Magnetically end-effector-levitating Instrument for a Skilled-Task-undertaking Expert Robot (MEISTER) by applying magnetic levitation servo. The MEISTER is located between a wrist and an end effector in a manipulator to levitate and control the end effector by magnetic forces without any mechanical contact. This friction-free and backlash-free mechanism enables precision control of multi-DOFs and permits the MEISTER to have three versatilely functional properties: (1) programmable compliance: the compliance and viscous damping of supporting an end effector are magnetically changeable by software; (2) precision multi-DOF actuation: the position and attitude of an end effector can be accurately controlled without friction or backlash by changing magnetic forces; and (3) multi-axis force sensing: external forces and moments acting on an end effector can be computed by the MEISTER without any additional sensory equipment from the force equivalent equation. By using these functional properties, the MEISTER can correct a minute misalignment between a couple of mating parts to automate precision insertion.

  6. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  7. [Ecological studies on helminthic taxocenosis of sympatric Chaunus ictericus (Spix, 1824) and Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894) (Anura: Bufonidae) captured on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras county, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Estevam G Lux; Pedrassani, Daniela; Hoffmann-Inocente, Ana Cecília; Tebaldi, José H; Storti, Luis Fernando; Zanuzzo, Felipe S; Avancini, Neuri; Do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Fifty eight Chaunus ictericus and 42 C. schneideri specimens were collected on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras, SC for helminthological studies. Fourteen helminth species were diagnosed, from which only five species were found on both hosts. Chaunus ictericus showed higher values of species richness (2,8448+/-1,1516) and diversity (H = 1,374), with mild dominance (1-D = 0,642, J = 0,5528), in comparison with C. schneideri (0,6428+/-1,007; H = 1,165; 1-D = 0,5822 e J = 0,5985). Also, descriptors of helminthic infection were superior in the former host. Little number of shared species between the analyzed toad species suggests parasitic host-specificity.

  8. Finite Difference Methods for Time-Dependent, Linear Differential Algebraic Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-27

    Time-Dependent, Linear Differential Algebraic Equations ’ BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT 2 T r e n - sa le; its tot puba"- c. 2 ed...1993 Finite Difference Methods for Time-Dependent, I Linear Differential Algebraic Equations ’ BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT2...LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS 1 BY PATRICK J. RABIER AND WERNER C. RHEINBOLDT 2 ABSTRACT. Recently the authors developed a global reduction

  9. Technical Evaluation Report on the Flight Mechanics Panel Symposium on the Use of Computers as a Design Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    by Professor Dr- gfrie r Hochschule der Bundeswehr Minchen Werner - Heisenberg -Weg 39 8014 Neubiberg, Germany DTI Tl sJUN . This Advisory Report was...Wagner March 1980 10. Author’s/Editor’s Address II. Pages Hochschule der Bundeswehr MUnchen Werner - Heisenberg -Weg 39 21 8014 Neubiberg, Germany 12...SYMPOSIUM ON THE USE OF COMPUTERS AS A DESIGN TOOL by Professor Dr.-Ing. Siegfried N. Wagner Luftfahrttechnik Hochschule der Bundeswehr Mflnchen Werner

  10. Service-Oriented Architectures and Project Optimization for a Special Cost Management Problem Creating Synergies for Informed Change between Qualitative and Quantitative Strategic Management Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Science, Werner Heisenberg -Weg 39,85577 Neubiberg, Germany,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...University of the Federal Armed Forces of Germany Institute for Theoretic Computer Science Mathematics and Operations Research Werner Heisenberg -Weg...Research Werner Heisenberg -Weg 39 85577 Neubiberg, Germany Phone +49 89 6004 2400 Marco Schuler—Marco Schuler is an active Officer of the Federal

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  12. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  13. Gamma-Radiation-Induced Degradation of Actively Pumped Single-Mode Ytterbium-Doped Optical Laser - Postprint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    following day , 20 hours later. The fiber was then lowered back into the Co-60 cell and again exposed to 150 krad(Si). The second fiber was unpumped...Schneider, Kelly Simmons-Potter, William J. Thomes, Jr., Dorothy C. Meister, Ray P. Bambha, and Dahv A. V. Kliner, “Spectrally Resolved Transmission

  14. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  15. Human Visual Performance and Flat Panel Display Image Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    lowest ranking indicates best performance) Color Meister and Sullivan (1969) Rizy (1967) Red Yellow Magenta White Cyan Blue Green 2 1 4...92940 Dr. Robert French Naval Ocean Systems San Diego, CA 92152 Dr. Ross L. Pepper Naval Ocean Systems Center Hawaii Laboratory P. 0. Box 997

  16. Farmers' Cynicism toward Nature and Distrust of the Government: Where Does that Leave Conservation Buffer Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronewold, Katherine L.; Burnett, Ann; Meister, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Farmers are commonly regarded as stewards of the land. Farmers have, however, become cynical toward nature (Meister, Hest, & Burnett, 2009) and distrustful of the government (Cantrill, 2003). This study examines whether or not that cynicism and distrust is reflected in U.S. farmers' opinions of and future participation in conservation buffer…

  17. The Resolution of a Completely Inorganic Coordination Compound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasui, Takaji; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a technique used by Alfred Werner to resolve inorganic coordination compounds. The materials, procedures and analysis necessary for undergraduates to repeat this procedure are described. (CW)

  18. Of Big Hegemonies and Little Tigers: Ecocentrism and Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Stefan Bengtsson's commentary about policy hegemony discusses the alternative discourses of socialism, nationalism, and globalism. However, Stefan does not adequately demonstrate how these discourses can overcome the Dominant Western Worldview (DWW), which is imbued with anthropocentrism. It will be argued here that most policy choices promoting…

  19. Multiparticle Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Immanuel F. Bloch Stefan Kuhr Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 EOARD GRANT 07-3090...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 8...Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch Dr. Stefan Kuhr Johannes

  20. Of Big Hegemonies and Little Tigers: Ecocentrism and Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Stefan Bengtsson's commentary about policy hegemony discusses the alternative discourses of socialism, nationalism, and globalism. However, Stefan does not adequately demonstrate how these discourses can overcome the Dominant Western Worldview (DWW), which is imbued with anthropocentrism. It will be argued here that most policy choices promoting…

  1. On the Anandan-Stodolsky effect

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, W.G.

    1986-04-01

    By placing a force field in the vertical arms of the Collela-OverhauserWerner interferometer, an additional phase shift, of order the mean potential for this force mc/sup 2/ times the Colella-Overhauser-Werner phase shift, can be obtained, which comes about because of the different velocity dependences of the gravitational and extra forces.

  2. Moisture Effects and Peel Testing of Polymethacrylimide and Honeycomb Core in Sandwich/Skin Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    suitahle. REFERENCES 1. Hollman, Martin, •which Sandwich?", Homebuilt Aircraft , Werner and Werner Publishing Co. Encino, CA. February 1984. 2...sandwich/skin laminates typical of candidate composite aircraft structures, provirtetl a more realistic guide for understanding how the moisture

  3. Relaxation of Fermionic Excitations in a Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    energy physics of the repulsive Hubbard model reduces to an antiferro- magnetic Heisenberg model which exhibits a canted anti- ferromagnetic (CAFM...Oka, P. Werner , and H. Aoki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 236401 (2011); M. Eckstein and P. Werner , Phys. Rev. B 84, 035122 (2011); A. L. Chudnovskiy, D.M

  4. Martha Muchow and Organismic-Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Seymour

    1985-01-01

    Examines Martha Muchow's work from the perspective of Heinz Werner's organismic-developmental theory, in terms of its stress on the environment as perceived and experienced by the child and its relevance to Werner's concept of differing "spheres of reality." (Author/SO)

  5. Theories of Intelligence, Learning, and Motivation as a Basis for Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Piaget, Werner, and Gardner differ regarding the roles of cognition, intelligence, and learning in the developmental process. Piaget believes in the predominance of genetic factors. Werner stresses the influence of biological factors, while Gardner proposes that the environment plays a greater influence in how intelligence…

  6. High-Power Considerations in Metamaterial Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    2009. [4] Z. H. Jiang, M. Gregory, and D. H. Werner, “Experimental demonstration of a broadband transformation optics lens for highly directive... multibeam emission,” Physical Review B, vol. 84, pp. 165111/1–6, Oct. 2011. [5] J. P. Turpin, Q. Wu, D. H. Werner, B. Martin, M. Bray, and E. Lier, “Low

  7. Induced and catalysed mineral precipitation in the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Authigenic and early diagenetic minerals provide archives of past (bio)geochemical processes. In particular, isotopic signatures preserved in the diagenetic phases have been shown to document drastic changes of subsurface microbial activity (the deep biosphere) over geological time periods (Contreras et al., 2013; Meister, 2015). Geochemical and isotopic signatures in authigenic minerals may also document surface conditions and past climate. Nevertheless, such use of authigenic mineral phases as (bio)geochemical archives is often hampered by the insufficient understanding of mineral precipitation mechanisms. Accordingly the time, place and rate of mineral precipitation are often not well constrained. Also, element partitioning and isotopic fractionation may be modified as a result of the precipitation mechanism. Early diagenetic dolomite and quartz from drilled sequences in the Pacific were compared with adjacent porewater compositions and isotope signatures to gain fundamental insight into the factors controlling mineral precipitation. The formation of dolomite in carbonate-free organic carbon-rich ocean margin sediments (e.g. Peru Margin; Ocean Drilling Program, ODP, Site 1229; Meister et al., 2007) relies on the alkalinity-increase driven by anaerobic oxidation of methane and, perhaps, by alteration of clay minerals. In contrast, quartz is often significantly oversaturated in marine porewaters as the dissolved silica concentration is buffered by more soluble opal-A. For example, quartz does not form throughout a 400 metre thick sedimentary sequence in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (ODP Site 1226; Meister et al., 2014) because it is kinetically inhibited. This behaviour can be explained by Ostwald's step rule, which suggests that the metastable phase forms faster. However, hard-lithified quartz readily forms where silica concentration drops sharply below opal-saturation. This violation of Ostwald's step rule must be driven by an auxiliary process, such as the

  8. Civil-Military Relations in Medvedev’s Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    pean Security,” Ibid.; Stefan Pavlov , “Bulgaria in a Vise,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January-February 1998, pp. 28-31; Moscow, Izvestiya...Strategy, Vol. XXII, No. 3, 2003, pp. 231-233; Stefan Pavlov , “Bulgaria in a Vise,” The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January-February, 1998, p...European Security”; Ibid; Stefan Pavlov , “Bulgaria in a Vise,” Bulletin of the Atomic Sci- entists, January-February 1998, pp. 28-31; Moscow

  9. [Was Klaus von Mantrei the teacher of Hans von Gersdorff?].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, R

    1996-01-01

    One of the most popular representatives of surgery at the end of the middle ages and the beginning modern era is the Strassburgian surgeon Hans von Gersdorff. Still we do not know very much about his life and his surgical teachers. Only one meister Nicklaus, called Mulartzt, is mentioned as such by the remarks in Gersdorffs 'Feldbuch der Wundarznei', but till today this surgeon could not be identified in more detail. This article now holds the thesis, that meister Nicklaus is probably identical with Klaus von Matrei (Metry), a well-known surgeon of the late 15th century. That cannot be fully proved yet, but a number of coinciding characteristics between the two and some further indications, that are explained, seem so significant, that the thesis can hardly be doubted.

  10. Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-08-21

    Todd Meister(center), high school student of the Bronx High School of Science, discusses his experiment “An Invitro Study of Selected Isolated Immune Phenomena” with his advisor, Dr. Robert Allen (right) and Henry Floyd, both of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). His experiment was aimed at discovering whether or not the absence of gravity affects the representative life processes. Meister was one of the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year’s Skylab mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  11. Clarification of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the effective elastic moduli of polycrystals with hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal symmetries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.P.; Peselnick, L.

    1980-01-01

    Bounds on the effective elastic moduli of randomly oriented aggregates of hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal crystals are derived using the variational principles of Hashin and Shtrikman. The bounds are considerably narrower than the widely used Voigt and Reuss bounds. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill average lies within the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds in nearly all cases. Previous bounds of Peselnick and Meister are shown to be special cases of the present results.

  12. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Andreas Hartkopf, Florin-Andrei Taran, Tanja Fehm, Gunter Meister, Christoph A. Klein. “Her2 and progesterone signaling cooperate for early dissemination... progesterone receptor-B (PgR) favored side branching (Brisken et al., 2000). With Hosseini et al., we also found that PgR signaling is enriched in the pre...signaling in early stages of breast cancer progression may awaken programs of motility, invasion and stem cell-like behavior observed during pregnancy

  13. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Task and Research Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    the books Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Wickens, 1984), Perception ( Matlin , 1983), Human Factors in Engineering and Design (Sanders...Social Sciences. (AD A239 916) Matlin , M. W. (1983). Perception. Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Meister, D. (1985). Behavioral analysis and...to equipment design (pp. 155- 156). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research.. Matlin , Ma~rgaret W. (1983) . Smell. In Margaret W. Matlin (Ed

  14. Development and Application of an Analyst Process Model for a Search Task Scenario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Ed.). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics . Wiley. Dalinger, E., & Ley, D. (2011). A Reference Model for Designing Decision Support Systems...Studies. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics , 3(4), 307-331. Meister, D. (2000). Cognitive Processes in System Design . Theoretical Issues in...Website Design and Evaluation. In Salvendy, G. (Ed.). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics . Wiley. Weiss, D. J., & Shanteau, J. (2005). CWS: A

  15. Research Needs for Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    34 methods: Stuart K. Card, David Meister, Donald L. Parks, Erich P. Prien, and John B. Shafer. Their broad understanding of applied methods and...have the parties aggregate their perspectives through some structured interaction (Sachman, 1975; Steiner , 1972). This approach, well worked by...Fischhoff, B., and Lichtenstein, S* 1979 Behavloral decision theory. Annual Review of Psychology 28:1-39. Steiner , I. D. 1972 Group Procerses and

  16. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes: (1) an apparatus which provides a simple method for measuring Stefan's constant; (2) a simple phase shifting circuit; (3) a radioactive decay computer program (for ZX81); and (4) phase difference between transformer voltages. (Author/JN)

  17. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes: (1) an apparatus which provides a simple method for measuring Stefan's constant; (2) a simple phase shifting circuit; (3) a radioactive decay computer program (for ZX81); and (4) phase difference between transformer voltages. (Author/JN)

  18. A High Modulation Bandwidth, 110 GHz Power DAC Cell forIQ Transmitter Arrays With Direct Amplitude and PhaseModulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    NUMBER Peter Asbeck Stefan Shopov , Andreea Balteanu, Sorin P. Voinigescu 0720BA c. THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of...from large signal power and S-parameter phase measurements. Publication Identifier Type: DOI Issue: 1.0E+001 Date Published: Peer Reviewed: Y ...Cell for IQ Transmitter Arrays With Direct Amplitude and Phase Modulation Andreea Balteanu, Student Member, IEEE, Stefan Shopov , Student Member, IEEE

  19. Building Partner Capacity and Strengthening Security Through Medical Security Force Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    42. Stefan Harrendorf, Markku Heiskanen , and Steven Malby, eds., International Statistics on Crime and Justice, report, HEUNI Publication 64 (Helsinki...Harrendorf, Heiskanen , and Malby, International Statistics on Crime and Justice. 52. Lotta Themnér and Peter Wallensteen, “Armed Conflict, 1946–2011...Humanitarian Assistance Projects.” RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research, Technical Report. 2011. Harrendorf, Stefan, Markku Heiskanen , and

  20. Recollections of Physics and of Physicists During the 1920's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David M.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the author's recollections of the emergence of the new quantum theory and his associations with such men as Oskar Klein, Niels Bohr, Frederick Hund, Werner Heisenberg, J. J. Thomson, and others. (GS)

  1. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... belief is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ...

  2. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  3. Recollections of Physics and of Physicists During the 1920's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David M.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the author's recollections of the emergence of the new quantum theory and his associations with such men as Oskar Klein, Niels Bohr, Frederick Hund, Werner Heisenberg, J. J. Thomson, and others. (GS)

  4. Student Interns Tour Two NIH Facilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Thirty-five Werner H. Kirsten student interns toured the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda in August to learn about the services and opportunities available.

  5. Why Extra Gauge Bosons Should Exist and How to Hunt Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leike, Arnd

    2003-09-01

    Werner Heisenberg's work is the foundation for many topics of present research. This is also true for the search for extra gauge bosons. The prospects of future colliders in this search are shortly mentioned.

  6. Validate Mitotic Checkpoint and Kinetochore Motor Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells as Targets for the Development of Novel Anti-Mitotic Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    which chromosomal instability, aneuploidy, and increased tumorigenesis are prominent hallmarks. These include ataxia-telangiectasia, xeroderma ... pigmentosum , Nijmegen breakage syndromes, Bloom’s syndrome, and Werner’s syndrome, (Modesti and Kanaar, 2001; Thompson and Schild, 2002). Defects in mitotic

  7. Student Interns Tour Two NIH Facilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Thirty-five Werner H. Kirsten student interns toured the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda in August to learn about the services and opportunities available.

  8. ARC-1973-A73-9045-139

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-11-21

    Pioneer 10 Mission to Jupiter; Press conference and tour of Mission Control for VIP visitors with Dr. Werner Von Braun on left (in trench coat) Dr Richard Fimmel, Ames, center (with album) and Dr Fletcher, NASA Administrator to his right.

  9. 78 FR 70267 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Wood Co., Ltd........ 4.77 Fujian Wuyishan Werner Green Industry 4.77 Co., Ltd. Fusong Jinlong Wooden....; Riverside Plywood Corporation; Samling Elegant Living Trading (Labuan) Limited; Samling Global USA,...

  10. WHK Student Interns Named Top Scholars in Regeneron Science Talent Search | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Two Werner H. Kirsten Student Interns were recently named Top Scholars in the 2017 Regeneron Science Talent Search, the nation’s most prestigious science and math competition for high school students.

  11. Travelers' Health: Coccidioidomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, Catanzaro A, Johnson RH, Stevens DA, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect ... Rosenstein NE, Emery KW, Werner SB, Kao A, Johnson R, Rogers D, et al. Risk factors for ...

  12. Survivable Loosely Coupled Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 291–303, Pune, India, September 2000. [6] Saddek Bensalem, Marius Bozga, Jean - Claude Fernandez, Lucian...IEEE Computer Society. [5] John Rushby. An overview of formal verification for the time-triggered architecture. In Werner Damm and Ernst-Rüdiger...Agathe Merceron. Parametric verification of a group membership algo- rithm. In Werner Damm and Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog, editors, Formal Techniques in Real

  13. The Determination of User Information Requirements during the Development of Management Information Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Werner , Greenburg, and Goldberg [Ref. 51 1 for determining the p information needs of an outpatient clinic) tries to make up for this difficulty. Rather...observed to determine what information is being used and how it is being used. Werner et al. point out that, "The behavior of the physician does not...the " Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle," namely: ...any system development activity inevitably changes the environment out of which tte need for the

  14. [Types of neurons in the visual cortex of the rat, identified in Nissl- and deimpregnated Golgi preparations].

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Hedlich, A; Winkelmann, E

    1985-01-01

    Neuronal types of the rat's visual cortex were identified in Nissl stained and deimpregnated Golgi sections (rapid Golgi method modified by Fairén et al. 1977, Golgi-Bubenaite, Golgi-Kopsch and modified by Braitenberg; deimpregnation after FAIREN et al. 1977 and Braak and Braak 1982, respectively). Cytoplasm and nucleus become visible in deimpregnated neurons and can then be counter-stained with methylene blue or toluidin blue. Somal and nuclear features of Nissl stained and deimpregnated neurons were compared. Provided that these features as well as the specific localization, the relative size and the shape of the soma agree the neurons are identical. We could find that the following neuronal types are identical in Golgi and Nissl stained sections: pyramidal cells of layers II-VI, pyramid-like neurons of layers VI and VII (VIa, b, c) (type C, Werner et al. 1982), multiangular neurons of layer I (type A, Werner et al. 1982), spiny stellate cells of layer IV, sparsely spined neurons with ascending axons (Martinotti cells) (type H, Werner et al. 1982), large and medium-sized spine-free, multipolar neurons (basket cells) (type B, Werner et al. 1982). Bipolar neurons and chandelier cells are identical with neurons poor in cytoplasm (types E, F, G, Werner et al. 1982). Until today two neuronal types could not be identified: type D of L I (Werner et al. 1982) and small, sparsely-spined neurons of layer IV with variable axons (Hedlich and Winkelmann 1982; Hedlich et al. 1984). Characteristics of somata, dendrites and axons of neurons identified in this paper are summarized in table 1. In most cases, these findings confirm earlier suppositions concerning the identity of neuronal types of the rat's visual cortex in Golgi and Nissl stained sections (Werner et al. 1979) and verify the values of their frequency and distribution pattern (Werner et al. 1982).

  15. Phase 2 trial of sunitinib and gemcitabine in patients with sarcomatoid and/or poor-risk metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Michaelson MD, McKay RR, Werner L, Atkins MB, Van Allen EM, Olivier KM, Song J, Signoretti S, McDermott DF, Choueiri TK.Cancer. 2015 Oct 1;121(19):3435-43. [Epub 2015 Jun 8]. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29503.

    PubMed

    Jay, Raman; McKay, R R; Werner, L; Atkins, M B; Van Allen, E M; Olivier, K M; Song, J; Signoretti, S; McDermott, D F; Choueiri, T K

    2017-03-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with an aggressive biology and a poor prognosis. Poor-risk RCC is defined by clinical prognostic factors and demonstrates similarly aggressive behavior. No standard treatment exists for patients with sarcomatoid RCC, and treatment options for patients with poor-risk disease are of limited benefit. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in clinically aggressive RCC. This was a phase 2, single-arm trial of sunitinib and gemcitabine in patients with sarcomatoid or poor-risk RCC. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included the time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), safety, and biomarker correlatives. Overall, 39 patients had sarcomatoid RCC, and 33 had poor-risk RCC. The ORR was 26% for patients with sarcomatoid RCC and 24% for patients with poor-risk RCC. The median TTP and OS for patients with sarcomatoid RCC were 5 and 10 months, respectively. For patients with poor-risk disease, the median TTP and OS were 5.5 and 15 months, respectively. Patients whose tumors had>10% sarcomatoid histology had a higher clinical benefit rate (ORR plus stable disease) than those with≤10% sarcomatoid histology (P = 0.04). The most common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events included neutropenia (n = 20), anemia (n = 10), and fatigue (n = 7). These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy are an active and well-tolerated combination for patients with aggressive RCC. The combination may be more efficacious than either therapy alone and is currently under further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. On the thermodynamic origin of the initial radiation energy density in warm inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2016-11-01

    In warm inflation scenarios, radiation always exists, so that the radiation energy density is also assumed to be finite when inflation starts. To find out the origin of the non-vanishing initial radiation energy density, we revisit thermodynamic analysis for a warm inflation model and then derive an effective Stefan-Boltzmann law which is commensurate with the temperature-dependent effective potential by taking into account the non-vanishing trace of the total energy-momentum tensors. The effective Stefan-Boltzmann law shows that the zero energy density for radiation at the Grand Unification epoch increases until the inflation starts and it becomes eventually finite at the initial stage of warm inflation. By using the above effective Stefan-Boltzmann law, we also study the cosmological scalar perturbation, and obtain the sufficient radiation energy density in order for GUT baryogenesis at the end of inflation.

  17. Biographies of Romanian Physicists. Vol. 1. Outstanding Romanian Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Pallas, Nicolae

    1998-01-01

    Biographies and the most important works of the following physiscists are written: Bacaloglu Emanuel (1830-1891), Farkas Gyula (1847-1930), Hepites Stefan (1851-1922), Negreanu Dimitrie (1858-1908), Bungeteanu Dimitrie (1860-1932), Miculescu Constantin (1863-1937), Hurmuzescu Dragomir (1865-1954), Donici Nicolae (1874-1956), Maior Augustin (1882-1963), Oteteleseanu Enric (1885 - 1948), Demetrescu Gheorghe (1885 - 19690, Badarau Eugen (1997-1975), Procopiu Stefan (1890-1972), Athanasiu Gheorghe (1893-1972), Marian Victor (1896-1971), Huluibei Horia (1896-1972), Proca Alexandru (1897-1955), Vencov Stefan (1899-1955), Ionescu Theodor (1899-1988), Ionescu Aurel (1902-1954), Manu Gheorghe I. (1903-1954), Herovanu Mircea (1904-1960), Agarbiceanu Ion (1907 - 1971), Titeica Serban (1908-1985), Auslander Iosif (1911-1978), Ciorascu Florin (1914-1977).

  18. A finite element model for ice ball evolution in a multi-probe cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Muldrew, Ken; Wan, Richard; Rewcastle, John

    2003-06-01

    The ice formation in a water body is examined for the computation of temperature field, phase change and a moving ice-water interface whose location is not known á priori. This is classically referred to as the Stefan problem [Rubinstein, L.I. (1971) The Stefan Problem (American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island 02904]. Based on the Duvaut [Duvaut, G. (1973) "Résolution d'un probléme Stefan" C.R. Acad Sci. Paris 276, 1461-1463] transformation, the governing equations for heat conduction are formulated within a variational principle that is readily amenable to a standard finite element solution without remeshing. Numerical simulation results pertaining to the freezing of tumour tissue in a multi-cryoprobe cryosurgery are presented. These results lend both quantitative and graphical support to the current empirical standards of "effective therapy" in view of refining clinical applications.

  19. In-Vitro Immunology - Skylab Student Experiment ED-31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment In-Vitro Immunology, proposed by Todd A. Meister of Jackson Heights, New York. He suggested an in-vitro observation of the effects of zero-gravity on a presipitin-type antigen-antibody reaction, as compared with the same reaction carried out in an Earth-based laboratory. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  20. In-Vitro Immunology - Skylab Student Experiment ED-31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment In-Vitro Immunology, proposed by Todd A. Meister of Jackson Heights, New York. He suggested an in-vitro observation of the effects of zero-gravity on a presipitin-type antigen-antibody reaction, as compared with the same reaction carried out in an Earth-based laboratory. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  1. Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment In-Vitro Immunology, proposed by Todd A. Meister of Jackson Heights, New York. He suggested an in-vitro observation of the effects of zero-gravity on a presipitin-type antigen-antibody reaction, as compared with the same reaction carried out in an Earth-based laboratory. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  2. Myths, magic and reality in nursing ethics: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Tschudin, V

    1998-01-01

    Ethics, especially in nursing, tends to be surrounded by myths and ideas that have more in common with magic than reality. This article argues from quotes of two medieval men, Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart, that ethical behaviour among nurses is not something difficult or far-fetched, but something immediate, everyday, and often very simple. The more weighty ethical dilemmas are not diminished by this. Aspects of justice, compassion and courage are discussed from the point of view of relationships with clients and colleagues, and the need for (helpful) myths is stressed.

  3. Morphology of Design of Aerospace Systems with Inclusion of Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Visual Indicators," Human Factors, 1971, 13(5), pp. 427-433. 22. Mayer, Sylvia R., "Trends in Human Factors Research for Military Information Systems... Sylvia R., "Trends in Human Factors Research for Military Information Systems," Human Factors, 1970, 12(2), pp. 177-186. 35. Meister, David, Dennis 3...Yoder, Thomas A., Richard L. Lucas, and Gerald D. Bot - zum, "The Marriage of Human Factors and Safety in In- dustry," Human Factors, 1973, 15(3), pp

  4. A structural and intertextual reading of Freud's "On Dreams".

    PubMed

    Mahlendorf, U

    2000-04-01

    By using the framework of a "quest" narrative based on literary allusions to Virgil's Aeneid and Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, Freud transformed the 500 pages of The Interpretation of Dreams into some fifty pages entitled "On Dreams." This paper elucidates the narrative means by which Freud achieved the feat of turning a highly complex, lengthy theoretical work into an engaging narrative. Its main plot, provided by a specimen dream, reveals Freud's working through of the personal and professional conflicts of his life up to 1901, and serves as a practical demonstration of and paradigm for the process of working through in psychoanalysis.

  5. Cross-Barrel Temperature Difference Due to Wall Thickness Variation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    atmosphere. F Is the radiation interchange factor between the barrel outer wall and the environment (in our case, we assume F = 0.95), and a is the Stefan ...barrel metal [kg/mrJ o Stefan -Boltzmann constant = 5.669 x 10-8 J/(m2 s K4) * azimuthal coordinate In transverse plane azimuthal coordinate in...Pomey SMCAR-CCB-DS, P. Votlis Fort Knox, KY 40121-5212 SMCAR-CCB-DS, C. Andrade SMCAR-LBD-D, J. Zweig 1 Paul Gough Associates, Inc. SMCAR-CCB, L

  6. [Jesuits Chemists of Hapsburg Monarchy].

    PubMed

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    The achievements of the Jesuits from the Austrian and Bohemian provinces, who have published books on chemistry are focused. Their links with the area of today's Slovenia are particularly exposed. The guidelines which have enabled prompt victories of the ideas about the structure of matter of Jesuit Ru|er Bokovi are indicated. Inconceivable fast spread of Bošković's adherents in the Hapsburg monarchy is compared with a similar rapid introduction of the kinetic theories of atoms of Slovene Jožef Stefan and Ludwig Boltzmann in the same geographical area. Boltzmann was not only Stefan's best student, but he also married a half Slovenian maid.

  7. Effect of two-qutrit entanglement on quantum speed limit time of a bipartite V-type open system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, N.; Ahansaz, B.; Ektesabi, A.; Faizi, E.

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, quantum speed limit (QSL) time of a bipartite V-type three-level atomic system under the effect of two-qutrit entanglement is investigated. Each party interacts with own independent reservoir. By considering two local unitarily equivalent Werner states and the Horodecki PPT state, as initial states, the QSL time is evaluated for each of them in the respective entangled regions. It is counterintuitively observed that the effect of entanglement on the QSL time driven from each of the initial Werner states are completely different when the degree of non-Markovianity is considerable. In addition, it is interesting that the effect of entanglement of the non-equivalent Horodecki state on the calculated QSL time displays an intermediate behavior relative to the cases obtained for the Werner states.

  8. The Nudity of the Ego. An Eckhartian Perspective on the Levinas/Derrida Debate on Alterity.

    PubMed

    Roesner, Martina

    2016-01-02

    The present paper examines the Eckhartian motives in Derrida's critique of Levinas' concept of the "Other". The focus is put on the Husserlian concept of alter ego that is at the core of the debate between Levinas and Derrida. Against Levinas, Derrida argues that alter is not an epithet that expresses a mere accidental modification of the ego, but an indicator of radical exteriority. Interestingly enough, this position is virtually identical with Meister Eckhart's interpretation of the famous proposition from Exodus 3:14 "I am who I am". Eckhart claims that the pronoun ego denotes the absolutely simple substance of the uncreated intellect, which can, by definition, never receive any accidental determination whatsoever. The reduplication of the "I am" is by no means tautological, but expresses the intra-divine dynamic of the Father who engenders the Son as his perfect equal and alter ego. This transcendental conception of egoity also governs the relationships between human beings: the ethical encounter with the "Other" requires that we consider them not primarily in their empirical, contingent existence but in the transcendental purity of their indeclinable ego, which is identical with the incessant act in which God knows himself in the Son as his absolutely Other. Thus, Meister Eckhart's approach proves, against Levinas, that it is possible to develop an "egological" philosophy that avoids the pitfalls of a naturalistic and potentially violent ontology of the subject.

  9. The Nudity of the Ego. An Eckhartian Perspective on the Levinas/Derrida Debate on Alterity

    PubMed Central

    Roesner, Martina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present paper examines the Eckhartian motives in Derrida's critique of Levinas’ concept of the “Other”. The focus is put on the Husserlian concept of alter ego that is at the core of the debate between Levinas and Derrida. Against Levinas, Derrida argues that alter is not an epithet that expresses a mere accidental modification of the ego, but an indicator of radical exteriority. Interestingly enough, this position is virtually identical with Meister Eckhart's interpretation of the famous proposition from Exodus 3:14 “I am who I am”. Eckhart claims that the pronoun ego denotes the absolutely simple substance of the uncreated intellect, which can, by definition, never receive any accidental determination whatsoever. The reduplication of the “I am” is by no means tautological, but expresses the intra-divine dynamic of the Father who engenders the Son as his perfect equal and alter ego. This transcendental conception of egoity also governs the relationships between human beings: the ethical encounter with the “Other” requires that we consider them not primarily in their empirical, contingent existence but in the transcendental purity of their indeclinable ego, which is identical with the incessant act in which God knows himself in the Son as his absolutely Other. Thus, Meister Eckhart's approach proves, against Levinas, that it is possible to develop an “egological” philosophy that avoids the pitfalls of a naturalistic and potentially violent ontology of the subject. PMID:27152029

  10. Fundamental Processes in Partially Ionized Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    moi* Natural broadening is due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle applied to the energies of the initial and the final state of the transition...by ab initio calculations ( Werner et al, 1984, Rizzo et al, 1988, Langhoff et al, 1988a, 1988b, 1991, Bauschlicher and Langhoff, 1988). Since these...moments N2 First positive system B 3 rlg- A 3 yu+ The ETMF from Werner et al (1984) was preferred over the one from Rizzo et al (1988) since it yields

  11. Mesh Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    AD-A277 644 ARAI !: ’ Mesh Optimization Technical Report # 93-01-01 Hughes Hoppe, Tony DeRose, Tom Duchamp , John McDonald and Werner Stuetzle DTIC...SrECT3D I 94 i 31 108 Mesh Optimization Technical Report # 93-01-01 Hughes Hoppe, Tony DeRose, Tom Duchamp , John McDonald and Werner Stuetzle Department...1:1. Januairy 1991. [2] T. DeRose. 11. Hoppe, T. Duchamp . .1. McDonald. and NV. Stuetzle. Fitting of surfaces to scattered data. ,PIE, 1830:212-220

  12. Blackbody Radiation from an Incandescent Lamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose an activity aimed at introductory students to help them understand the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws. It only requires simple materials that are available at any school: an incandescent lamp, a variable dc energy supply, and a computer to run an interactive simulation of the blackbody spectrum.…

  13. Aerospace Power Scholarly Research Program. Delivery Order 0013: Volume 2 - Flux Equations for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    iii) concentrated solution theory based on the Onsager irreversible thermodynamics approach to transport processes. In very dilute to very...Stefan-Maxwell, Onsager 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON (Monitor) a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT...Flux Equations using Onsager Thermodynamics................................................................................ 39 4.1.3.1

  14. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    1. Sanaz A. Jansen, Tatjana Paunesku, GayleWoloschak, Stefan Vogt, Suzanne Conzen, Gillian M . Newstead and Gregory S. Karczmar. Why do Ductal...3. Sanaz A. Jansen, Xiaobing Fan, Gregory Karczmar, Maryellen Giger, Hiroyuki Abe and Gillian M . Newstead. Are Kinetic Parameters Diagnostically...4. Sanaz A. Jansen, Gregory Karczmar, Akiko Shimauchi, Hiroyuki Abe and Gillian M . Newstead. Are Kinetic Parameters Related to Prognostic

  15. Mission Command - Transforming Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    the information age ; prevail in the cyber- electromagnetic spectrum; and effectively integrate and apply diplomatic, informational, military, and...Manual 3-0, Operations (FM 3-0), February 2008, pp. G-2 – G10 . 5 Banach, Stefan J., Colonel, Educating by Design, Military Review, March-April 2009, p

  16. Pseudorandom Number Generators for Mobile Devices: An Examination and Attempt to Improve Randomness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Improved Cryptanalysis of the Self-Shrinking Generator,” Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy (ACISP) 2001 (Lecture Notes in...Computer Science (LNCS), Vol. 4284, (2006). Zenner, Erik, Matthias Krause, Stefan Lucks. 2001. “Improved Cryptanalysis of the Self- Shrinking

  17. Graphic Novels in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

  18. Finding Truth in "Lies": Nietzsche's Perspectivism and Its Relation to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.; Nakazawa, Yoshiaki M.

    2008-01-01

    In his 2001 article "Teaching to Lie and Obey: Nietzsche on Education", Stefan Ramaekers defends Nietzsche's concept of perspectivism against the charge that it is relativistic. He argues that perspectivism is not relativistic because it denies the dichotomy between the "true" world and the "seeming" world, a dichotomy central to claims to…

  19. Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture Development using Microsoft Kinect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Barcelona, 2011, pp. 1182–1188. [7] V. Frati and D. Prattichizzo, "Using Kinect for hand tracking and rendering in wearable haptics ," in Proceedings from...the 2011 IEEE World Haptics Conference, Istanbul, 2011, pp. 317–321. [8] Paul Doliotis , Alexandra Stefan, Christopher McMurrough, David Eckhard, and

  20. Space-Based Observations of Satellites From the MOST Microsatellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Acknowledgements It is a pleasure to acknowledge those who contributed time and effort making this experiment a success. Eric Vachon Canadian...Inc. Maj. Aaron Spaans DRDC Ottawa OCdt Stefan Thorsteinson DRDC Ottawa Sgt. Michelle (Mitch) Mueller-Neuhaus DRDC Ottawa/DPDOIS Maj

  1. The Invisible University? Lifelong Learning, Literary Study and the City of Bristol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperlinger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article explores why some universities may be "invisible" to adults in their local communities. It suggests that funding changes in UK higher education, particularly those initiated by the Browne Review in 2010, may reinforce such a divide. The article draws on Stefan Collini's critiques of government policy, particularly in…

  2. Ice-­Ocean Thermodynamic Interface and Small-­Scale Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Adrian K.

    2012-07-02

    This presentation discusses: (1) Stefan condition, (2) lower boundary condition of mushy layers, (3) salt flux to ocean from gravity drainage, (4) distribution of salt flux in the ocean, (5) under ice melt ponds and false bottoms, and (6) basal ablation.

  3. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  4. Aporias, Politics of Ontology, Ethics, and "We"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Stefan Lars

    2016-01-01

    The different responses, interpretations, and consequent critiques of Stefan Lars Bengtsson's "Hegemony and the Politics of Policy Making for Education for Sustainable Development" highlight how the various critical outlooks are framed by, seemingly, incommensurable positions, or figures of reasoning, that inform their thinking.…

  5. Losing Traction and the Art of Slip-Sliding Away: Or, Getting over Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This response problematizes Stefan Bengtsson's (2016) defense of education for sustainable development. He argues that sustainable development and education for sustainable development are not globalizing and hegemonic discourses, as some have claimed, and uses case-study analysis of Vietnamese policy documents to support his claims. He observes…

  6. Finding Truth in "Lies": Nietzsche's Perspectivism and Its Relation to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.; Nakazawa, Yoshiaki M.

    2008-01-01

    In his 2001 article "Teaching to Lie and Obey: Nietzsche on Education", Stefan Ramaekers defends Nietzsche's concept of perspectivism against the charge that it is relativistic. He argues that perspectivism is not relativistic because it denies the dichotomy between the "true" world and the "seeming" world, a dichotomy central to claims to…

  7. A World Where All Worlds Cohabit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teamey, Kelly; Mandel, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In response to Stefan Bengtsson's search for alternatives to Education for Sustainable Development practices outside the mainstream of the state and its policy formulations, this response outlines how our journey, experiences, and approaches reflect a de-professionalizing encounter with autonomous places of learning emerging from indigenous…

  8. Development of a Coupled Framework for Simulating Interactive Effects of Frozen Soil Hydrological Dynamics in Permafrost Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    simulation, as depicted in Figure 2. 3.1 GIPL Mathematical Model The GIPL numerical model solves the Stefan problem (Alexiades and Solomon 1993, Verdi ...Phillips, M., Springmanm S., and Arenson, L., 1017–1021, 2003. 94, 95. Verdi , C., 1994. Numerical aspects of parabolic free boundary and

  9. Language Crossings: Negotiating the Self in a Multicultural World. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogulnick, Karen, Ed.

    This book includes 25 papers in 5 parts. Part 1, "Dislocations," includes (1) "Puzzle" (Myrna Nieves); (2) "No Language To Die In" (Greta Hofmann Nemiroff); (3) "Here's Your Change 'N Enjoy the Show" (Verena Stefan); (4) "The Vagabond Years" (Elizabeth Dykman); (5) "From Bayamon to…

  10. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: a large-scale prize for achievements on the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Daniel

    2014-12-17

    The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner "for the development of superresolved fluorescence microscopy" can be seen as a combined prize for single-molecule detection and superresolution imaging. Neurons, arguably the most morphologically complex cell type, are the subject of choice for this application, now generically called "nanoscopy."

  11. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  12. Democracy and Education in the Twenty-First Century: Deweyan Pragmatism and the Question of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Why is John Dewey still such an important philosopher today? Writing from the perspective of the Cologne Program of Interactive Constructivism, Stefan Neubert tries in what follows to give one possible answer to this question. Neubert notes that Cologne constructivism considers Dewey in many respects as one of the most important predecessors of…

  13. A World Where All Worlds Cohabit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teamey, Kelly; Mandel, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In response to Stefan Bengtsson's search for alternatives to Education for Sustainable Development practices outside the mainstream of the state and its policy formulations, this response outlines how our journey, experiences, and approaches reflect a de-professionalizing encounter with autonomous places of learning emerging from indigenous…

  14. Blackbody Radiation from an Incandescent Lamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose an activity aimed at introductory students to help them understand the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws. It only requires simple materials that are available at any school: an incandescent lamp, a variable dc energy supply, and a computer to run an interactive simulation of the blackbody spectrum.…

  15. biospear: an R package for biomarker selection in penalized Cox regression.

    PubMed

    Ternès, Nils; Rotolo, Federico; Michiels, Stefan

    2017-09-12

    The R package biospear allows selecting the biomarkers with the strongest impact on survival and on the treatment effect in high-dimensional Cox models, and estimating expected survival probabilities. Most of the implemented approaches are based on penalized regression techniques. The package is available on the CRAN. ( https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=biospear ). stefan.michiels@gustaveroussy.fr.

  16. Thermal Management of Rapid Fire Gun Breeches: The Case for Heat Pipes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Engineering Center ATIN: SMCAR-CCB-D, Joe Battagla John Zweig Peter O’Hara SMCAR-CCB-DA, Ed Hyland SMCAR-CCB-DR, Steven Morris SMCAR-CCB-DS, C. A...Engineering 144 MEB; 1206 N. Green St. ATTN: Dr. Stefan T. Thynell Urbana, IL 61801-2978 219 Hallowell Building University Park, PA 16802-7501

  17. "Neverwinter Nights" in Alberta: Conceptions of Narrativity through Fantasy Role-Playing Games in a Graduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouglas, Sean; Sinclair, Stefan; Ellefson, Olaf; Sharplin, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Most humanities courses rarely require students to create the kinds of work they are studying. Sean Gouglas, Stefan Sinclair, Olaf Ellefson, and Scott Sharplin outline the value of this rare experience by describing an assignment in their graduate humanities computing course in which students examined hypermedia narratives by authoring a…

  18. International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (2nd) Held in Santa Barbara, California on 12-17 July 1992 (Extended Abstracts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical Charactenzation of Hydrogen M. Ferrira and G Tremtbosi-Filho Evolution Reaction on Nickel-Sulfur Electrodes 2 An Inexpensive Low ...Nonstationary Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory Z Stovnov oPlenarn• and Application Impedance Specrroscopy at Very Low Frequencies Stefan La.n’ Low ...The Capacity of Monocrystalline Nickel Electrode P. Zoltowski in Potassium Hydroxide Solution at Low Hydrogen Overpotentials Characterization of Some

  19. The relativistic blackbody spectrum in inertial and non-inertial reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey S.; Cleaver, Gerald B.

    2017-04-01

    By invoking inverse temperature as a van Kampen-Israel future-directed timelike 4-vector, this paper derives the Relativistic Blackbody Spectrum, the Relativistic Wien's Displacement Law, and the Relativistic Stefan-Boltzmann Law in inertial and non-inertial reference frames.

  20. Center frequency formulation of the blackbody radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Johannes N.; Plendl, Hans S.

    1989-11-01

    A center frequency law of blackbody radiation is derived using the analogy between the blackbody radiation curve and the corresponding resonance curve. The formula is then used to calculate the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation constant, which is in better agreement with the best available experimentally determined values than the value derived from Planck's blackbody formula.

  1. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  2. Time to Reframe Politics and Practices in Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoBuglio, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, Stefan LoBuglio discusses the politics and practices of educational programs for adults in correctional facilities. To begin, LoBuglio provides an overview of the field of corrections, including various types of facilities and correctional programs, as well as demographic and educational data on the U.S. incarcerated population…

  3. JPRS Report, Telecommunications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-11

    Series Production [Stefan Lundberg; Stockholm DAGENS NYHETER, 11 May 88] 22 FRANCE National Telephone Network Adapted for Future Digital Services [Paris...Adapted for Future Digital Services 55002461b Paris ZERO UN INFORMATIQUE in French 25 Apr 88 p 35 [Article by E.S.; first paragraph is ZERO UN INFOR

  4. Ruling Relationships in Sustainable Development and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Tom; Sauvé, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    It is from historical perspectives on more than 40 years of environment related education theories, practices, and policies that we revisit what might otherwise become a tired conversation about environmental education and sustainable development. Our contemporary critical analysis of Stefan Bengtsson's research about policy making leads us to…

  5. Losing Traction and the Art of Slip-Sliding Away: Or, Getting over Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This response problematizes Stefan Bengtsson's (2016) defense of education for sustainable development. He argues that sustainable development and education for sustainable development are not globalizing and hegemonic discourses, as some have claimed, and uses case-study analysis of Vietnamese policy documents to support his claims. He observes…

  6. Political Success in War: A Criterion for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Thucydides, Jomini and Clausewitz along with modern scholars such as William Martel, Azar Gat, and J. Boone Bartholomees produces a model for understanding...Fullerton, Ph.D __________________________________ Monograph Reader Jeffrey J. Goble , COL, SF ___________________________________ Director, Stefan J...defines success? A review of past theorists such as Sun Tzu, Thucydides, Jomini and Clausewitz along with modern scholars such as William Martel

  7. Figures of Disengagement: Charles Taylor, Scientific Parenting, and the Paradox of Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berge, Luc; Ramaekers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Luc Van den Berge and Stefan Ramaekers take the idea(l) of "scientific parenting" as an example of ambiguities that are typical of our late-modern condition. On the one hand, parenting seems like a natural thing to do, which makes "scientific parenting" sound like an oxymoron; on the other hand, a disengaged…

  8. Race and Repression in a Dance Routine: A Response to Ramaekers and Vlieghe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Stefan Ramaekers and Joris Vlieghe's "Infants, childhood and language in Agamben and Cavell: education as transformation" is an insightful discussion of an important facet of educational experience. In the article, they consider a Fred Astaire dance sequence from the 1953 Vincente Minnelli film, "The Band Wagon," in combination…

  9. Figures of Disengagement: Charles Taylor, Scientific Parenting, and the Paradox of Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berge, Luc; Ramaekers, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Luc Van den Berge and Stefan Ramaekers take the idea(l) of "scientific parenting" as an example of ambiguities that are typical of our late-modern condition. On the one hand, parenting seems like a natural thing to do, which makes "scientific parenting" sound like an oxymoron; on the other hand, a disengaged…

  10. Digital Forensics Research: The Next 10 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Kreibich Christian, Levchenko Kirill, Enright Brandon, Voelker Geoffrey M, Paxson Vern, Savage Stefan. Spamalytics: an empirical analysis of spam... Kara , Hay Brian, Bishop Matt. Digital forensics: defining a research agenda. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii international conference on system...Nance Kara , Hay Brian, Dodge Ronald C, p Craiger Phili, Burke Paul, Marberry Chris, Brubaker Bryan. Virtualization and digital forensics: a research

  11. Graphic Novels in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

  12. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  13. On a Heuristic Point of View About Inertial Deconfinement of Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2009-05-01

    I propose a novel heuristic method for the deconfinement of quarks. It proceeds in two phases. Firstly, a frozen hydrogen pellet is inertially confined by the ultra-intense lasers up to a solid state density. Secondly, a solid state nano-pellet is ``punched'' by a femtosecond TeV-photon beam created in the beat wave driven free electron laser (BW-FEL), leading to the ``rapture'' (in a ``karate chop'' model) of the ``MIT Bag'' before the asymptotically free quarks move apart. The threshold ``rapture force'' of the TeV photon is 10^8N. M. Gell-Mann. The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1994) [cf. M. Gell-Mann, The Garden of Live Flowers in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. Essays Honoring Victor Frederick Weisskopf (Springer, 1998), pp. 109-121]. V. Alexander Stefan. Beat Wave Driven Free Electron Laser (S-U-Press, 2002, La Jolla, CA)[cf. V. Stefan et. al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 32, No. 9, 1713 (1987)] J. I. Friedman and H. Kendall, Viki, in: V. Stefan (Editor), Physics and Society. Essays Honoring Victor Frederick Weisskopf (Springer, 1998), pp. 103-108].

  14. Ruling Relationships in Sustainable Development and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Tom; Sauvé, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    It is from historical perspectives on more than 40 years of environment related education theories, practices, and policies that we revisit what might otherwise become a tired conversation about environmental education and sustainable development. Our contemporary critical analysis of Stefan Bengtsson's research about policy making leads us to…

  15. Pulsed electric field processing for fruit and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for fruits and vegetables to improve their safety and quality. This month’s column coauthor, Stefan Toepfl, is advanced research manager at the German Institute of Food Technologies and professo...

  16. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-03-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and the dwarf planet Pluto.

  17. Contribution to the discussion of '"A critical evaluation of the current p-value controversy"'.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    I pick up a very few points of minor disagreement with Stefan Wellek's comprehensive review of P-values in this journal. I conclude that P-values have a limited function in statistical inference but can nevertheless have their uses. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On Blackbody Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pushpendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelationship between the various forms of the Planck radiation equation is discussed. A differential equation that gives intensity or energy density of radiation per unit wavelength or per unit frequency is emphasized. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law and the change in the glow of a hot body with temperature are also discussed. (KR)

  19. Calculating the Self-Intersections of Bezier Curves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Bezier Curves,*Spline Curves: Intersection, Self- Intersection 20. A81T RACT (Continue an revee side if necesavy and identify by bleck nmber1...Darmrstadt FRG Wolfgang Schwarz Reinhold Klass Jakob-Stefan-Str. 12 Daimler-Benz AG 6500 Mainz FRG AMht AIDK 0932 Sindelfmngen FRG W. Strasser Diete

  20. Laser Exposure of High-Pressure Arc Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    Kettlitz, H. Schneidenbach, and H. Hess Institute for Low-Temperature Plasma Physics Friedrich- Ludwig -Jahn-Strasse 19, D- 17489 Greifswald, Germany...ment of an appropriate anode model. where a is the Stefan- Boltzmann constant. The thermal conductivity coefficient X and the total emissivity of the

  1. Language Crossings: Negotiating the Self in a Multicultural World. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogulnick, Karen, Ed.

    This book includes 25 papers in 5 parts. Part 1, "Dislocations," includes (1) "Puzzle" (Myrna Nieves); (2) "No Language To Die In" (Greta Hofmann Nemiroff); (3) "Here's Your Change 'N Enjoy the Show" (Verena Stefan); (4) "The Vagabond Years" (Elizabeth Dykman); (5) "From Bayamon to…

  2. Adding Albedo and Atmospheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal, we reported on a laboratory activity in which students used a derivation from the Stefan-Boltzmann law to calculate planetary temperatures and compare them to measured values from various (mostly online) sources. The calculated temperatures matched observed values very well with the exceptions of Venus and…

  3. On Blackbody Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pushpendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelationship between the various forms of the Planck radiation equation is discussed. A differential equation that gives intensity or energy density of radiation per unit wavelength or per unit frequency is emphasized. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law and the change in the glow of a hot body with temperature are also discussed. (KR)

  4. lndividuelle Zielvereinbarungen im Offentlichen Dienst in Deutschland Empirische Analysen zur Wirkung von Zielvereinbarungen auf die Arbeitsleistung kommunaler Beschaftigter (Individual Target Agreements in the Public Service in Germany-Empirical Analyzes of the Effect of Target Agreements on the Work Performance of Municipal Employees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    effect of target a!ITeements on the work performance of municipal employees ) 6 . AUTHOR(S) Stefan Reemts 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Conceptualization of the target specificity; Conceptualization of employee participation; Conceptuali zation of the target binding; Conceptualization of...fficulties; Operationalization of target specificity; Operationalization of employee participation; Operationalization of target binding

  5. The Invisible University? Lifelong Learning, Literary Study and the City of Bristol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperlinger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This article explores why some universities may be "invisible" to adults in their local communities. It suggests that funding changes in UK higher education, particularly those initiated by the Browne Review in 2010, may reinforce such a divide. The article draws on Stefan Collini's critiques of government policy, particularly in…

  6. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies: Limnological Studies at Eau Galle, Lake, Wisconsin. Report 2. Special Studies and Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    plankton will spend a greater amount of time under poor light condl- tions, thereby reducing growth rates (Stefan, Skoglund, and Megard 1976). 237. The...Conclusions ........................... 21 References...........................22 PART III: SEASONAL GROWTH AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTON...56 Summary ............................... 61 References.............................62 PART V: GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF SUBMERSED

  7. Quantum Cascade Laser Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier with 1.5-W Output Power at 300 K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-25

    Menzel , Laurent Diehl, Christian Pflugl, Anish Goyal, Christine Wang, Antomo Sanchez, George Turner, and Federico Capasso MIT Lincoln Laboratory...cascade laser master-oscillator power- amplifier with 1.5-W output power at 300 Kt Stefan Menzel ,’ Laurent Diehl,’,2 Christian Plliigl,’,2 Anish

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    multi-frequency cloaking Andrea Alù and Nader Engheta Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations Filiberto Bilotti, Simone Tricarico and Lucio Vegni An aberration-free lens with zero F-number D Schurig Transformational optics of plasmonic metamaterials I I Smolyaninov An acoustic metafluid: realizing a broadband acoustic cloak J B Pendry and Jensen Li On the possibility of metamaterial properties in spin plasmas G Brodin and M Marklund A homogenization route towards square cylindrical acoustic cloaks Mohamed Farhat, Sébastien Guenneau, Stefan Enoch, Alexander Movchan, Frédéric Zolla and André Nicolet Transformation optics: approaching broadband electromagnetic cloaking A V Kildishev, W Cai, U K Chettiar and V M Shalaev Generalized field-transforming metamaterials Sergei A Tretyakov, Igor S Nefedov and Pekka Alitalo Electromagnetic beam modulation through transformation optical structures Xiaofei Xu, Yijun Feng and Tian Jiang Superantenna made of transformation media Ulf Leonhardt and Tomáš Tyc Material parameters and vector scaling in transformation acoustics Steven A Cummer, Marco Rahm and David Schurig Isotropic transformation optics: approximate acoustic and quantum cloaking Allan Greenleaf, Yaroslav Kurylev, Matti Lassas and Gunther Uhlmann Transformation optical designs for wave collimators, flat lenses and right-angle bends Do-Hoon Kwon and Douglas H Werner Alternative derivation of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators A D Yaghjian and S Maci Solutions in folded geometries, and associated cloaking due to anomalous resonance Graeme W Milton, Nicolae-Alexandru P Nicorovici, Ross C McPhedran, Kirill Cherednichenko and Zubin Jacob Finite wavelength cloaking by plasmonic resonance N-A P Nicorovici, R C McPhedran, S Enoch and G Tayeb

  9. PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

    2010-09-01

    . Lectures and poster presentations were thus solicited from leading international academic and industrial researchers. The large audience that attended responded to the high quality of the talks with pertinent questions and lively discussions. The third workshop, TMI2009, was held over three days from 11-13 November, 2009, at the Nagoya International Center, Nagoya, Japan. Invited talks were given by 23 speakers from 9 countries from both the academic and industry sectors. The speakers were Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central R&D Labs, Japan), Tomas Bucko (University of Vienna, Austria), Gábor Csányi (University of Cambridge, UK), Alessandro De Vita (King's College London, UK), Bernard Delley (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland), Christophe Domain (EDF, France), George Fitzgerald (Accelrys, USA), Takeo Fujiwara (University of Tokyo, Japan), Jürgen Hafner (University of Vienna, Austria), Masaya Ishida (Sumitomo Chemicals, Japan), Werner Janse Van Rensburg (Sasol Technology, South Africa), Masanori Kohyama (AIST, Japan), Takao Kotani (Tottori University, Japan), Georg Kresse (University of Vienna, Austria), Katsuyuki Matsunaga (Kyoto University, Japan), Stefan Müller (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany), Shin-ichiro Nakamura (Mitsubishi Chemicals, Japan), Fumiyasu Oba (Kyoto University, Japan), Tamio Oguchi (Hiroshima University, Japan), Pascal Raybaud (IFP, France), Isao Tanaka (Kyoto University/JFCC, Japan), Göran Wahnström (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc., USA). There were 40 poster presentations in total. The workshop was attended by approximately 120 participants with approximately 50 per cent from industry. The invited talks covered advances in ab initio solid-state calculations and their practical use in industry. Presentations outlining the progress made in treating large and complex systems, as well as more accurate and efficient calculation methods, were given from the theory side. Examples of the use of ab

  10. The Logarithmic-to-Linear Shift: One Learning Sequence, Many Tasks, Many Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between short-term and long-term change (also known as learning and development) has been of great interest throughout the history of developmental psychology. Werner and Vygotsky believed that the two involved basically similar progressions of qualitatively distinct knowledge states; behaviorists such as Kendler and Kendler believed…

  11. The Myth of the "Perfect" Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner Andrews, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on both extensive professional and deeply personal experience, Sarah Werner Andrews' vision of working with children carries profound respect and love throughout her guiding insight. She shares an understanding of those children who are the most challenging and provides a framework that allows us to embrace these and all children.…

  12. Multipartite invariant states. I. Unitary symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-06-15

    We propose a natural generalization of bipartite Werner and isotropic states to multipartite systems consisting of an arbitrary even number of d-dimensional subsystems (qudits). These generalized states are invariant under the action of local unitary operations. We study basic properties of multipartite invariant states and present necessary and sufficient separability criteria.

  13. How Great Is Your Student Intern? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: We asked Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship Program (WHK SIP) mentors to tell us about the unique and diverse backgrounds of some of this year’s student interns. Alex Beall Microarray Group, Genomics Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program Mentors: Nicole Shrader and Stephanie Mellott, research associates

  14. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugl, Helmut; And Others

    This document contains the following case studies of West German adult education projects: (1) Counseling Courses in Agriculture (Bugl, Fehrenbach-Neumann); (2) The State Center for Political Education in Baden-Wurttemberg (Schiele); (3) Catholic Educational Organization Rottweil (Muller); (4) Adult Education Center--Herrenberg (Werner); (5)…

  15. Self-Selected Reading for Enjoyment as a College Developmental Reading Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    The field of college developmental reading does not have a unified, agreed-upon approach to creating effective and efficient readers at the college level, as Reynolds and Werner (2003) have pointed out. For example, Keefe and Meyer (1991) assert the appropriateness of a holistic, whole-language approach for adult readers, while Bohr (2003)…

  16. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  17. "Paideia," Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppel, Francis

    1990-01-01

    Discusses two widely practiced principles of management (protecting the rear and knowing the limits of a job) as they relate to the philosophy of education. The article examines Werner Jaeger's definition of education in his 1939 book, "Paideia," as well as other definitions that have helped shape current educational management. (SM)

  18. Havens of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Schools are natural environments for helping all children cultivate the resilience that resides within them. Research shows that schools are filled with the conditions that promote resilience (Werner, 2003). These include caring, encouraging relationships, role models, and mentors (Theron & Engelbrecht, 2012; Thomsen, 2002; Walsh, 2012); clear…

  19. The Physics of "Copenhagen" for Students and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences…

  20. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 1: The First Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2006-01-01

    All four of the most important figures in the early twentieth-century development of quantum physics--Niels Bohr, Erwin Schroedinger, Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli--had strong interests in the traditional mind--brain, or "hard," problem. This paper reviews their approach to this problem, showing the influence of Bohr's complementarity…

  1. The Role of Idiomorphs in Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Psycholinguistics coined the term idiomorph to describe idiosyncratic invented word-like units that toddlers use to refer to familiar objects during their early language development (Haslett & Samter, 1997; Otto, 2008; Reich, 1986; Scovel, 2004; Werner & Kaplan, 1963). Idiomorphs act as "words" because their meanings and phonetic pronunciations…

  2. The Physics of "Copenhagen" for Students and the General Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences…

  3. Making a Difference: Innovations in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch, Werner, Ed.; Papen, Uta, Ed.

    This book highlights examples of innovative educational practices in the field of organized adult learning. Fifteen chapters present outcomes of collective research in the Innovations in Nonformal and Adult Education (INNAE) project. "Common Learning--Collective Research: Innovating Adult Education" (Werner Mauch, Uta Papen) describes the…

  4. Consortial Leadership: Cooperation in a Competitive Environment. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (130th, Albuquerque, NM, May 14-16, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jaia, Ed.; Wetzel, Karen A., Ed.

    The program of the 130th meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) explored the leadership challenges posed by the juxtapositions of cooperation and competing priorities in a consortial environment. Following an opening and welcome (Gloria Werner, ARL Presiding President), and a Keynote Address, "Defining Successful…

  5. A Developmental Framework for Enhancing Resiliency in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…

  6. 77 FR 13125 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    .... The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at 1445 Ross... for public inspection at 1445 Ross Avenue Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. A copy of the proposed settlement may be obtained from Robert Werner, Enforcement Officer, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733...

  7. The Social Relevance of Montessori in the First Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sarah Werner

    2015-01-01

    This article represents an amazing reversal of linguistic analysis. Usually Montessori language is translated into "state" terminology. In this case, Sarah Werner Andrews puts state quality assessment terms into Montessori language. For example, domains for school readiness include 1) physical wellbeing and motor development, 2) social…

  8. Good scientists and honest people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In early 1948, less than three years after the end of the Second World War in Europe, Werner Heisenberg - the Nobel laureate and physicist leader of the failed German atomic bomb project - was invited to the UK as part of an attempt to repair relations between British and German physicists.

  9. More than Talk: Relations between Emotion Understanding and Positive Behaviour in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Rosie; Hughes, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Background. Associations between positive behaviour, emotion understanding and verbal ability have been reported in studies of preschoolers (Cassidy, Werner, Rourke, Zubernis, & Balaraman, 2003), but have yet to be investigated in younger children. Methods. In this study the performance of 36 toddlers (17 boys and 19 girls; mean age = 29…

  10. The German Economy and U.S.-German Economic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    director at Volkswagen . 48Hans-Werner Sinn, Can Germany Be Saved?, p. 108. 49 Alister Miskimmon and Walter E. Paterson, “Conclusion: coping with the...its role lobbying General Motors (GM) to sell a majority stake in its Opel unit to Magna International, a Canadian-Austrian group, and Sberbank, its

  11. The Role of Idiomorphs in Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Psycholinguistics coined the term idiomorph to describe idiosyncratic invented word-like units that toddlers use to refer to familiar objects during their early language development (Haslett & Samter, 1997; Otto, 2008; Reich, 1986; Scovel, 2004; Werner & Kaplan, 1963). Idiomorphs act as "words" because their meanings and phonetic pronunciations…

  12. The Development of Role-Taking Abilities and Sociolinguistic Competence in Three Interpersonal Communication Domains Among Caucasian, Black, and Spanish-American Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, James L.

    This dissertation examined the acquisition and development of children's social/symbolic and strategic communication abilities within a sociolinguistic model of communication competence. The major theoretical perspective was derived from the symbolic interactionism of Mead and the cognitive developmental theories of Piaget and Werner. The sample…

  13. The Strategic Use of Language: A Sociolinguistic View of Communication Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, James L., III

    This study examined acquisition and development of children's social/symbolic and strategic communication abilities within a sociolinguistic model of communicative competence. The major theoretical perspective was derived from Mead's symbolic interactionism and the cognitive-developmental theories of Piaget and Werner. Role-taking was the central…

  14. New Light on Copenhagen and the German Nuclear Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    The recent release of draft letters from Niels Bohr to Werner Heisenberg provides new insights into German fission research during World War II and into the reasons for its relative failure. I refute claims of deliberate failure and briefly summarize other contributing factors.

  15. Nonclassical Matter Wave Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Broglie to Heisenberg ”, invited talk, Alexander von Humboldt 18th Symposium, “100 Years Werner Heisenberg --- Works and Impact”, Bamberg, Germany, 2001...From de Broglie waves to Heisenberg ferromagnets”, Fortschritte der Physik 50, 664 (2002). 17. C. P. Search, H. Pu, W. Zhang, B. P. Anderson and P

  16. The physics of Copenhagen for students and the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch

    2001-09-01

    The play Copenhagen has attracted the attention of a large audience in several countries. The hypothetical discussion in Copenhagen between two of the giants in physics, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, has inspired us to start a theoretical and experimental exploration of quantum physics. This theme has been used in Stockholm Science Laboratory for audiences of both students and the general public.

  17. q-Deformed Minkowski Algebra and Its Space-Time Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wess, J.

    2Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 MünchenAbstract. We have asked how the Heisenberg relations of space and time change if we replace the Lorentz group by a q-deformed Lorentz group (Lorek et al. 1997).

  18. Heisenberg and the critical mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2002-09-01

    An elementary treatment of the critical mass used in nuclear weapons is presented and applied to an analysis of the wartime activities of the German nuclear program. In particular, the work of Werner Heisenberg based on both wartime and postwar documents is discussed.

  19. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  20. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume II: The Developing Professional: Maintaining Values in "Practical" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Changing Student Teacher Values with Respect to Business and Industry" (Ralph P. Williams, Elizabeth J. Foster); "Admissions Processes into Canadian Master of Social Work Programs in the 1990s" (John R. Graham, Beatrice Traub-Werner); "Organizational Paradigms and…

  1. Concepts of development and the Rorschach: the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in historical context.

    PubMed

    Leichtman, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The Rorschach Test has been approached from 3 fundamentally different developmental perspectives: those growing out of the empiricist tradition, psychoanalysis, and the developmental psychologies of Piaget and Werner. In this article, I highlight the distinctive characteristics of each perspective, explore how they have shaped approaches to Rorschach theory and practice, and examine the contributions of Paul Lerner and John Exner in this context.

  2. Business Education and Training: A Value-Laden Process. Volume II: The Developing Professional: Maintaining Values in "Practical" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Samuel M., Ed.; Fenton, Mark B., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that explore value conflicts in all professions: "Changing Student Teacher Values with Respect to Business and Industry" (Ralph P. Williams, Elizabeth J. Foster); "Admissions Processes into Canadian Master of Social Work Programs in the 1990s" (John R. Graham, Beatrice Traub-Werner); "Organizational Paradigms and…

  3. How Great Is Your Student Intern? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: We asked Werner H. Kirsten Student Internship Program (WHK SIP) mentors to tell us about the unique and diverse backgrounds of some of this year’s student interns. Alex Beall Microarray Group, Genomics Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program Mentors: Nicole Shrader and Stephanie Mellott, research associates

  4. Strictly Proper Scoring Rules, Prediction, and Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Werner Ehm , Thomas Gerds, Eric P. Grimit, Eliezer Gurarie, Susanne Gschloessl, Leonhard Held, Peter J. Huber, Nicholas A. Johnson, Ian T. Jolliffe, Hans...International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 10, 175–183. 36 Perlman, M. D. (1972). On the strong consistency of approximate maximum likelihood

  5. The Information Society in Europe: Work and Life in an Age of Globalization. Critical Media Studies: Institutions, Politics, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducatel, Ken, Ed.; Webster, Juliet, Ed.; Herrmann, Werner, Ed.

    This book takes stock of the existing socioeconomic knowledge about a range of the core social issues of the information society. Chapter 1, "Information Infrastructures or Societies?" (Ken Ducatel, Juliet Webster, Werner Herrmann), is an introduction. Part 1, "Space, Economy, and the Global Information Society" looks at the processes of economic…

  6. Teaching enantioselectivity to C-H bond functionalizations: initial steps of a rather long shot.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    The direct functionalization of non-activated C-H bonds, especially in an enantioselective manner, requires metal catalysts equipped with ligands with specifically designed properties. Examples for asymmetric C(sp(2))-H and C(sp(3))-H functionalizations using palladium- and rhodium catalysts are shown. This work was rewarded by the 2012 Werner Prize of the Swiss Chemical Society.

  7. Test Review: LeBuffe, P. A., & Naglieri, J. A. (1999). The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment. Lewisville, NC: Kaplan Press: LeBuffe, P. A., & Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Devereux Early Childhood Assessment Clinical Form (DECA-C). Lewisville, NC: Kaplan Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Based on the seminal work of Emmy Werner (1990), practitioners have recognized the powerful role protective and risk factors play in the development of children's emotional and behavioral adjustment. Researchers have concluded that differences in children's reactions to difficult events are influenced by the type and level of protective factors in…

  8. Studies in Southwestern Ethnolinguistics; Meaning and History in the Languages of the American Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Dell H., Ed.; Bittle, William E., Ed.

    The present festschrift honoring Harry Hoijer is prefaced by the editor, Dell Hymes, and introduced by Stanley Newman. Papers are grouped according to the following content areas and authors: (1) "Meaning in Cultural Forms": D.F. Aberle, F. Eggan, R.A. Black, and D.L. Olmsted; (2) "Meaning in Lexical Systems": S. Ervin-Tripp, H. Landar, O. Werner,…

  9. Early Prevention of School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kent C.

    The Early Prevention of School Failure (EPSF) program developed by Dr. Luceille Werner is presented. The program is designed to identify and remediate developmental deficiencies of four-, five-, and six-year-old children and has been accepted in the National Diffusion Network as a nationally validated program. The main program components are…

  10. Physical Education and Language Arts: An Interdisciplinary Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, John; Murata, Nathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Physical education is a prime content area for interdisciplinary learning. The movement components of physical education can be used as a medium through which children are provided with opportunities to practice and strengthen language skills. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods (1998, p. 4) agree: "interdisciplinary learning is an educational process…

  11. Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    times for 100 computer generated “individuals” to demonstrate how individual anthropometric variability may alter ST. Height was first generated...Werner, J. and P. Webb. A six-cylinder model of human thermoregulation for general use on personal computers. Ann. Physiol. Anthrop . 12: 123-134, 1993

  12. 78 FR 48773 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... BALLENGER ANGEL LARRINAGA BALLMER CHRISTINA BALLMER MIRIJAM SABRINA BALLOU STEPHEN GERARD BANDY CHRISTIAN... DWAN KEVIN MICHAEL DY DANIEL SY ] EAKER WAYNE LYNE EDWARDS MARTHA JANE EDWARDS STEPHEN FRANCIS EGGER... STEPHEN WERNER FREIBURGHAUS THOMAS JORG FREIMAN HAROLD JOSEPH FREY SYLVIA ROSA FRICKER STEPHAN DANIEL...

  13. Luftwaffe Tactical Operations at Stalingrad - 19 November 1942-02 February 1943

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    and ground forces. In spite of this renewed recognition of the Soviet threat, scholarly study by military professionals of the last East/West campaign...common to JO 3’s pilots at this time. Among the aces present at Stalingrad were Kurt Brandle (180 victories), Werner Lucas (106 victories), Georg

  14. WHK Interns Win Big at Frederick County Science Fair | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Three Werner H. Kirsten student interns claimed awards at the 35th Annual Frederick County Science and Engineering Fair—and got a shot at the national competition—for imaginative projects that reached out to the rings of Saturn and down to the details of advanced cancer diagnostics.

  15. Consciousness from the ground up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2013-05-01

    The book Physics in Mind: a Quantum View of the Brain certainly aims high. Written by the eminent biophysicist Werner Loewenstein, its goal is nothing less than a theory that explains our sense of conscious existence, built from the bottom up.

  16. The "Hard Problem" and the Quantum Physicists. Part 1: The First Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. U. M.

    2006-01-01

    All four of the most important figures in the early twentieth-century development of quantum physics--Niels Bohr, Erwin Schroedinger, Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli--had strong interests in the traditional mind--brain, or "hard," problem. This paper reviews their approach to this problem, showing the influence of Bohr's complementarity…

  17. Neuron types in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus identified in Nissl and deimpregnated Golgi preparations.

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Brauer, K

    1984-01-01

    To identify geniculo-cortical relay neurons (GCR-neurons) and interneurons (I-neurons) in Nissl stained sections of the albino rat's (Wistar strain) dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) we combined a Golgi deimpregnation technique (Fairén et al. 1977) with the Nissl staining. The two types of neurons show numerous characteristic features in Golgi preparations (Brauer and Schober 1973, Grossman et al. 1973, Brauer et al. 1974, Winkelmann et al. 1976, 1979). After application of the combined method it is obvious that neuronal somata exhibit also features which make it possible to identify these types of neurons in Nissl stained series. GCR-neurons are characterized by a very broad cytoplasmic portion, whereas a particularly thin cytoplasm rim is typical of I-neurons. Our findings confirm former results obtained by analysis of Nissl material (Werner and Kruger 1973, Werner et al. 1975, Werner and Winkelmann 1976, Werner et al. 1984). In these investigations, special attention was paid to cytoplasmic and nuclear characteristics in order to elucidate the ratio of GCR-/I-neurons (13:1) and the internal dLGN topography. It is still discussed if the described cytological features can be taken as basis for the classification of GCR- and I-neurons in other species.

  18. The Information Society in Europe: Work and Life in an Age of Globalization. Critical Media Studies: Institutions, Politics, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducatel, Ken, Ed.; Webster, Juliet, Ed.; Herrmann, Werner, Ed.

    This book takes stock of the existing socioeconomic knowledge about a range of the core social issues of the information society. Chapter 1, "Information Infrastructures or Societies?" (Ken Ducatel, Juliet Webster, Werner Herrmann), is an introduction. Part 1, "Space, Economy, and the Global Information Society" looks at the processes of economic…

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test: Third Edition (SPELT-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perona, Kristen; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the empirical evidence for using the Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test: Third Edition (SPELT-3; Dawson, Stout, & Eyer, 2003) to diagnose language impairment in preschool children. The SPELT-3 is a revision of the SPELT-II (Werner & Kresheck, 1983), which has been proven in the past to have high levels of…

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Lower Wallace Dam (Inventory Number VA-01527). Potomac River Basin, Augusta County, Virginia. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    developed by the SCS method (reference 4, Appendix IV). Precipitation mounts for the flood hydrographs of the PNF, and 100 year flood are taken from U...Division of Mineral Resources, 1967, 43 pp. 4. Geology of the Vesuvius Quadrangle, Virginia, Report of Investigations 7, H. J. Werner, Virginia Division

  1. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugl, Helmut; And Others

    This document contains the following case studies of West German adult education projects: (1) Counseling Courses in Agriculture (Bugl, Fehrenbach-Neumann); (2) The State Center for Political Education in Baden-Wurttemberg (Schiele); (3) Catholic Educational Organization Rottweil (Muller); (4) Adult Education Center--Herrenberg (Werner); (5)…

  2. Studies in Southwestern Ethnolinguistics; Meaning and History in the Languages of the American Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Dell H., Ed.; Bittle, William E., Ed.

    The present festschrift honoring Harry Hoijer is prefaced by the editor, Dell Hymes, and introduced by Stanley Newman. Papers are grouped according to the following content areas and authors: (1) "Meaning in Cultural Forms": D.F. Aberle, F. Eggan, R.A. Black, and D.L. Olmsted; (2) "Meaning in Lexical Systems": S. Ervin-Tripp, H. Landar, O. Werner,…

  3. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MODIFIABILITY OF VISUAL INTEGRATIVE ABILITIES IN CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNICK, ROBERT J.

    IN ORDER TO EXAMINE THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND SOCIOECONOMIC CLASS UPON VISUAL INTEGRATIVE ABILITIES AND THEIR RAMIFICATION IN THE THEORIES OF PIAGET AND WERNER, 60 FIRST-GRADE MALE CHILDREN WERE ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE TRAINING CONDITIONS. HALF OF THE BOYS WERE FROM A BETTER THAN AVERAGE SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND WHILE THE REMAINDER WERE DRAWN…

  4. 75 FR 49914 - Meeting of the Independent Panel To Review the Judge Advocate Requirements of the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... to the public, subject to the availability of space. In keeping with the spirit of FACA, the Panel welcomes written comments concerning its work from the public at any time. Interested citizens are... for consideration by the Panel at any time prior to August 23, 2010. D. J. Werner, Lieutenant...

  5. Software Computer Series, 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses computer simulations for chemistry courses. Reviews a simulation program, "Evaluation of Bonding Theory: The Werner Jorgensen Controversy," and provides information regarding hardware requirements for the program. Presents the idea of an expert system including simulation modules and counselor modules. Describes some chemical examples, a…

  6. Physical Education and Language Arts: An Interdisciplinary Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, John; Murata, Nathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Physical education is a prime content area for interdisciplinary learning. The movement components of physical education can be used as a medium through which children are provided with opportunities to practice and strengthen language skills. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods (1998, p. 4) agree: "interdisciplinary learning is an educational process…

  7. The Logarithmic-to-Linear Shift: One Learning Sequence, Many Tasks, Many Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between short-term and long-term change (also known as learning and development) has been of great interest throughout the history of developmental psychology. Werner and Vygotsky believed that the two involved basically similar progressions of qualitatively distinct knowledge states; behaviorists such as Kendler and Kendler believed…

  8. The Narrative Worlds of "What Is" and "What if"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This paper advances the hypothesis that young children use narrative play and stories to construct two types of fiction, the worlds of "what is" and "what if." Heinz Werner's conceptualization of children's spheres of reality, in which actions, symbols, and events are constructed in particular ways, is used as a theoretical framework for…

  9. Havens of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Schools are natural environments for helping all children cultivate the resilience that resides within them. Research shows that schools are filled with the conditions that promote resilience (Werner, 2003). These include caring, encouraging relationships, role models, and mentors (Theron & Engelbrecht, 2012; Thomsen, 2002; Walsh, 2012); clear…

  10. The Development of Symbolic Representation: The Case of Building Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    The symbolic representational block constructions of twenty 4-year-olds and twenty 7-year-olds were analyzed from Werner and Kaplan's (1963) theoretical perspective. Each child was read a story and then asked to use the blocks to represent the story. Older children included in their representations a larger number of features that were central to…

  11. Ideas from Ten North American Curriculum Thinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    The views and attitudes of ten North American educational policy-makers concerning curriculum development and design are presented. The theories and research of Herbert M. Kliebard, Fenwick W. English, Walter Werner, John I. Goodlad, Decker F. Walker, William A. Reid, Norman E. Gleadow, Neil Postman, Elliot W. Eisner, and Michael W. Apple are…

  12. Martha Muchow, 1892-1933: Her Life, Work, and Contribution to Developmental and Ecological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwill, Joachim F.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces the 1983 SRCD symposium on Martha Muchow, the German child psychologist and associate of William Stern and Heinz Werner at the University of Hamburg. Her work integrates developmental and ecological approaches to the study of children's knowledge of and interaction with their physical surroundings. (Author/SO)

  13. Distinguishing between Development and Change: Reviving Organismic-Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeff, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to contribute to the revival of Heinz Werner's organismic-developmental theory by considering some of its key claims in relation to contemporary developmental theory and research. The organismic-developmental definition of development in terms of differentiation and integration is first discussed in relation to…

  14. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  15. Risk, Resilience, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    In 1955, the first longitudinal study of resilience began on the island of Kauai. This research continues to the present. This article presents an interview with Emmy Werner, the principal investigator. In a series of five books published over a period of thirty years, she demonstrated the remarkable ability of children from difficult backgrounds…

  16. Interpreting and Assessing the Answers Given by the CAS Expert: A Reaction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    In this reaction to the paper presented by Werner Peschek, the author takes issue with the notion put forward that, in general mathematics education, the field of competence for operative knowledge and skills ought to be assigned primarily to the experts and, consequently, that this competence could be delegated almost completely to the electronic…

  17. The Development of Self-Conceptions from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Eisen, Marvin

    1977-01-01

    Subjects in grades 4 through 12 were asked to respond to the question "Who am I?" Their responses were analyzed for self-conceptions by means of a 30-category scoring system. Results were in agreement with Werner's notion that cognitive development proceeds from a concrete to an abstract mode of representation. (Author/JMB)

  18. Qualifications for a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on skills and qualifications in future world markets in general and in the Single Market within the European Community (EC). The first two articles are "Anthropocentric Production Systems: Advanced Manufacturing is Based on Skilled People" (Werner Wobbe) and "New Skills or a New Concept of 'the Job'"?…

  19. Counter Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Operations. Air Force Doctrine Document 2-1.8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    atomic arms. This explanation was based on a number of considerations: The high caliber of German theoretical and experimental physicists like Otto ... Hahn , Paul Harteck, Werner Heisenberg, Fritz Strassman, and Carl-Friedrich Von Weizsacker. German control of Europe’s only uranium mine after the

  20. Bell inequalities for multipartite qubit quantum systems and their maximal violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2012-11-01

    We present a set of Bell inequalities for multiqubit quantum systems. These Bell inequalities are shown to be able to detect multiqubit entanglement better than previous Bell inequalities such as Werner-Wolf-Zukowski-Brukner ones. Computable formulas are presented for calculating the maximal violations of these Bell inequalities for any multiqubit states.

  1. Software Computer Series, 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses computer simulations for chemistry courses. Reviews a simulation program, "Evaluation of Bonding Theory: The Werner Jorgensen Controversy," and provides information regarding hardware requirements for the program. Presents the idea of an expert system including simulation modules and counselor modules. Describes some chemical examples, a…

  2. WHK Interns Win Big at Frederick County Science Fair | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Three Werner H. Kirsten student interns claimed awards at the 35th Annual Frederick County Science and Engineering Fair—and got a shot at the national competition—for imaginative projects that reached out to the rings of Saturn and down to the details of advanced cancer diagnostics.

  3. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  4. An Application of a Mathematical Blood Flow Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    of the domain D which is called the primary mesh and consisting of finitely many triangles TDh and the corresponding nodes are abbreviated by xi E D...infant, in Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics , M.J. Baines (editor), ICFD, Oxford University Computing Laboratory 7 (2001). 3. M. Buse and J. Werner

  5. Qualifications for a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on skills and qualifications in future world markets in general and in the Single Market within the European Community (EC). The first two articles are "Anthropocentric Production Systems: Advanced Manufacturing is Based on Skilled People" (Werner Wobbe) and "New Skills or a New Concept of 'the Job'"?…

  6. Nitrogen-Activated Phase Separation in InGaAsN/GaAs Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Gorbenko 6, W. Passenberg2 , H. Kuenzel 2 , N. Grote 2, V. M. Ustinov1 , H. Kirmse 3 , W. Neuman 3 , P. Werner 4, N. D. Zakharov 4, D. Bimberg 5 and Zh. I...Phys’. 84, 6409 (1998). [9] S. Sato and S. Satoh, J. Cryst. Growth 192, 381 (1998). [10] B. .Soshnikov, A. M. Gorbenko , A. P . Golubok and N. N

  7. Visualization and Rule Validation in Human-Behavior Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moya, Lisa Jean; McKenzie, Frederic D.; Nguyen, Quynh-Anh H.

    2008-01-01

    Human behavior representation (HBR) models simulate human behaviors and responses. The Joint Crowd Federate [TM] cognitive model developed by the Virginia Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation Center (VMASC) and licensed by WernerAnderson, Inc., models the cognitive behavior of crowds to provide credible crowd behavior in support of military…

  8. A Developmental Framework for Enhancing Resiliency in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…

  9. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province.

  10. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  11. Bounds and Estimates for Elastic Constants of Random Polycrystals of Laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    2004-08-25

    In order to obtain formulas providing estimates for elastic constants of random polycrystals of laminates, some known rigorous bounds of Peselnick, Meister, and Watt are first simplified. Then, some new self-consistent estimates are formulated based on the resulting analytical structure of these bounds. A numerical study is made, assuming first that the internal structure (i.e., the laminated grain structure) is not known, and then that it is known. The purpose of this aspect of the study is to attempt to quantify the differences in the predictions of properties of the same system being modeled when such internal structure of the composite medium and spatial correlation information is and is not available.

  12. Arterial remodeling in response to hypertension using a constituent-based model.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2007-11-01

    Hypertension-induced arterial remodeling has been previously modeled using stress-driven remodeling rate equations in terms of global geometrical adaptation (Rachev A, Stergiopulos N, Meister JJ. Theoretical study of dynamics of arterial wall remodeling in response to changes in blood pressure. J Biomech 29: 635-642, 1996) and was extended later to include adaptation of material properties (Rachev A, Stergiopulos N, Meister JJ. A model for geometric and mechanical adaptation of arteries to sustained hypertension. J Biomech Eng 120: 9-17, 1998). These models, however, used a phenomenological strain energy function (SEF), the parameters of which do not bear a clear physiological meaning. Here, we extend the work of Rachev et al. (1998) by applying similar remodeling rate equations to a constituent-based SEF. The new SEF includes a statistical description for collagen engagement, and remodeling now affects material properties only through changes in the collagen engagement probability density function. The model predicts asymptotic wall thickening and unchanged deformed inner radius as to conserve hoop stress and intimal shear stress, respectively, at the final adapted hypertensive state. Mechanical adaptation serves to restore arterial compliance to control levels. Average circumferential stress-strain curves show that the material at the final adapted hypertensive state is softer than its normotensive counterpart. These findings as well as the predicted pressure-diameter curves are in good qualitative agreement with experimental data. The novelty in our findings is that biomechanical adaptation leading to maintenance of compliance at the hypertensive state can be perfectly achieved by appropriate readjustment of the collagen engagement profile alone.

  13. Authigenic Carbonate Formation on the Peru Margin; New Insights from IODP Site 1230

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullajintakam, S.; Naehr, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid seepage of reduced organic compounds such as methane impacts the geology and biology of the seabed by inducing complex, microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Authigenic carbonates serve as one of the few permanent records of these of dynamic biogeochemical interactions that involve methanogenesis, methanotrophy, sulfate reduction and carbonate precipitation. Meister et al. (2007) investigated deep-sea dolomite formation at Sites 1227-1229 on the Peru margin, where dolomite precipitation occurs in association with organic carbon-rich continental margin sediments. Geochemical and petrographic studies indicated episodic dolomite precipitation at a dynamic sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ). Variations in δ13C values of these dolomites between +15‰ and -15‰ were attributed to non-steady state conditions as a result of the upward and downward migration of the SMTZ. Our study aims to better understand the biogeochemical processes associated with authigenic carbonate precipitation in this dynamic deep-sea setting. We focused our efforts on IODP Site 1230, which is a gas-hydrate-bearing site that shows sulphate consumption within the uppermost 10 m below the seafloor as well as high methane production. Using a multi proxy approach, we combined X-ray diffraction, stable isotope geochemistry, and trace metal analysis of authigenic carbonates to elucidate conditions for authigenic carbonate formation. Results from Site 1230 are compared to Sites 1227 and 1229, which lacks gas hydrates and is characterized by high pore water sulfate and low methane concentrations. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of authigenic carbonate formation and associated biogeochemical processes in continental margin sediments. Meister, P., Mckenzie, J. A., Vasconcelos, C., Bernasconi, S., Frank, M., Gutjhar, M. and SCHRAG, D. P. (2007), Dolomite formation in the dynamic deep biosphere: results from the Peru Margin. Sedimentology, 54: 1007-1032.

  14. Modeling of snow melting and uniform wetting front migration in a layered subfreezing snowpack

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.H.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Meier, M.F. )

    1994-08-01

    A method of modeling freeze-thaw cycles of naturally deposited snowpacks is presented. The model involves the Stefan condition as an independent governing equation on the exterior moving boundary to calculate snowpack thinning, flow of water through a variably saturated layered porous medium as described by the Richards equation, and heat conduction with a phase change. The heat conduction problem was treated in two ways. Local heat conduction between a snow grain and its surrounding water film was treated by using a simple energy balance. Global heat conduction with a phase change (the Stefan problem) was introduced to calculate the space-time temperature distribution. In order to handle multiple interior moving boundaries, a specific form of the enthalpy formulation was used for heat conduction with a phase change. Changing material properties were considered according to the calculated meltwater refreezing. 48 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Self-Organized Criticality Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    Contents: (1) Introduction - Norma B. Crosby --- (2) Theoretical Models of SOC Systems - Markus J. Aschwanden --- (3) SOC and Fractal Geometry - R. T. James McAteer --- (4) Percolation Models of Self-Organized Critical Phenomena - Alexander V. Milovanov --- (5) Criticality and Self-Organization in Branching Processes: Application to Natural Hazards - Álvaro Corral, Francesc Font-Clos --- (6) Power Laws of Recurrence Networks - Yong Zou, Jobst Heitzig, Jürgen Kurths --- (7) SOC computer simolations - Gunnar Pruessner --- (8) SOC Laboratory Experiments - Gunnar Pruessner --- (9) Self-Organizing Complex Earthquakes: Scaling in Data, Models, and Forecasting - Michael K. Sachs et al. --- (10) Wildfires and the Forest-Fire Model - Stefan Hergarten --- (11) SOC in Landslides - Stefan Hergarten --- (12) SOC and Solar Flares - Paul Charbonneau --- (13) SOC Systems in Astrophysics - Markus J. Aschwanden ---

  16. A Theoretical Approach to One Dimensional Heat Conduction of Solid phase Change with Convective Surface Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamatsu, Teruhide

    A theoretical approach to heat conduction in phase changing solid with convective surface heat transfer has been tried to disclose the effect of the heat transfer, and to get the governing equation for the phase-changing front movement and the transient temperature field. As a result of the analytical work in the rectangular heat conduction field, the quasi-theoretical solutions containing the Stefan's problem for the phase change front movement and the transient temperature distribution have been obtained, and in addition one of the key parameters newly introduced is a non-dimensional heat transfer factor. HTF (convective heat tranferrability vs. latent heat capacity) which can indicate the acceleration of phase change and the difference from the Stefan's solution.

  17. Symbolic Dynamics and Grammatical Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Bai-Lin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    The following sections are included: * Formal Languages and Their Complexity * Formal Language * Chomsky Hierarchy of Grammatical Complexity * The L-System * Regular Language and Finite Automaton * Finite Automaton * Regular Language * Stefan Matrix as Transfer Function for Automaton * Beyond Regular Languages * Feigenbaum and Generalized Feigenbaum Limiting Sets * Even and Odd Fibonacci Sequences * Odd Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Kneading Map * Even Maximal Primitive Prefixes and Distinct Excluded Blocks * Summary of Results

  18. Unanimous Constitutional Consent and the Immigration Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Helmut -Schmidt-Universitit Universitit der Bundeswehr Hamburg V ’- 1 University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg F•chergruppe...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER Department of Economics and Organization, Helmut -Schmidt...stefan.josten@ unibw-hamburg.de KLAUS W. ZIMMERMANN kwzi@unibw-hamburg.de Department of Economics and Organization, Helmut -Schmidt-University, University of

  19. Injury Criteria for Dynamic Hyperextension of the Female Elbow Joint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    1 INJURY CRITERIA FOR DYNAMIC HYPEREXTENSION OF THE FEMALE ELBOW JOINT Stefan M. Duma*, Gail A. Hansen, Eric A. Kennedy, Joel D. Stitzel...Laboratory Fort Rucker, AL 36362 ABSTRACT This paper describes an analysis to develop dynamic hyperextension injury criteria for the female elbow ...joint. Dynamic hyperextension tests were performed on 24 female cadaver elbow joints. The energy source was a drop tower utilizing a three-point

  20. Structural Change and Interaction Behavior in Multimodal Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-30

    New York, NY, USA, 2003. ACM. [15] A. Popescul, L. Ungar , S. Lawrence, and D. Pennock. Statistical relational learning for document mining. 2003. [16...Alexandrin Popescul, Rin Popescul, and Lyle H. Ungar . Statistical relational learning for link prediction. 2003. [17] Alexandrin Popescul and Lyle H... Ungar . Structural logistic regression for link analysis. In S. Džeroski, Luc De Raedt, and Stefan Wrobel, editors, Proceedings of the 2nd