Science.gov

Sample records for melaleuca alternifolia cheel

  1. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION OF THE LEAF OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA (MAIDEN & BETCHE) CHEEL.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gagan; Baghel, Uttam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) is a well-known, commonly used, tall shrub plant in Ayurvedic medicine. Traditionally, it is used for its antimicrobial potential to treat cutaneous infections. No attempts have been made regarding pharmacognostic investigation of the plant till date. So, the present study was aimed to establish standards with the help of different pharmacognostic parameters. Various pharmacognostic parameters (morphological, microscopic, physicochemical evaluations and preliminary phytochemical screening) were studied along with fluorescent and thin layer chromatographic analysis of the extract. Morphologically Melaleuca alternifolia is a shrub having height of 7 m with layered and papery bark. Leaves have an arranged pattern, petiole is 1 mm in length; linear-acute with dimensions of 10-35 mm x 1 mm. Organoleptic features shows that leaves have characteristic odour and astringent taste. The transverse section of the leaf reveals the existence of epidermal layers, mesophyll tissues, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. The stomata are anomocytic and leaf constants such as stomatal number is 180-200-225, stomatal index is 3.8-4.4-5.9, vein islet number is 18.68 (average), veinlet termination number 20.3 (average) and palisade ratio is 5.5-6.4-6.9. The results of phytochemical screening showed the occurrence of different phytoconstituents (flavonoids, phenolic tannins, phytosterol and terpenoids). The present study evaluated various pharmacognostic parameters which will help in quality control (standardization) of Melaleuca alternifolia leaves in crude form, in herbal formulation and also aid in the preparation of an herbal monograph for the species.

  2. Determination of Legionella pneumophila susceptibility to Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil by an improved broth micro-dilution method under vapour controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Francesca; Girolamo, Antonietta; Scaturro, Maria; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil (TTO) against 22 strains of Legionella pneumophila of different serogroup and source of isolation. Both a standard broth micro-dilution method, with slight modifications, and a micro-atmosphere diffusion method were used. Furthermore, we have established a simple sealing procedure in the micro-dilution method to determine the antibacterial activity of TTO against Legionella in aqueous phase. The results showed that L. pneumophila, quite irrespective of serogroup and source of isolation, is exquisitely sensitive to TTO, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.125 to 0.5% v/v, and a bactericidal activity at 0.5% v/v. In addition, we show here that TTO vapours exert critical activity, that must be controlled for reproducible MIC determinations. Overall, our data suggest that TTO could be active as anti-Legionella disinfectant, for control of water system contamination, especially in spas, in small waterlines or in particular respiratory medical devices.

  3. Acaricidal properties of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree oil) against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Grazioli, D; Gentile, E; Marano, G; Salvatore, G

    2005-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine the acaricidal effect of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil, TTO) at different doses (4, 6, 8 and 10 microl) and for different exposure times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) on nymphs of Ixodes ricinus. A dose of 8 microl TTO was lethal for more than 70% of ticks when inhaled and this effect was enhanced when the dose was increased to 10 microl (> 80%). The effect was correlated with the duration of exposure of ticks to TTO, with a significant effect being observed after 90 min exposure. The findings show that TTO has acaricidal properties and could be extremely useful in controlling ticks that are efficient vectors of pathogens.

  4. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, Francesca; De Bernardis, Flavia; Girolamo, Antonietta; Cassone, Antonio; Salvatore, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent investigations on the antifungal properties of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil, TTO) have been performed with reference to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. However, there is a lack of in vivo data supporting in vitro results, especially regarding the antifungal properties of TTO constituents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and the in vivo anti-Candida activity of two critical bioactive constituents of TTO, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole. Methods Oophorectomized, pseudoestrus rats under estrogen treatment were used for experimental vaginal infection with azole (fluconazole, itraconazole) -susceptible or -resistant strains of C. albicans. All these strains were preliminarily tested for in vitro susceptibility to TTO, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole for their antifungal properties, using a modification of the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) reference M27-A2 broth micro-dilution method. Results In vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC90) values were 0.06% (volume/volume) for terpinen-4-ol and 4% (volume/volume) for 1,8-cineole, regardless of susceptibility or resistance of the strains to fluconazole and itraconazole. Fungicidal concentrations of terpinen-4-ol were equivalent to the candidastatic activity. In the rat vaginal infection model, terpinen-4-ol was as active as TTO in accelerating clearance from the vagina of all Candida strains examined. Conclusion Our data suggest that terpinen-4-ol is a likely mediator of the in vitro and in vivo activity of TTO. This is the first in vivo demonstration that terpinen-4-ol could control C. albicans vaginal infections. The purified compound holds promise for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, and particularly the azole-resistant forms. PMID:17083732

  5. Antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia dental gel in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Milton; Petermann, Klodyne Dayana; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler; Degan, Viviane; Lucato, Adriana; Franzini, Cristina Maria

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and sensorial analysis of the gel developed with the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. Thirty-four volunteers, divided into 2 groups, were monitored for 4 weeks. Initially, clinical biofilm (plaque index) and saliva samples (bacteria count) were collected, from which the standard values for each patient were obtained. For 7 days, group 1 used the melaleuca gel (Petite Marie/All Chemistry, São Paulo, Brazil), and group 2 used Colgate Total (S.B. Campo, São Paulo, Brazil). After 7 days, the plaque index was performed again, as well as the bacteria count and the sensorial analysis (appearance, color, odor, brightness, viscosity, and first taste sensation). The volunteers were instructed to return to their usual dental hygiene habits for 15 days. After this, group 1 started using Colgate Total, and group 2 started using the melaleuca gel, with the same evaluation procedures as the first week. The data were analyzed statistically with a significance level of 5%. In the bacteria count and clinical disclosure, the melaleuca gel was more effective in decreasing the dental biofilm and the numbers of bacteria colonies. According to the data from the sensory evaluation, Colgate Total (the control) showed better results regarding flavor and first sensation (P <0.05). We concluded that melaleuca gel is efficient in bacteria control but needs improvement in taste and first sensation.

  6. [Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics containing Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil)].

    PubMed

    Fritz, T M; Burg, G; Krasovec, M

    2001-02-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia is a coniferous tree found in tropical regions, the needles contain an essential oil that is used in medical and cosmetic products. The essential oil contains turpentines (limonene, alpha-pinene, phellandrene) that are potentially allergenic. In 1997, 1216 patients were patch tested in our dermatoligic unit. Fourteen of them tested because of eczema used products containing tea tree oil. The patients used creams, hair products and essential oils containing Melaleuca alternifolia for cosmetic reasons and to treat skin affections. They were patch tested for a standard panel of allergens, topical emulgators, perfumes, plants, topical medications, metal, gloves, topical disinfectants and preservatives, dental products and rubber derivatives. Products containing Melaleuca alternifolia were tested concentrated or diluted. We report on 7 cases of patients with an allergic contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil. Two of them also exhibited from a delayed type IV hypersensitivity towards fragrance-mix or colophony suggesting the possibility of cross reaction or an allergic group reaction caused by contamination of the colophony with the volatile fraction of turpentines. The allergic potential of low concentrations of Melaleuca alternifolia is presumed to be low on healthy skin. Photoaged Melaleuca alternifolia must be considered to be a stronger sensitizer.

  7. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula; Valero, Marta Sofía; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  8. Melaleuca alternifolia anthelmintic activity in gerbils experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Grando, Thirssa H; Baldissera, Matheus D; Gressler, Lucas T; de Sá, Mariângela Facco; Bortoluzzi, Bruna N; Schafer, Andressa S; Ebling, Rafael C; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; Stefani, Lenita M; Vaucher, Rodrigo; Leal, Marta L R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol). In vivo studies were performed by determining the mean worm burden of H. contortus in gerbils TTO (0.75 mL/kg); nanoTTO (0.5 mL/kg) and terp-4-ol (0.5 mL l/kg) were able to reduce 46.36%; 48.64%, and 43.18% worm burden, respectively. H. contortus increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, as demonstrated by liver injury. It was found that the TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol were not toxic to liver and kidneys since hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Moreover, terp-4-ol was able to prevent increased levels of seric AST and ALT in infected animals, indicating a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, our results indicate that TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol are safe and efficient against H. contortus infection in gerbils, and possibly the terp-4-ol may be considered the compound present in the Melaleuca alternifolia responsible for parasitic action against H. contortus.

  9. Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia).

    PubMed

    Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2008-11-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used recently as an effective topical application for the treatment of skin infections due to a variety of aetiological microbial agents, including mainly bacterial infections. We detail the first report in the peer-reviewed literature of the successful treatment with TTO of a paediatric patient with warts on her right middle finger. TTO was applied topically once daily to the lesions for 12 days, with a successful outcome, including complete re-epithelization of the infected areas. The case highlights the potential use of TTO in the treatment of common warts due to human papilloma virus.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy as a rapid quality control method for Melaleuca alternifolia cheel (tea tree oil).

    PubMed

    Tankeu, Sidonie; Vermaak, Ilze; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an important commercial oil which has found application in the flavour, fragrance and cosmetic industries. The quality is determined by the relative concentration of its major constituents: 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, α-terpinene, terpinolene, γ-terpinene and limonene. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is traditionally used for qualitative and quantitative analyses but is expensive and time consuming. To evaluate the use of vibrational spectroscopy in tandem with chemometric data analysis as a fast and low-cost alternative method for the quality control of TTO. Spectral data were acquired in both the mid-infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) wavelength regions and reference data obtained using GC-MS with flame ionisation detection (FID). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the data by observing clustering and identifying outliers. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models were constructed for the quantification of the seven major constituents. High correlation coefficients (R(2) ) of ≥ 0.75 were obtained for the seven major compounds and 1,8-cineole showed the best correlation coefficients for both MIR and NIR data (R(2)  = 0.97 and 0.95, respectively). Low values were obtained for the root mean square error of estimation (RMSEE) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values thereby confirming accuracy. The accurate prediction of the external dataset after introduction into the models confirmed that both MIR and NIR spectroscopy are valuable methods for quantification of the major compounds of TTO when compared with the reference data obtained using GC-MS. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis. PMID:24967378

  12. In Vitro Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) in Its Free Oil and Nanoemulsion Formulations Against Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Brasil, Carolina Litchina; Sagave, Lauren; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; de Bona da Silva, Cristiane; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Pötter, Luciana; Santurio, Janio Morais; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic oomycete which can cause pythiosis in both animals and humans. This microorganism shows low susceptibility to antifungal drugs available. This study analyzed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia in its free oil (FO) and nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 document adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-six P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100 % growth inhibition. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil or FO was obtained commercially. The NE containing 1 % M. alternifolia essential oil was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 531.5 to 2125 μg/mL for the FO formulation; MIC50 and MIC90 showed values between 1062.5 and 2125 μg/mL, respectively. When the NE formulation was evaluated, MIC values ranged from 132.7 to 2125 μg/mL and both MIC50 and MIC90 corresponded to 1062.5 μg/mL. FO and NE formulations of M. alternifolia showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum. This study demonstrated that M. alternifolia oil can be an additional therapy in pythiosis treatment; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the plant essential oils in the treatment of clinical pythiosis.

  13. The effect of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on wound healing using a dressing model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Karen B; Cordell, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the promising antibacterial effects of Melaleuca alternifolia, or tea tree essential oil. The study detailed here replicates in humans a 2004 in vitro study that used a dressing model over Petri dishes to determine the antimicrobial effects of the fumes of tea tree essential oil. The current study used the same dressing model with patients who had wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Ten participants volunteered for the quasi-experimental study, and four of the 10 were used as matched participants to compare wound healing times between conventional treatment alone and conventional treatment plus fumes of tea tree essential oil. The results demonstrated decreased healing time in all but one of the participants treated with tea tree oil. The differences between the matched participants were striking. The results of this small investigational study indicate that additional study is warranted.

  14. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2002-08-01

    The in vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes (n = 106) and filamentous fungi (n = 78) was determined. Tea tree oil MICs for all fungi ranged from 0.004% to 0.25% and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranged from <0.03% to 8.0%. Time-kill experiments with 1-4 x MFC demonstrated that three of the four test organisms were still detected after 8 h of treatment, but not after 24 h. Comparison of the susceptibility to tea tree oil of germinated and non-germinated Aspergillus niger conidia showed germinated conidia to be more susceptible than non-germinated conidia. These data demonstrate that tea tree oil has both inhibitory and fungicidal activity.

  15. Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.

    PubMed

    Syed, T A; Qureshi, Z A; Ali, S M; Ahmad, S; Ahmad, S A

    1999-04-01

    The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants.

  16. Influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Pazinato, Rafael; Klauck, Vanderlei; Volpato, Andreia; Tonin, Alexandre A; Santos, Roberto C; de Souza, Márcia E; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Gomes, Patrícia; Felippi, Candice C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) tested in its pure and nanostructured (TTO nanoparticles) forms on the reproduction of female Rhipicephalus microplus. For our purpose, female ticks were collected from naturally infected animals and treated in vitro with TTO (1, 5, and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.075, 0.375, and 0.75 %). In order to validate the tests, they were performed in triplicate using positive (amitraz) and negative (untreated) controls. It was possible to observe that pure TTO (5 and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.375 and 0.75 %) showed 100 % reproductive inhibition on female ticks. Additionally, pure TTO (1 %) also showed an acaricide effect (70 %), similarly to the positive control (78.3 %). This is the first study demonstrating the activity of pure TTO and TTO nanoparticles on female ticks. Therefore, based on these results, we were able to show that both forms and all concentrations of M. alternifolia affected tick reproduction by inhibiting egg laying and hatching. We were also able to show that TTO nanoparticles potentiated the inhibitor effect of pure TTO on the reproduction of R. microplus.

  17. A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V; Nielsen, J B

    2006-05-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, also known as tea tree or melaleuca oil, is widely available and has been investigated as an alternative antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. While these properties are increasingly well characterised, relatively limited data are available on the safety and toxicity of the oil. Anecdotal evidence from almost 80 years of use suggests that the topical use of the oil is relatively safe, and that adverse events are minor, self-limiting and occasional. Published data indicate that TTO is toxic if ingested in higher doses and can also cause skin irritation at higher concentrations. Allergic reactions to TTO occur in predisposed individuals and may be due to the various oxidation products that are formed by exposure of the oil to light and/or air. Adverse reactions may be minimised by avoiding ingestion, applying only diluted oil topically and using oil that has been stored correctly. Data from individual components suggest that TTO has the potential to be developmentally toxic if ingested at higher doses, however, TTO and its components are not genotoxic. The limited ecotoxicity data available indicate that TTO is toxic to some insect species but more studies are required.

  18. Essential oils to control ichthyophthiriasis in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg): special emphasis on treatment with Melaleuca alternifolia.

    PubMed

    Valladão, G M R; Gallani, S U; Ikefuti, C V; da Cruz, C; Levy-Pereira, N; Rodrigues, M V N; Pilarski, F

    2016-10-01

    In vitro effect of the Melaleuca alternifolia, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and in vivo effect of M. alternifolia for treating ichthyophthiriasis in one of the most important South American fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg), were evaluated. The in vitro test consisted of three EOs, each at concentrations of 57 μL L(-1) , 114 μL L (-1) , 227 μL L(-1) and 455 μL L (-1) , which were assessed once an hour for 4 h in microtitre plates (96 wells). The in vitro results demonstrated that all tested EOs showed a cytotoxic effect against I. multifiliis compared to control groups (P < 0.05). The in vivo treatment for white spot disease was performed in a bath for 2 h day(-1) for 5 days using the M. alternifolia EO (50 μL L (-1) ). In this study, 53.33% of the fish severely infected by I. multifiliis survived after the treatment with M. alternifolia (50 μL L (-1) ) and the parasitological analysis has shown an efficacy of nearly 100% in the skin and gills, while all the fish in the control group died. Furthermore, the potential positive effect of M. alternifolia EO against two emergent opportunistic bacteria in South America Edwardsiella tarda and Citrobacter freundii was discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil against Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Callander, J T; James, P J

    2012-03-23

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the effect of tea tree oil (TTO) from Melaleuca alternifolia (terpinen-4-ol chemotype) against different stages of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. When applied to wool, 3% TTO formulation repelled gravid female L. cuprina and prevented oviposition for six weeks. Formulations containing 1% TTO caused 100% mortality of L. cuprina eggs and 1st instar larvae and 2.5% TTO caused mortality of most second and third instar larvae in agar feeding assays. In experiments where third instar larvae were dipped in TTO formulations for 60s, concentrations of up to 50% TTO gave less than 50% kill. TTO at concentrations of 0.5%, 2% and 5% was strongly repellent to third instar larvae and caused them to evacuate treated areas. Inclusion of TTO in formulations with diazinon, ivermectin and boric acid reduced mortality in comparison with the larvicides used alone, at least partially because of avoidance behaviour stimulated by the TTO. Addition of TTO to wound treatments may aid in wound protection and myiasis resolution by preventing oviposition by L. cuprina adults, insecticidal action against L. cuprina eggs and larvae, stimulating larvae to leave the wound and through antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that aid in wound healing.

  20. In vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia against protoscoleces of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; DE Avila Botton, Sônia; Funk, Nadine Lysyk; DE Bona DA Silva, Cristiane; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; DE LA Rue, Mário Luiz

    2017-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The use of protoscolicidal agents in procedures is of utmost importance for treatment success. This study was aimed at analysing the in vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil - TTO), its nanoemulsion formulation (NE-TTO) and its major component (terpinen-4-ol) against Echinococcus ortleppi protoscoleces obtained from cattle. Concentrations of 2·5, 5 and 10 mg mL-1 of TTO, 10 mg mL-1 of NE-TTO and 1, 1·5 and 2 mg mL-1 of terpinen-4-ol were evaluated in vitro against protoscoleces at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. TTO was also injected directly into hydatid cysts (ex vivo analysis, n = 20) and the viability of protoscoleces was evaluated at 5, 15 and 30 min. The results indicated protoscolicidal effect at all tested formulations and concentrations. Terpinen-4-ol (2 mg mL-1) activity was superior when compared with the highest concentration of TTO. NE-TTO reached a gradual protoscolicidal effect. TTO at 20 mg mL-1 showed 90% protoscolicidal action in hydatid cysts at 5 min. The results showed that TTO affects the viability of E. ortleppi protoscoleces, suggesting a new protoscolicidal option to the treatment of cystic equinococcosis.

  1. Susceptibility of oral bacteria to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Dry, L; Johnson, M; Michalak, E M; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2003-12-01

    The in vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against 161 isolates of oral bacteria from 15 genera was determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) ranged from 0.003 to 2.0% (v/v). MIC90 values were 1.0% (v/v) for Actinomyces spp., Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis, and 0.1% (v/v) for Prevotella spp. Isolates of Porphyromonas, Prevotella and Veillonella had the lowest MICs and MBCs, and isolates of Streptococcus, Fusobacterium and Lactobacillus had the highest. Time kill studies with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed that treatment with > or = 0.5% tea tree oil caused decreases in viability of >3 log colony forming units/ml after only 30 s, and viable organisms were not detected after 5 min. These studies indicate that a range of oral bacteria are susceptible to tea tree oil, suggesting that tea tree oil may be of use in oral healthcare products and in the maintenance of oral hygiene.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and its components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wu, Changqing; Wang, Xi; Chung, Hau Yin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2004-05-19

    Antioxidant activity of Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) was determined using two different assays. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, 10 microL/mL crude TTO in methanol had approximately 80% free radical scavenging activity, and in the hexanal/hexanoic acid assay, 200 microL/mL crude TTO exhibited 60% inhibitory activity against the oxidation of hexanal to hexanoic acid over 30 days. These results were equivalent to the antioxidant activities of 30 mM butylated hydroxytoluene in both tests at the same experimental conditions. This indicated that the TTO could be a good alternative antioxidant. Inherent antioxidants, i.e., alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpinolene, and gamma-terpinene, in the crude TTO were separated and identified chromatographically using silica gel open chromatography, C(18)-high-pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities decreased in the following order in both assays: alpha-terpinene > alpha-terpinolene > gamma-terpinene.

  3. Influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil nanoparticles on aspects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Comin, Vanessa M; Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Quatrin, Priscilla M; de Souza, Márcia E; Bonez, Pauline C; Pintos, Francieli G; Raffin, Renata P; Vaucher, Rodrigo de A; Martinez, Diego S T; Santos, Roberto C V

    2016-04-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus and frequent cause of infection. This microorganism is resistant intrinsically to various drugs. The P. aeruginosa is associated with the biofilm formation, which causes worsen the prognosis and difficulty the treatment. The influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil or "tree of tee" oil (TTO) and TTO nanoparticles on adhesion of P. aeruginosa in buccal epithelial cells was investigated. Also was determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against this microorganism. The TTO nanoparticles were produced by deposition of preformed polymer and the physic-chemical properties of nanoparticles were measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The characterization of nanoparticle showed acceptable values for diameter and zeta potential. The evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 was performed by microdilution indicating the minimal inhibitory concentration, and the potential antibiofilm. It was verified the action on virulence factors such the motility, besides the influence on adhesion in buccal epithelial cells. Both oil and nanoparticles showed a decrease in adhesion of microorganisms to buccal cells, decrease of biofilm and interfering on P. aeruginosa PAO1 motility. The nanostructuration of TTO, shows be a viable alternative against formed biofilm microorganisms.

  4. Bioactivity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in vitro.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-07-06

    Tea tree oil (TTO) from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia has wide ranging bio-active properties, including insecticidal and repellent activity against arthropods. Furthermore, composition of commercially available Australian TTO is specified under an International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 4730), reducing the potential for variable effects often noted with botanical pesticides. The effect of TTO, meeting the ISO standard for terpinen-4-ol chemotype, was tested against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in a series of laboratory studies. Immersion of wool for 60s in formulations containing concentrations of 1% TTO and above caused 100% mortality of adult lice and eggs. Exposure to vapours from TTO, delivered as droplets in fumigation chambers and when applied to wool also caused high mortality in both lice and eggs. The main active component of TTO in the fumigant tests was terpinen-4-ol. Treated surface assays and tests with wool where the formulation was allowed to dry before exposure of lice indicated low persistence. These studies demonstrate that TTO is highly toxic to sheep lice and active at concentrations that suggest potential for the development of TTO-based ovine lousicides.

  5. The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil).

    PubMed

    Cox, S D; Mann, C M; Markham, J L; Bell, H C; Gustafson, J E; Warmington, J R; Wyllie, S G

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Its mode of action against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli AG100, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325, and the yeast Candida albicans has been investigated using a range of methods. We report that exposing these organisms to minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations of tea tree oil inhibited respiration and increased the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic and yeast plasma membranes as indicated by uptake of propidium iodide. In the case of E. coli and Staph. aureus, tea tree oil also caused potassium ion leakage. Differences in the susceptibility of the test organisms to tea tree oil were also observed and these are interpreted in terms of variations in the rate of monoterpene penetration through cell wall and cell membrane structures. The ability of tea tree oil to disrupt the permeability barrier of cell membrane structures and the accompanying loss of chemiosmotic control is the most likely source of its lethal action at minimum inhibitory levels.

  6. [Antimicrobial effects of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on oral microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kulik, E; Lenkeit, K; Meyer, J

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. In this study the bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal/fungicidal activity of a tea tree oil solution, of a new tea tree oil (Tebodont) and the respective placebo-gel, of a chlorhexidindigluconate-solution and of PlakOut was tested in vitro against ten different oral microorganisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range from 0.0293% to 1.25% for the tea tree oil solution and from 0.0082% to 1.25% for the tea tree oil gel. The values for minimum bacteriocidal/fungicidal concentrations were in the range from 0.0521% to 2.5% for the tea tree oil solution and from <0.0098% to 3.33% for the tea tree oil gel. The most susceptible microorganisms were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, whereas Streptococcus mutans and Prevotella intermedia were the least susceptible ones. Both for the chlorhexidindigluconate solution and for PlakOut the values for the minimal inhibitory concentration and for the minimal cidal concentration were between <0.0002% and 0.0125%.

  7. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-10-26

    The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were 94% and 91% respectively with the 1% formulation and 78% and 84% respectively with the 2% formulation. TTO treatment also appeared to reduce wool damage in infested sheep. Laboratory studies indicated that tea tree oil 'stripped' from solution with a progressive reduction in concentration as well as volume as more wool was dipped, indicating that reinforcement of active ingredient would be required to maintain effectiveness when large numbers of sheep are treated. The results of these studies suggest significant potential for the development of ovine lousicides incorporating TTO.

  8. Inhibition of established subcutaneous murine tumour growth with topical Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil.

    PubMed

    Greay, Sara J; Ireland, Demelza J; Kissick, Haydn T; Heenan, Peter J; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V; Beilharz, Manfred W

    2010-11-01

    Systemic toxicity coupled with long treatment regimes of approved topical chemotherapeutic agents such as imiquimod and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are limiting. There is now more focus on the potential use of topical terpene agents as skin cancer treatments. Here, we show for the first time that topical Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO), abundant in terpenes, has in vivo antitumour activity. Topical TTO formulations applied to immunocompetent tumour-bearing mice were assessed for antitumour efficacy by monitoring tumour growth and by histological analysis following treatment. Four, daily, topical treatments of 10% TTO/DMSO regressed subcutaneous AE17 mesotheliomas in mice for a period of 10 days and significantly retarded the growth of subcutaneous B16-F10 melanomas. The antitumour effect of topical 10% TTO/DMSO was accompanied by skin irritation similar to other topical chemotherapeutic agents, but unlike other approved topical agents, quickly and completely resolved. Furthermore, we show that topical 10% TTO/DMSO caused an influx of neutrophils and other immune effector cells in the treated area, with no evidence of systemic toxicity. TTO combined with an effective carrier significantly inhibited the growth of aggressive, subcutaneous, chemo-resistant tumours in immunocompetent mice. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential of topical TTO as an alternative topical antitumour treatment.

  9. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    PubMed Central

    GRAZIANO, Talita Signoreti; CALIL, Caroline Morini; SARTORATTO, Adilson; FRANCO, Gilson César Nobre; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; COGO-MÜLLER, Karina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet) and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine. PMID:28076463

  10. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Talita Signoreti; Calil, Caroline Morini; Sartoratto, Adilson; Franco, Gilson César Nobre; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cogo-Müller, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs), which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC) production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%), P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%); chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL). M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet) and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet). M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  11. Ecotype variation of methyl eugenol content in tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia and M. linariifolia).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mervyn; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Morrow, Samantha; Allen, Gareth; Southwell, Ian

    2017-07-27

    Methyl eugenol is a natural phenylpropanoid compound found in a wide range of plants used for food, flavouring, cosmetics and health-care. As a suspected rodent carcinogen, methyl eugenol may also be harmful to humans when present in significant concentrations. Consequently, its level has been restricted in some foodstuffs and cosmetics for some markets. In order to assess the potential to breed uniformly low methyl eugenol cultivars for an essential oil crop, tea tree, the source of "Oil of Melaleuca, terpinene-4-ol type", we examine levels in individual trees (n= 30) from two geographic regions and six terpene chemotypes. Overall, methyl eugenol levels were low in this species (Mean (SD) 354 (239) ppm n=30), much lower than levels predicted to be of toxicological concern. Within each chemotype, there was a lack of evidence for correlations between terpenoid constituents and methyl eugenol levels. Further support for the independence of methyl eugenol and terpene biosynthesis was evident from similar mean levels in selected (Mean (SD) 586 (339) ppm n=12) and undomesticated M. alternifolia trees (Mean (SD) 480 (299) ppm n=5) with terpinen-4-ol type oils. By contrast, methyl eugenol level varied by geographic origin and chemotype. Trees from the upland region, where there is a prevalence of terpinolene type trees, had lower average methyl eugenol levels than trees from the coastal region, where there is a prevalence of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole type trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. GC-MS method validation and levels of methyl eugenol in a diverse range of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Carolyn A; Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony

    2017-03-01

    Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil. A previous publication indicated that these levels were based on oil from a Melaleuca species not used in the commercial production of oil. Even the highest recorded levels in Melaleuca alternifolia, the overwhelmingly most common species used, were ∼15 times less than this, meaning that more oil could be safely used in the products. The current study, including details on methodology and reproducibility, extends that work across a suite of 57 plantation-sourced oils from a range of geographical locations and production years, as well as many Australian and international commercial oils. Lower levels of methyl eugenol in oils of known provenance were confirmed, with a recorded range of 160-552 ppm and a mean of 337 ppm. Analysis of variance showed methyl eugenol levels in Australian plantation oils to be correlated to the geographical region but not to the year of production. Average methyl eugenol levels in commercial oils were significantly lower, and these samples were divided into an authentic group and a group that were suspected of being adulterated based on an independent test. Authentic commercial oils had similar levels of methyl eugenol to Australian provenance material, whilst the oils classed as suspect had significantly lower levels.

  13. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J

    1998-10-01

    Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.

  14. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations.

  15. Combination of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia and iodine in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children.

    PubMed

    Markum, Eric; Baillie, John

    2012-03-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a common childhood viral skin condition and is increasingly found as a sexually transmitted disease in adults. Current treatment options are invasive, requiring tissue destruction and attendant discomfort. Fifty-three children (mean age 6.3+5.1 years) with the diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum were treated with twice daily topical application of either essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (TTO), a combination of TTO and organically bound iodine (TTO-I), or iodine alone. At the end of 30 days, 48 children were available for follow up. A greater than 90% reduction in the number of lesions was observed in 16 of 19 children treated with TTO-I, while 1 of 16 and 3 of 18 children met the same criteria for improvement in the iodine and TTO groups (P<0.01, ANOVA) respectively by intention-to-treat analysis. No child discontinued treatment due to adverse events. The combination of essential oil of M. alternifolia with organically bound iodine offers a safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of childhood molluscum. Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12610000984099.

  16. Acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: in vitro sensitivity of sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to terpinen-4-ol.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; McKinnon, Melita; Pizzutto, Susan; Dougall, Annette; Williams, Edwina; Currie, Bart J

    2004-05-01

    To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 microg/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.

  17. Pharmacological and antimicrobial studies on different tea-tree oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium or Manuka and Kunzea ericoides or Kanuka), originating in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S L; Deans, S G

    2000-12-01

    Three different species of Myrtaceae growing in Australia and New Zealand are known as 'Tea-tree': the Australian Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), the New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). All three essential oils are used by aromatherapists, although only Melaleuca has been tested for toxicity, and its antimicrobial effects studied. The pharmacology and antimicrobial activity of the three 'tea-tree' oils was determined using guinea-pig ileum, skeletal muscle (chick biventer muscle and the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm) and also rat uterus in vitro. Differences were shown between the three essential oils in their action on smooth muscle: Manuka had a spasmolytic action, while Kanuka and Melaleuca had an initial spasmogenic action. Using the diaphragm, Manuka and Melaleuca decreased the tension and caused a delayed contracture; Kanuka had no activity at the same concentration. The action on chick biventer muscle was, however, similar for all three oils, as was the action on the uterus, where they caused a decrease in the force of the spontaneous contractions. The latter action suggests caution in the use of these essential oils during childbirth, as cessation of contractions could put the baby, and mother, at risk. The comparative antimicrobial activity showed greater differences between different samples of Manuka and Kanuka than Melaleuca samples. The antifungal activity of Kanuka was inversely proportional to its strong antibacterial activity, whilst Manuka displayed a stronger antifungal effect, though not as potent as Melaleuca. The antioxidant activity of Manuka samples was more consistent than that of Kanuka, while Melaleuca showed no activity. The variability in the Manuka and Kanuka essential oils suggests caution in their usage, as does the fact that the oils have not been tested for toxicity.

  18. Influence of organic matter, cations and surfactants on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1999-03-01

    The effect of some potentially interfering substances and conditions on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated. Agar and broth dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory and cidal concentrations of tea tree oil in the presence and absence of each potentially interfering substance. Activity was determined against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Minimum inhibitory or cidal concentrations differed from controls by two or more dilutions, for one or more organisms, where Tween-20, Tween-80, skim-milk powder and bovine serum albumin were assessed. These differences were not seen when assays were performed in anaerobic conditions, or in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions. The effect of organic matter on the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil was also investigated by an organic soil neutralization test. Organisms were exposed to lethal concentrations of tea tree oil ranging from 1-10% (v/v), in the presence of 1-30% (w/v) dry bakers' yeast. After 10 min contact time, viability was determined. At > or = 1%, organic matter compromised the activity of each concentration of tea tree oil against Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. At 10% or more, organic matter compromised the activity of each tea tree oil concentration against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Organic matter affected 1 and 2% tea tree oil, but not 4 and 8%, against Escherichia coli. In conclusion, organic matter and surfactants compromise the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil, although these effects vary between organisms.

  19. Topically applied Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil causes direct anti-cancer cytotoxicity in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Demelza J; Greay, Sara J; Hooper, Cornelia M; Kissick, Haydn T; Filion, Pierre; Riley, Thomas V; Beilharz, Manfred W

    2012-08-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) applied topically in a dilute (10%) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) formulation exerts a rapid anti-cancer effect after a short treatment protocol. Tumour clearance is associated with skin irritation mediated by neutrophils which quickly and completely resolves upon treatment cessation. To examine the mechanism of action underlying the anti-cancer activity of TTO. Immune cell changes in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice in response to topically applied TTO treatments were assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Direct cytotoxicity of TTO on tumour cells in vivo was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Neutrophils accumulate in the skin following topical 10% TTO/DMSO treatment but are not required for tumour clearance as neutrophil depletion did not abrogate the anti-cancer effect. Topically applied 10% TTO/DMSO, but not neat TTO, induces an accumulation and activation of dendritic cells and an accumulation of T cells. Although topical application of 10% TTO/DMSO appears to activate an immune response, anti-tumour efficacy is mediated by a direct effect on tumour cells in vivo. The direct cytotoxicity of TTO in vivo appears to be associated with TTO penetration. Future studies should focus on enhancing the direct cytotoxicity of TTO by increasing penetration through skin to achieve a higher in situ terpene concentration. This coupled with boosting a more specific anti-tumour immune response will likely result in long term clearance of tumours. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Haustein, U F; Brandt, W

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of tea oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, has been evaluated against 26 strains of various dermatophyte species, 54 yeasts, among them 32 strains of Candida albicans and other Candida sp. as well as 22 different Malassezia furfur strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tea tree oil were measured by agar dilution technique. Tea tree oil was found to be able to inhibit growth of all clinical fungal isolates. For the investigated dermatophytes MIC values from 1,112.5 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml with a geometric mean of 1,431.5 micrograms/ml were demonstrated. Both C. albicans strains and the other strains belonging to the genus Candida and Trichosporon appeared to be slightly less susceptible to tea tree oil in vitro. However, their MIC values, which varied from 2,225.0 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 4,080 micrograms/ml), indicated moderate susceptibility to the essential oil of M. alternifolia. The lipophilic yeast M. furfur seemed to be most susceptible to tea tree oil. MIC values between 556.2 and 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 1,261.5 micrograms/ml) were found against the tested M. furfur strains. However, when calculated as percentage tea tree oil of the agar, the above-mentioned concentrations correspond to 0.5-0.44% tea tree oil content. These values are far below the usual relatively high therapeutic concentrations of the agent; approximately 5-10% solution or even the concentrated essential oil are used for external treatment. In comparison with tea tree oil, in vitro susceptibility against miconazole, an established topical antifungal, was tested. As expected, very low MIC values for miconazole were found for dermatophytes (geometric mean 0.2 microgram/ml), yeasts (geometric mean 1.0 microgram/ml), and M. furfur (geometric mean 2.34 micrograms/ml). It is suggested that the in vivo effect of tea tree oil ointment in the therapy of fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes as

  1. Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Garozzo, A; Timpanaro, R; Stivala, A; Bisignano, G; Castro, A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose; terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, and alfa-terpineol were the main active components. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells. None of the test compounds showed virucidal activity nor any protective action for the MDCK cells. Thus, the effect of TTO and its active components on different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus was studied by adding the test compounds at various times after infection. These experiments revealed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within 2h of infection, indicating an interference with an early step of the viral replicative cycle of influenza virus. The influence of the compound on the virus adsorption step, studied by the infective center assay, indicated that TTO did not interfere with cellular attachment of the virus. TTO did not inhibit influenza virus neuraminidase activity, as shown by the experiment measuring the amount of 4-methylumbelliferone, cleaved by the influenza virus neuraminidase from the fluorogenic substrate 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The effect of TTO on acidification of cellular lysosomes was studied by vital staining with acridine orange using bafilomycin A1 as positive control. The treatment of cells with 0.01% (v/v) of TTO at 37°C for 4h before staining inhibited the acridine orange accumulation in acid cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that TTO could inhibit viral uncoating by an interference with acidification of intralysosomal compartment.

  2. Effect of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the longevity and immune response of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Raffin, Renata P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Stefani, Lenita M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of tea tree oil (TTO - Melaleuca alternifolia) on hepatic and renal functions, and the immune response of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. A pilot study has shown that rats treated with TTO orally (1 ml kg(-1)) had increased survival rate without curative effect. In order to verify if increased longevity was related to a better immune response against T. evansi when using tea tree oil, a second experiment was conducted. Thus, twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. The groups A and B were composed of uninfected animals, and the groups C and D had rats experimentally infected by T. evansi. Animals from the groups B and D were treated orally with TTO (1 ml kg(-1)) for three days. Blood samples were collected to verify humoral response analysis for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgG) and cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) at days 0, 3, 5 and 15 post-infection (PI). TTO treatment caused changes in the immunoglobulins and cytokines profile, as well as the course of T. evansi infection in rats. It was found that the TTO was not toxic, i.e., hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that TTO influences the levels of inflammatory mediators and has trypanocidal effect, increasing life expectancy of rats infected by T. evansi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in mitochondrial respiratory chain

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. Results M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in

  5. Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Carson, C F; Hammer, K A; Riley, T V

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines such as tea tree (melaleuca) oil have become increasingly popular in recent decades. This essential oil has been used for almost 100 years in Australia but is now available worldwide both as neat oil and as an active component in an array of products. The primary uses of tea tree oil have historically capitalized on the antiseptic and anti-inflammatory actions of the oil. This review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the oil and its components, as well as clinical efficacy. Specific mechanisms of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory action are reviewed, and the toxicity of the oil is briefly discussed.

  6. Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Carson, C. F.; Hammer, K. A.; Riley, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines such as tea tree (melaleuca) oil have become increasingly popular in recent decades. This essential oil has been used for almost 100 years in Australia but is now available worldwide both as neat oil and as an active component in an array of products. The primary uses of tea tree oil have historically capitalized on the antiseptic and anti-inflammatory actions of the oil. This review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the oil and its components, as well as clinical efficacy. Specific mechanisms of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory action are reviewed, and the toxicity of the oil is briefly discussed. PMID:16418522

  7. Trypanocidal action of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo used mice as experimental model.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Santos, Roberto C V; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata P; Gomes, Patrícia; Dambros, Maria G C; Miletti, Luiz C; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Trypanosoma evansi susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO - Melaleuca alternifolia) and tea tree oil nanocapsules (TTO nanocapsules) in vitro and in vivo tests. In vitro, we observed a mortality curve of trypomastigotes proportional to dose, i.e., the TTO and TTO nanocapsules have trypanocidal effect. Treatment with TTO in vivo was assessed in experiments (I and II). For Experiment I, T. evansi infected mice were treated with TTO and/or combinations of essential oil with chemotherapy (diminazene aceturate - D.A.). Treatment with TTO at a dose of 1mLkg(-1) was able to extend animal longevity, but had no curative efficacy. However, when TTO was combined with D.A. a disease curative efficacy of 100% for disease was observed, a much better result than the D.A. treatment (33.3%). In Experiment II, T. evansi infected mice were treated with TTO nanocapsules with doses of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9mLkg(-1). Animals treated with 0.9mLkg(-1) showed higher longevity however without curative effect. Active compounds present in natural products, such as M. alternifolia, may potentiate the treatment of trypanosomosis when associated with other trypanocidal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tolerance to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and its monoterpene components terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-terpineol.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Chelsea J; Carson, Christine F; Chang, Barbara J; Riley, Thomas V

    2008-03-01

    Using a series of efflux mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MexAB-OprM pump was identified as contributing to this organism's tolerance to the antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and its monoterpene components terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and alpha-terpineol. These data show that a multidrug efflux system of P. aeruginosa can extrude monoterpenes and related alcohols.

  9. Melaleuca oil poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M R; Hornfeldt, C S

    1994-01-01

    A 23-month-old boy became confused and was unable to walk thirty minutes after ingesting less than 10 mL of T36-C7, a commercial product containing 100% melaleuca oil. The child was referred to a nearby hospital. His condition improved and he was asymptomatic within 5 hours of ingestion. He was discharged to home the following day. Melaleuca oil, extracted from the Melaleuca alternifolia, contains 50-60% terpenes and related alcohols. Clinical experience with products containing melaleuca oil is limited. This case report suggests that ingestion of a modest amount of a concentrated form of this oil may produce signs of toxicity.

  10. In vitro activity of essential oils of free and nanostructured Melaleuca alternifolia and of terpinen-4-ol on eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Grando, T H; de Sá, M F; Baldissera, M D; Oliveira, C B; de Souza, M E; Raffin, R P; Santos, R C V; Domingues, R; Minho, A P; Leal, M L R; Monteiro, S G

    2016-05-01

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the major gastrointestinal nematodes responsible for significant economic and production losses of sheep. Diseases caused by this species lack effective anthelmintic products, and the search for new compounds to replace synthetic anthelmintics has been extensive. The present investigation assesses the in vitro activity of the essential oil of melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), both free (TTO) and nanostructured (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol) on eggs and larvae of H. contortus. Tests of egg hatching (EHT) and inhibition of larval migration (LMIT) were used to assess the in vitro efficacy of TTO, nanoTTO and terp-4-ol. Using EHT, at a concentration of 3.5 mg/ml, 100% inhibition occurred using TTO and terp-4-ol, with LC50 values of 0.43 and 0.63 mg/ml, and LC90 values of 1.75 mg/ml and 3.12 mg/ml, respectively. NanoTTO had lower activity, with 82.6% inhibition at the same concentration. Using LMIT, TTO and nanoTTO had a similar activity with 88.0% and 84.8% inhibition, respectively, at a concentration of 56 mg/ml. Terp-4-ol had a greater effect on larvae, with 85.7% inhibition at a concentration of 56 mg/ml and 82.4% at 3.5 mg/ml, demonstrating high activity at the lowest concentration tested. Therefore, the results indicate that all substances tested showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. TTO, terp-4-ol and, mainly, nanoTTO may be targeted in in vivo studies, besides being a promising line of research into the control and treatment of veterinary important helminths.

  11. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae.

  12. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naho; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), Melaleuca alternifolia, and its main component, terpinen-4-ol, were evaluated in a murine oral candidiasis model. Prednisolone -pretreated mice were orally infected with a fluconazole-susceptible (TIMM 2640) or a resistant (TIMM 3163) strain of Candida albicans to induce oral candidiasis. TTO or terpinen-4-ol was administrated with a cotton swab 3 h and 24 h after candida infection. These treatments clearly showed a decrease in the symptom score of tongues and in the viable candida cell number in the oral cavity at 2 d after azole-susceptible C. albicans infection, although the degree of the efficacy was less than that of fluconazole. Even against oral candidiasis caused by azole-resistant C. albicans, TTO and terpinen-4-ol were similarly effective, while fluconazole appeared ineffective. These results suggest that TTO and terpinen-4-ol may have the potential of therapeutic ability for mucosal candidiasis which may also be applicable to C. albicans oral candidiasis induced by the azole-resistant strain.

  13. Immunomodulatory activity of Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC): inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production in myeloid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Low, Pauline; Clark, Amanda M; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chang, Tsu-Chung; Reynolds, Maxwell; Ralph, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is a mixture predominantly composed of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes, refined from the essential oil of the tea tree by removing up to 99% of the more toxic, hydrophobic monoterpenes. MAC was examined here for its immunomodulatory effects on the human THP1 and murine RAW264.7 myeloid leukemic cell lines as models for macrophage-like cells. Firstly, MAC levels were determined that did not affect either the survival or proliferation of these cell lines in vitro. Next, the levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFNγ and IL-3) were examined from the myeloid cell lines using multiplex assays. Many of the LPS-inducible cytokines produced by either cell lines could be significantly inhibited by MAC. Closer examination of the mechanism of action of MAC showed that it inhibited the LPS-induced activation of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling and translocation, inhibiting iNOS protein expression and NO production. These results demonstrate that MAC exerts its immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signalling activation and levels of cytokine production by macrophage-like cell lines. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Candida albicans adhesion to human epithelial cells and polystyrene and formation of biofilm is reduced by sub-inhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; Carson, Christine F; Carson, Kerry C; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of the volatile terpene-rich oil from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) on the formation of biofilms and the adhesion of C. albicans cells to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Biofilm formation on polystyrene was significantly inhibited for 70% of the isolates at the lowest test concentration of 0.016% of tea tree oil (TTO) when quantified by XTT and 40% of isolates when measured by crystal violet staining. Adhesion to polystyrene, quantified by crystal violet staining, was significantly reduced for 3 isolates at 0.031%, 6 isolates at 0.062% and 0.125% and for all 7 isolates at 0.25% TTO. Reductions in adhesion were not due to loss of viability (at concentrations of ≤ 0.125%) or interactions between the TTO and polystyrene. Similarly, adhesion to buccal epithelial and HeLa cells was also significantly reduced in the presence of 0.016-0.062% TTO. Treatment with 0.125% TTO, but not 0.062%, decreased the cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans, indicating one potential mechanism by which adhesion may be reduced. These data demonstrate that sub-inhibitory TTO reduces the adhesion of C. albicans to both human cells and polystyrene, inhibits biofilm formation and decreases cell surface hydrophobicity.

  15. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carson, Christine F; Mee, Brian J; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-06-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.

  16. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil inhibits the in vitro growth of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Calcabrini, Annarica; Stringaro, Annarita; Toccacieli, Laura; Meschini, Stefania; Marra, Manuela; Colone, Marisa; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mondello, Francesca; Arancia, Giuseppe; Molinari, Agnese

    2004-02-01

    The search for innovative therapeutic approaches based on the use of new substances is gaining more interest in clinical oncology. In this in vitro study the potential anti-tumoral activity of tea tree oil, distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, was analyzed against human melanoma M14 WT cells and their drug-resistant counterparts, M14 adriamicin-resistant cells. Both sensitive and resistant cells were grown in the presence of tea tree oil at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.03%. Both the complex oil (tea tree oil) and its main active component terpinen-4-ol were able to induce caspase-dependent apoptosis of melanoma cells and this effect was more evident in the resistant variant cell population. Freeze-fracturing and scanning electron microscopy analyses suggested that the effect of the crude oil and of the terpinen-4-ol was mediated by their interaction with plasma membrane and subsequent reorganization of membrane lipids. In conclusion, tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol are able to impair the growth of human M14 melanoma cells and appear to be more effective on their resistant variants, which express high levels of P-glycoprotein in the plasma membrane, overcoming resistance to caspase-dependent apoptosis exerted by P-glycoprotein-positive tumor cells.

  17. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  18. Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil and the major monoterpene component terpinen-4-ol on the development of single- and multistep antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Katherine A; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effect of subinhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Frequencies of single-step antibiotic-resistant mutants were determined by inoculating bacteria cultured with or without subinhibitory tea tree oil onto agar containing 2 to 8 times the MIC of each antibiotic and with or without tea tree oil. Whereas most differences in resistance frequencies were relatively minor, the combination of kanamycin and tea tree oil yielded approximately 10-fold fewer resistant E. coli mutants than kanamycin alone. The development of multistep antibiotic resistance in the presence of tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol was examined by culturing S. aureus and E. coli isolates daily with antibiotic alone, antibiotic with tea tree oil, and antibiotic with terpinen-4-ol for 6 days. Median MICs for each antibiotic alone increased 4- to 16-fold by day 6. Subinhibitory tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol did not greatly alter results, with day 6 median MICs being either the same as or one concentration different from those for antibiotic alone. For tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol alone, day 6 median MICs had increased 4-fold for S. aureus (n = 18) and 2-fold for E. coli (n = 18) from baseline values. Lastly, few significant changes in antimicrobial susceptibility were seen for S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates that had been serially subcultured 14 to 22 times with subinhibitory terpinen-4-ol. Overall, these data indicate that tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol have little impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility.

  19. Comparative evaluation of co-enzyme Q10 and Melaleuca alternifolia as antioxidant gels in treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Chetan Purushottam; Sethi, Kunal S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q®) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided equally into three groups: Group I (Control group): those receiving placebo gel + SRP, Group II (Test group I): those receiving Perio QTM gel + SRP, and Group III (Test group II): those receiving tea tree oil gel + SRP. A total of 15 patients with 45 sites were enrolled in the study. Clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was applied using SPSS software. Results: Mean PPD reduction for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 0.50 ± 0.2, 2.95 ± 0.20, and 2.09 ± 0.15, respectively. Mean CAL reduction for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 0.45 ± 0.22, 2.33 ± 0.04, and 2.28 ± 0.09, respectively. Changes in mean PI scores for Group I, Group II, and Group III were 0.67 ± 017, 1.00 ± 0.11, and 1.08 ± 0.05 and GBI scores were 0.92 ± 0.29, 1.08 ± 0.13, and 0.88 ± 0.28, respectively. Conclusions: Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil gel proved to be effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. PMID:27630504

  20. Induction of necrosis and cell cycle arrest in murine cancer cell lines by Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and terpinen-4-ol.

    PubMed

    Greay, S J; Ireland, D J; Kissick, H T; Levy, A; Beilharz, M W; Riley, T V; Carson, C F

    2010-04-01

    To examine the in vitro anticancer activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO), and its major active terpene component, terpinen-4-ol, against two aggressive murine tumour cell lines, AE17 mesothelioma and B16 melanoma. Effects of TTO and terpinen-4-ol on the cellular viability of two tumour cell lines and fibroblast cells were assessed by MTT assay. Induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death was visualised by fluorescent microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry. Tumour cell ultrastructural changes were examined by transmission electron microscopy and changes in cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry, with changes in cellular morphology monitored by video time lapse microscopy. TTO and terpinen-4-ol significantly inhibited the growth of two murine tumour cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, cytotoxic doses of TTO and terpinen-4-ol were significantly less efficacious against non-tumour fibroblast cells. TTO and terpinen-4-ol induced necrotic cell death coupled with low level apoptotic cell death in both tumour cell lines. This primary necrosis was clarified by video time lapse microscopy and also by transmission electron microscopy which revealed ultrastructural features including cell and organelle swelling following treatment with TTO. In addition, both TTO and terpinen-4-ol induced their inhibitory effect by eliciting G1 cell cycle arrest. TTO and terpinen-4-ol had significant anti-proliferative activity against two tumour cell lines. Moreover, the identification of primary necrotic cell death and cell cycle arrest of the aggressive tumour cells highlights the potential anticancer activity of TTO and terpinen-4-ol.

  1. In vivo bactericidal effect of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against Aeromonas hydrophila: Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) as an experimental model.

    PubMed

    F Souza, Carine; Baldissera, Matheus D; A Vaucher, Rodrigo; Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; L da Veiga, Marcelo; U M da Rocha, Maria Izabel; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the main causative agent of high mortality and significative economic losses in aquaculture and has become increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. One feasible alternative to control and treat it is the use of essential oils. This study aimed to evaluate A. hydrophila susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO-Melaleuca alternifolia) in vivo, and the effect of this treatment. In vivo tests were performed using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) as the experimental model. Silver catfish were treated with TTO at 25 and 50 μL/L for seven days before infection. After seven days, the fish were inoculated with A. hydrophila via intramuscularly. Treatment with TTO at 50 μL/L was able to extend longevity of infected fish, and showed 88% of therapeutic success, even though it did not show curative efficacy. TTO treatment was not toxic under these tested concentrations, since biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions were not affected, and the concentration of 50 μL/L was able to prevent increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. There was no significative differences regarding hematological parameters (p < 0.05). Treatment with TTO 50 μL/L was able to reduce histopathological alterations usually caused by this type of bacteria in the gills, but it was unable to reduce hepatic histopathological alterations. Our results showed, for the first time, that TTO has high activity against A. hydrophila and proved to be a natural alternative to prevent and control this pathogen.

  2. Comparison of microdilution and disc diffusion methods in assessing the in vitro activity of fluconazole and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against vaginal Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Ergin, A; Arikan, S

    2002-10-01

    The in vitro activity of fluconazole and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was evaluated against 99 vaginal Candida strains by the broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The microdilution method was performed in accordance with NCCLS-M27A guidelines. An investigational method was used for the disc diffusion test. Fluconazole and tea tree oil minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained at 48 h tended to increase 1- to 2-fold or remain the same compared to 24 h readings for most of the isolates tested. C. krusei and C. norvegensis had significantly higher MICs and smaller inhibition zones for fluconazole compared to other species. Tea tree oil MICs were found to be similar, in general, for all Candida spp. tested. The geometric mean MIC of tea tree oil for all isolates was 2.2% (range, 0.25-4%) at 24 h and 3.0% (range, 1-8%) at 48 h. Tea tree oil mean inhibition zone diameter was 24 mm (range, 14-42 mm) at 24 h and 15.8 mm (range, 10-35 mm) at 48 h. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against fluconazole-resistant Candida strains was of particular interest. The isolates had similar tea tree oil MICs and inhibition zone diameters regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility profile. Tea tree oil MIC ranges (inhibition zone diameter ranges) were 2-4% (12-21 mm) and 2% (35 mm) at 48 h for C. krusei and C. norvegensis, respectively. These results suggest that tea tree oil MICs of the fluconazole-resistant isolates are comparable to those of fluconazole-susceptible isolates. This in vitro finding is promising for potential use of topical tea tree oil formulations in the treatment of candidiasis due to fluconazole-resistant strains.

  3. Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Natalie A; Hammer, Katherine A; Riley, Thomas V; Van Belkum, Alex; Carson, Christine F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to seek additional data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. after habituation to low levels of the topical antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil. Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were habituated to 0.075% tea tree oil for 3 days. Subsequently, the susceptibility of five isolates each of MSSA, MRSA and CoNS to fusidic acid, mupirocin, chloramphenicol, linezolid and vancomycin was determined by Etest, and susceptibility to tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol, carvacrol and triclosan was determined by agar dilution. Following habituation to 0.075% tea tree oil, antimicrobial MICs differed between control and habituated isolates on 33 occasions (out of a possible 150), with MICs being higher in habituated isolates on 22 occasions. Using clinical breakpoint criteria, one MSSA isolate changed susceptibility category from vancomycin-susceptible (MIC=2 μg/mL) to intermediate susceptibility (MIC=3 μg/mL) after habituation in one of two replicates. For the non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents, MICs of habituated and control isolates differed on 12 occasions (out of a possible 120); 10 occasions in MRSA and 2 occasions in MSSA. MICs were higher for habituated isolates on five occasions. However, all the differences were one serial dilution only and were not regarded as significant. Habituation to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil led to minor changes in MICs of antimicrobial agents, only one of which may have been clinically relevant. There is no evidence to suggest that tea tree oil induces resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  4. Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Essential Oil and the Major Monoterpene Component Terpinen-4-ol on the Development of Single- and Multistep Antibiotic Resistance and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Christine F.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of subinhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Frequencies of single-step antibiotic-resistant mutants were determined by inoculating bacteria cultured with or without subinhibitory tea tree oil onto agar containing 2 to 8 times the MIC of each antibiotic and with or without tea tree oil. Whereas most differences in resistance frequencies were relatively minor, the combination of kanamycin and tea tree oil yielded approximately 10-fold fewer resistant E. coli mutants than kanamycin alone. The development of multistep antibiotic resistance in the presence of tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol was examined by culturing S. aureus and E. coli isolates daily with antibiotic alone, antibiotic with tea tree oil, and antibiotic with terpinen-4-ol for 6 days. Median MICs for each antibiotic alone increased 4- to 16-fold by day 6. Subinhibitory tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol did not greatly alter results, with day 6 median MICs being either the same as or one concentration different from those for antibiotic alone. For tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol alone, day 6 median MICs had increased 4-fold for S. aureus (n = 18) and 2-fold for E. coli (n = 18) from baseline values. Lastly, few significant changes in antimicrobial susceptibility were seen for S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates that had been serially subcultured 14 to 22 times with subinhibitory terpinen-4-ol. Overall, these data indicate that tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol have little impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility. PMID:22083482

  5. Effects of Terpene Chemotypes of Melaleuca alternifolia on Two Specialist Leaf Beetles and Susceptibility to Myrtle Rust.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William

    2015-10-01

    Plant chemical polymorphisms, or plant chemotypes, are characterized by intraspecific discrete differences of plant secondary metabolites in the same plant tissue. Chemotypes that differ in foliar terpene composition are found commonly in Myrtaceae. In this study, we focused on terpene chemotypes of medicinal tea tree, Melalecua alternifolia, to explore whether this variation affects two specialist herbivores Paropsisterna tigrina and Faex sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and if this could explain the maintenance of this variation. We tested whether insect performance, oviposition preference, and plant damage were associated with different chemotypes. We found that larval growth rate of Faex sp. was higher in chemotypes with high concentrations of 1,8-cineole, and that oviposition preference depended on the chemotype of the larval diet. Although performance traits and preference for oviposition of P. tigrina did not vary among chemotypes, adults inflicted less damage on plants with a high concentration of terpinolene. Additionally, we tested whether different chemotypes showed different levels of susceptibility by myrtle rust (Puccinia psidii). We found that plants with a high concentration of 1,8-cineole were more likely to be infected under controlled conditions. Although there is evidence that terpene chemotypes are a mediator of the interaction with natural enemies, the most detrimental pest of this plant, P. tigrina, does not seem to be affected by variation in plant terpenes.

  6. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on filamentous fungi and toxicity to human cells.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, Diane C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L; Murray, Clinton K; Wenke, Joseph C; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-04-01

    Invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) are increasingly reported in trauma patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality despite standard of care treatment in trauma centers by experienced medical personnel. Topical agents such as oil of melaleuca, also known as tea tree oil (TTO), have been proposed for adjunctive treatment of IFIs. We evaluated the activity of TTO against filamentous fungi associated with IFIs by testing 13 clinical isolates representing nine species via time-kill assay with seven concentrations of TTO (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 1%). To ascertain the safety of topical application to wounds, cell viability assays were performed in vitro using human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, osteoblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 concentrations of TTO (75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 10-fold serial dilutions from 1 to 0.0001%) at five time points (5, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min). Compatibility of TTO with explanted porcine tissues was also assessed with eight concentrations of TTO (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.1%) at the time points used for cellular assays and at 24 h. The time-kill studies showed that fungicidal activity was variable between isolates. The effect of TTO on cell viability was primarily concentration dependent with significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of ≥ 10% and ≥ 50% for cells lines and whole tissue, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that TTO possesses antifungal activity against filamentous fungi associated with IFIs; furthermore that negligible effects on whole tissues, in contrast to individual cells, were observed following exposure to TTO. Collectively, these findings indicate a potential use of TTO as topical treatment of IFIs.

  7. Uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil solution in the decolonisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive wounds and its influence on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Margaret; Newall, Nelly; Carville, Keryln; Smith, Joanna; Riley, Thomas V; Carson, Christine F

    2011-08-01

    Many complementary and alternative products are used to treat wounds. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, tea tree oil, has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, may be useful in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation regimens and is reputed to have 'wound-healing' properties, but more data are required to support these indications. The primary aim of this uncontrolled case series was to assess whether a tea tree oil solution used in a wound cleansing procedure could decolonise MRSA from acute and chronic wounds of mixed aetiology. The secondary aim was to determine if the tea tree oil solution influenced wound healing outcomes. Nineteen participants with wounds suspected of being colonised with MRSA were enrolled in a pilot study. Seven were subsequently shown not to have MRSA and were withdrawn from the study. As many as 11 of the remaining 12 participants were treated with a water-miscible tea tree oil (3·3%) solution applied as part of the wound cleansing regimen at each dressing change. Dressing changes were three times per week or daily as deemed necessary by the study nurse following assessment. One participant withdrew from the study before treatment. No participants were MRSA negative after treatment. After treatment had been implemented, 8 of the 11 treated wounds had begun to heal and reduced in size as measured by computer planimetry. Although this formulation and mode of delivery did not achieve the primary aim of the study, tea tree oil did not appear to inhibit healing and the majority of wounds reduced in size after treatment.

  8. Detection and identification of 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals generated by irradiating tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil with visible light (436 nm) in the presence of flavin mononucleotide and ferrous ion.

    PubMed

    Mori, H-M; Iwahashi, H

    2013-08-01

    Here, we determined the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of standard reaction mixtures (I) containing 25 μM flavin mononucleotide (FMN), 0.018% tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil, 1.9 M acetonitrile, 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN), and 1.0 mM FeSO₄(NH₄)₂SO₄ irradiated with 436 nm visible light (7.8 J/cm²). Prominent ESR signals (αN = 1.58 mT and αHβ = 0.26 mT) were detected, suggesting that free radicals form in the standard reaction. In order to know whether singlet oxygen (¹O₂) is involved in the radical formation or not, ESR measurement was performed for the standard D₂O reaction mixture (I) which contained 25 μM FMN, 0.0036% tea tree oil, 1.9 M acetonitrile-d3, 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.1 M 4-POBN and 1.0 mM FeSO₄ in D₂O. The ESR peak height of the standard D₂O reaction increased to 169 ± 24% of the control. Thus, ¹O₂ seems to be involved in the formation of the radicals because D₂O increases the lifetime of singlet oxygen. High-performance liquid chromatography-ESR-mass spectrometry analyses detected 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals in the standard reaction. The radicals appear to form through the reaction of ferrous ion with α-terpinene endoperoxide (ascaridole), which generated from the reaction of α-terpinene with ¹O₂. The 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals may exert a pro-oxidant effect under these conditions.

  9. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil enhances the non-specific immune system and prevents oxidative damage in Rhamdia quelen experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila: Effects on cholinergic and purinergic systems in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; de Vargas, Agueda C; Boligon, Aline A; de Campos, Marli M A; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of M. alternifolia essential oil used to treat silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected by Aeromonas hydrophila on oxidative stress variables, and for the first time, on hepatic enzymes of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems. For that, fish were divided into six groups (A-F), each containing seven animals. Groups A, B and C were composed of uninfected animals, while animals in groups D, E and F were intramuscularly inoculated with A. hydrophila. Groups B and E received a prophylactic bath with M. alternifolia essential oil (50 μL/L, diluted in ethanol) for seven days, while groups C and F were exposed to ethanol. After the prophylactic baths, groups D, E and F were inoculated with 100 μL of A. hydrophila solution (2.1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit). Two days after inoculation, the animals were euthanized and liver samples were collected. Infected animals (the group D) showed increased TBARS and protein carbonylation levels, while CAT, AChE and ADA activities decreased compared to uninfected animals (the group A). The prophylactic treatment with M. alternifolia essential oil (the group E) prevented the alterations caused by A. hydrophila, but it did not change AChE activity. Thus, the prophylactic treatment prevents damage caused by lipids and proteins, as well as alterations of the adenosinergic system, demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory effect of TTO is mediated by the adenosinergic pathway. In addition, TTO prophylactic treatment might be considered an important approach to prevent the hepatic damage caused by A. hydrophila.

  11. Treatment of acne with tea tree oil (melaleuca) products: a review of efficacy, tolerability and potential modes of action.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A

    2015-02-01

    Over-the-counter acne treatments containing tea tree oil from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia are widely available, and evidence indicates that they are a common choice amongst those self-treating their acne. The aims of this review were to collate and evaluate the clinical evidence on the use of tea tree oil products for treating acne, to review safety and tolerability and to discuss the underlying modes of therapeutic action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Hard Evidence for Melaleuca Biocontrol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The population dynamics of a cohort of Melaleuca quinquenervia were monitored over a 5-y period in a cypress-pine wetland while subjected to two levels of herbivory. The trees were recruited during 1998-1999 after a destructive crown fire. Half of 26 experimental plots were sprayed every 4-6 weeks...

  13. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F

    2009-11-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap existing between in vitro and clinical studies.

  14. Effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil as a natural antimicrobial agent in lipophilic formulations.

    PubMed

    Mantil, Elisabeth; Daly, Grace; Avis, Tyler J

    2015-01-01

    There has been increased interest surrounding the use of tea tree oil (TTO) as a natural antimicrobial. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of TTO and its components were investigated in vitro and in a predominantly lipid-based personal care formulation. In vitro, TTO showed minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.2% (for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pythium sulcatum), 0.4% (for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizopus stolonifer), and 0.8% (for Botrytis cinerea). TTO at 0.08%-0.8% was often as efficient as parabens. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of TTO components showed that terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene were generally most effective in inhibiting microbial growth. TTO activity in a personal care product was evaluated through air and water exposure, artificial inoculation, and shelf life studies. While TTO did not increase shelf life of unopened products, it decreased microbial load in products exposed to water and air. Results from this study support that antimicrobial activity of TTO can be attributed to varying levels of its components and that low levels of TTO were effective in reducing microbial growth during the use of the product. This study showed that TTO can act as a suitable preservative system within an oil-based formulation.

  15. Effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and stationary growth phase.

    PubMed

    Kwieciński, Jakub; Eick, Sigrun; Wójcik, Kinga

    2009-04-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is known for its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether TTO is effective against Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and how TTO activity is affected by the S. aureus growth phase. All clinical strains tested were killed by TTO both as planktonic cells and as biofilms. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration was usually two times higher than the minimum bactericidal concentration, yet it was never higher than 1% v/v. The fastest killing of biofilm occurred during the first 15min of contact with TTO and was not influenced by increasing TTO concentration above 1% v/v. Planktonic stationary phase cells exhibited decreased susceptibility to TTO compared with exponential phase cells. The killing rate for stationary phase cells was also less affected by increasing TTO concentration than that for exponential phase cells. These data show that TTO efficiently kills S. aureus in the stationary growth phase and within biofilms and is therefore a promising tool for S. aureus eradication.

  16. Natural enemies thin melaleuca-canopy and help increase plant diversity in the melaleuca stands.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) formed dense monocultural forests several decades after invading Florida and the Caribbean islands. These dominant forests have displaced native vegetation in sensitive wetland systems. We assumed that native plant diversity...

  17. ANTI-STAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF MELALEUCA HONEY.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wen-jie; Lim, Mei-siew

    2015-05-01

    Honey is well-known for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, which are also involved in antibacterial activities. In this study, properties (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing-antioxidant power, reducing sugar content, and pH) of Malaysian Melaleuca honey were investigated for their antistaphylococcal activity, against both methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains using a hole-in-plate diffusion method. The outcome revealed there is a significant positive correlation between the antistaphylococcal activity and increase in honey concentration [20%-80% (v/v) in distilled water], which also correlated with each of the above mentioned parameter in honey, except for pH value that shows negative correlation. Furthermore, there was no difference in susceptibility to Melaleuca honey between MSSA and MRSA strains. Thus, in addition to being an antioxidant product, Melaleuca honey has a potential as a natural antistaphylococcal agent.

  18. First report of the biological control agent Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in California, USA.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae is a specialized herbivore of Melaleuca quinquenervia and other closely related congeners. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae was discovered in Los Angeles County (California, USA) in late 2009, feeding on ornamentally planted M. quinquenervia trees. The ps...

  19. Ultrastructure of wax-producing structures on the integument of the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and honeydew excretion behavior in males and females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by w...

  20. Successful biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia is native to north-eastern Australia, parts of New Guinea, and New Caledonia. It has been present in south Florida since the late ninteenth century (Dray et al. 2006) and dispersal was assisted by nurserymen who are believed to have deliberately spread seeds into natural area...

  1. T.A.M.E. Melaleuca Website

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  2. Ultrastructure of integument wax and wax-producing structures in the melaleuca psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The melaleuca psyllid has been introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida wetland since its introduction earlier from Australia as an ornamental plant. Colonies of the psyllid on young shoots...

  3. Susceptibility to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil of yeasts isolated from the mouths of patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Bagg, Jeremy; Jackson, Margaret S; Petrina Sweeney, M; Ramage, Gordon; Davies, Andrew N

    2006-05-01

    Yeasts that are resistant to azole antifungal drugs are increasingly isolated from the mouths of cancer patients suffering from oral fungal infections. Tea tree oil is an agent possessing antimicrobial properties that may prove useful in the prevention and management of infections caused by these organisms. In this study, 301 yeasts isolated from the mouths of 199 patients suffering from advanced cancer were examined by an in vitro agar dilution assay for susceptibility to tea tree oil. All of the isolates tested were susceptible, including 41 that were known to be resistant to both fluconazole and itraconazole. Clinical studies of tea tree oil as an agent for the prevention and treatment of oral fungal infections in immunocompromised patients merit consideration.

  4. The influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Mertas, Anna; Garbusińska, Aleksandra; Szliszka, Ewelina; Jureczko, Andrzej; Kowalska, Magdalena; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO) or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections.

  5. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against bacterial and Candida spp. isolates from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Banes-Marshall, L; Cawley, P; Phillips, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro activity of tea tree oil (TTO) against a range of wild strains of microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens of leg ulcers and pressure sores. The antimicrobial effectiveness of TTO is determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The isolates include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus, faecal streptococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and coliform bacilli. Eleven Candida spp. isolates from skin and vaginal swabs also are tested. Using an agar dilution assay, the MICs of TTO in 88 out of 90 isolates was 0.5-1.0% (v/v), whilst with P. aeruginosa it was >2% (v/v). A broth microdilution method was used to determine MIC and minimum cidal concentration (MCC) of 80 isolates. In 64 isolates, TTO produced an inhibitory and cidal effect at 3% and 4% (v/v), respectively. S. aureus and Candida spp. were the most susceptible to TTO, with MICs and MBCs of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. P. aeruginosa and the faecal streptococci isolates, with MICs and MBCs of >8%, were resistant to TTO.

  6. Synergism and postantibiotic effect of tobramycin and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Manuela; Ginestra, Giovanna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Furneri, P M; Bisignano, G

    2010-04-01

    The application of antimicrobial combinations may address the rising resistance to established classes of both systemic and topical agents and their clinical relevance is related to the presence of a significant postantibiotic effect (PAE). We investigated the effectiveness in vitro of the association between tobramycin and tea tree oil (TTO) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations, the bacterial killing and the PAE of tobramycin and TTO were determined both singly and in combination against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. A synergistic interaction was observed against both strains tested: the mean PAEs were 1.3 and 1.7h for tobramycin against E. coli and S. aureus respectively, 10.8h for tobramycin and TTO (0.05%) against E. coli, 10.4h and 17.4h against S. aureus for tobramycin and TTO (0.25 and 0.50%, respectively). Longer PASMEs were observed with S. aureus after TTO/tobramycin exposure. In vitro interactions can improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of the antibiotic and may contribute for the development of novel topical agents for the treatment of skin lesions including conjunctiva and respiratory infections by inhalation.

  7. Frequencies of resistance to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Katherine A; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequencies at which single-step mutants resistant to tea tree oil and rifampicin occurred amongst the Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. For tea tree oil, resistance frequencies were very low at <10(-9). Single-step mutants resistant to tea tree oil were undetectable at two times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus RN4220 and derivative mutator strains or at 3 x MIC for the remaining S. aureus strains, including a clinical meticillin-resistant S. aureus isolate. Similarly, no mutants were recovered at 2x MIC for S. epidermidis or at 1x MIC for E. faecalis. Resistance frequencies determined in vitro for rifampicin (8 x MIC) ranged from 10(-7) to 10(-8) for all isolates, with the exception of the S. aureus mutator strains, which had slightly higher frequencies. These data suggest that Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. have very low frequencies of resistance to tea tree oil.

  8. Adaptation to NaCl Reduces the Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis to Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee Lin; Hammer, Katherine Ann

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the salt adaptation response of Enterococcus faecalis alters susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO). Six E. faecalis isolates were adapted to 6.5 % NaCl, and then exposed to TTO in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). One isolate was also exposed to TTO in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB). The viability of salt-adapted and non-adapted control cells was determined at 0, 45 and 90 min and compared. MICs for several antibiotics and TTO were also determined by E test and broth microdilution, respectively. Results showed that susceptibility to TTO in PBS was significantly reduced after salt adaptation for five isolates (83 %) (P < 0.05). Mean differences between salt-adapted and non-adapted cell counts were 2.51 log at 45 min and 2.13 log at 90 min. However, when E. faecalis ATCC 19433 was exposed to TTO in BHIB, no significant differences were seen. In conclusion, salt adaptation resulted in reduced susceptibility to TTO in PBS for the majority of isolates, indicating that cross protection had occurred. This effect was absent in BHIB, suggesting that the uptake of compatible solutes from the growth medium protected non-adapted cells from TTO. Whether this has implications for the clinical effectiveness of TTO remains to be determined.

  9. The Influence of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on Fluconazole Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Strains

    PubMed Central

    Garbusińska, Aleksandra; Kowalska, Magdalena; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO) or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections. PMID:25722982

  10. Can genomics clarify the origins of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae in California, USA?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae is a biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida (USA) but was observed attacking M. quinquenervia trees in southern California (USA). Genotyping revealed the California population matched three of eight Australian haplotypes and ...

  11. Decline in exotic tree density facilitates increased plant diversity: the experience from Melaleuca quinquenervia invaded wetlands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) formed dense monocultural forests several decades after invading Florida and the Caribbean islands. These dominant forests have displaced native vegetation in sensitive wetland systems. We hypothesized that native plant diversity would increa...

  12. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  13. The role of melaleuca control in Everglades restoration: accomplishments and future plans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake, melaleuca, was first introduced to Florida in 1886 for ornamental use. It was later planted for bank stabilization and as a forestry crop. Melaleuca now invades a variety of habitats, changing the hydroperiod and fire regime, reducing plan...

  14. The role of melaleuca control in Everglades restoration: accomplishments and future plans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake, melaleuca, was first introduced to Florida in 1886 for ornamental use. It was later planted for bank stabilization and as a forestry crop. Melaleuca now invades a variety of habitats, changing the hydroperiod and fire regime, reducing plan...

  15. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Maximal Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activity from Melaleuca bracteata Leaves Using the Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wencheng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guode; Luo, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Melaleuca bracteata is a yellow-leaved tree belonging to the Melaleuca genus. Species from this genus are known to be good sources of natural antioxidants, for example, the “tea tree oil” derived from M. alternifolia is used in food processing to extend the shelf life of products. In order to determine whether M. bracteata contains novel natural antioxidants, the components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted and the antioxidant activities of the extracts evaluated. Single-factor experiments, central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ferric reducing power (FRP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging capacity were used as the evaluation indices of antioxidant activity. The results showed that the main components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts are methyl eugenol (86.86%) and trans-cinnamic acid methyl ester (6.41%). The single-factor experiments revealed that the ethanol concentration is the key factor determining the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity. RSM results indicated that the optimal condition of all four evaluation indices was achieved by extracting for 3.65 days at 53.26°C in 34.81% ethanol. Under these conditions, the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity reached values of 88.6 ± 1.3 mg GAE/g DW, 19.4 ± 0.2 mg RE/g DW, 2.37 ± 0.01 mM Fe2+/g DW and 86.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of the positive control, methyl eugenol (FRP 0.97 ± 0.02 mM, DPPH·scavenging capacity 58.6 ± 0.7%) at comparable concentrations. Therefore, the extracts of M. bracteata leaves have higher antioxidant activity, which did not only attributed to the methyl eugenol. Further research could lead to the development of a potent new natural antioxidant. PMID

  16. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Maximal Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activity from Melaleuca bracteata Leaves Using the Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wencheng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guode; Luo, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Melaleuca bracteata is a yellow-leaved tree belonging to the Melaleuca genus. Species from this genus are known to be good sources of natural antioxidants, for example, the "tea tree oil" derived from M. alternifolia is used in food processing to extend the shelf life of products. In order to determine whether M. bracteata contains novel natural antioxidants, the components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted and the antioxidant activities of the extracts evaluated. Single-factor experiments, central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ferric reducing power (FRP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging capacity were used as the evaluation indices of antioxidant activity. The results showed that the main components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts are methyl eugenol (86.86%) and trans-cinnamic acid methyl ester (6.41%). The single-factor experiments revealed that the ethanol concentration is the key factor determining the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity. RSM results indicated that the optimal condition of all four evaluation indices was achieved by extracting for 3.65 days at 53.26°C in 34.81% ethanol. Under these conditions, the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity reached values of 88.6 ± 1.3 mg GAE/g DW, 19.4 ± 0.2 mg RE/g DW, 2.37 ± 0.01 mM Fe2+/g DW and 86.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of the positive control, methyl eugenol (FRP 0.97 ± 0.02 mM, DPPH·scavenging capacity 58.6 ± 0.7%) at comparable concentrations. Therefore, the extracts of M. bracteata leaves have higher antioxidant activity, which did not only attributed to the methyl eugenol. Further research could lead to the development of a potent new natural antioxidant.

  17. Melaleuca quinquenervia litter accumulation, mass loss, and impact on the establishment of forest-floor vegetation in southern Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) occurs in various habitats of southern Florida where it degrades ecologically sensitive areas. The exotic tree displaces other plant species, such as Cladium jamaicense (sawgrass), from many areas, forms monoculture forests with closed canopies, ...

  18. Temporal and structural effects of stands on litter production in Melaleuca quinquenervia dominated wetlands of South Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) dominates large areas of the Florida Everglades in the southeastern USA where it has transformed sedge-dominated marshes into melaleuca forests. Despite its prevalence, very little is known about the ecology and stand dynamics of this invasive tree. We delineated...

  19. Investigation on phenylpropanoids rich Melaleuca decora (Salisb.) Britt. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neharica; Manika, N; Singh, Suman; Singh, S C; Pragadheesh, V S; Yadav, Anju; Chanotiya, C S

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca decora twigs has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID, GC/MS and (1)H-, (13)C-NMR experiments. The most abundant class of compounds in M. decora twig oil was phenylpropanoids represented by methyl eugenol (92.4%) as the most exclusive constituent. In terms of molecular diversity, phenylpropanoids dominate M. decora essential oil with low terpenoid (3.9%) proportion.

  20. Active rehabilitation possibilities for invasive tree occupied sites: Examples from Melaleuca quinquenervia systems in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accumulated litter mass suppresses seedling emergence on forest floor. This phenomenon was observed in stands of the invasive tree melaleuca tree stands in southern Florida, USA. Removal of melaleuca litter mass has been reported to enhance seedling emergence; however, the dynamics of emerged seedl...

  1. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  2. Water Level Effects on Growth of Melaleuca Seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) Littoral Zone.

    PubMed

    LOCKHART; AUSTIN; AUMEN

    1999-05-01

    / The invasive exotic wetland tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, is expanding rapidly throughout seasonally wet areas of southern Florida (USA), including the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee. Natural resource managers are concerned that a lower lake level regulation schedule under consideration for Lake Okeechobee, while potentially beneficial to overall ecosystem health, might increase the rate of Melaleuca expansion. To investigate this possibility, Melaleuca saplings (harvested from the littoral zone) and 7-week-old seedlings (grown from harvested seeds) were subjected to various hydroperiod treatments in replicated mesocosms. Hydroperiod treatments were selected based on a simulation of historical water level variations. Saplings grew taller under longer hydroperiods with fluctuating water levels, including periods of submersion. Time since germination affected the response of seedlings to inundation. Submersed 7-week-old seedlings grew slower and had less biomass than submersed 12-week-old seedlings, yet mortality was low at both ages. Melaleuca's plasticity allows it to adapt to hypoxic, aquatic conditions by means of aquatic heterophylly and adventitious roots. Algae and drought also increased mortality. Based on faster growth of Melaleuca under longer hydroperiods and its adaptability to seasonal flooding, a lower lake regulation schedule may not stimulate its expansion. Therefore, water levels should not be manipulated only to control Melaleuca. Control of Melaleuca should continue using current practices such as manual removal or chemical treatment. KEY WORDS: Melaleuca; Lake Okeechobee; Littoral zone; Water level; Regulation schedule

  3. Geographic distribution and regional impacts of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), biological control agents of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    PubMed

    Balentine, K M; Pratt, P D; Dray, F A; Rayamajhi, M B; Center, T D

    2009-08-01

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is widely distributed throughout peninsular Florida and poses a significant threat to species diversity in the wetland systems of the Everglades. Mitigation of this threat includes the areawide release campaign of the biological control agents Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore. We summarize the results of this release effort and quantify the resulting geographic distribution of the herbivores as well as their regional impact on the target weed. A combined total of 3.3 million individual Melaleuca biological control agents have been redistributed to 407 locations and among 15 Florida counties. Surveys of the invaded area indicate that the geographic distribution of O. vitiosa encompasses 71% of the Melaleuca infestation. Although released 5 yr later, the distribution of B. melaleuca is slightly greater than its predecessor, with a range including 78% of the sampled Melaleuca stands. Melaleuca stands outside both biological control agents' distributions occurred primarily in the northern extremes of the tree's range. Strong positive association between herbivore species was observed, with the same density of both species occurring in 162 stands and no evidence of interspecific competition. Soil type also influenced the incidence of biological control agents and the distribution of their impacts. The odds of encountering O. vitiosa or B. melaleucae in cells dominated by sandy soils were 2.2 and 2.9 times more likely than those predominated by organically rich soils. As a result, a greater level of damage from both herbivores was observed for stands growing on sandy versus organic-rich soils.

  4. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally waxed’ and ‘dewaxed’ nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  5. In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Aspergillus species to Melaleuca alternafolia (tea tree) oil.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J A; Arganoza, M T; Boikov, D; Akins, R A; Vaishampayan, J K

    2000-06-01

    Candida species are an important cause of opportunistic infection in the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, especially HIV infected patients. Melaleuca oil obtained commercially was investigated since it is known to have broad antifungal properties. The in-vitro susceptibilities of Aspergillus and susceptible and resistant Candida species were performed utilizing serial dilutions in microtiter plates with Sabouraud dextrose agar and the commercial preparation of Melaleuca. As a comparator, in vitro susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole were also determined using the broth microdilution technique. The results demonstrate that Melaleuca inhibited the Candida species. However, the growth of Aspergillus was not inhibited at the concentrations tested. Thus, preparations containing Melaleuca alternafolia may be a useful alternative for superficial candidal infections. In fact, it may be a useful alternative regimen for advanced HIV-positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to fluconazole. However, controlled clinical studies to evaluate its efficacy are still needed.

  6. Effect of local application of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil gel on long pentraxin level used as an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Enas Ahmed; Ali, Shereen Abdel-Moula; Zineldeen, Doaa Hussien

    2013-07-01

    Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Tea tree oil (TTO) can be used as adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy in patient with chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive treatment of TTO on the clinical parameters and the level of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were divided into two groups, Group I received scaling and root planing (SRP) only, Group II received SRP and TTO gel. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from each subject for measuring PTX3 levels at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. In all evaluation periods, there was statistically significant reduction in each of the studied clinical parameters and PTX3 level in Group II as compared with Group I. The local delivery of TTO gel in case of chronic periodontitis may have some beneficial effects to augment the results of the conventional periodontal therapy. Moreover, it places a focus on the value of monitoring GCF levels of PTX3 as a marker of periodontal tissue healing.

  7. Effect of local application of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil gel on long pentraxin level used as an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Elgendy, Enas Ahmed; Ali, Shereen Abdel-Moula; Zineldeen, Doaa Hussien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Tea tree oil (TTO) can be used as adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy in patient with chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive treatment of TTO on the clinical parameters and the level of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were divided into two groups, Group I received scaling and root planing (SRP) only, Group II received SRP and TTO gel. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from each subject for measuring PTX3 levels at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Results: In all evaluation periods, there was statistically significant reduction in each of the studied clinical parameters and PTX3 level in Group II as compared with Group I. Conclusions: The local delivery of TTO gel in case of chronic periodontitis may have some beneficial effects to augment the results of the conventional periodontal therapy. Moreover, it places a focus on the value of monitoring GCF levels of PTX3 as a marker of periodontal tissue healing. PMID:24174722

  8. The outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6749 contributes to its tolerance to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil).

    PubMed

    Mann, C M; Cox, S D; Markham, J L

    2000-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is less susceptible to the antimicrobial properties of tea tree oil than many bacteria and its tolerance is considered to be due to its outer membrane. Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), which has no antibacterial action, was used to permeabilize the outer membrane. The addition of PMBN to Ps. aeruginosa NCTC 6749 markedly increased this organism's susceptibility to tea tree oil and to its normally inert hydrocarbons, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene.

  9. Preferred age for assessment of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the essential oil of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) seedlings prior to plantation establishment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael F; Southwell, Ian

    2003-07-16

    An analytical method for determining the quality and hence the chemical variety status of tea tree transplants is described. The key to the procedure was found to be the leaf age of the test material. Investigation at very early development stages was seen to give misleading results due to the sequential onset of different monoterpenoid biogenetic pathways. For example, in the first few leaves, the high concentration of terpinolene in the terpinen-4-ol variety suggests that the terpinolene variety is under investigation. However, 1,8-cineole percent concentrations in plantation tree leaf were approximately 1.6 times lower than those measured for seedlings prior to transplant. Consequently, the use of a plantation cineole indicator is proposed for estimating plantation cineole from seedling leaf analyses. Although recent investigations enable the chemotype status to be predicted with some certainty, it is now proposed that analysis of leaf set 10 at the age of 6 weeks (seedling age approximately 17 weeks) provides an unambiguous analysis and correlates seedling quality with mature plantation quality. In addition, the oil yield of mature tea tree leaf was found, by steam distillation, to be approximately 5 times higher than that of seedling leaf.

  10. Use of deception to achieve double-blinding in a clinical trial of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Carson, Christine F; Smith, David W; Lampacher, Gail J; Riley, Thomas V

    2008-01-01

    Double-blinding is an important and widely implemented feature of clinical trials although its success is rarely assessed. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of tea tree oil, an aromatic essential oil, for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL), or cold sores, deception was used to prevent volunteers from identifying their treatment allocation. Volunteers received placebo (n=102) or tea tree oil (n=112) ointment in preparation for their next episode of RHL and were told, falsely, that the aroma of the ointments had been changed to prevent identification of the treatment group. At the trial's end, of the volunteers who had used their ointment and presented for treatment assessment (n=100), approximately 50% correctly guessed their treatment allocation (P=0.774). Amongst volunteers that had not presented for treatment assessment (n=114), 12 volunteers did not provide blinding data and 46 did not open their tube. For the 56 volunteers who opened their tube, less than half of those receiving tea tree oil (44.4%) and only a small proportion of those on placebo (17.2%) were able to correctly identify their treatment allocation. Among the volunteers that were not treated, the P-value was 0.083. This study showed that the ethical use of deception may provide effective blinding in challenging circumstances.

  11. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptosp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree (“melaleuca”), Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca) has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree’s biological attributes along with favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate ...

  12. Geographic distribution and regional impacts of Oxyops vitiosa (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), biological control agents of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is widely distributed throughout peninsular Florida, USA and poses a significant threat to species diversity in the wetland systems of the Everglades. Mitigation of this threat includes the areawide release campaign of the biological control age...

  13. Biological Control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: Goal-based Assessment of Success.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Success means different things to different people. Unfortunately, the success or failure of weed biological control projects is often evaluated by non-participants lacking knowledge of the original goals set by project architects. The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia, which is an aggressive ...

  14. Invasion of West Everglades Wetland by Melaleuca quinquenervia Countered by Classical Biological Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The population dynamics of Melaleuca quinquenervia were monitored over a 5-y period in a cypress-pine wetland while subjected to two levels of herbivory. The trees had been recruited during 1998-1999 after a destructive crown fire. Half of 26 experimental plots were sprayed every 4-6 weeks with an...

  15. he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  16. Interactions of biological and herbicidal management of Melaleuca quinquenervia with fire: Consequences for ecosystem services

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An example of a successful integrated pest plant management program is the Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake project in the Florida Everglades. Mechanical, chemical, and biological control methods have been used in concert to eliminate large monotypic stands while containing future population ex...

  17. Concordance between life history traits, invasion history, and allozyme diversity of the Everglades invader Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the century following its initial introduction in 1886, the Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia(Myrtaceae) dispersed from a few introduction points to occupy over 200,000 ha, primarily in historic Everglades wetlands of southern Florida. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis (CAGE) was us...

  18. T.A.M.E. Melaleuca: a regional approach for suppressing one of Florida's worst weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  19. Nonselective oviposition by a fastidious insect: the laboratory host range of the melaleuca gall midge Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion by the Australian paperbark, Melaleuca quinquenervia, has degraded large expanses of south Florida wetlands. Restoration of these wetlands requires the removal of expansive monocultures of this large tree while simultaneously curtailing its spread. Management strategies developed by feder...

  20. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.

    PubMed

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Mohamed Nor, Zurainee; Mansor, Marzida; Azhar, Fadzly; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2015-10-24

    The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. In

  1. Initial impacts and field validation of host range for Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtales: Myrtaceae: Leptospermoideae).

    PubMed

    Center, Ted D; Pratt, Paul D; Tipping, Philip W; Rayamajhi, Min B; Van, Thai K; Wineriter, Susan A; Dray, F Allen

    2007-06-01

    Invasion of south Florida wetlands by the Australian paperbark tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (melaleuca), has caused adverse economic and environmental impacts. The tree's biological attributes and favorable ambient biophysical conditions combine to complicate efforts to restore and maintain south Florida ecosystems. Management requires an integrated strategy that deploys multiple biological control agents to forestall reinvasion and to supplement other control methods, thereby lessening recruitment and regeneration after removal of existing trees. This biological control program began during 1997 when an Australian weevil, Oxyops vitiosa (Pascoe), was released. A second Australian insect, the melaleuca psyllid (Boreioglycaspis melaleucae Moore), first introduced during 2002, has also widely established. After inoculation of the psyllid in a field study, only 40% of seedlings survived herbivory treatments compared with 95% survival in controls. The resultant defoliation also reduced growth of the surviving seedlings. A weevil-induced decline at a site comprised mainly of coppicing stumps had slowed after a 70% reduction. Psyllids colonized the site, and 37% of the remaining coppices succumbed within 10 mo. The realized ecological host range of B. melaleucae was restricted to M. quinquenervia; 18 other nontarget plant species predicted to be suboptimal or nonhosts during laboratory host range testing were unaffected when interspersed with psyllid-infested melaleuca trees in a common garden study. Evaluations are ongoing, but B. melaleucae is clearly reducing seedling recruitment and stump regrowth without adversely impacting other plant species. Manifestation of impacts on mature trees will require more time, but initial indications suggest that the psyllid will be an effective supplement to the weevil.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from Three Melaleuca Species Grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Amri, Ismail; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Bassem, Jamoussi; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Reverchon, Ernesto; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Melaleuca armillaris Sm., Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. and Melaleuca acuminata F. Muell., collected in Tunisia, was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all, 46 compounds were identified, 38 for M. armillaris, 20 for M. acuminata and eight for M. styphelioides, respectively. The presence of a sesquiterpenic fraction (52.2%) characterized the oil from M. armillaris; M. sthypheliodes oil was rich in methyl eugenol, a phenolic compound (91.1%), while M. acuminata oil is mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenoids (95.6%). The essential oils were evaluated for their in vitro potentially phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of five seeds was inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of all seeds was not affected. Moreover, the essential oils showed low antimicrobial activity against eight selected microorganisms. PMID:23443119

  3. Water-use Comparison of the Invasive Tree Species, Melaleuca Quinquenervia, and two Native Tree Species,Taxodium Distichum and Pinus Elliottii, in Southwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, T. M.; Leisure, R. M.; Everham, E. M.; Bovard, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), an invasive tree species in southern Florida, is generally thought to have higher transpiration rates than the native vegetation, however little empirical data is available to support this claim. In this study, thermal dissipation probes were used to measure transpiration rates of the three species growing in a hydric ecotone in southwest Florida. Transpiration rates of melaleuca, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) were compared to assess seasonal variability between the wet and dry seasons. Individually trees of both bald cypress and slash pine showed significantly higher water fluxes than melaleuca (p<0.05). However, when individual tree fluxes were scaled to the ecosystem-level, melaleuca contributed 21% of the water flux and bald cypress contributed 72% during the wet season. Melaleuca's increased contribution at the landscape-level results from higher tree densities at our study site. Following leaf senescence in the early dry season, bald cypress continues to be a significant water user at the landscape level. With higher atmospheric demands for water, bald cypress was the least conservative of the three species with respect to water use, whereas on days with low atmospheric demands for water the three species function similarly. These results do not support the hypothesis that melaleuca uses more water than the native Florida tree species, however, they suggest the density of melaleuca at the landscape-scale is important in our understanding of its role in the hydrologic cycle.

  4. Antibacterial constituents of Eremophila alternifolia: An Australian aboriginal traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Biva, Israt J; Ndi, Chi P; Griesser, Hans J; Semple, Susan J

    2016-04-22

    For traditional medicinal purposes Aboriginal Australians have utilised numerous plant species, Eremophila alternifolia is among the most prominent. Traditionally, fresh leaves, leaf-infusions and handmade leaf-pastes have been used as both external and internal preparations to provide relief from a variety of conditions. Preparations of the species have been used to treat various infections of skin, eyes and throat including the treatment of septic wounds. These usages suggest that the plant contains antibacterial compounds; however, to date they have not been isolated and identified. The present study aimed to identify antibacterial compounds from this important traditionally recorded medicinal species. Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate compounds from the crude leaf-extract. Antibacterial activity of pure compounds was assessed through broth microdilution method by determining both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Structure elucidation was performed using spectroscopic techniques such as 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Four compounds have been isolated from the leaf-extract; they include previously known flavanones [pinobanksin (1), pinobanksin-3-acetate (2) and pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (3)] and a serrulatane diterpene, 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (4). While compound 4 had been found in other Eremophilas, flavanones 2 and 3 are identified for the first time from the genus Eremophila. The flavanone 3 is the most promising antibacterial compound with significant activity (10-20µM) against strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant and biofilm forming strains. No activity was observed for any isolated compounds against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract of E. alternifolia and of the isolated compounds against Gram

  5. Verbesina alternifolia Tolerance to the Holoparasite Cuscuta gronovii and the Impact of Drought

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bethany; Borowicz, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Holoparasites are nonphotosynthetic plants that acquire all resources from hosts. The holoparasite Cuscuta gronovii is native to much of the US with a broad host range including Verbesina alternifolia, an understory perennial. Both species grow in moderate to moist soils and occur in habitats that may experience prolonged or episodic drought. We applied the Wise-Abrahamson Limiting Resource Model (LRM) developed for plant-herbivore relations to examine the effects of pattern of drought stress on tolerance of V. alternifolia to parasitism by C. gronovii. Individual plants were assigned one of six treatments that were combinations of parasite (none or addition of parasite) and drought stress (well-watered, continuously-stressed, or pulse-stressed). After pulse-stressed plants had experienced two wet-dry cycles all plants were harvested. Parasitism strongly reduced both shoot and root mass and well-watered hosts exhibited the greatest decline, indicating reduced tolerance to parasitism when water was readily available. This is consistent with the LRM if parasitism limits photosynthates available to the host. However, parasitism increased allocation to shoot and this effect did not differ between well-watered and drought-stressed plants, indicating equal tolerance. This outcome is in accord with an alternative prediction of the LRM if hosts are not carbon limited. Total pot productivity was reduced by parasitism and drought stress, and this effect was greater for pulse-stressed than for continuously-stressed hosts. We discuss the applicability of the LRM for understanding the effects of drought on tolerance to parasitism. PMID:27137396

  6. Body size selection inAcanthoscelides alboscutellatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) : I. Entrapment within the fruit ofLudwigia alternifolia (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Ott, James R; Lampo, Margarita

    1991-09-01

    Direct observations and analyses of selection occurring in natural populations are rare. The biology of the bruchid beetle,Acanthoscelides alboscutellatus, on its host plant,Ludwigia alternifolia, provides an anusual opportunity to study the process of selection on the morphology of an organism under field conditions.A. alboscutellatus larvae mature within the variably dehiscent fruit ofL. alternifolia. At eclosion, adults are confined within indehiscent fruit but are not confined within dehiscent fruit. Beetles can escape from indehiscent fruit only by forcing their bodies through the fruit's apical pore (a circular opening in the top of the fruit). Thus, during the eclosion stage of this beetle's life cycle the relationship between body size and differential fitness appears to be clearly defined.We examined entrapment ofA. alboscutellatus within indehiscentL. alternifolia fruit in a natural population. Only 8.8% of the beetles that attempted to escape were successful. Smaller beetles were trapped within a narrower range of pore diameters than were larger beetles; and trapped beetles had only limited abilities to enlarge fruit pore diameter. These data suggest (1) that escape from indehiscent fruit is regulated by the relationship between adult body diameter and fruit pore diameter and (2) that adult beetles may experience strong selection for small body diameter (size) within idehiscent fruit.

  7. The release and unsuccessful establishment of the Melaleuca biological control agent Fergusonina turneri and its mutualistic nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia resulted in the simultaneous release of the gall-fly Fergusonina turneri Taylor and the nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae Dav...

  8. T.A.M.E. Melaleuca: a regional approach for suppressing one of Florida’s worst weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  10. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  11. Activated carbon derived from melaleuca barks for outstanding high-rate supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiu-Ping; Huang, Liang; Gao, Xiang; Cheng, Yongliang; Yao, Bin; Hu, Zhimi; Wan, Jun; Xiao, Xu; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-31

    Activated carbon (AC) was prepared via carbonizing melaleuca bark in an argon atmosphere at 600 °C followed with KOH activation for high-rate supercapacitors. This AC electrode has a high capacitance of 233 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) and an excellent rate capability of ∼80% when increasing the sweep rate from 2 to 500 mV s(-1). The symmetric supercapacitor assembled by the above electrode can deliver a high energy density of 4.2 Wh kg(-1) with a power density of 1500 W kg(-1) when operated in the voltage range of 0-1 V in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte while maintaining great cycling stability (less than 5% capacitance loss after 10 000 cycles at sweep rate of 100 mV s(-1)). All the outstanding electrochemical performances make this AC electrode a promising candidate for potential energy storage application.

  12. Antifilarial and Antibiotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M.; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Mansor, Marzida; Hasan, MS; Kassim, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the activity of methanolic extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi flowers against the filarial worm Brugia pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Anti-Wolbachia activity was measured in worms and in Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells by PCR, electron microscopy, and other biological assays. In particular, microfilarial release, worm motility, and viability were determined. M. cajuputi flower extracts were found to significantly reduce Wolbachia endosymbionts in Aa23 cells, Wolbachia surface protein, and microfilarial release, as well as the viability and motility of adult worms. Anti-Wolbachia activity was further confirmed by observation of degraded and phagocytized Wolbachia in worms treated with the flower extracts. The data provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that M. cajuputi flower extracts inhibit Wolbachia, an activity that may be exploited as an alternative strategy to treat human lymphatic filariasis. PMID:27417081

  13. The Potent Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B from the Fruits of Melaleuca leucadendron

    PubMed Central

    Saifudin, Azis; Lallo, Subehan Ab; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melaleuca leucadendron (Myrtaceae) is a kind of fruit used as Indonesian medicinal component and recorded in Jamu (tonic made of medical herbs) prescription records for the diabetes treatment. Its methanol extract exhibited a strong inhibitory activity with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.05 μg/mL, while it is the same value with positive control RK-682. Objective: To isolate the chemical constituents of M. leucadendron and to evaluate their activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Further, determine their toxicity potential against T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). Materials and Methods: Methanol extract was fractionated using silica column chromatography, and the obtained fraction was purified using Sephadex 20-LH. The structure of isolated compounds was identified based on 1H and 13Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry. Furthermore, the compounds were examined against PTP1B and TCPTP. Results: Methanol extract of M. leucadendron (Myrtaceae) afforded two triterpenes: Betulinic acid and ursolic acid in high quantities. Both compounds exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against PTP1B inhibition with IC50 value of 1.5 and 2.3 μg/mL, respectively (positive control RK-682, IC50 = 2.05 μg/mL). Their activity toward TCPTP, on the other hand, were at 2.4 and 3.1 μg/mL, respectively. Based on this purification work, betulinic acid and ursolic acid presented 7.6% and 2.4%, respectively, as markedly M. leucadendron most potential for betulinic acid source among Indonesian plants. The result should have demonstrated that the antidiabetes of M. dendron could be through the inhibition of PTP1B. SUMMARY Melaleuca leucadendron is a good source for ursolic acid.Confirming traditional use for type II diabetes via PTP1B inhibition. PMID:27114690

  14. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  15. Reticulate evolution in the natural range of the invasive wetland tree species Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lyn G; Morris, David C; Edwards, Robert D; Crisp, Michael D

    2008-05-01

    The Melaleuca leucadendra complex (broad-leaf paperbarks; Myrtaceae) is a dominant component of the tropical and sub-tropical biota of Australia, particularly in wetlands of high conservation significance. In Florida and other parts of the Americas, however, one member of the group (Melaleuca quinquenervia) is a serious ecological and economic weed. Understanding the relationships and evolution of the group is integral to both conservation and biocontrol efforts. Although the complex is currently considered to include up to 14 species, there has been some concern over taxonomic boundaries within the complex because most species are circumscribed only by combinations of characters, each of which also occurs in other species. Here, DNA sequence data derived from the chloroplast and two nuclear regions are used to explore the relationships of M. quinquenervia. We find little evidence for clear species boundaries within the M. leucadendra complex in general, with regional sharing of chloroplast haplotypes across morphologically defined taxa, indicating asymmetrical introgression or retention of ancestral haplotypes (lineage sorting). Phylogenies were further confounded by the recovery of multiple copies of both nuclear regions sequenced (ITS and rpb2) from many individuals. There was no clear evidence of polyploidy or pseudogenes, but multiple duplications of rpb2 could not be ruled out. Parsimony networks of the nuclear ITS region show some clustering of haplotypes by morphospecies but there is also evidence of both hybridisation and recombination. Signals of introgression were also evident in rpb2, supporting an hypothesis of recent or ongoing gene flow between M. quinquenervia and other members of the M. leucadendra complex. Both relaxed and fixed molecular-clock dating estimate the introgression to have occurred sometime within the past seven million years (95% CI: 0.7-18). The New Caledonian population of M. quinquenervia appears to have been established by

  16. Suppression of native Melaleuca ericifolia by the invasive Phragmites australis through allelopathic root exudates.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William; Caridi, Domenic; Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf

    2014-03-01

    Invasive plants are a great threat to the conservation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Allelopathy as a mechanism for invasion of plants such as Phragmites australis, one of the most aggressive invaders, has the potential to suppress neighboring plant species. Allelopathic interference, through root exudates of P. australis on native Melaleuca ericifolia, was investigated to find out the underlying invasion mechanisms. Germination and growth effects of P. australis on M. ericifolia were studied in the greenhouse using potting mix both with and without activated carbon, and a combination of single and repeated cuttings of P. australis as the management tool. P. AUSTRALIS had significant negative effects on germination and growth of M. ericifolia by inhibiting germination percentage, maximum root length and plant height, biomass, stem diameter, and number of growth points with little effect on leaf physiology. Activated carbon (AC) in turn moderately counteracted these effects. The cutting of P. australis shoots significantly reduced the suppressive effects on M. ericifolia compared to the addition of AC to soil. Furthermore, significant changes in soil such as pH, electrical conductivity, osmotic potential, phenolics, and dehydrogenase activity were identified among cutting treatments with little variation between AC treatments. The results demonstrated that allelopathy through root exudates of P. australis had relatively low contribution in suppressing M. ericifolia in comparison to other competitive effects. Management tools combining repeated cutting of P. australis shoots with AC treatments may assist partly in the restoration of native ecosystems invaded by P. australis.

  17. Consequences of Melaleuca quinquenervia Invasion on Soil Nematodes in the Florida Everglades

    PubMed Central

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Pratt, Paul D.; Glblin-Davis, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    The tree Melaleuca quinquenervia invades all types of habitats of South Florida leading to up to 80% loss of aboveground diversity. To examine impacts on the belowground ecosystem, we investigated the composition and diversity of nematodes from soils dominated by the invasive tree and compared them with soils supporting native plant communities at six locations across the Florida Everglades over three years. Despite the significant differences in soil type, hydrology, and native plant composition of the sites, there were consistent differences in nematode communities between soil environments under the native and invaded plant communities. The total abundance and diversity of nematodes in soils dominated by M. quinquenervia was 60% and 80% of adjacent soils under native plants. Fungal-feeding and plant-parasitic nematodes were twice as abundant under native plants as under M. quinquenervia. Nematode communities under M. quinquenervia were bacterivore-dominated, while under native vegetation plant-parasite dominated. The overall diversity of nematodes was 20% lower under the exotic than under native plants, with plant parasites being 36% and fungivores being 30% less diverse. Soil moisture, % of Ca, Mg, and clay particles and total soil C and N were greater in M. quinquenervia soils, but plant-available concentrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg as well as CEC were reduced. Overall, data suggests that the invasion process may modify soil biotic and abiotic conditions that in turn promote the advancement of the exotic M. quinquenervia and displacement of the native plants. PMID:19259503

  18. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales:Myrtaceae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida, USA. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia has culminated in the release of the gall forming midge Lophodiplosis trifida Gagné (Cecidomyiidae). Populations of the introduced ...

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Butanol Extract of Melaleuca leucadendron L.

    PubMed Central

    Surh, Jeonghee; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Melaleuca leucadendron L. has been used as a tranquilizing, sedating, evil-dispelling and pain-relieving agent. We examined the effects of M. leucadendron L. extracts on oxidative stress and inflammation. M. leucadendron L. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) and then fractionated with chloroform (CHCl3) and butanol (BuOH). Antioxidant activity of the MeOH extract and BuOH fraction were higher than that of both α-tocopherol and butyrated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Total phenol content in the extracts of M. leucadendron L., especially the BuOH fraction, well correlated with the antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of BuOH extracts were investigated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The BuOH fraction significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. Furthermore, BuOH extract of M. leucadendron L. inhibited the expression of COX-2 and iNOS protein without an appreciable cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 cells. The extract of M. leucadendron L. also suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) and its degradation associated with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Furthermore, BuOH fraction inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that M. leucadendron L. could be useful as a natural anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory resource. PMID:24471059

  20. Triumphalone, a diketone from the volatile oil of the leaves of Melaleuca triumphalis, and its spontaneous conversion into isotriumphalone.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Joseph J; Craig, Donald C; Goldsack, Robert J; Fookes, Christopher J R; Leach, David N; Waterman, Peter G

    2006-09-01

    The major component (35-65%) of the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of Melaleuca triumphalis has been identified as (rel)-1beta-pentyl-1alpha,6alpha-dihydroxy-3,3,5,5-tetramethylcyclohexa-2,4-dione (trivial name triumphalone). Relative stereochemistry was established by nuclear Overhauser experiments and X-ray studies on the 2-(3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) derivative. The remainder of the oil was composed of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and alcohols. On prolonged standing the presence of a rearrangement product of triumphalone was observed which was characterized as (rel)-1beta-pentyl-1alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-4,4,6,6-tetramethylcyclohexa-2,5-dione (trivial name isotriumphalone), presumably arising from an acid catalyzed shift of the pentyl group from C-1 to C-2.

  1. Evaluation of tea tree oil quality and ascaridole: a deep study by means of chiral and multi heart-cuts multidimensional gas chromatography system coupled to mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Ragonese, Carla; Carnovale, Caterina; Piperno, Anna; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2010-10-08

    The natural-like assessment of essential oils is a demanding task due to the growing trend toward adulterations. Usually chiral chromatography was used for this purpose due to the capability of assessing stereospecificity which is directly related to the enzymatic pathways of each plant species. On the other hand, the quality of an essential oil involves also the evaluation of its oxidative state, mainly connected with the age and storage conditions. In fact, some modifications in the chemical profile of the oil can occur if not properly preserved. Alterations of the components due to oxidative reactions lead to the formation of peroxides, endoperoxides and epoxides, such as ascaridole and 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, usually present in very low amount, formed by the oxidation of terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene, respectively. Therefore, in the present research, the quality of Australian Tea Tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, Myrtaceae) was investigated by means of a multi heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatographic system coupled to a mass spectrometer detector and by conventional enantio-GC. The MDGC system allowed the complete separation of the compounds of interest transferred from the first column to a second dimension based on a different separation mechanism. The MS detector at the end of the second column provided the identification of the peaks with high similarity values because of their high purities after the multidimensional separation. Method validation was carried out, in order to use this procedure for routine application, monitoring the repeatability of 1D retention times and 2D peak areas, LoD and LoQ. Finally, enantiomeric ratios for chiral compounds were established to support quality data obtained.

  2. Genetic variation and evolution of secondary compounds in native and introduced populations of the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia.

    PubMed

    Franks, Steven J; Wheeler, Gregory S; Goodnight, Charles

    2012-05-01

    We examined multivariate evolution of 20 leaf terpenoids in the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia in a common garden experiment. Although most compounds, including 1,8-Cineole and Viridiflorol, were reduced in home compared with invaded range genotypes, consistent with an evolutionary decrease in defense, one compound (E-Nerolidol) was greater in invaded than home range genotypes. Nerolidol was negatively genetically correlated with Cineole and Viridiflorol, and the increase in this compound in the new range may have been driven by this negative correlation. There was positive selection on all three focal compounds, and a loss of genetic variation in introduced range genotypes. Selection skewers analysis predicted an increase in Cineole and Viridiflorol and a decrease or no change in Nerolidol, in direct contrast to the observed changes in the new range. This discrepancy could be due to differences in patterns of selection, genetic correlations, or the herbivore communities in the home versus introduced ranges. Although evolutionary changes in most compounds were consistent with the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis, changes in other compounds as well as selection patterns were not, indicating that it is important to understand selection and the nature of genetic correlations to predict evolutionary change in invasive species. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Carbon isotope discrimination in leaves of the broad-leaved paperbark tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, as a tool for quantifying past tropical and subtropical rainfall.

    PubMed

    Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; McInerney, Francesca A; Henderson, Andrew C G; Leng, Melanie J; Greenway, Margaret; Marshall, Jonathan C; McGregor, Glenn B; Tyler, Jonathan J; McNeil, Vivienne

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative reconstructions of terrestrial climate are highly sought after but rare, particularly in Australia. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant leaves (Δleaf ) is an established indicator of past hydroclimate because the fractionation of carbon isotopes during photosynthesis is strongly influenced by water stress. Leaves of the evergreen tree Melaleuca quinquenervia have been recovered from the sediments of some perched lakes on North Stradbroke and Fraser Islands, south-east Queensland, eastern Australia. Here, we examine the potential for using M. quinquenervia ∆leaf as a tracer of past rainfall by analysing carbon isotope ratios (δ(13) C) of modern leaves. We firstly assess Δleaf variation at the leaf and stand scale and find no systematic pattern within leaves or between leaves due to their position on the tree. We then examine the relationships between climate and Δleaf for a 11-year time series of leaves collected in a litter tray. M. quinquenervia retains its leaves for 1-4 years; thus, cumulative average climate data are used. There is a significant relationship between annual mean ∆leaf and mean annual rainfall of the hydrological year for 1-4 years (i.e. 365-1460 days) prior to leaf fall (r(2)  = 0.64, P = 0.003, n = 11). This relationship is marginally improved by accounting for the effect of pCO2 on discrimination (r(2)  = 0.67, P = 0.002, n = 11). The correlation between rainfall and Δleaf , and the natural distribution of Melaleuca quinquenervia around wetlands of eastern Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia offers significant potential to infer past rainfall on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. X. Fergusobia from galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, with descriptions of three new species .

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Makinson, Jeff; Purcell, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of Fergusobia, respectively collected from shoot bud galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, are described. Fergusobia armillarisae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 50-80% of body length. Fergusobia decorae n. sp. Davies has an arcuate parthenogenetic female with a non-extensile uterus and a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with most curvature behind the vulva and a short tail with a broadly rounded tip, and an arcuate male with an arcuate spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Fergusobia linariifoliae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, a barely arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Earlier molecular analyses inferred from DNA sequencing of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) are further discussed. 

  5. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IX. Fergusobia rosettae n. sp. on Melaleuca quinquenervia and F. tolgaensis n. sp. on Syzygium luehmannii, from Queensland.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ye, Weimin; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Taylor, Gary S; Purcell, Matthew; Thomas, Kelley

    2014-12-01

    Two new species of Fergusobia, collected from 'rosette' shoot bud galls on Melaleuca quinquenervia, and from leaf, stem, leaf and flower bud galls on Syzygium luehmannii, both from the Cairns region of Queensland, Australia, are described. Fergusobia rosettae Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small, arcuate parthenogenetic female having a short conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, an arcuate, relatively slender, infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate males with arcuate to angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and leptoderan bursa arising at 40-50% of body length from tail tip. Fergusobia tolgaensis Davies n. sp. is characterised by the combination of a small open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and arcuate males with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicules and short to mid-length leptoderan bursa. These two species of nematodes are associated with fly larvae that have dorsal shields comprising bars of raised cuticular ridges and spicules, similar to that of fly larvae from the M. leucadendra species group. The shield morphologies of these fly larvae and their possible genetic relationships are discussed. Possible evolutionary relationships of the Fergusobia nematodes from these galls are discussed, considering their morphology, DNA sequences, and the relationships of the associated Fergusonina flies and host plants.

  6. Establishment, population increase, spread, and ecological host range of Lophodiplosis trifida (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a biological control agent of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Pratt, P D; Rayamajhi, M B; Tipping, P W; Center, T D; Wright, S A; Purcell, M

    2013-10-01

    The Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cavanilles) Blake is an invasive weed in wetland systems of Florida. A biological control program targeting M. quinquenervia has resulted in the release of the gall forming midge Lophodiplosis trifida Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Populations of the introduced herbivore readily established at all 24 release sites across the weed's range in Florida, and there was no evidence that founding colony size (100, 2,000, or 6,000 adults) influenced herbivore establishment or local population growth rates. Landscape level spread of L. trifida from release sites averaged nearly 6 km/yr, ranging as high as 14.4 km/yr. Prerelease host range testing predicted that L. trifida oviposits indiscriminately on test plant species but does not complete development on any of the test species, including congeners present in Florida. To test the predictability of these host range tests, L. trifida was released in a common garden consisting of 18 test plant species that were interplanted with M. quinquenervia. Plant species postulated to be at risk experienced no gall development by L. trifida while intermingled M. quinquenervia trees supported 704.8 (± 158.5) galls per plant. Historically, many introduced Cecidomyiidae have limited effect on plant performance of target weeds because of recruitment of native parasitoids that disrupt biological control efficacy. In contrast to this trend, there has been no evidence to date that parasitoids are exploiting L. trifida in Florida.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro free-radical-scavenging activities of the essential oils from leaf and fruit of Melaleuca leucadendra L.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Regalado, Erik L; Rodríguez, José L; Fernández, Miguel D

    2010-09-01

    The phytochemical profile of Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaf and fruit oils from Cuba was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Forty-one and sixty-four volatile compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 99.2 and 99.5% of the leaf-oil and fruit-oil total composition, respectively. The main components were 1,8-cineol (43.0%), viridiflorol (24.2%), α-terpineol (7.0%), α-pinene (5.3%), and limonene (4.8%) in the leaf oil, and viridiflorol (47.6%), globulol (5.8%), guaiol (5.3%), and α-pinene (4.5%) in the fruit oil. The antioxidant capacity of these essential oils was determined by three different in vitro assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation), and significant activities were evidenced for all of them.

  8. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers. Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  9. Comparative water use by the riparian trees Melaleuca argentea and Corymbia bella in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, A P; Eamus, D; Cook, P G; Lamontagne, S

    2006-02-01

    We examined sources of water and daily and seasonal water use patterns in two riparian tree species occupying contrasting niches within riparian zones throughout the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: Corymbia bella Hill and Johnson is found along the top of the levee banks and Melaleuca argentea W. Fitzg. is restricted to riversides. Patterns of tree water use (sap flow) and leaf water potential were examined in four trees of each species at three locations along the Daly River in the Northern Territory. Predawn leaf water potential was higher than -0.5 MPa throughout the dry season in both species, but was lower at the end of the dry season than at the beginning of the dry season. Contrary to expectations, predawn leaf water potential was lower in M. argentea trees along the river than in C. bella trees along the levees. In contrast, midday leaf water potential was lower in the C. bella trees than in M. argentea trees. There were no seasonal differences in tree water use in either species. Daily water use was lower in M. argentea trees than in C. bella trees. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance, estimated from the slope of the relationship between leaf water potential and sap flow, did not differ between species. Xylem deuterium concentrations indicated that M. argentea trees along the riverbank were principally reliant on river water or shallow groundwater, whereas C. bella trees along the levee were reliant solely on soil water reserves. This study demonstrated strong gradients of tree water use within tropical riparian communities, with implications for estimating riparian water use requirements and for the management of groundwater resources.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of ellagitannins and galloyl esters isolated from Melaleuca styphelioides on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Eman; Esmat, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Context In a previous study, the total extract of Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. (Myrtaceae) showed a significant hepatoprotective effect in a CCl4-induced toxicity model in mice. However, the active components responsible for the activity of the extract were not identified. Objective To determine the in vitro hepatoprotective activity of the isolated pure compounds from M. styphelioides leaves using the CCl4-challenged HepG2 cell model. Materials and methods The hepatoprotective activity of the compounds (at concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μm), the total extract and silymarin (Sil) (100, 50 and 25 μg/ml) was determined by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) after pretreatment with the tested samples for one hour. Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were estimated to determine the mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity. Results Some compounds showed marked hepatoprotection, including tellimagrandin I, which produced 42, 36 and 31% decrease in ALT and 47, 43 and 37% decrease in AST, at the tested concentrations, respectively, pedunculagin (32, 32 and 30% decrease for ALT and 48, 48 and 45% for AST), tellimagrandin II (38, 32 and 26% decrease for ALT and 45, 40 and 34% for AST) and pentagalloyl glucose (30, 28 and 26% decrease for ALT and 45, 38 and 36% for AST). Tellimagrandin I and II showed the highest increase in GSH (113, 105 and 81% and 110, 103 and 79%, respectively), which was comparable to Sil. Pedunculagin produced the highest increase in SOD (497, 350 and 258%). Conclusion This study highlights promising natural hepatoprotective candidates derived from M. styphelioides.

  11. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i) efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy); and (ii) efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy). Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice) were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil) and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO); a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO); or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs). Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs). Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31); the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31); and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects). The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD 16%) whereas the

  12. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Altman, Phillip M

    2011-08-24

    There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i) efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy); and (ii) efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy). Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice) were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil) and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO); a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO); or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs). The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs). Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31); the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31); and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects). The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD 16%) whereas the group treated with melaleuca oil and

  13. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca styphelioides and their protective role on D-glucose-induced hyperglycemic stress and oxalate stress in NRK-49Fcells.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Divya; Al-Sayed, Eman; Albert, Abhishek; Paul, Eldho; Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Govindan Sadasivam, Selvam; Saso, Luciano

    2017-06-21

    Phytochemicals serve as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of diseases. In this study, we elucidate the renoprotective activity of compounds isolated from Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca styphelioides extracts in glucose- and oxalate-challenged NRK-49F cell model. The antioxidant potential of isolated compounds was evaluated based on their effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels. The results demonstrated that exposure of NRK-49F cells to glucose and oxalate stress augmented cell damage and attenuated antioxidant enzyme activities. The phytochemicals 2,2,8-trimethyl-6-formyl-chrom-3-ene-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, Cornusiin B and tellimagrandin I treatment restored antioxidant enzyme activity, significantly lowered lipid peroxidation levels and effectively protected cells from glucose and oxalate stress equivalent to the known antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Pterocarinin A significantly reversed cellular damage owing to glucose stress. In conclusion, the compounds isolated from E. globulus and M. styphelioides showed potential cytoprotective and anti-oxidative property against glucose- and oxalate-induced oxidative stress in NRK-49F cells.

  14. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    PubMed

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  15. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB). Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice products were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions (the TTO/LO product and the "suffocation" product were applied three times at weekly intervals according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0, Day 7 and Day 14) and the P/PB product was applied twice according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7)). The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined. Results The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6%) and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6%) was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (10/40, 25.0%; adj. p < 0.0001). Conclusion The high efficacy of the TTO/LO product and the head lice "suffocation" product offers an alternative to the pyrethrins-based product. Trial Registration The study was entered into the Australian/New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000179033. PMID:20727129

  16. Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms?

    PubMed

    Conti, Barbara; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.

  17. Properties and limits of some essential oils: chemical characterisation, antimicrobial activity, interaction with antibiotics and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Scazzocchio, Francesca; Garzoli, Stefania; Conti, Cinzia; Leone, Claudia; Renaioli, Clio; Pepi, Federico; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-09-01

    Because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria and fungi, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of: Mirtus communis, Coriandrum sativum, Pelargonium capitatum, Cuminum cyminum, Ocimum basilicum, Citrus aurantium amara, Cymbopogon. winterianus, Cymbopogon martini, Salvia sclarea, Melaleuca alternifolia and Mentha suaveolens essential oils on bacteria and fungi, in relation to their chemical composition. The potential interaction of M. alternifolia (TTO), C. sativum (CDO) and M. suaveolens (EOMS) essential oils when used in combination with gentamicin and fluconazole has been evaluated. The results obtained showed a synergic effect on some bacteria and fungi, with FICI values ≤5. The cytotoxicity of TTO, CDO and EOMS was investigated towards HeLa cells. Only EOMS did not result cytotoxic at the active concentrations on micro-organisms. Further studies are necessary to obtain optimal ratios and dosing regimens for higher therapeutic efficacy and to decrease toxicological profiles.

  18. Tea tree oil might combat melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Colone, Marisa; Toccacieli, Laura; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese

    2011-01-01

    In this study we present new data from experiments focused on the antitumor activity of tea tree oil (TTO), an essential oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia. TTO proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of melanoma cells and of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), as we reported in our previous study. Moreover, the survival role of the MDR-marker P-glycoprotein appears to be involved in the mechanism of invasion of melanoma cells. The results reported herein indicate that TTO and its main active component, terpinen-4-ol, can also interfere with the migration and invasion processes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant melanoma cells.

  19. Tea tree oil as a novel antipsoriasis weapon.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a clinical skin disease that is characterized by erythematous scaling plaques and involves the extensor site of the extremities, the scalp and other surfaces of the skin. Tea tree oil (TTO) is considered an essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and terminal branchlets of Melaleuca alternifolia. Notably,terpinen-4-ol, the major TTO constituent, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. It is suggested that terpinen-4-ol may be a novel potential agent against psoriasis. This article draws attention to the antipsoriatic effect of TTO and provides a theoretical molecular approach. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

  1. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Mayaud, L; Carricajo, A; Zhiri, A; Aubert, G

    2008-09-01

    To compare the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of 13 chemotyped essential oils (EO) on 65 bacteria with varying sensitivity to antibiotics. Fifty-five bacterial strains were tested with two methods used for evaluation of antimicrobial activity (CLSI recommendations): the agar dilution method and the time-killing curve method. EO containing aldehydes (Cinnamomum verum bark and Cymbopogon citratus), phenols (Origanum compactum, Trachyspermum ammi, Thymus satureioides, Eugenia caryophyllus and Cinnamomum verum leaf) showed the highest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) <2% (v/v) against all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alcohol-based EO (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cymbopogon martinii and Lavandula angustifolia) exhibited varying degrees of activity depending on Gram status. EO containing 1.8-cineole and hydrocarbons (Eucalyptus globulus, Melaleuca cajeputii and Citrus sinensis) had MIC(90%) > or = 10% (v/v). Against P. aeruginosa, only C. verum bark and O. compactum presented MIC < or =2% (v/v). Cinnamomum verum bark, O. compactum, T. satureioides, C. verum leaf and M. alternifolia were bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at concentrations ranging from to 0.31% to 10% (v/v) after 1 h of contact. Cinnamomum verum bark and O. compactum were bactericidal against P. aeruginosa within 5 min at concentrations <2% (v/v). Cinnamomum verum bark had the highest antimicrobial activity, particularly against resistant strains. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of EO on nosocomial antibiotic-resistant strains.

  2. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  3. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Jenny M; Cavanagh, Heather M A

    2005-07-01

    To date, of the Australian essential oils, only tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and Eucalyptus spp. have undergone extensive investigation. In this study a range of Australian essential oils, including those from Anethole anisata, Callistris glaucophyllia, Melaleuca spp. and Thyptomine calycina, were assayed for in vitro antibacterial activity. M. alternifolia was also included for comparison purposes. Activity was determined using standard disc diffusion assays with each oil assayed at 100%, 10% and 1% against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis) and the yeast, Candida albicans. All bacteria, with the exception of Ps. aeruginosa, were susceptible to one or more of the essential oils at 100%, with only Eremophilia mitchelli inhibiting the growth of any bacteria at 1% (inhibition of Sal. typhimurium). Where multiple samples of a single oil variety were tested variability in activity profiles were noted. This suggests that different methods of preparation of essential oils, together with variability in plant chemical profiles has an impact on whether or not the essential oil is of use as an antimicrobial agent. These results show that essential oils from Australian plants may be valuable antimicrobial agents for use alone or incorporated into cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceutical products.

  4. Biological control of Melaleuca quinquenervia: an Everglades invader

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A massive effort is underway to restore the Florida Everglades, mainly by re-engineering hydrology to supply more water to the system at appropriate times of the year. However, correcting water flow patterns alone will not restore the associated plant communities due to habitat-transforming effects...

  5. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  6. Comparison of oil recovered from tea tree leaf by ethanol extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Lowe, R F; Southwell, I A

    2000-09-01

    Two methods for the determination of oil and oil major components from tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) leaf are quantitatively compared. A microwave assisted ethanol extraction and a 2-h hydrodistillation technique were used on both dry and fresh leaf from a low and a high oil concentration tree. There was no significant difference between dry and fresh leaf. The distillation technique recovered 88% and 82% of the extractable oil for the low and high concentration material, respectively. For both samples this distilled oil was composed of lower absolute amounts of sesquiterpenoids and marginally lower amounts of monoterpenoids. Extending the distillation to 6 h increased the sesquiterpenoid recovery but this resulted in a reduction in both the absolute and relative amounts of the oxygenated monoterpenoids, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.

  7. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils.

  8. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-β1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA.

  9. Effects of Iodine Doping on Optoelectronic and Chemical Properties of Polyterpenol Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Bazaka, Kateryna; Jacob, Mohan V.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their amorphous, highly cross-liked nature, most plasma polymers display dielectric properties. This study investigates iodine doping as the means to tune optoelectronic properties of plasma polymer derived from a low-cost, renewable resource, i.e., Melaleuca alternifolia oil. In situ exposure of polyterpenol to vapors of electron-accepting dopant reduced the optical band gap to 1.5 eV and increased the conductivity from 5.05 × 10−8 S/cm to 1.20 × 10−6 S/cm. The increased conductivity may, in part, be attributed to the formation of charge-transfer complexes between the polymer chain and halogen, which act as a cation and anion, respectively. Higher levels of doping notably increased the refractive index, from 1.54 to 1.70 (at 500 nm), and significantly reduced the transparency of films. PMID:28336848

  10. Effect of Australian tea tree oil on Gyrodactylus spp. infection of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Steverding, Dietmar; Morgan, Edward; Tkaczynski, Patrick; Walder, Foster; Tinsley, Richard

    2005-08-09

    Gyrodactylus spp. infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Existing treatments have proved uneconomic, stressful to the fishes, and ecologically damaging. Essential oils are naturally occurring compounds that exhibit a wide range of anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities. This study explored the possibility of using Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) to treat Gyrodactylus spp. infection on the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. In the presence of 0.01 % Tween 80 as an emulsifier, TTO treatments at concentrations between 3 and 30 ppmv (parts per million by volume) lowered the prevalence and significantly reduced the parasite burden of sticklebacks naturally infected with Gyrodactylus spp. In addition, Tween 80 alone exhibited parasiticidal activity against Gyrodactylus spp. These findings show the potential of TTO in combination with Tween 80 as an effective treatment of Gyrodactylus spp. infection of fishes.

  11. A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Bagherani, Nooshin; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2013-07-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil, steam-distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alternifolia. It has a minimum content of terpinen-4-ol and a maximum content of 1, 8-cineole. Terpinen-4-ol is a major TTO component which exhibits strong antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Tea tree oil exerts antioxidant activity and has been reported to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections affecting skin and mucosa. Several studies have suggested the uses of TTO for the treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, and chronic gingivitis. It also accelerates the wound healing process and exhibits anti-skin cancer activity. This review opens up new horizons for dermatologists in the use of this herbal agent.

  12. In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Mikus, J; Harkenthal, M; Steverding, D; Reichling, J

    2000-05-01

    The effect of different essential oils as well as of isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on the viability of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, promastigotes of Leishmania major and human HL-60 cells was evaluated using the Almar Blue assay. Of the 12 essential oils and 8 terpenes investigated, only three essential oils, Melissa officinalis (balmmint) oil, Thymus vulgaris (thyme) oil, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil were about 50-fold and 80-fold more toxic to bloodstream forms of T. brucei than to HL-60 cells, respectively. Terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the Australian tea tree oil, was even 1000-fold more toxic to trypanosomes than to the human cells. On the other hand, none of the essential oils and terpenes tested were more toxic to promastigotes of L. major than to HL-60 cells.

  13. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  14. Contact allergy to essential oils cannot always be predicted from allergy to fragrance markers in the baseline series.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, Ruth A; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2016-04-01

    Essential oils are fragrance substances that are labelled on cosmetic products by their INCI names, potentially confusing consumers. To establish whether contact allergy to essential oils might be missed if not specifically tested for. We tested 471 patients with 14 essential oils and 2104 patients with Melaleuca alternifolia oil between January 2008 and June 2014. All patients were tested with fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde, and Myroxylon pereirae. Three hundred and twenty-six patients were tested with hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool. Thirty-four patients had a +/++/+++ reaction to at least one essential oil. Eleven had no reaction to any of the six marker fragrance substances. Thus, 4 of 11 positive reactions to M. alternifolia oil, 2 of 7 reactions to Cymbopogon flexuosus oil, 1 of 5 reactions to Cananga odorata oil, 3 of 4 reactions to Santalum album oil and 2 of 3 reactions to Mentha piperita oil would have been missed without individual testing. A small number of patients who are allergic to essential oils could be missed if these are not specifically tested. Labelling by INCI names means that exposure may not be obvious. Careful inspection of so-called 'natural' products and targeted testing is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, S F; Suliman, S; Viljoen, A M

    2009-04-01

    Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to investigate the in vitro pharmacological interactions between essential oils (considered valuable as natural therapeutic treatments) and conventional antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin/amphotericin B) when used in combination. Interactions of the essential oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita and Rosmarinus officinalis) when combined with ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus indicate mainly antagonistic profiles. When tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae the isobolograms show antagonistic, synergistic and additive interactions depending on the combined ratio. The R. officinalis/ciprofloxacin combination against K. pneumoniae displayed the most favourable synergistic pattern. The interactions of M. alternifolia (tea tree), T. vulgaris (thyme), M. piperita (peppermint) and R. officinalis (rosemary) essential oils with amphotericin B indicate mainly antagonistic profiles when tested against Candida albicans. While a number of interactions show complete antagonism, others show varied (synergistic, additive and/or antagonistic) interactions, thus the efficacy is dependent on the ratio in which the two components co-exist. The predominant antagonistic interactions noted here, suggests that some natural therapies containing essential oils should be used with caution when combined with antibiotics.

  16. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

    2001-08-01

    The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections.

  17. ACTIVITY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    PubMed

    La Torre, A; Caradonia, F; Gianferro, M; Molinu, M G; Battaglia, V

    2014-01-01

    The requirement of environmental protection and food safety is perceived with always major interest by public opinion and it is consistent with European Union legislation on the sustainable use of pesticides (Directive 2009/128/EC). This directive requires member states to promote low pesticide-input, giving priority to non-chemical methods and low risk plant protection products. In order to contribute to the achievement of these objectives antifungal activity of natural substances, characterized by a good toxicological and ecotoxicological profile, was tested. Essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum and extract from Mimosa tenuiflora were tested against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (races 1 and 2). In vitro tests involved determination of radial growth of the colonies of fungi in the presence of varying concentrations of tested products in agar media and determination of germination percentage in the presence of tested product at various concentrations. The products based on essential oil of M. alternifolia were also tested in vivo on tomato fruits wounded and artificially inoculated with A. alternata or with B. cinerea. The in vitro tests showed the antifungal activity of both essential oils instead the extract from M. tenuiflora exhibited poor antifungal activity and only against A. alternata and B. cinerea. The results on tomato fruits showed inhibition of grey mould and black mould by essential oil of M. alternifolia. The antifungal activity increased with increasing concentrations. In conclusion, the obtained results in the present study showed promising prospects for the utilisation of investigated products to reduce the using of antifungal chemicals and to achieve a more sustainable use of pesticides.

  18. In vitro and in vivo action of terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, and α-terpinene against Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Grando, Thirssa H; Souza, Carine F; Gressler, Lucas T; Stefani, Lenita M; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility in vitro and in vivo of Trypanosoma evansi to terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene and α-terpinene, the three main compounds of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) with known efficacy in the treatment of trypanosomosis. In vitro, a trypanocidal effect of terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, and α-terpinene was observed when used alone or associated at 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations i.e., the α-terpinene showed a faster trypanocidal effect when compared to chemotherapy (diminazene aceturate - D.A.). In vivo studies were performed in two experiments: I and II where experiment I used T. evansi infected mice treated with terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene and α-terpinene alone (at a dose of 1.0 mL kg(-1)) or associated (two compounds, dose of 0.5 mL kg(-1) of each compound; tree compounds, dose of 0.335 mL kg(-1) of each compound); Treatment with α-terpinene was able to extend animal longevity, but showed no curative efficacy. In experiment II, T. evansi infected mice were treated with D.A. associate with α-terpinene, where a curative efficacy of 57.14% was found, a much better result when D.A. was used alone (14.28%). In summary, α-terpinene associated with D.A. can be used as an alternative treatment for T. evansi infection. The compound α-terpinene from M. alternifolia essential oil is the one responsible for the trypanocidal effect, a fact confirmed by in vitro results and the increased longevity observed on treated mice.

  19. Compare the influence of several methods dehydrate of cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) honey from Bac Lieu - Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Xuan; Phuc, Nguyen Chi; Oanh, Huynh Ngoc; Hien, Phan Phuoc

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research was exhaustive to valuate the effects of 5 methods used to dehydrate of cajuput honey from Bac Lieu - Vietnam include thermal, microwave, ultrasonic wave, silicagel, vacuum processing on water content of honey. Beside that, comparing the effects on honey quality with the industrial-scale processing. The main honey quality paramenters (reducing sugar (RS), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), diastase number (DN), water and colour) of cajuput honey were analyzed. RS content were analyzed by DNS method, HMF under AOAC 980.23, diastase activity based on AOAC 958.09, water content according to AOAC 969.38B and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*) were established in the CIE system. The physico-chemical characteristics of fresh honey was as follows: water content 23.18%, RS 717.42 mg/g, HMF 4.24 mg/kg, DN 4.85 mg/kg, colour parameters L*a*b* 39.51-10.51-31.81. The results of the analysis showed that excepts ultrasonic wave processing (22.93%), the other methods allowed to dehydrate of cajuput honey (thermal - 18.73%, microwave - 16.87%, silicagel - 17.86%, vacuum - 17.35% and industrial-scale processing - 16.85%).

  20. Collaborative efforts for managing Melaleuca in the Ciénega de Zapata, Cuba

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Ciénega de Zapata Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected area not only in Cuba but also throughout the Caribbean. This swamp ecosystem is characterized by a high biodiversity that comprises several endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates and is visited by 65 species of birds during their a...

  1. Ingestion of tea tree oil (Melaleuca oil) by a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marilyn C; Donoghue, Aaron; Markowitz, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2003-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy ingested a small quantity of tea tree oil. Within 30 minutes, he became ataxic and shortly thereafter progressed to unresponsiveness; he was endotracheally intubated by paramedics. His neurologic status improved gradually over 10 hours, and he remains well on follow-up. Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular topical antiseptic that is available in a wide variety of products, often without warning labels. Healthcare providers should be aware of the common uses of tea tree oil, as well as its potential toxicity.

  2. Exotic tree leaf litter accumulation and mass loss dynamics compared with two sympatric native species in South Florida, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) forms dense forests in ecologically sensitive habitats, including portions of the Florida Everglades. Within these stands, forest understories are characterized by low species diversity and a dense layer of accumulated melaleuca litter. However...

  3. Screening of some essential oils against Trichosporon species.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, Veena; Saxena, Seema; Bhatt, R P

    2013-01-01

    White Piedra is a superficial mycoses characterized by nodules on the hair shaft, caused by the basidiomycetous yeast Trichosporon species. In this study 25 essential oils were extracted and screened against two Trichosporon species i.e. Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon cutaneum. Both these fungi procured from MTCC Chandigarh were maintained on yeast malt agar plates and tubes at 25 degrees C. Two screening methods viz., agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration were adopted for the study. The results showed that the maximum anti-yeast activity against T. asahii and T. cutaneum was demonstrated by oil of Mentha piperita showing full inhibition of both the fungi, Melaleuca alternifolia with an inhibition zone of 45 and 40 mm, Cymbopogon winterians with inhibition zone of 45 and 45 mm and Cymbopogon flexuosus with 35 and 30 mm inhibition zones. The oil of Trachyspermum ammi exhibited 10 and 20 mm, Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited 30 and 20 mm, Salvia sclarea showed 20 and 18 mm and Jasminum officinale exhibited 25 and 15 mm inhibition zones showing moderate activity. The oil of Cyperus scariosus, Pogostemon patchouli and Rosa damascene showed no inhibition zone against both the fungi while Vetiveria zizanoides exhibited no inhibition in case of T. asahii and inhibition zone of 10 mm in case of T. cutaneum demonstrating comparatively low activity against both the fungi. These results support that the essential oils can be used to cure superficial mycoses and these oils may have significant role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  4. α-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. α-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that α-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. α-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. α-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of α-terpineol. α-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed α-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that α-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway.

  5. Predicting the influence of multiple components on microbial inhibition using a logistic response model - a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several synergistic methods available. However, there is a vast discrepancy in the interpretation of the synergistic results. Also, these synergistic methods do not assess the influence the tested components (drugs, plant and natural extracts), have upon one another, when more than two components are combined. Methods A modified checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic potential of Heteropyxis natalensis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and the green tea extract known as TEAVIGO™. The synergistic combination was tested against the oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. Inhibition data obtained from the checkerboard method, in the form of binary code, was used to compute a logistic response model with statistically significant results (p < 0.05). This information was used to construct a novel predictive inhibition model. Results Based on the predictive inhibition model for each microorganism, the oral pathogens tested were successfully inhibited (at 100% probability) with their respective synergistic combinations. The predictive inhibition model also provided information on the influence that different components have upon one another, and on the overall probability of inhibition. Conclusions Using the logistic response model negates the need to ‘calculate’ synergism as the results are statistically significant. In successfully determining the influence multiple components have upon one another and their effect on microbial inhibition, a novel predictive model was established. This ability to screen multiple components may have far reaching effects in ethnopharmacology, agriculture and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24928297

  6. Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations: antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Haba, Ester; Bouhdid, Samira; Torrego-Solana, Noelia; Marqués, A M; Espuny, M José; García-Celma, M José; Manresa, Angeles

    2014-12-10

    This work examines the influence of essential oil composition on emulsification with rhamnolipids and their use as therapeutic antimicrobial agents against two opportunistic pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Candida albicans. Rhamnolipids, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with waste frying oil as the carbon source, were composed of eight rhamnolipid homologues. The rhamnolipid mixture was used to produce emulsions containing essential oils (EOs) of Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum verum, Origanum compactum and Lavandula angustifolia using the titration method. Ternary phase diagrams were designed to evaluate emulsion stability, which differed depending on the essential oil. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs alone and the emulsions was evaluated. The antimicrobial activity presented by the essential oils alone increased with emulsification. The surface properties of rhamnolipids contribute to the positive dispersion of EOs and thus increase their availability and antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and S. aureus. Therefore, rhamnolipid-based emulsions represent a promising approach to the development of EO delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Groppo, F C; Ramacciato, J C; Simões, R P; Flório, F M; Sartoratto, A

    2002-12-01

    To compare the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil, garlic, and chlorhexidine solutions against oral microorganisms. The five-week study consisted of thirty subjects. The first week was considered baseline. All subjects used a control solution (second week), and were randomly divided into the three groups (third week): G1-0.12% chlorhexidine; G2 - 2.5% garlic (Allium sativum, L.); and G3 - 0.2% tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). Dishes containing blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar (MSB) were inoculated with the subjects' saliva (collected twice a week). Total microorganisms and mutans streptococci were counted in blood agar and MSB, respectively. Chlorhexidine and garlic groups showed antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci, but not against other oral microorganisms. The tea tree oil group showed antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci and other oral microorganisms. Maintenance of reduced levels of microorganisms was observed only for garlic and tea tree oil during the two consecutive weeks (fourth and fifth). Unpleasant taste (chlorhexidine 40%, tea tree oil 30%, garlic 100%), burning sensation (chlorhexidine 40%, tea tree oil 60%, garlic 100%), bad breath (chlorhexidine 40%, tea tree oil 20%, garlic 90%), and nausea (chlorhexidine 0%, tea tree oil 10%, garlic 30%) were reported. Garlic and tea tree oil might be an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.

  9. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungwon

    2003-05-01

    The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

  10. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. Results: The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. PMID:28512603

  11. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  12. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Vannacci, Alfredo; Bilia, Anna Rita; Gori, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF), and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris) were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients), suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections. PMID:24701243

  13. Evaluation of commercial essential oil samples on the growth of postharvest pathogen Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey.

    PubMed

    Lazar-Baker, E E; Hetherington, S D; Ku, V V; Newman, S M

    2011-03-01

    To assess the effect of several commercial essential oils samples Australian lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and Australian tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on mycelium growth and spore germination of Monilinia fructicola. The effectiveness of lemon myrtle essential oil as a fumigant for the control of brown rot in nectarines was evaluated. Monilinia fructicola exhibited a different level of sensitivity to each tested essential oil with results suggesting that the essential oils provide excellent control of the pathogen with respect to mycelium growth and spore germination at very low concentrations, whereas for others higher concentrations are needed to reduce significant fungal growth. In vivo application of lemon myrtle essential oil effectively reduced the incidence of M. fructicola on noninoculated fruit. Fumigation of nectarines following inoculation did not reduce the incidence of brown rot in comparison with the inoculated control treatment. No evidence of phytotoxicity on the fruit was recorded. Lemon myrtle essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal activity against M. fructicola, in vitro and to a lesser extent, under in vivo conditions. The results demonstrate that lemon myrtle essential oil, in particular, has potential as an antifungal agent to control M. fructicola. © 2011 NSW Industry & Investment, Australia. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Antifungal Effect of Essential Oils against Fusarium Keratitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    Homa, Mónika; Fekete, Ildikó Pálma; Böszörményi, Andrea; Singh, Yendrembam Randhir Babu; Selvam, Kanesan Panneer; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antifungal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Juniperus communis, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gaultheria procumbens, Melaleuca alternifolia, Origanum majorana, Salvia sclarea, and Thymus vulgaris essential oils against Fusarium species, the most common etiologic agents of filamentous fungal keratitis in South India. C. zeylanicum essential oil showed strong anti-Fusarium activity, whereas all the other tested essential oils proved to be less effective. The main component of C. zeylanicum essential oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, was also tested and showed a similar effect as the oil. The in vitro interaction between trans-cinnamaldehyde and natamycin, the first-line therapeutic agent of Fusarium keratitis, was also investigated; an enhanced fungal growth inhibition was observed when these agents were applied in combination. Light and fluorescent microscopic observations revealed that C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces the cellular metabolism and inhibits the conidia germination. Furthermore, necrotic events were significantly more frequent in the presence of these two compounds. According to our results, C. zeylanicum essential oil/trans-cinnamaldehyde provides a promising basis to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of Fusarium keratitis.

  15. In vitro activity of antifungals in combination with essential oils against the oomycete Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Valente, J S; Fonseca, A O S; Denardi, L B; Dal Ben, V S; Maia Filho, F S; Zambrano, C G; Braga, C Q; Alves, S H; Botton, S A; Brayer Pereira, D I

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to combinations of the antifungal drugs terbinafine or itraconazole with Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils (EOs). In vitro combinations of antifungal drugs with EOs were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution method against 20 Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum. The tests were performed according to protocol M38-A2, and the interpretation of each combination result was based on the values of the fractional inhibitory concentration index. The combinations of itraconazole with EOs presented prominent synergistic effects against P. insidiosum isolates, and no antagonism was observed with these combinations. However, the combinations of terbinafine with EOs resulted in indifferent or antagonistic effects. The combination of plant-derived bioactive compounds with antifungal drugs may be an alternative therapy for the control of infections caused by P. insidiosum. Studies of new therapeutic protocols involving these proposed combinations are needed. The antimicrobial combinations using EOs with terbinafine or itraconazole can be an attractive therapeutic option for controlling P. insidiosum infections. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  17. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2013-12-01

    Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

  18. The antimutagenic activity of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Evandri, M G; Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Mastrangelo, S; Bolle, P; Mazzanti, G

    2005-09-01

    Essential oils from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree oil) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender oil) are commonly used to treat minor health problems. Tea-tree oil possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and is increasingly used for skin problems. Lavender oil, traditionally used as an antiseptic agent, is now predominantly used as a relaxant, carminative, and sedative in aromatherapy. Despite their growing use no data are available on their mutagenic potential. In this study, after determining the chemical composition of tea-tree oil and lavender oil, by gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry, we investigated their mutagenic and antimutagenic activities by the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain, with and without an extrinsic metabolic activation system. Neither essential oil had mutagenic activity on the two tested Salmonella strains or on E. coli, with or without the metabolic activation system. Conversely, lavender oil exerted strong antimutagenic activity, reducing mutant colonies in the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 2-nitrofluorene. Antimutagenicity was concentration-dependent: the maximal concentration (0.80 mg/plate) reduced the number of histidine-independent revertant colonies by 66.4%. Lavender oil (0.80 mg/plate) also showed moderate antimutagenicity against the TA98 strain exposed to the direct mutagen 1-nitropyrene. Its antimutagenic property makes lavender oil a promising candidate for new applications in human healthcare.

  19. Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Tambor, Krzysztof; Herman, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The high concentrations of essential oils are generally required to receive microbial purity of the products (cosmetics, medicine). On the other hand, their application due to the high concentration of essential oils may be limited by changes in organoleptic and textural quality of the products, as well as they cause irritation and allergies in users. Addition of linalool to essential oil may significantly enhance its antimicrobial effectiveness and reduce their concentrations in products, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The aim of the study was to compare antimicrobial activity of essential oil alone and in combination with linalool. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, Juniperus communis, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus bergamia, Citrus grandis, Lavandula angustifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Syzygium aromaticum, linalool and their combination was investigated against bacteria and fungi using the disc diffusion method. The addition of linalool to S. aromaticum oil in a synergistic manner enhanced its antimicrobial efficacy against P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis. Moreover, the additive interaction between this oil and linalool was observed against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. It was also found that linalool in an additive manner increased the antimicrobial effectiveness of T. vulgaris oil against P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial properties of mixture of essential oils with their active constituents may be used for creating new strategies to maintain microbiological purity of products.

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: a review of tea tree oil as a promising antimicrobial.

    PubMed

    Halcón, Linda; Milkus, Kelly

    2004-11-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be a major health concern worldwide. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-resistant and -sensitive, are of concern in their ability to cause difficult skin and underlying tissue infections. Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil), an essential oil, has demonstrated promising efficacy in treating these infections. Tea tree oil has been used for centuries as a botanical medicine, and has only in recent decades surfaced in the scientific literature as a promising adjunctive wound treatment. Tea tree oil is antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and has demonstrated ability to activate monocytes. There are few apparent side effects to using tea tree oil topically in low concentrations, with contact dermatitis being the most common. Tea tree oil has been effective as an adjunctive therapy in treating osteomyelitis and infected chronic wounds in case studies and small clinical trials. There is a need for larger clinical trials to further examine efficacy of tea tree oil as an adjunctive wound therapy, as well as improved guidelines for developing plant-based medicines.

  2. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Bassett, I B; Pannowitz, D L; Barnetson, R S

    1990-10-15

    Tea-tree oil (an essential oil of the Australian native tree Melaleuca alternifolia) has long been regarded as a useful topical antiseptic agent in Australia and has been shown to have a variety of antimicrobial activities; however, only anecdotal evidence exists for its efficacy in the treatment of various skin conditions. We have performed a single-blind, randomised clinical trial on 124 patients to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of 5% tea-tree oil gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both 5% tea-tree oil and 5% benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in ameliorating the patients' acne by reducing the number of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions (open and closed comedones), although the onset of action in the case of tea-tree oil was slower. Encouragingly, fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated with tea-tree oil.

  3. Interaction of tea tree oil with model and cellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Cristiano; Molinari, Agnese; Toccacieli, Laura; Calcabrini, Annarica; Stringaro, Annarita; Chistolini, Pietro; Arancia, Giuseppe; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2006-07-27

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, a species of northern New South Wales, Australia. It exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and an antifungal activity. Only recently has TTO been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of multidrug resistant (MDR) human melanoma cells. It has been suggested that the effect of TTO on tumor cells could be mediated by its interaction with the plasma membrane, most likely by inducing a reorganization of lipid architecture. In this paper we report biophysical and structural results obtained using simplified planar model membranes (Langmuir films) mimicking lipid "rafts". We also used flow cytometry analysis (FCA) and freeze-fracturing transmission electron microscopy to investigate the effects of TTO on actual MDR melanoma cell membranes. Thermodynamic (compression isotherms and adsorption kinetics) and structural (Brewster angle microscopy) investigation of the lipid monolayers clearly indicates that TTO interacts preferentially with the less ordered DPPC "sea" and that it does not alter the more ordered lipid "rafts". Structural observations, performed by freeze fracturing, confirm that TTO interacts with the MDR melanoma cell plasma membrane. Moreover, experiments performed by FCA demonstrate that TTO does not interfere with the function of the MDR drug transporter P-gp. We therefore propose that the effect exerted on MDR melanoma cells is mediated by the interaction with the fluid DPPC phase, rather than with the more organized "rafts" and that this interaction preferentially influences the ATP-independent antiapoptotic activity of P-gp likely localized outside "rafts".

  4. Formulation and evaluation of an effective pH balanced topical antimicrobial product containing tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, A; Khar, R K; Chaudhry, R

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil formulations was studied. Microemulsions, liposomal dispersions, multiple emulsions and a colloidal bed of sterile clay were formulated using 5% w/w of tea tree oil. A number of formulations were prepared at various pH values (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0). Thermal stability studies showed that the formulations were stable for more than eight months. Agar dilution tests showed MICs of 1.0% v/v S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In the broth dilution test, MBC of the oil for P. acnes was 0.5% v/v. MIC and MBC values were comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that tea tree oil retained its activity in the above-mentioned formulations. The microbiological evaluation showed that the formulations containing 5% w/w tea tree oil had a maximum effect at pH 5.5.

  5. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  6. Formulation study of tea tree oil patches.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Paola; Casiraghi, Antonella; Cilurzo, Francesco; Gambaro, Veniero; Montanari, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil (TTO), the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia are well documented. In order to optimize its therapeutic activity, TTO patches were designed. The aim of this work was the formulation of monolayer patches containing TTO. Moreover, the performance of oleic acid (OA) as a skin penetration enhancer in patches was evaluated. Terpinen-4-ol (T4OL), the main component of TTO, was the marker used to evaluate TTO skin permeability. The permeation study was performed through human epidermis by using Franz diffusion cells. Patches were prepared by using methacrylic copolymers, Eudragit E100 (EuE100) or Eudragit NE (EuNE), and a silicone resin, BioPSA7-4602 (Bio-PSA). TTO and OA contents were fixed at 10% w/w and 3% w/w, respectively. The patches were prepared by a casting method and characterised in terms of T4OL content and skin permeability. All the selected polymers were suitable as the main component of the patch matrix. Since the main critical issue in the use of TTO is related to its toxicity after absorption, the local administration of TTO can take advantage of the use of patches based on EuE100 because of the high retained amount and the low permeation of T4OL. In this matrix, OA slightly increased the T4OL retained amount, improving the efficacy and safety of TTO patches.

  7. Antifungal effect of Australian tea tree oil on Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from canines suffering from cutaneous skin disease.

    PubMed

    Weseler, A; Geiss, H K; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    The lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal skin flora of most warm-blooded organisms. In a number of surveys it could be demonstrated that this yeast species might be involved in different skin diseases like seborrhoeic dermatitis, especially in dogs and cats. In order to look for an alternative therapeutic agent to the commonly used antimycotic and antiseptic synthetic substances the in vitro activity of Australian tea tree oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, against several strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was examined. All tested strains showed remarkably high susceptibility to tea tree oil. With these results the excellent antibacterial activity of tea tree oil is extended to a new group of fungal pathogens colonizing mainly mammals' skin. During the last ten years there was an increasing popularity of tea tree oil containing human health care products. The presented data open up new horizons for this essential oil as a promising alternative agent for topical use in veterinary medicine as well.

  8. Tea tree oil-induced transcriptional alterations in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2013-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO.

  9. Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Tong, M M; Altman, P M; Barnetson, R S

    1992-01-01

    Tea tree oil (an essential oil derived primarily from the Australian native Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used as a topical antiseptic agent since the early part of this century for a wide variety of skin infections; however, to date, the evidence for its efficacy in fungal infections is still largely anecdotal. One hundred and four patients completed a randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of 10% w/w tea tree oil cream compared with 1% tolnaftate and placebo creams in the treatment of tinea pedis. Significantly more tolnaftate-treated patients (85%) than tea tree oil (30%) and placebo-treated patients (21%) showed conversion to negative culture at the end of therapy (p < 0.001); there was no statistically significant difference between tea tree oil and placebo groups. All three groups demonstrated improvement in clinical condition based on the four clinical parameters of scaling, inflammation, itching and burning. The tea tree oil group (24/37) and the tolnaftate group (19/33) showed significant improvement in clinical condition when compared to the placebo group (14/34; p = 0.022 and p = 0.018 respectively). Tea tree oil cream (10% w/w) appears to reduce the symptomatology of tinea pedis as effectively as tolnaftate 1% but is no more effective than placebo in achieving a mycological cure. This may be the basis for the popular use of tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis.

  10. Reduction of mouth malodour and volatile sulphur compounds in intensive care patients using an essential oil mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Park, Joohyang; Maddock-Jennings, Wendy; Kim, Dong Oak; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of an essential oil solution on levels of malodour and production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in patients nursed in intensive care unit (ICU). Thirty two patients received 3 min of oral cleaning using an essential oil solution (mixture of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, peppermint, Mentha piperita and lemon, Citrus limon) on the first day, and Tantum (benzydamine hydrochloride) on the second day. Two trained nurses measured the level of malodour with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) and VSC with a Halimeter before (Pre), 5 min after (Post I) and 1 h following treatment (Post II). The level of oral malodour was significantly different following the essential oil session, and differed significantly between two sessions at Post I (p < 0.005) and Post II (p < 0.001). Differences between the two sessions were significant (Tantum, p < 0.001; essential oil, p < 0.001) in the level of VSC and significantly lower in the essential oil session than Tantum at the Post II (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that mouth care using an essential oil mixture of diluted tea tree, peppermint and lemon may be an effective method to reduce malodour and VSC in intensive care unit patients. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M N M; Aquino, S G; Rossa Junior, C; Spolidorio, D M P

    2014-09-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil with anti-inflammatory properties, steam distilled from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of TTO and its components (terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. The ability of TTO, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol to modulate the macrophage response to bacterial LPS stimulation was assessed by ELISA for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine production and by western blotting for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which are associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We used a human monocytic cell line (U937) differentiated into macrophages. LPS induced the production of all cytokines, and TTO and its components significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10. The production of TNF-α was not affected by either TTO or its major components. The modulation of cytokine production was not mediated by changes in NF-κB or p38 MAPK activation. TTO, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human macrophages; this inhibition was mediated by interfering with the NF-kB, p38 or ERK MAPK pathways.

  12. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

  13. Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, J; Shao, X; Xu, F; Wang, H

    2015-11-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has been evaluated as a potential eco-friendly antifungal agent against Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of tea tree oil (TTO) and its components against B. cinerea. Of the components we tested in contact phase, terpinen-4-ol had the highest antifungal activity, followed by TTO, α-terpineol, terpinolene, then 1,8-cineole. As one of characteristic components of TTO, terpinen-4-ol treatment led to pronounced alterations in mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, membrane permeability under scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and fluorescent microscope, and also reduced the ergosterol content of fungi. As another characteristic component, 1,8-cineole caused serious intracellular damage but only slightly affected B. cinerea otherwise. When terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole were used together, the synergistic antifungal activity was significantly higher than either component by itself. The results of our study confirmed that terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole act mainly on the cell membranes and organelles of B. cinerea, respectively, and when combined are similar to TTO in antifungal activity due to their differences. Understanding the mechanism of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole antifungal action to B. cinerea is helpful for investigation on their synergistic effect and explaining antifungal action modes of TTO. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Positive Patch-Test Reactions to Essential Oils in Consecutive Patients From North America and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Geier, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang

    Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but

  15. An evaluation of the impact of Melaleuca quinquenervia invasion and managment on plant community structure after fire.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The successful management of invasive species can be particularly difficult in natural areas that depend on disturbances such as fire to maintain community structure and function. In these systems, fire-adapted invasive species may disproportionally benefit from post-fire resource availability, inc...

  16. Encapsulation of essential oils within a polymeric liposomal formulation for enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    van Vuuren, Sandy F; du Toit, Lisa C; Parry, Ashleigh; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils and their constituents are known to possess antimicrobial activity; however, their inherent volatility is a limiting factor. In order to exploit the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils, encapsulation within polymeric liposomal systems was undertaken. The liposomes were subsequently polymer-coated in order to further enhance the stability of the formulations. Essential oils distilled from Artemisia afra, Eucalyptus globulus and Melaleuca alternifolia were encapsulated into diastearoyl phosphatidylcholine and diastearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes employing a reverse phase evaporation methodology. A polyelectrolyte coating was then applied via the layer-by-layer self-deposition technique. A batch of the liposomes was polymer-coated with a 0.15%w/v chitosan solution. Using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay, the liposome-encapsulated, unencapsulated and polymer-coated liposome-encapsulated essential oils were compared in order to observe whether the antimicrobial efficacy was improved with encapsulation and polymer coating. Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) were calculated in order to determine the antimicrobial interactions amongst the lipoid components, polymer coating and essential oils (synergistic, additive, indifferent and antagonistic interactions). With the exception of A. afra, microbial growth was inhibited at lower concentrations for the encapsulated formulations in comparison with the nonencapsulated oils. Synergistic to additive interactions were noted for encapsulated E. globulus (sigmaFIC values 0.25-0.45) and M alternifolia (sigmaFIC values 0.26-0.52) formulations. The addition of the polymer coating did not enhance antimicrobial activity, but owing to their positive effects on membrane stability, its presence is important as a means of extending the shelf life of these formulations. Additionally, the presence of the polymeric coating availed the essential oil at a slower rate. This investigation is a

  17. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cock, I. E.; Winnett, V.; Sirdaarta, J.; Matthews, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results: Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygiumaustrale, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 μg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 μg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus

  18. The potential of selected Australian medicinal plants with anti-Proteus activity for the treatment and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E; Winnett, V; Sirdaarta, J; Matthews, B

    2015-05-01

    A wide variety of herbal medicines are used in indigenous Australian traditional medicinal systems to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to test the ability of a panel of Australian plants with a history of the ethnobotanical usage in the treatment of inflammation for the ability to block the microbial trigger of RA. One hundred and six extracts from 40 plant species were investigated for the ability to inhibit the growth of the bacterial trigger of RA (Proteus mirabilis). The extracts were tested for toxicity in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. The most potent inhibitor of P. mirabilis growth was further analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to high accuracy time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. Sixty-five of the 106 extracts tested (61.3%) inhibited the growth of P. The Aleurites moluccanus, Datura leichardtii, Eucalyptus major, Leptospermum bracteata, L. juniperium, Macadamia integriflora nut, Melaleuca alternifolia, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Petalostigma pubescens, P. triloculorae, P. augustifolium, Scaevola spinescens, Syzygium australe, and Tasmannia lanceolata extracts were determined to be the most effective inhibitors of P. mirabilis growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values generally significantly below 1000 μg/ml. T. lanceolata fruit extracts were the most effective P. mirabilis growth inhibitors, with a MIC values of 11 and 126 μg/ml for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the T. lanceolata fruit extracts by RP-HPLC coupled to high-resolution TOF mass spectroscopy failed to detect resveratrol in either T. lanceolata fruit extract. However, the resveratrol glycoside piceid and 2 combretastatin stilbenes (A-1 and A-4) were detected in both T. lanceolata fruit extracts. With the exception of the Eucalyptus and Syzygium extracts, all extracts exhibiting Proteus inhibitory activity were also shown to be nontoxic

  19. Use of multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the effects of monoterpenoids and phenylpropanoids on membrane polarity and permeability in staphylococci and enterococci.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Katherine A; Heel, Kathryn A

    2012-09-01

    Monoterpenoids and phenylpropanoids are major components of many plant essential oils and are relatively simple, low-molecular-weight compounds with antimicrobial activity. This study used multiparameter flow cytometry to examine changes in membrane polarity and permeability in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis following exposure to the monoterpenoids carvacrol, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol and the phenylpropanoids eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil was also investigated. The fluorescent dyes DiOC(2)(3) (3,3'-diethyloxacarbocyanine oxide) and TO-PRO(®)-3 were used to assess membrane potential and permeability, respectively, following treatment with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each test compound for 5 min and 30 min. Four subpopulations of cells were identified based on polarity and permeability. Eugenol treatment resulted in the greatest depolarisation and permeabilisation at 5 min, followed by carvacrol. Cinnamaldehyde, whilst having the lowest MICs (0.006-0.1%, v/v), did not induce changes in polarity or permeability at the MIC, and substantially higher concentrations were required to induce significant effects. At 30 min, treatment with all six compounds resulted in significant depolarisation (60.9-99.3% of cells), whereas fewer compounds (ranging from two to five per organism) resulted in significant permeabilisation. The extent of permeabilisation was always less than depolarisation, with overall means for all treatments of 46.1% and 89.4% of cells permeabilised and depolarised, respectively, at 30 min. These data demonstrate that several monoterpenoids and phenylpropanoids as well as tea tree oil alter membrane properties by decreasing polarity and increasing permeability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    PubMed

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and carvacrol, and synergy of carvacrol and erythromycin, against clinical, erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Magi, Gloria; Marini, Emanuela; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Melaleuca alternifolia against 32 erythromycin-resistant [Mininum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ≥1 μg/mL; inducible, constitutive, and efflux-mediated resistance phenotype; erm(TR), erm(B), and mef(A) genes] and cell-invasive Group A streptococci (GAS) isolated from children with pharyngotonsillitis in Italy. Over the past decades erythromycin resistance in GAS has emerged in several countries; strains combining erythromycin resistance and cell invasiveness may escape β-lactams because of intracellular location and macrolides because of resistance, resulting in difficulty of eradication and recurrent pharyngitis. Thyme and origanum essential oils demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity with MICs ranging from 256 to 512 μg/mL. The phenolic monoterpene carvacrol [2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl) phenol] is a major component of the essential oils of Origanum and Thymus plants. MICs of carvacrol ranged from 64 to 256 μg/mL. In the live/dead assay several dead cells were detected as early as 1 h after incubation with carvacrol at the MIC. In single-step resistance selection studies no resistant mutants were obtained. A synergistic action of carvacrol and erythromycin was detected by the checkerboard assay and calculation of the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) Index. A 2- to 2048-fold reduction of the erythromycin MIC was documented in checkerboard assays. Synergy (FIC Index ≤0.5) was found in 21/32 strains and was highly significant (p < 0.01) in strains where resistance is expressed only in presence of erythromycin. Synergy was confirmed in 17/23 strains using 24-h time-kill curves in presence of carvacrol and erythromycin. Our findings demonstrated that carvacrol acts either alone or in combination with erythromycin against erythromycin-resistant GAS and could potentially

  2. Terpinen-4-ol inhibits colorectal cancer growth via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ken; Murata, Soichiro; Ito, Hiromu; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Villareal, Myra Orlina; Zheng, Yun-Wen; Matsui, Hirofumi; Isoda, Hiroko; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-01

    Terpinen-4-ol (TP4O) is the main component of the essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia, known as the tea tree, of the botanical family Myrtaceae. The anticancer effects of TP4O have been reported in several cancer cell lines. Previous reports have demonstrated that TP4O exerts anticancer effects by inducing apoptotic cell death in several cell lines; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. In the present study, the anticancer effects of TP4O against the colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HCT116 and RKO were evaluated using WST-8 and bromodeoxyuridine assays. The mechanism of cell death was investigated by the measurement of caspase-3/7, Annexin V and lactate dehydrogenase release. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced by TP4O were evaluated by electron spin resonance and quantitative measurement of dihydroethidium. Localization of the ROS derived from mitochondria was observed by confocal inverted microscopy. Protein levels of ROS scavengers were assessed by western blotting analysis. To confirm the role of ROS, cell viability was measured in the presence of antioxidant reagents. In an in vivo xenograft model of ICR-SCID mice implanted with HCT116 cells, 200 mg/kg TP4O was injected locally, and tumor growth was compared with that of the control. TP4O induced apoptotic cell death in HCT116 and RKO cells in a dose-dependent manner, and TP4O also increased the levels of ROS generated by mitochondria. TP4O-induced cell death was rescued by administration of antioxidant regents. In vivo, TP4O inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 xenografts compared with that of the control group. The results of the present study suggest that TP4O induces apoptosis in CRC cells through ROS generation. Furthermore, TP4O is potentially useful for the development of novel therapies against CRC.

  3. In vitro effects of plant essential oils on non-specific immune parameters of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.

    PubMed

    Sutili, F J; Gatlin, D M; Rossi, W; Heinzmann, B M; Baldisserotto, B

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemicals such as plant essential oils (EOs) have been reported to favour various activities in the innate immune system of fish. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the in vitro effect of three different plant EOs (Ocimum americanum, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Melaleuca alternifolia) on non-specific immune parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of each plant EO evaluated in preparations of head-kidney macrophages, blood leucocytes and blood plasma were as follows: 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 μg/ml. Red drum head-kidney macrophages significantly increased extracellular superoxide anion production when exposed (20 h) to O. americanum EO (1.0-8.0 μg/ml) and C. flexuosus EO (2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml). The respiratory burst of blood leucocytes (NBT test) significantly increased in all concentrations when compared to the respective control group, for all EOs. At the highest concentration (16.0 μg/ml), C. flexuosus EO significantly inhibited the haemolytic activity of complement system in red drum blood after 1 h exposure. None of the tested concentrations significantly altered plasma lysozyme activity or erythrocyte osmotic fragility after exposing (1 h) red drum whole blood to each EO. This study demonstrated that these plant EOs are capable of triggering superoxide anion production in red drum leucocytes (head-kidney macrophages and/or blood leucocytes). In vivo studies are warranted to address their potential as immunostimulants in the diet of red drum and other aquacultured species.

  4. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  5. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    PubMed

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  6. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    PubMed

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study.

  7. The dynamics and mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ru; Li, Hai-Ling; Shi, Qing-Shan; Sun, Ting-Li; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Song, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Mo

    2016-10-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a yellow liquid extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia. Although the antimicrobial activity of TTO has been known for a long time, its specific antimicrobial effects and mechanism underlying these remain poorly characterized. The present study investigated the chemical composition of TTO and the dynamics and mechanism of its antimicrobial activities in two bacterial and two fungal strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified alkenes and alcohols as the main constituents of TTO. Terpinen-4-ol was the most abundant individual component, accounting for approximately 23 % of the TTO. Poisoned food technique assessment showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of TTO for bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal strains (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were 1.08 and 2.17 mg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial dynamic curves showed that with increasing concentrations of TTO, the rate of cell killing and the duration of growth lag phase increased correspondingly. These data indicated that TTO produced concentration and time-dependent antimicrobial effects. The minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of TTO were 2.17, 4.34, and 4.34 against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans, respectively. However, A. niger conidia were not completely eradicated, even after 3 days in the presence of 17.34 mg/mL TTO. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that TTO penetrated the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of all the tested bacterial and fungal strains. TTO may also penetrate fungal organelle membrane. These findings indicated that TTO maybe exerts its antimicrobial effects by compromising the cell membrane, resulting in loss of the cytoplasm and organelle damage, which ultimate leads to cell death.

  8. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in the number of ticks from the Group B compared to the Group A on day 4 PT. However, there was no significant difference in the number of ticks on cows from Groups A and C after treatment (P>0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts.

  10. Modelling the long term effects of an introduced herbivore on spread of an invasive tree

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (hereafter melaleuca) is an invasive tree from Australia that has spread over the freshwater ecosystems of southern Florida, displacing native vegetation such as slash pine (Pinus elliottii), pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens), and loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthu...

  11. Modeling the long-term effects of introduced herbivores on the spread of an invasive tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Bo; DeAngelis, Don; Rayamajhi, Min B.; Botkin, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    ContextMelaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (hereafter melaleuca) is an invasive tree from Australia that has spread over the freshwater ecosystems of southern Florida, displacing native vegetation, thus threatening native biodiversity. Suppression of melaleuca appears to be progressing through the introduction of insect species, the weevil, Oxiops vitiosa, and the psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae.ObjectiveTo improve understanding of the possible effects of herbivory on the landscape dynamics of melaleuca in native southern Florida plant communities.MethodsWe projected likely future changes in plant communities using the individual based modeling platform, JABOWA-II, by simulating successional processes occurring in two types of southern Florida habitat, cypress swamp and bay swamp, occupied by native species and melaleuca, with the impact of insect herbivores.ResultsComputer simulations show melaleuca invasion leads to decreases in density and basal area of native species, but herbivory would effectively control melaleuca to low levels, resulting in a recovery of native species. When herbivory was modeled on pure melaleuca stands, it was more effective in stands with initially larger-sized melaleuca. Although the simulated herbivory did not eliminate melaleuca, it decreased its presence dramatically in all cases, supporting the long-term effectiveness of herbivory in controlling melaleuca invasion.ConclusionsThe results provide three conclusions relevant to management: (1) The introduction of insect herbivory that has been applied to melaleuca appears sufficient to suppress melaleuca over the long term, (2) dominant native species may recover in about 50 years, and (3) regrowth of native species will further suppress melaleuca through competition.

  12. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    PubMed Central

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%−4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the

  13. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    PubMed

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  14. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-07

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC and<20min for eGC×GC, while ensuring adequate interference-free enantiomer separation. The suitability of using these two enantioselective multidimensional approaches for the routine assessment of chiral monoterpenes in TTO was evaluated and discussed. Exact enantiomeric composition of chiral markers for authentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over e

  15. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Apiognomonia lasiopetali on Lasiopetalum sp., Blastacervulus eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus adesmophloia, Bullanockia australis (incl. Bullanockia gen. nov.) on Kingia australis, Caliciopsis eucalypti on Eucalyptus marginata, Celerioriella petrophiles on Petrophile teretifolia, Coleophoma xanthosiae on Xanthosia rotundifolia, Coniothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Diatrypella banksiae on Banksia formosa, Disculoides corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla, Elsinoë eelemani on Melaleuca alternifolia, Elsinoë eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus kingsmillii, Elsinoë preissianae on Eucalyptus preissiana, Eucasphaeria rustici on Eucalyptus creta, Hyweljonesia queenslandica (incl. Hyweljonesia gen. nov.) on the cocoon of an unidentified microlepidoptera, Mycodiella eucalypti (incl. Mycodiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus diversicolor, Myrtapenidiella sporadicae on Eucalyptus sporadica, Neocrinula xanthorrhoeae (incl. Neocrinula gen. nov.) on Xanthorrhoea sp., Ophiocordyceps nooreniae on dead ant, Phaeosphaeriopsis agavacearum on Agave sp., Phlogicylindrium mokarei on Eucalyptus sp., Phyllosticta acaciigena on Acacia suaveolens, Pleurophoma acaciae on Acacia glaucoptera, Pyrenochaeta hakeae on Hakea sp., Readeriella lehmannii on Eucalyptus lehmannii, Saccharata banksiae on Banksia grandis, Saccharata daviesiae on Daviesia pachyphylla, Saccharata eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus bigalerita, Saccharata hakeae on Hakea baxteri, Saccharata hakeicola on Hakea victoria, Saccharata lambertiae on Lambertia ericifolia, Saccharata petrophiles on Petrophile sp., Saccharata petrophilicola on Petrophile fastigiata, Sphaerellopsis hakeae on Hakea sp., and Teichospora kingiae on Kingia australis.Brazil: Adautomilanezia caesalpiniae (incl. Adautomilanezia gen. nov.) on Caesalpina echinata, Arthrophiala arthrospora (incl. Arthrophiala gen. nov.) on Sagittaria montevidensis, Diaporthe caatingaensis (endophyte from

  16. Antimicrobial activity of two essential oils.

    PubMed

    Mickienė, Rūta; Bakutis, Bronius; Baliukonienė, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in vitro for possible application to reduce the content of microorganisms in the air of animal houses. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. were screened against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and yeast Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the active essential oils was tested using broth dilution assay. The essential oils concentrations ranged from 0.1-50.0%. The combined effects of essential oils were tested for Malaleuca alternifolia L. and Cymbopogon citrarus L. concentrations ranged from 0.005-50.0%. The oils showed a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0.1-0.5% of Cymbopogon citrarus L. and Malaleuca alternifolia L. reduced total microorganisms count of Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. High antibacterial activity was also revealed for Cymbopogon citrarus L. with bactericidal concentrations of 0.8% for Escherichia coli, 5.0% for Enterococcus faecium, 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal concentrations of Malaleuca alternifolia L. were 5.0% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and 8.0% for Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citrarus and Malaleuca alternifolia may be a promising alternative of air disinfection in animal houses.

  17. Interesting biological activities from plants traditionally used by Native Australians.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Marcello; Kemp, Annabeth S; Taylor, Rory P; Wickens, Kristen M; Kienow, Lucie

    2005-01-15

    Four plants routinely used for medicinal purposes by Native Australians were screened for various biological activities. Methanol extracts of Eremophila maculata, Acacia auriculoformis and Acacia bivenosa exhibited antibiotic effects, while Eremophila alternifolia yielded an extract that induced significant changes to the heart activity of spontaneously hypertensive rats. We report on these biological activities.

  18. Solubilizing efficiency of different gutta-percha solvents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Görduysus, M O; Taşman, F; Tuncer, S; Etikan, I

    1997-09-01

    A study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the efficiency of different solvents for dissolving gutta-percha. Halothane, chloroform, xylene, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, turpentine, oil of mela-leuca and eucalyptol were used as solvents for dissolving standardized gutta-percha discs. Halothane, chloroform and xylene were markedly superior solvents of gutta-percha in comparison with the others. There was no significant difference among the three (p > 0.05). Eucalyptol, turpentine and oil of melaleuca were relatively less efficient. Acetone and isopropyl alcohol did not dissolve gutta-percha, being similar in this respect to distilled water.

  19. The Use of an Invasive Species Habitat by a Small Folivorous Primate: Implications for Lemur Conservation in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Eppley, Timothy M.; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Randriatafika, Faly; Andriamandimbiarisoa, Laza N.; Rabehevitra, David; Ravelomanantsoa, Robertin; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.

    2015-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar are among the most threatened mammalian taxa in the world, with habitat loss due to shifting cultivation and timber harvest heavily contributing to their precarious state. Deforestation often leads to fragmentation, resulting in mixed-habitat matrices throughout a landscape where disturbed areas are prone to invasion by exotic plants. Our study site, the Mandena littoral forest (southeast Madagascar), is a matrix of littoral forest, littoral swamp, and Melaleuca swamp habitats. Here, Melaleuca quinquenervia has invaded the wetland ecosystem, creating a mono-dominant habitat that currently provides the only potential habitat corridor between forest fragments. We sought to understand the role of this invasive Melaleuca swamp on the behavioral ecology of a threatened, small-bodied folivore, the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). We collected botanical and behavioral data on four groups of H. meridionalis between January and December 2013. Our results confirm Melaleuca swamp as an important part of their home range: while lemurs seasonally limited activities to certain habitats, all groups were capable of utilizing this invasive habitat for feeding and resting. Furthermore, the fact that Hapalemur use an invasive plant species as a dispersal corridor increases our knowledge of their ecological flexibility, and may be useful in the conservation management of remaining threatened populations. PMID:26536667

  20. Comparing native and exotic litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melaleuca quinquenervia is one of the most problematic invasive species in Florida Everglades’ ecosystem. Treatment of these populations has been justified in part by hypothesized changes in the rate of organic matter decomposition and nutrient release from exotic litter. This study investigated t...

  1. Status of exotic woody species in big cypress national preserve. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    The current status of exotic woody plants in Big Cypress National Preserve is documented. A map of the distribution of principal pest species, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Casuarina sp., is presented. Prognoses of population increases of these problem species are determined utilizing the current distributions and assessing environmental conditions. Some potential problem species are also identified.

  2. Evaluation of Gutta-percha solvents.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1990-11-01

    Five solvents (rectified white turpentine, oil of melaleuca, eucalyptol, white pine oil, and pine needle oil) were compared with chloroform for their ability to dissolve gutta-percha. All solvents dissolved at least 50% of the gutta-percha in 15 min at 37 degrees C with chloroform and rectified white turpentine dissolving the gutta-percha completely.

  3. The Use of an Invasive Species Habitat by a Small Folivorous Primate: Implications for Lemur Conservation in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Randriatafika, Faly; Andriamandimbiarisoa, Laza N; Rabehevitra, David; Ravelomanantsoa, Robertin; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2015-01-01

    The lemurs of Madagascar are among the most threatened mammalian taxa in the world, with habitat loss due to shifting cultivation and timber harvest heavily contributing to their precarious state. Deforestation often leads to fragmentation, resulting in mixed-habitat matrices throughout a landscape where disturbed areas are prone to invasion by exotic plants. Our study site, the Mandena littoral forest (southeast Madagascar), is a matrix of littoral forest, littoral swamp, and Melaleuca swamp habitats. Here, Melaleuca quinquenervia has invaded the wetland ecosystem, creating a mono-dominant habitat that currently provides the only potential habitat corridor between forest fragments. We sought to understand the role of this invasive Melaleuca swamp on the behavioral ecology of a threatened, small-bodied folivore, the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). We collected botanical and behavioral data on four groups of H. meridionalis between January and December 2013. Our results confirm Melaleuca swamp as an important part of their home range: while lemurs seasonally limited activities to certain habitats, all groups were capable of utilizing this invasive habitat for feeding and resting. Furthermore, the fact that Hapalemur use an invasive plant species as a dispersal corridor increases our knowledge of their ecological flexibility, and may be useful in the conservation management of remaining threatened populations.

  4. Fire Promotes Pollinator Visitation: Implications for Ameliorating Declines of Pollination Services

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuland, Michael E.; Haag, Elliot N.; Bryant, Jessica A. M.; Read, Quentin D.; Klein, Robert N.; Douglas, Morgan J.; Gorman, Courtney E.; Greenwell, Trey D.; Busby, Mark W.; Collins, Jonathan; LeRoy, Joseph T.; Schuchmann, George; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Pollinators serve critical roles for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and have an estimated annual value of over $150 billion for global agriculture. Mounting evidence from agricultural systems reveals that pollinators are declining in many regions of the world, and with a lack of information on whether pollinator communities in natural systems are following similar trends, identifying factors which support pollinator visitation and services are important for ameliorating the effects of the current global pollinator crisis. We investigated how fire affects resource structure and how that variation influences floral pollinator communities by comparing burn versus control treatments in a southeastern USA old-field system. We hypothesized and found a positive relationship between fire and plant density of a native forb, Verbesina alternifolia, as well as a significant difference in floral visitation of V. alternifolia between burn and control treatments. V. alternifolia density was 44% greater and floral visitation was 54% greater in burned treatments relative to control sites. When the density of V. alternifolia was experimentally reduced in the burn sites to equivalent densities observed in control sites, floral visitation in burned sites declined to rates found in control sites. Our results indicate that plant density is a proximal mechanism by which an imposed fire regime can indirectly impact floral visitation, suggesting its usefulness as a tool for management of pollination services. Although concerns surround the negative impacts of management, indirect positive effects may provide an important direction to explore for managing future ecological and conservation issues. Studies examining the interaction among resource concentration, plant apparency, and how fire affects the evolutionary consequences of altered patterns of floral visitation are overdue. PMID:24265787

  5. Fire promotes pollinator visitation: implications for ameliorating declines of pollination services.

    PubMed

    Van Nuland, Michael E; Haag, Elliot N; Bryant, Jessica A M; Read, Quentin D; Klein, Robert N; Douglas, Morgan J; Gorman, Courtney E; Greenwell, Trey D; Busby, Mark W; Collins, Jonathan; Leroy, Joseph T; Schuchmann, George; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-01-01

    Pollinators serve critical roles for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and have an estimated annual value of over $150 billion for global agriculture. Mounting evidence from agricultural systems reveals that pollinators are declining in many regions of the world, and with a lack of information on whether pollinator communities in natural systems are following similar trends, identifying factors which support pollinator visitation and services are important for ameliorating the effects of the current global pollinator crisis. We investigated how fire affects resource structure and how that variation influences floral pollinator communities by comparing burn versus control treatments in a southeastern USA old-field system. We hypothesized and found a positive relationship between fire and plant density of a native forb, Verbesina alternifolia, as well as a significant difference in floral visitation of V. alternifolia between burn and control treatments. V. alternifolia density was 44% greater and floral visitation was 54% greater in burned treatments relative to control sites. When the density of V. alternifolia was experimentally reduced in the burn sites to equivalent densities observed in control sites, floral visitation in burned sites declined to rates found in control sites. Our results indicate that plant density is a proximal mechanism by which an imposed fire regime can indirectly impact floral visitation, suggesting its usefulness as a tool for management of pollination services. Although concerns surround the negative impacts of management, indirect positive effects may provide an important direction to explore for managing future ecological and conservation issues. Studies examining the interaction among resource concentration, plant apparency, and how fire affects the evolutionary consequences of altered patterns of floral visitation are overdue.

  6. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  7. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    Since ancient times, plant products were used in various aspects. However, their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Recently, concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. In this study, 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston), and the filariasis and encephalitis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba), Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron), Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia), Violet (Viola odorata), and Catnip (Nepeta cataria), which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. This effect needs, however, a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of toothpastes with natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo Smolarek, Priscila; Esmerino, Luis Antonio; Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Kozlowski, Vitoldo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of commercial toothpastes containing natural compounds. Materials and Methods: The study groups were divided based on the natural compound present in the toothpaste composition: Sorbitol (I), tocopherol (II), mint (III), cinnamon/mint (IV), propolis/melaleuca (V), mint/açai (VI), mint/guarana (VII), propolis (VIII), negative control (IX), and the positive control (X). The antimicrobial properties of the toothpastes were tested using the disk diffusion method against oral pathogens: Streptococcus mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis. The resulting inhibition halos were measured in millimeters. Results: The data indicated that the bacteria responded differently to the toothpastes (P < 0.0001). The diameters of the inhibition halos against S. mutans were in decreasing order of efficacy: Propolis/melaleuca > mint/guarana > mint/açai > sorbitol > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > propolis > mint (P < 0.001 vs. negative control). E. faecalis showed variable responses to the dentifrices in the following order of decreasing efficacy: Mint/guarana > propolis > sorbitol > mint/açai > tocopherol > cinnamon/mint > mint = propolis/melaleuca = negative control. The product with the highest antimicrobial activity was mint/guarana, which was significantly different than propolis/melaleuca, mint, cinnamon/mint, and tocopherol and negative control (P < 0.001). The statistical analysis indicated that propolis, sorbitol, and mint/açai did not show any differences compared to mint/guarana (P > 0.05) and positive control (P > 0.05). P. aeruginosa was resistant to all dental gels tested including positive control. Conclusion: The toothpastes with natural compounds have therapeutic potential and need more detailed searches for the correct clinic therapeutic application. The results from this study revealed differences in the antimicrobial activities of commercial toothpastes with natural compounds

  9. Response pattern of amino compounds in phloem and xylem of trees to soil drought depends on drought intensity and root symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-P; Gong, C-M; Fan, Y-Y; Eiblmeier, M; Zhao, Z; Han, G; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify drought-mediated differences in amino nitrogen (N) composition and content of xylem and phloem in trees having different symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria. Under controlled water availability, 1-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (nodules with Rhizobium), Hippophae rhamnoides (symbiosis with Frankia) and Buddleja alternifolia (no such root symbiosis) were exposed to control, medium drought and severe drought, corresponding soil water content of 70-75%, 45-50% and 30-35% of field capacity, respectively. Composition and content of amino compounds in xylem sap and phloem exudates were analysed as a measure of N nutrition. Drought strongly reduced biomass accumulation in all species, but amino N content in xylem and phloem remained unaffected only in R. pseudoacacia. In H. rhamnoides and B. alternifolia, amino N in phloem remained constant, but increased in xylem of both species in response to drought. There were differences in composition of amino compounds in xylem and phloem of the three species in response to drought. Proline concentrations in long-distance transport pathways of all three species were very low, below the limit of detection in phloem of H. rhamnoides and in phloem and xylem of B. alternifolia. Apparently, drought-mediated changes in N composition were much more connected with species-specific changes in C:N ratios. Irrespective of soil water content, the two species with root symbioses did not show similar features for the different types of symbiosis, neither in N composition nor in N content. There was no immediate correlation between symbiotic N fixation and drought-mediated changes in amino N in the transport pathways. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Can nutrient enrichment influence the invasion of Phragmites australis?

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-06-22

    Plant invasion and nutrient enrichment because of anthropogenic landscape modifications seriously threaten native plant community diversity in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. It is poorly understood, however, whether these two disturbances interact with the functional identity of recipient native plants to drive community change. We performed combined studies in the fields and greenhouse to examine whether nutrient enrichment may trigger the invasion of Phragmites australis in wetlands through competitive advantage over native Melaleuca ericifolia. Chemical characterizations of rhizosphere water were distinguished in two different nutrient enriched wetlands associated with and without Phragmites over the seasons. Significant changes in rhizosphere water were observed in invaded area compared to uninvaded area at both sites. High nitrogen (NO3(-)), phosphorous (PO4(3-)), dissolved organic carbon, phenolics contents, with low pH were found in invaded areas compared to uninvaded areas. Total biomass of Phragmites was positively regressed with rhizosphere water nitrogen (NO3(-)) and phosphorous (PO4(3-)) content. Nutrient addition significantly enhanced the growth and competitive ability of Phragmites over Melaleuca. In contrast, Melaleuca was significantly less competitive than Phragmites. There was a significantly positive correlation between the growth of Phragmites grown alone and its competitive ability. The findings in greenhouse studies coupled with characteristics of Phragmites and its' rhizosphere chemistry in the nutrient enriched fields suggest that nutrient enrichment may enhance Phragmites invasion through correspondingly increasing growth and maintaining inherent competitive advantages of Phragmites. Nutrient management could limit the vigorous growth of Phragmites in wetlands and thereby reduce invasion through competitive advantages over natives, which might have important management implications for wetland managers. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  11. Burning in Banksia Woodlands: How Does the Fire-Free Period Influence Reptile Communities?

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Leonie E.; Reaveley, Alice; Johnson, Brent; Fisher, Rebecca; Wilson, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Fire is an important management tool for both hazard reduction burning and maintenance of biodiversity. The impact of time since last fire on fauna is an important factor to understand as land managers often aim for prescribed burning regimes with specific fire-free intervals. However, our current understanding of the impact of time since last fire on fauna is largely unknown and likely dependent on vegetation type. We examined the responses of reptiles to fire age in banksia woodlands, and the interspersed melaleuca damplands among them, north of Perth, Western Australia, where the current prescribed burning regime is targeting a fire-free period of 8–12 years. The response of reptiles to fire was dependent on vegetation type. Reptiles were generally more abundant (e.g. Lerista elegans and Ctenophorus adelaidensis) and specious in banksia sites. Several species (e.g. Menetia greyii, Cryptoblepharus buchananii) preferred long unburnt melaleuca sites (>16 years since last fire, YSLF) compared to recently burnt sites (<12 YSLF). Several of the small elapids (e.g. the WA priority listed species Neelaps calonotus) were only detected in older-aged banksia sites (>16 YSLF). The terrestrial dragon C. adelaidensis and the skink Morethia obscura displayed a strong response to fire in banksia woodlands only. Highest abundances of the dragon were detected in the recently burnt (<7 YSLF) and long unburnt (>35 YSLF) banksia woodlands, while the skink was more abundant in older sites. Habitats from a range of fire ages are required to support the reptiles we detected, especially the longer unburnt (>16 YSLF) melaleuca habitat. Current burning prescriptions are reducing the availability of these older habitats. PMID:22496806

  12. Burning in banksia woodlands: how does the fire-free period influence reptile communities?

    PubMed

    Valentine, Leonie E; Reaveley, Alice; Johnson, Brent; Fisher, Rebecca; Wilson, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Fire is an important management tool for both hazard reduction burning and maintenance of biodiversity. The impact of time since last fire on fauna is an important factor to understand as land managers often aim for prescribed burning regimes with specific fire-free intervals. However, our current understanding of the impact of time since last fire on fauna is largely unknown and likely dependent on vegetation type. We examined the responses of reptiles to fire age in banksia woodlands, and the interspersed melaleuca damplands among them, north of Perth, Western Australia, where the current prescribed burning regime is targeting a fire-free period of 8-12 years. The response of reptiles to fire was dependent on vegetation type. Reptiles were generally more abundant (e.g. Lerista elegans and Ctenophorus adelaidensis) and specious in banksia sites. Several species (e.g. Menetia greyii, Cryptoblepharus buchananii) preferred long unburnt melaleuca sites (>16 years since last fire, YSLF) compared to recently burnt sites (<12 YSLF). Several of the small elapids (e.g. the WA priority listed species Neelaps calonotus) were only detected in older-aged banksia sites (>16 YSLF). The terrestrial dragon C. adelaidensis and the skink Morethia obscura displayed a strong response to fire in banksia woodlands only. Highest abundances of the dragon were detected in the recently burnt (<7 YSLF) and long unburnt (>35 YSLF) banksia woodlands, while the skink was more abundant in older sites. Habitats from a range of fire ages are required to support the reptiles we detected, especially the longer unburnt (>16 YSLF) melaleuca habitat. Current burning prescriptions are reducing the availability of these older habitats.

  13. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian medicinal plants on the infection of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, A; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kurokawa, M; Shiraki, K

    1999-02-01

    Water and methanol extracts of 30 traditional medicinal plants, collected in Indonesia, were tested for their anti HSV-1 activity. The extracts of eight plant species showed potent activity on the plaque assay at a concentration of 100 micrograms/mL. The therapeutic efficacy of seven selected plants was demonstrated by using a mouse HSV-1 infection assay, both the methanol extracts of the fruit of Melaleuca leucadendron (Myrtaceae) and the pericarp of Nephelium lappaceum (Sapindaceae) significantly prolonged the development of skin lesions and reduced the mortality.

  14. A demonstration of wetland vegetation mapping in Florida from computer-processed satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Major vegetative classes identified by the remote sensing technique were cypress swamp, pine, wetland grasses, salt grass, mixed mangrove, black mangrove, Brazilian pepper. Australian pine and melaleuca were not satisfactorily classified from LANDSAT. Aircraft scanners provided better resolution resulting in a classification of finer surface detail. An edge effect, created by the integration of diverse spectral responses within boundary elements of digital data, affected the wetlands classification. Accuracy classification for aircraft was 68% and for LANDSAT was 74%.

  15. Host plant-mediated variation in overwintering site quality: implications for the size and composition of populations of Acanthoscelides alboscutellatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Ott, James R

    1993-12-01

    This study provides an example of how variation in the quality of overwintering sites provided by the host plant of an insect seed predator can influence both the probability of overwintering survival and the size and composition of postwintering populations. Thus, the concept of host plant quality is extended to include variation in the suitability of the overwintering site of temperate region insects that overwinter within, or in habitats created by, their host plant. Adult Acanthoscelides alboscutellatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) overwinter inside the fruit of Ludwigia alternifolia (L.) (Onagraceae). In early winter, however, fruits begin to dehisce, i.e., one or more of the fruit's four sides and/or top are shed. Variation in the onset and extent of dehiscence creates a range of overwintering habitats that vary in exposure to ambient conditions. In this study the frequency of possible overwintering sites in natural populations of L. alternifolia was determined by monitoring the phenology of fruit dehiscence from October through May in two populations for four years and for a third population for three years. Winter survivorship of adult A. alboscutellatus was assessed experimentally in eight environments representative of the conditions created by variation in dehiscence. These environments were produced by crossing four levels of exposure (degree of dehiscence) with two locations of the overwintering site, i.e., above or on the ground surface. The onset, phenology, and overall frequency of fruit dehiscence varied markedly among populations and years. Exposure, location, and their interaction had strong effects on survival and accounted for 80% of the observed variation in winter survival. Survivorship was higher on than above the ground, and in both locations decreased with increasing exposure. Thus, variation in fruit dehiscence among L. alternifolia populations will influence the size of postwintering A. alboscutellatus populations by dictating the

  16. Bird habitat mapping in the Kakadu National Park, Australia, using synthetic aperture radar (NASA/JPL AIRSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, William T.; Imhoff, Marc L.; Sisk, Thomas D.; Stutzer, David

    2003-06-01

    The seasonally flooded forest and upland sites in the Kakadu National Park, near Jabiru, Northern Territories, Australia were the site of extensive field measurements, bird community observations and airborne remote sensing during an initial NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab AIRSAR campaign in 1993, a field visit in 1994 and combined remote sensing and field activities during the PACRIM I Project in fall 1996. The overarching purpose of these studies was to use remote sensing technology as a way to extend intensive avian biodiversity and census field observations, as well as structural vegetation measurements from a limited survey area to the regional scale. During these two visits to the Kakadu area, field measurements were made within the dominant forest types in this region, primarily mixed Eucalyptus sp. woodlands, and open- and closed-forest sites dominated by Melaleuca sp. across a range of dry to perennially-flooded sites. Bird community measurements showed vegetation structure is needed to understand habitat relationships. A major vegetation difference between the two years was an increase of 2-3 times in leaf area index at comparison sites from 1994 to 1996. The greatest LAI at any site was 2.52 in the wet Melaleuca site near Munmalary in 1994.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen supply to the underground orchid, Rhizanthella gardneri.

    PubMed

    Bougoure, Jeremy J; Brundrett, Mark C; Grierson, Pauline F

    2010-06-01

    *Rhizanthella gardneri is a rare and fully subterranean orchid that is presumably obligately mycoheterotrophic. R. gardneri is thought to be linked via a common mycorrhizal fungus to co-occurring autotrophic shrubs, but there is no experimental evidence to support this supposition. *We used compartmentalized microcosms to investigate the R. gardneri tripartite relationship. (13)CO(2) was applied to foliage of Melaleuca scalena plants and [(13)C-(15)N]glycine was fed to the common mycorrhizal fungus, and both sources traced to R. gardneri plants. *In our microcosm trial, up to 5% of carbon (C) fed as (13)CO(2) to the autotrophic shrub was transferred to R. gardneri. R. gardneri also readily acquired soil C and nitrogen (N), where up to 6.2% of C and 22.5% of N fed as labelled glycine to soil was transferred via the fungus to R. gardneri after 240 h. *Our study confirms that R. gardneri is mycoheterotrophic and acquires nutrients via mycorrhizal fungus connections from an ectomycorrhizal autotrophic shrub and directly from the soil via the same fungus. This connection with a specific fungus is key to explaining why R. gardneri occurs exclusively under certain Melaleuca species at a very limited number of sites in Western Australia.

  18. Immobilization of invertase on chitosan and its application to honey treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Xuan; Nghia, Ho Trung Trong; Vy, Le Thi Tuong; Oanh, Huynh Ngoc; Hien, Phan Phuoc

    2017-09-01

    The optimal conditions for immobilized enzyme invertase on chitosan were studied. Beside that, the aim of the present work was to find out if the processing with chitosan - invertase can affect some of the main honey quality paramenters - reductive sugar (RS), colour and antioxidant activity. RS content were analyzed by DNS method, colour parameters (L*, a*, b*) were established in the CIE system and antioxidant activity were analyzed by DPPH method. The results showed that the immobilized conditions were as follows: ratio chitosan/invertase 7/1 (w/w), invertase 0.8%, glutaraldehyde 4%, 50°C at 60 minutes, pH 4.5. After the treatments, there was significant (P<0.05) difference on RS (58.38% for melaleuca honey, 15.11% for dimocarpus longan honey) and colour (ΔE=3.84 for melaleuca honey and ΔE=2.76 for dimocarpus longan honey). Moreover, there was no significant (P<0.05) difference on antioxidant activity.

  19. Histological observation of Gelam (Melaleucacajuputi Powell) in different ecosystems of Terengganu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Masitah; Razak, Shamsul Bahri Abd; Salim, Jamilah Mohd.; Ismail, Salwani

    2015-07-01

    A histological and anatomical comparative analysis of Gelam, Melaleuca cajuputi Powell was conducted to determine the adaptability Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell, Family = Myrtaceae) in two different micro-ecosystems of Terengganu. The sites sampling chosen were Jambu Bongkok Amenity Forest (Formerly known as Rantau Abang Amenity Forest), a large swamp forests and prominent flooding site in the District of Marang, Terengganu and Taman Penyelidikan Alam, Bukit Kor - a hard top soil area of Marang, Terengganu. The objective of this study is to compare the anatomy and histology features of gelam in these two areas. Results show that gelam from both ecosystems exhibits morphological differences and variations in some tissues (in leaf, petiole, bark, and root anatomy such as in type of epicuticular waxes, bark anatomy, leaf anatomy, vascular bundle, bark fibre pits, vessel, phloem, xylem, cortex, epidermal cells and mesophyll cells). This initial observation may suggest that gelam can adapt well in different micro-ecosystems of Terengganu. Its ability to response well toward Terengganu's different climates and coastal environmental changes could make gelam a viable tree for conservation and landscape program.

  20. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. New information During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam. PMID:27660535

  1. Records of Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Paton, Alan; Phillipson, Peter B; Suddee, Somran

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic genus Wenchengia (Lamiaceae) has been thought to be endemic to Hainan, China. This paper reports on historic records of Wenchengia alternifolia collected from Vietnam. The recent recuration and modernisation of the Paris herbarium greatly facilitated this discovery. During preparatory work supporting the account for the Lamiaceae of the Flora of Thailand, three specimens of Wenchengia from central Vietnam were found in the Herbarium of the Musuem National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (P), and subsequently two duplicates were found in the Herbarium at Kew (K, abbreviations following Thiers 2016). The specimens were collected in and before 1927 and it is not known if the species is still extant in Vietnam. Searches for extant populations should focus in the Ba Na Hills or Bach Ma National Park, central Vietnam.

  2. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  3. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  4. Description of a new genus and two new species of high frequency cicada from New Caledonia (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé

    2016-06-21

    The new genus Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is described within the tribe Cicadettini Buckton, 1889, designating Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov., as the type species. Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov. and Murmurillana paenetacita Delorme sp. nov. are described from New Caledonia. They are respectively found in mid altitude dense Niaouli shrub (Melaleuca quinquenervia, Myrtaceae) vegetation, mixed with dense fern cover (Pteridium sp., Dennstaedtiaceae) on the Massif of Aoupinié (800 m) and on foothills of the Mont Panié (570 m). Male calling songs of the two new species are described from field recordings. These calling songs exhibit unusually high dominant frequencies. A key to the species of Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is also provided.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  6. Proportion of phospholipids in the plasma membrane is an important factor in Al tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Eriko; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2014-05-20

    The negative charge on the plasma membrane (PM) is mainly derived from the phosphate group of phospholipids. One of the mechanisms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is to increase the PM permeability of root cells by binding to the negative sites on the PM. Thus, PM with a higher proportion of phospholipids could be more susceptible to Al toxicity. In our previous study, we showed that tolerance to Al and low-calcium in rice was enhanced by decreasing the proportion of phospholipids in root cells. Both Melastoma malabathricum L. and Melaleuca cajuputi Powell are dominant woody species that grow in tropical acid sulfate soils, and have been reported to be more tolerant to Al than rice. Surprisingly, the proportion of PM phospholipids in root cells of M. malabathricum and M. cajuputi was considerably low. Our present findings suggest that PM lipid composition plays an important role in Al tolerance mechanisms in various plant species.

  7. Proportion of phospholipids in the plasma membrane is an important factor in Al tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Eriko; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The negative charge on the plasma membrane (PM) is mainly derived from the phosphate group of phospholipids. One of the mechanisms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is to increase the PM permeability of root cells by binding to the negative sites on the PM. Thus, PM with a higher proportion of phospholipids could be more susceptible to Al toxicity. In our previous study, we showed that tolerance to Al and low-calcium in rice was enhanced by decreasing the proportion of phospholipids in root cells. Both Melastoma malabathricum L. and Melaleuca cajuputi Powell are dominant woody species that grow in tropical acid sulfate soils, and have been reported to be more tolerant to Al than rice. Surprisingly, the proportion of PM phospholipids in root cells of M. malabathricum and M. cajuputi was considerably low. Our present findings suggest that PM lipid composition plays an important role in Al tolerance mechanisms in various plant species.

  8. Water use patterns of estuarine vegetation in a tidal creek system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Lockington, David A; Poh, Seng-Chee; Gasparon, Massimo; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-06-01

    Water availability is a key determinant of the zonation patterns in estuarine vegetation, but water availability and the use of different water sources over space and time are not well understood. We have determined the seasonal water use patterns of riparian vegetation over an estuarine ecotone. Our aim was to investigate how the water use patterns of estuarine vegetation respond to variations in the availability of tidal creek water and rain-derived freshwater. The levels of natural stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were assessed in the stem of the mangrove Avicennia marina (tall and scrub growth forms), Casuarina glauca and Melaleuca quinquenervia that were distributed along transects from river/creek-front towards inland habitats. The isotopic composition of plant tissues and the potential water sources were assessed in both the wet season, when freshwater from rainfall is present, and the dry season, when mangrove trees are expected to be more dependent on tidal water, and when Casuarina and Melaleuca are expected to be dependent on groundwater. Our results indicate that rainwater during the wet season contributes significantly to estuarine vegetation, even to creek-side mangroves which are inundated by tidal creek water daily, and that estuarine vegetation depends primarily on freshwater throughout the year. In contrast, high intertidal scrub mangroves were found to use the greatest proportion of tidal creek water, supplemented by groundwater in the dry season. Contrary to prediction, inland trees C. glauca and M. quinquenervia were found also to rely predominantly on rainwater--even in the dry season. The results of this study reveal a high level of complexity in vegetation water use in estuarine settings.

  9. Contrasting impacts of localised versus catastrophic oil spills in coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.

    1996-12-31

    A localised oil spill was observed on the wetland marshes bordering a tidal creek near Cairns, Queensland in January 1994. Pollution and conservation issues are of paramount public concern in this region which boarders World Heritage Areas of coral reefs and coastal habitats. Local residents observed oil being dumped from a truck which was contracted to of oil the surface of the roads in the contiguous sugar cane farm for dust control. During this incident several truckloads of mixed waste oil were dumped onto a short section of road and into the wetlands. The oil contaminated a band of marsh 15-30 m wide along approximately 200 m of road. Impacted marsh included Melaleuca forest on the high side of the road and intertidal mangroves on the seaward side. The Queensland Department of Environment (QDE) initiated an impact assessment and directed the trucking company to clean up impacted areas. The extent of damage to wetlands from oil spills is related to the amount and type of oil spilled and the sensitivity of the habitats oiled. QDE asked the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences to assist with their study on the fate of the oil in this localised spill. The initial levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface sediments reached 17% of the dry weight in heavily impacted areas. Thus levels were similar to those reached after the catastrophic oil spill in Panama. Clean up efforts and natural dissipation processes reduced sediment hydrocarbon loads to nonacutely toxic levels in only 1.5 years in the intertidal mangroves. High levels remain in the Melaleuca sediments. We used internal molecular markers to detail hydrocarbon dissipation vs degradation. This study provides a contrast between impacts of localised versus catastrophic oil spills in deep mud coastal habitats.

  10. Vegetative changes in a wetland in the vicinity of a well field, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofstetter, R.H.; Sonenshein, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Plant communities present in 1978 and 1986 were analyzed at 250 random points on stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs for four study sites in the vicinity of the Northwest Well Field in Dade County, Florida. Sites NW and NE lie northwest of the well field beyond the cone of depression. Site SW lies in the outer part of the cone, and site SE lies within the cone of depression. Relative frequency values for several plant types including herbs, shrubs-small trees, and trees were analyzed by the Heterogeneity G-test to determine heterogeneity among sites in 1978 and 1986. In 1978, all four sites were dominated by plant communities having herbs, shrubs, or a mixture thereof. The communities at sites NW and NE were similar, and those at SE and SW were somewhat similar. In 1986, sites NW, NE, and SE were dominated by a mixture of shrubs and trees. Only at site SW was the relative frequency of occurrence of herbaceous plants still high. At each site, there was a decrease in herbaceous vegetation and an increase in woody vegetation during this period, with the increase in trees being greatest at site SE. Time between the start of the well-field operation in May 1983 and the January 1986 photographs was insufficient to allow determination of any direct effects of the well field on the vegetation. Ground-level observations in 1987 and 1988 indicate a trend toward continued increase in dominance of woody plants and a decrease in herbaceous wetland vegetation. Development of a forest of the exotic pest tree melaleuca is occurring at all four sites, but especially at site SE. Vegetative changes between 1978 and 1986 are attributed to an invasion of the exotic species melaleuca, a shortened hydroperiod, and natural succession within the plant communities.

  11. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite

  12. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jane E M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and 'asthma' (n = 97) versus 'healthy' status (n = 107) groups, were compared. SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher's Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for 'dust mite' (30.9%-46%), 'cockroach' (18.1% -35%) and 'Bermuda grass' (10.6%-19.4%). The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be appropriate. The findings pose validity questions regarding the use of some

  13. Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jane E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Methods Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and ‘asthma’ (n = 97) versus ‘healthy’ status (n = 107) groups, were compared. Results SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher’s Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for ‘dust mite’ (30.9%-46%), ‘cockroach’ (18.1% -35%) and ‘Bermuda grass’ (10.6%-19.4%). Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Implications Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be

  14. A Holocene pollen and diatom record from Vanderlin Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, lowland tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prebble, Matiu; Sim, Robin; Finn, Jan; Fink, David

    2005-11-01

    Sedimentary, palynological and diatom data from a dunefield lake deposit in the interior of Vanderlin Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria are presented. Prior to the formation of present perennial lake conditions, the intensified Australian monsoon associated with the early Holocene marine transgression allowed Cyperaceae sedges to colonise the alluvial margins of an expansive salt flat surrounded by an open Eucalyptus woodland. As sea level stabilised between 7500 and 4500 cal yr B.P. coastal dunes ceased to develop allowing dense Melaleuca forest to establish in a Restionaceae swamp. Dune-sand input into the swamp was diminished further as the increasingly dense vegetation prevented fluvial and aeolian transported sand arriving from coastal sources. This same process impounded the drainage basin allowing a perennial lake to form between 5500 and 4000 cal yr B.P. Myriophyllum and other aquatic taxa colonised the lake periphery under the most extensive woodland recorded for the Holocene. The palynological data support an effective precipitation model proposed for northern Australia that suggests more variable conditions in the late Holocene. A more precise measure of effective precipitation change is provided by diatom-based inferences that indicate few changes in lake hydrology. Such interpretations are explained in terms of palynological sensitivity to adjustments in local fire regimes where regional precipitation change may only be recorded indirectly through fire promoting mechanisms, including intensified ENSO periodicity and human impact.

  15. Activity profiles and hook-tool use of New Caledonian crows recorded by bird-borne video cameras.

    PubMed

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Rutz, Christian

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonian crows are renowned for their unusually sophisticated tool behaviour. Despite decades of fieldwork, however, very little is known about how they make and use their foraging tools in the wild, which is largely owing to the difficulties in observing these shy forest birds. To obtain first estimates of activity budgets, as well as close-up observations of tool-assisted foraging, we equipped 19 wild crows with self-developed miniature video cameras, yielding more than 10 h of analysable video footage for 10 subjects. While only four crows used tools during recording sessions, they did so extensively: across all 10 birds, we conservatively estimate that tool-related behaviour occurred in 3% of total observation time, and accounted for 19% of all foraging behaviour. Our video-loggers provided first footage of crows manufacturing, and using, one of their most complex tool types--hooked stick tools--under completely natural foraging conditions. We recorded manufacture from live branches of paperbark (Melaleuca sp.) and another tree species (thought to be Acacia spirorbis), and deployment of tools in a range of contexts, including on the forest floor. Taken together, our video recordings reveal an 'expanded' foraging niche for hooked stick tools, and highlight more generally how crows routinely switch between tool- and bill-assisted foraging.

  16. Interactions of Metarhizium anisoplae and tree-based mulches in repellence and mycoses against Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Fuxa, James R; Richter, Arthur; Ring, Dennis

    2008-06-01

    The use of mulch in urban landscapes has increased in the United States for the past decade. Tree-based organic mulches can supply Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki with food, moisture, and shelter. The current research contributes to mulch management technology in termite control. A choice test arena was designed to determine the repellence and mortality caused by commercial mulches treated with different concentrations of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) against C. formosanus. Each of six tree-based mulches (pine bark, pine straw, bald cypress, eucalyptus, water oak, and melaleuca) was coated with six conidial concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml. The foragers of C. formosanus were repelled significantly by the fungal-treated mulch substrates; the proportion of termites on fungal-treated mulch was usually <20% during the 28-d test. By day 28, >99% of the termites were killed in test arenas containing a chamber with mulch treated with 10(7) or 10(8) conidia/ml. M. anisopliae significantly reduced mulch consumption by 34-71%. Mulch consumption by the termites was negatively correlated with fungal concentration, and the type of mulch also affected consumption. The differences in termite foraging activities, mortality, and food consumption among mulches were usually confounded by differences in fungal concentrations of M. anisopliae. The results indicate that repellence and virulence of M. anisopliae conidia should significantly reduce the suitability of these six mulches as a habitat for C. formosanus.

  17. Water management can reinforce plant competition in salt-affected semi-arid wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Janaine Z.; Vogwill, Ryan; Hipsey, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The diversity of vegetation in semi-arid, ephemeral wetlands is determined by niche availability and species competition, both of which are influenced by changes in water availability and salinity. Here, we hypothesise that ignoring physiological differences and competition between species when managing wetland hydrologic regimes can lead to a decrease in vegetation diversity, even when the overall wetland carrying capacity is improved. Using an ecohydrological model capable of resolving water-vegetation-salt feedbacks, we investigate why water surface and groundwater management interventions to combat vegetation decline have been more beneficial to Casuarina obesa than to Melaleuca strobophylla, the co-dominant tree species in Lake Toolibin, a salt-affected wetland in Western Australia. The simulations reveal that in trying to reduce the negative effect of salinity, the management interventions have created an environment favouring C. obesa by intensifying the climate-induced trend that the wetland has been experiencing of lower water availability and higher root-zone salinity. By testing alternative scenarios, we show that interventions that improve M. strobophylla biomass are possible by promoting hydrologic conditions that are less specific to the niche requirements of C. obesa. Modelling uncertainties were explored via a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including species differentiation and competition in ecohydrological models that form the basis for wetland management.

  18. An investigation into the effectiveness of sand media amended with biochar to remove BOD5, suspended solids and coliforms using wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    de Rozari, P; Greenway, M; El Hanandeh, A

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetland ecotechnologies (CWEs) are a promising solution to effectively treat domestic wastewater in developing countries at low cost. This paper reports the findings of the effectiveness of sand media amended with woody biochar and two plants species (Melaleuca quinquenervia and Cymbopogon citratus) in removing biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solids and coliforms. The experimental design consisted of 21 vertical flow (VF) mesocosms. There were seven media treatments using sand amended with varying proportions of biochar. During the first 8 months, the mesocosms were loaded with secondary clarified wastewater (SCW) then septage. The influent had a 4-day hydraulic retention time. Samples were monitored for BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), total coliforms and faecal coliforms. In the first 8 months, there were no significant performance differences between media treatments in the outflow concentrations of BOD5, TSS and TVS. The significant differences occurred during the last 3 months; using septage with biochar additions performed better than pure sand. For coliforms, the significant differences occurred after 6 months. In conclusion, the addition of biochar was not effective for SCW. The VF mesocosms system proved to be more effective in removing BOD5, TSS, TVS and coliforms when septage was loaded into the media.

  19. E. coli removal in laboratory scale stormwater biofilters: Influence of vegetation and submerged zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Pham, T.; Payne, E. G.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters, also known as bioretention areas or raingardens, are an effective treatment option for the removal of various pollutants from stormwater. However, they show variable treatment efficiency for the removal of indicator bacteria, and the operational and design factors which impact this variability are largely unknown. This study uses a laboratory scale column set-up to explore how Escherichia coli (the chosen indicator organism) removal in the stormwater biofilters is impacted by: plant presence and species type, the presence of a submerged zone (SZ), and operational conditions (duration of dry periods and changes over the initial stages of the system's life-span). Vegetation selection was found to be important for E. coli removal and the highly performing plant species were associated with lower infiltration rates. Based on the current results, a biofilter planted with Leptospermum continentale, Melaleuca incana or Palmetto buffalo and comprising a SZ can be recommended for improved E. coli removal. Inclusion of SZ was found to generally enhance the removal performance; which may be explained by the contribution of microbial processes that are happening within the SZ (such as predation/competition and natural die-off). Results also suggest that the E. coli removal performance is reduced after a significant dry period, while the overall removal performance improves over time as systems mature.

  20. Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%.

  1. Synergistic repellent and irritant effect of combined essential oils on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Noosidum, Atirach; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to a single essential oil and to a mixture of two or three essential oils using an excito-repellency test chamber. Mixtures were prepared from essential oils extracted from Litsea cubeba (LC), Litsea salicifolia (LS), and Melaleuca leucadendron (ML). In general, the mixture of essential oils produced a much stronger escape response by Ae. aegypti, regardless of the test conditions. No significant difference in escape responses was seen when the mixture of oils was compared with a standard commercial product containing DEET. Greater contact irritancy was seen from mixed oils of LC and LS than with other mixed oils. Mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% showed the highest synergistic action (65.5% escaped) compared to that with unmixed oil alone at the same concentration (LC/20% and LS=32.2%). In addition, mixtures of LC and LS at 0.075% demonstrated the highest non-contact repellency (62.7%) and showed a greater effect than the use of LC (20%) or LS (20.3%) alone. We conclude that mixtures of two essential oils show potential as active ingredients for mosquito repellents.

  2. Chemical Composition and Behavioral Effects of Five Plant Essential Oils on the Green Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Abir; Hammami, Majdi; Raoelison, Emmanuel G; Abderrabba, Manef; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ducamp, Christine

    2017-01-25

    Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids' behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids' responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Drivers of coastal shoreline change: case study of hon dat coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  4. Identity and specificity of the fungi forming mycorrhizas with the rare mycoheterotrophic orchid Rhizanthella gardneri.

    PubMed

    Bougoure, Jeremy; Ludwig, Martha; Brundrett, Mark; Grierson, Pauline

    2009-10-01

    Fully subterranean Rhizanthella gardneri (Orchidaceae) is obligately mycoheterotrophic meaning it is nutritionally dependent on the fungus it forms mycorrhizas with. Furthermore, R. gardneri purportedly participates in a nutrient sharing tripartite relationship where its mycorrhizal fungus simultaneously forms ectomycorrhizas with species of Melaleuca uncinata s.l. Although the mycorrhizal fungus of R. gardneri has been morphologically identified as Thanatephorus gardneri (from a single isolate), this identification has been recently questioned. We sought to clarify the identification of the mycorrhizal fungus of R. gardneri, using molecular methods, and to identify how specific its mycorrhizal relationship is. Fungal isolates taken from all sites where R. gardneri is known to occur shared almost identical ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. The fungal isolate rDNA most closely matched that of other Ceratobasidiales species, particularly within the Ceratobasidium genus. However, interpretation of results was difficult as we found two distinct ITS sequences within all mycorrhizal fungal isolates of R. gardneri that we assessed. All mycorrhizal fungal isolates of R. gardneri readily formed ectomycorrhizas with a range of M. uncinata s.l. species. Consequently, it is likely that R. gardneri can form a nutrient sharing tripartite relationship where R. gardneri is connected to autotrophic M. uncinata s.l. by a common mycorrhizal fungus. These findings have implications for better understanding R. gardneri distribution, evolution and the ecological significance of its mycorrhizal fungus, particularly in relation to nutrient acquisition.

  5. Drivers of Coastal Shoreline Change: Case Study of Hon Dat Coast, Kien Giang, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hai-Hoa; McAlpine, Clive; Pullar, David; Leisz, Stephen Joseph; Galina, Gramotnev

    2015-05-01

    Coastal shorelines are naturally dynamic, shifting in response to coastal geomorphological processes. Globally, land use change associated with coastal urban development and growing human population pressures is accelerating coastal shoreline change. In southern Vietnam, coastal erosion currently is posing considerable risks to shoreline land use and coastal inhabitants. The aim of this paper is to quantify historical shoreline changes along the Hon Dat coast between 1995 and 2009, and to document the relationships between coastal mangrove composition, width and density, and rates of shoreline change. The generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the major biophysical and land-use factors influencing shoreline change rates. Most significant drivers of the rates of change are cutting of mangroves, the dominant mangrove genus, changes in adjacent shoreline land use, changes of shoreline land cover, and width of fringing mangroves. We suggest that a possible and inexpensive strategy for robust mangrove shoreline defense is direct mangrove planting to promote mangrove density with the presence of breakwater structures. In the shorter term, construction of coastal barriers such as fence-structured melaleuca poles in combination with mangrove restoration schemes could help retain coastal sediments and increase the elevation of the accretion zone, thereby helping to stabilize eroding fringe shorelines. It also is recommended that implementation of a system of payments for mangrove ecosystem services and the stronger regulation of mangrove cutting and unsustainable land-use change to strengthen the effectiveness of mangrove conservation programs and coastal land-use management.

  6. What Happens after Activation of Ascaridole? Reactive Compounds and Their Implications for Skin Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-19

    To replace animal testing and improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agencies' approved alternative in chemico method, has been applied for understanding the sensitization capacity of activated ascaridole. Ascaridole, the oxidative metabolite of α-terpinene, is considered to be one of the components responsible for the contact allergy associated with essential oils derived from Chenopodium and Melaleuca species. The recently developed high-throughput screening based on the dansyl cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) method was applied to understand the reported enhanced reactivity of activated ascaridole and possibly to identify the resulting elusive radical or other reactive species. For the first time, a substituted cyclohexenone was identified as a potential electrophilic intermediate resulting in higher depletion of nucleophilic DCYA, along with several nonreactive byproducts of ascaridole via a radical degradation mechanism. Formation of electrophilic species via radical degradation is one of the possible pathways should be considered for the peptide reactivity of in aged tea tree oil or oils rich in terpinenes along with commonly believed reactants, allylic-epoxides and allylic-peroxides.

  7. Activity profiles and hook-tool use of New Caledonian crows recorded by bird-borne video cameras

    PubMed Central

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Rutz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    New Caledonian crows are renowned for their unusually sophisticated tool behaviour. Despite decades of fieldwork, however, very little is known about how they make and use their foraging tools in the wild, which is largely owing to the difficulties in observing these shy forest birds. To obtain first estimates of activity budgets, as well as close-up observations of tool-assisted foraging, we equipped 19 wild crows with self-developed miniature video cameras, yielding more than 10 h of analysable video footage for 10 subjects. While only four crows used tools during recording sessions, they did so extensively: across all 10 birds, we conservatively estimate that tool-related behaviour occurred in 3% of total observation time, and accounted for 19% of all foraging behaviour. Our video-loggers provided first footage of crows manufacturing, and using, one of their most complex tool types—hooked stick tools—under completely natural foraging conditions. We recorded manufacture from live branches of paperbark (Melaleuca sp.) and another tree species (thought to be Acacia spirorbis), and deployment of tools in a range of contexts, including on the forest floor. Taken together, our video recordings reveal an ‘expanded’ foraging niche for hooked stick tools, and highlight more generally how crows routinely switch between tool- and bill-assisted foraging. PMID:26701755

  8. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee.

    PubMed

    Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically "Melaleuca in Terengganu".

  9. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum from honey stomach of honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Mardan, Makhdzir; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Bahreini, Rasoul; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically “Melaleuca in Terengganu”. PMID:24516438

  10. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering.

  11. Selection on herbivory resistance and growth rate in an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Franks, Steven J; Pratt, Paul D; Dray, F Allen; Simms, Ellen L

    2008-05-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis proposes that invasive species evolve decreased defense and increased competitive ability following natural enemy release. Previous tests of EICA examined the result of evolution by comparing individuals from home and introduced ranges, but no previous study of this hypothesis has examined the process of evolution by analyzing patterns of selection. On the basis of EICA, there should be selection for competitive ability without herbivores and selection for defense with herbivores. Selection on competitive ability should be stronger for genotypes accustomed to herbivores (home range genotypes), and selection on defense should be stronger for genotypes unaccustomed to herbivores (introduced range genotypes). Using a field experiment, we tested these hypotheses for the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia. There was a negative genetic correlation between resistance and growth, indicating a trade-off. However, selection for stem elongation (an indicator of competitive ability) was always positive, and selection on resistance was always negative and did not depend on genotype source or the presence of herbivores. The patterns of selection found in this study contrast with predictions from EICA and accurately predict the lack of evolutionary change in growth and resistance following the introduction of this species from Australia to Florida.

  12. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Jones, Lewis L; Cable, Jo

    2015-07-23

    The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by Tea Tree oil.

    PubMed

    Mills, Clive; Cleary, Brian J; Gilmer, John F; Walsh, John J

    2004-03-01

    Pediculosis is a widespread condition reported in schoolchildren. Treatment most commonly involves the physical removal of nits using fine-toothcombs and the chemical treatment of adult lice and eggs with topical preparations. The active constituents of these preparations frequently exert their effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Increasing resistance to many preparations has led to the search for more effective treatments. Tea Tree oil, otherwise known as Melaleuca oil, has been added to several preparations as an alternative treatment of head lice infestations. In this study two major constituents of Tea Tree oil, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol, were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at IC50 values (inhibitor concentrations required to give 50% inhibition) of 0.04 and 10.30 mM, respectively. Four samples of Tea Tree oil tested (Tisserand, Body Treats, Main Camp and Irish Health Culture Association Pure Undiluted) showed anticholinesterase activity at IC50 values of 0.05, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.11 microL mL(-1), respectively. The results supported the hypothesis that the insecticidal activity of Tea Tree oil was attributable, in part, to the anticholinesterase activity of Tea Tree oil.

  14. Gelam honey scavenges peroxynitrite during the immune response.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Suhaimi, Anwar; Ong, Gracie; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

  15. Induction of Expression and Functional Activity of P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporter by Bioactive Plant Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Abuznait, Alaa H.; Qosa, Hisham; O’Connell, Nicholas D.; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Jessica; Sylvester, Paul W.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and/or interfere with the drug’s therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects of diverse commonly used plant natural products on the expression and activity of P-gp in human adenocarcinoma cells (LS-180). These natural products included the tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (cembratriene), the palm oil-derived γ-tocotrienol, the extra-virgin olive oil-derived secoiridoid oleocanthal, and the triterpene acid asiatic acid derived from Melaleuca ericifolia and abundant in several other common plant dietary supplements. Treatment with 25 μM of cembratriene, oleocanthal, γ-tocotrienol, or asiatic acid showed 2.3-3.0-fold increase in P-gp expression as demonstrated by Western blotting. These results were consistent with those obtained by quantitative analysis of fluorescent micrographs for P-gp. Accumulation studies demonstrated 31-38% decrease in rhodamine 123 intracellular levels when LS-180 cells were treated with the investigated compounds as a result of P-gp induction. Bioactive natural products can up-regulate the P-gp expression and functionality, which may induce herb/food-drug interactions when concomitantly used with P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:21851848

  16. Feeding and Development of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, on Australian Native Plant Species and Implications for Australian Biosecurity

    PubMed Central

    Rathé, Anna A.; Pilkington, Leigh J.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Spohr, Lorraine J.; Daugherty, Matthew P.; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2014-01-01

    In any insect invasion the presence or absence of suitable food and oviposition hosts in the invaded range is a key factor determining establishment success. The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important insect vector of the xylem-limited bacterial plant pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes disease in numerous host plants including food and feedstock crops, ornamentals and weeds. Both the pathogen and the vector are native to the Americas and are considered to be highly invasive. Neither has been detected in Australia. Twelve Australian native plant species present in the USA were observed over two years for suitability as H. vitripennis feeding, oviposition and nymph development hosts. Hosts providing evidence of adult or nymph presence were Leptospermum laevigatum, Acacia cowleana, Eremophila divaricata, Eucalyptus wandoo, Hakea laurina, Melaleuca laterita and Swainsona galegifolia. An oviposition-suitability field study was conducted with citrus, a favoured oviposition host, as a positive control. Citrus and L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, B. ericifolia×B. spinulosa, C. pulchella, E. divaricata, E. wandoo, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia were found to be oviposition hosts. Egg parasitism by the mymarid parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi was observed on all Australian plants. A number of Australian plants that may facilitate H. vitripennis invasion have been identified and categorised as ‘high risk’ due to their ability to support all three life stages (egg, nymph and adult) of the insect in the field (L. laevigatum, A. cowleana, E. divaricata, H. laurina, and S. galegifolia). The implications of these host status and natural enemy research findings are discussed and placed in an Australian invasion context. PMID:24614821

  17. Landscape mulches and termite nutritional ecology: growth and survival of incipient colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Zhong

    2007-04-01

    Alate swarms are one of the major visible signs of the expansion of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in an area. Successful establishment of an incipient colony is thought to mainly rely on available food resources and moisture. The large-scale use of tree-based mulches in landscapes may inadvertently contribute to local establishment and growth of C. formosanus colonies. This research investigated the nutritional ecology of incipient colonies of C. formosanus feeding on seven tree-based, weathered, and nonweathered landscape mulches: pine straw, pine bark, cedar wood, water oak, eucalyptus, cypress, and melaleuca. Incipient colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pine straw, either weathered or nonweathered, produced significantly more progeny over the course of 1-yr feeding than colonies feeding on the other mulches tested. Regardless of weathered or not, the incipient colonies feeding on pine straw, eucalyptus, bald cypress, and water oak mulches had significantly greater survival rates after 360 d (53-77%) than colonies feeding on the other mulches tested (0-13%), but colonies feeding on nonweathered water oak had significantly lower survival (8%) than those kept on weathered water oak (58%). Colony fitness values were significantly different between the weathering treatment groups and among the different types of mulches. With regard to colony growth characteristics, three distinct growth patterns were identified: a high number of progeny (>100) with high colony survival rate (>50%), a medium number of progeny (12-50) with high colony survival rate (>50%), and a small number of progeny (0-10) with low colony survival rate (<5%). These findings suggest that different types of mulch substrates could significantly impact the nutritional ecology of the founding pairs and the successful establishment of incipient colonies during the swarming season.

  18. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P. australis, its litter and leachate of P. australis litter. This study investigated the potential interacting influences of allelopathy and resource competition on plant growth-density relationships. In greenhouse, the root exudates mediated effects showed the strongest growth inhibition of M. ericifolia at high density whereas litter mediated results revealed increased growth at medium density treatments compared to low and high density. Again, laboratory experiments related to seed germination and seedling growth of L. sativa and R. conglomeratus exhibited phytotoxicity decreased showing positive growth as plant density increased and vice versa. Overall, the differential effects were observed among experiments but maximum individual plant biomass and some other positive effects on plant traits such as root and shoot length, chlorophyll content occurred at an intermediate density. This was attributed to the sharing of the available phytotoxin among plants at high densities which is compatible to density-dependent phytotoxicity model. The results demonstrated that plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy and resource competition with many other factors but this experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination of plant grown at varying densities with varying

  19. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  20. Overview of the Distribution, Habitat Association and Impact of Exotic Ants on Native Ant Communities in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Maïa; Andersen, Alan N.; Hély, Christelle; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Ants are among the most ubiquitous and harmful invaders worldwide, but there are few regional studies of their relationships with habitat and native ant communities. New Caledonia has a unique and diverse ant fauna that is threatened by exotic ants, but broad-scale patterns of exotic and native ant community composition in relation to habitat remain poorly documented. We conducted a systematic baiting survey of 56 sites representing the main New Caledonian habitat types: rainforest on ultramafic soils (15 sites), rainforest on volcano-sedimentary soils (13), maquis shrubland (15), Melaleuca-dominated savannas (11) and Acacia spirorbis thickets (2). We collected a total of 49 species, 13 of which were exotic. Only five sites were free of exotic species, and these were all rainforest. The five most abundant exotic species differed in their habitat association, with Pheidole megacephala associated with rainforests, Brachymyrmex cf. obscurior with savanna, and Wasmannia auropunctata and Nylanderia vaga present in most habitats. Anoplolepis gracilipes occurred primarily in maquis-shrubland, which contrasts with its rainforest affinity elsewhere. Multivariate analysis of overall ant species composition showed strong differentiation of sites according to the distribution of exotic species, and these patterns were maintained at the genus and functional group levels. Native ant composition differed at invaded versus uninvaded rainforest sites, in the absence of differences in habitat variables. Generalised Myrmicinae and Forest Opportunists were particularly affected by invasion. There was a strong negative relationship between the abundance of W. auropunctata and native ant abundance and richness. This emphasizes that, in addition to dominating many ant communities numerically, some exotic species, and in particular W. auropunctata, have a marked impact on native ant communities. PMID:23840639

  1. Antimony and arsenic exhibit contrasting spatial distributions in the sediment and vegetation of a contaminated wetland.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Jan; Ohlsson, Rohana; Welsh, David T; Teasdale, Peter R; Chelsky, Ariella; Bennett, William W

    2017-08-01

    Antimony is a priority environmental contaminant that is relatively poorly studied compared to other trace metal(loid)s. In particular, the behaviour of antimony in wetland sediments, where anaerobic conditions often dominate, has received considerably less attention compared to well-drained terrestrial soil environments. Here we report the results of a spatial assessment of antimony in the sediments and vegetation of a freshwater wetland exposed to stibnite tailings for the past forty years. The concentration of antimony in the sediment decreased rapidly with distance from the tailings deposit, from a maximum of ∼22,000 mg kg(-1) to ∼1000 mg kg(-1) at a distance of ∼150 m. In contrast, arsenic was distributed more evenly across the wetland, indicating that it was more mobile under the prevailing hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Less clear trends were observed in the tissues of wetland plants, with the concentrations of antimony in waterlilies (2.5-195 mg kg(-1)) showing no clear trends with distance from the tailings deposit, and no correlation with sediment concentrations. Sedges and Melaleuca sp. trees had lower antimony concentrations (<25 mg kg(-1) and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively) compared to waterlilies, but showed a non-significant trend of higher concentrations closer to the tailings. For all vegetation types sampled, antimony concentrations were consistently lower than arsenic concentrations (Sb:As = 0.27-0.31), despite higher concentrations of antimony in the sediment. Overall, the results of this study highlight clear differences in the behaviour of antimony and arsenic in freshwater wetlands, which should be considered during the management and remediation of such sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Candida is a fungus present in the mouths of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroid use. In most people, untreated candidiasis persists for months or years unless associated risk factors are treated or eliminated. In neonates, spontaneous cure of oropharyngeal candidiasis usually occurs after 3 to 8 weeks. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in: adults undergoing treatments that cause immunosuppression; infants and children; people with dentures; and people with HIV infection? Which antifungal regimens reduce the risk of acquiring resistance to antifungal drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 47 RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antifungals (absorbed, partially or topically absorbed, or non-absorbed; for example, imidazole [ketoconazole, clotrimazole, toiconazole, miconazole], polyene [amphotericin B, nystatin], triazole [fluconazole, itraconazole], melaleuca and posaconazole), intermittent or continuous prophylaxis, or treatment, and denture hygiene. PMID:24209593

  3. Identification of a Hydrolyzable Tannin, Oenothein B, as an Aluminum-Detoxifying Ligand in a Highly Aluminum-Resistant Tree, Eucalyptus camaldulensis1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Ko; Hashida, Koh; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Ohara, Seiji; Kojima, Katsumi; Shinohara, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree species in the Myrtaceae that exhibits extremely high resistance to aluminum (Al). To explore a novel mechanism of Al resistance in plants, we examined the Al-binding ligands in roots and their role in Al resistance of E. camaldulensis. We identified a novel type of Al-binding ligand, oenothein B, which is a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin with many adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups. Oenothein B was isolated from root extracts of E. camaldulensis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analyses. Oenothein B formed water-soluble or -insoluble complexes with Al depending on the ratio of oenothein B to Al and could bind at least four Al ions per molecule. In a bioassay using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was completely alleviated by treatment with exogenous oenothein B, which indicated the capability of oenothein B to detoxify Al. In roots of E. camaldulensis, Al exposure enhanced the accumulation of oenothein B, especially in EDTA-extractable forms, which likely formed complexes with Al. Oenothein B was localized mostly in the root symplast, in which a considerable amount of Al accumulated. In contrast, oenothein B was not detected in three Al-sensitive species, comprising the Myrtaceae tree Melaleuca bracteata, Populus nigra, and Arabidopsis. Oenothein B content in roots of five tree species was correlated with their Al resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that internal detoxification of Al by the formation of complexes with oenothein B in roots likely contributes to the high Al resistance of E. camaldulensis. PMID:24381064

  4. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  5. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  6. Investigating the Host-Range of the Rust Fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato across Tribes of the Family Myrtaceae Present in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Louise; Aveyard, Ruth; Lidbetter, Jonathan R.; Wilson, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The exotic rust fungus Puccinia psidii sensu lato was first detected in Australia in April 2010. This study aimed to determine the host-range potential of this accession of the rust by testing its pathogenicity on plants of 122 taxa, representative of the 15 tribes of the subfamily Myrtoideae in the family Myrtaceae. Each taxon was tested in two separate trials (unless indicated otherwise) that comprised up to five replicates per taxon and six replicates of a positive control (Syzygium jambos). No visible symptoms were observed on the following four taxa in either trial: Eucalyptus grandis×camaldulensis, E. moluccana, Lophostemon confertus and Sannantha angusta. Only small chlorotic or necrotic flecks without any uredinia (rust fruiting bodies) were observed on inoculated leaves of seven other taxa (Acca sellowiana, Corymbia calophylla ‘Rosea’, Lophostemon suaveolens, Psidium cattleyanum, P. guajava ‘Hawaiian’ and ‘Indian’, Syzygium unipunctatum). Fully-developed uredinia were observed on all replicates across both trials of 28 taxa from 8 tribes belonging to the following 17 genera: Agonis, Austromyrtus, Beaufortia, Callistemon, Calothamnus, Chamelaucium, Darwinia, Eucalyptus, Gossia, Kunzea, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros, Syzygium, Thryptomene, Tristania, Verticordia. In contrast, the remaining 83 taxa inoculated, including the majority of Corymbia and Eucalyptus species, developed a broad range of symptoms, often across the full spectrum, from fully-developed uredinia to no visible symptoms. These results were encouraging as they indicate that some levels of genetic resistance to the rust possibly exist in these taxa. Overall, our results indicated no apparent association between the presence or absence of disease symptoms and the phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. It is most likely that the majority of the thousands of Myrtaceae species found in Australia have the potential to become infected to some degree by the rust, although this wide

  7. Mapping wetland species and the impact of oil from the Deep Horizon using the Airborne/Visible Imaging Spectrometer and Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Beland, M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Couvillion, B.; Ustin, S.; Peterson, S.

    2011-12-01

    Between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010 an estimated 4.4 million barrels of oil leaked from the Maconda well, making the Deep Horizon oil spill the largest in US history. In response to a need to determine the distribution of wetland plant species and quantify their condition prior to, during and after oil reached the shore, the Airborne/Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) was deployed multiple times in the gulf on high altitude and low altitude airborne platforms. Significant research questions included 1) What is the distribution of key wetland species in the impacted area?; 2) which areas were impacted by oil, when and to what extent?; 3) how much oil must be present to be detected in various cover types? and 4) which wetland species are more sensitive to oil? In an effort to answer some of these questions, we applied Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) to AVIRIS data acquired prior to significant impacts in May, 2010 and after oil had reached wetlands in late summer and fall, 2010. Reference polygons for species dominants were located on the images and used to build a spectral library for all dominant wetland species and surface types. This spectral library was augmented by field spectra, acquired using a contact probe for senesced plants materials and beach sands. Spectra of heavily oiled surfaces were identified using the Hydrocarbon Index to identify potential oil endmembers and the Cellulose Absorption Index to discriminate oil from Non-photosynthetic Vegetation (NPV). Wetland species and cover fractions for Green Vegetation (GV), NPV, soils/beaches, oil and water were mapped using MESMA applied to images acquired in the Birds Foot Delta, Chandeleur Islands and Barataria Bay. Species maps, showing dominant species such as Phragmites australis, Spartina alternifolia and S. patens proved to be accurate. OIl was mapped along coastal areas of Barataria Bay, expressed as high oil fractions. However, significant confusion was also

  8. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition.

  10. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    PubMed

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites.

  11. Bioavailability, Composition and Fate of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Swan-Canning Catchment, South-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, K. C.; Hughes, C. S.; Norris, J. R.; Grierson, P. F.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprises the bulk of the total nitrogen load to the N-limited Swan-Canning river and estuary that bisects Perth, WA, yet its ecological role is largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the bioavailability and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), particularly its DON component, and the potential of DOM to supply dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to the estuary during the summer months when algal blooms are common. We compared water samples from 10 sub-catchments of the Swan-Canning that vary in land-use: eucalypt forests on the Darling Scarp most distant from the estuary, mixed (agriculture/ residential) catchments on the metropolitan perimeter, and urban catchments on the Swan Coastal Plain near Perth CBD. We inoculated water samples with a common bacterial inoculum and measured changes in DOC, DON and DIN over time. We found that 2 to 17 per cent of DOC and 18 to 44 per cent of the DON was consumed during the experiment and DIN was produced in 8 of 10 catchments. DOC and DON consumption were linearly related to concentration across sites and were greatest in the urban catchments. However, DOC and DON consumption were not significantly related, suggesting that C and N are concentrated in different fractions of DOM. Using resin fractionation techniques, we found that DOC was concentrated in the hydrophobic fraction, followed by transphilics, and lesser amounts of charged and neutral hydrophilics. Ongoing analyses will examine the N content of resin fractions and the amino acid composition of streams to determine how N composition relates to DOM decomposition. We are currently examining organic matter leached from native plants (Corymbia, Melaleuca) in coastal plain wetlands in order to characterize allochthonous DOM. Further examination of algal- derived DOM and point sources will enable us to determine the bioavailability and composition of in-stream and anthropogenic sources. These studies provide much needed

  12. Plant Ecology of Australia's Tropical Floodplain Wetlands: A Review

    PubMed Central

    FINLAYSON, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    • Aims Despite the biodiversity values of the freshwater floodplains of northern Australia being widely recognized, there has not been a concomitant investment in developing the extent of knowledge of the basic functions and ecological processes that underpin the ecological character of these habitats. This review addresses the extent of our knowledge on the plant ecology of these wetlands and covers: the relationships between the climate and the hydrological regime on the floodplain; the vegetation patterns, succession and adaptation; and primary production. • Scope Information is available on the seasonal, but less regularly on the inter-annual, dynamics of the macrophytic vegetation and its evident inter-relationship with the extent, depth and duration of inundation by seasonal flooding. The available scientifically collected information on plant distribution and relationship with the water regime could be complemented by more attention to traditional knowledge. The productivity of the vegetation is high—the dominant wetland grass species have an annual dry weight production of 0·5–2·1 kg m−2 and the surrounding riparian (Melaleuca) trees contribute litterfall of 0·7–1·5 kg (dry weight) m−2 year−1, ∼70 % due to leaf-fall. The availability of dissolved oxygen in the water is known to vary diurnally and seasonally, at least in some habitats. The importance of seasonal differences in the availability of dissolved oxygen for the growth of micro- and macrophytic vegetation has not been investigated. The seasonal distribution and growth of plant species on a few floodplains have been investigated, and maps at scales of 1 : 10 000 to 1 : 100 000 are available for these. However, only on a few occasions have longer term analyses been conducted and long-term changes in the vegetation measured and assessed. Species lists and categorization of growth strategies and forms are available and provide a basis for further ecological

  13. Impacts of artificial inundation of ephemeral creek beds on mature riparian eucalypts in semi-arid northwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, Rachel; Page, Gerald; Grierson, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The resilience of riparian ecosystems of intermittent rivers to changes in their hydrological regimes is not well understood. In the Pilbara region of northwest Australia, streams flow only occasionally, reflecting a highly dynamic and extremely variable cycle of prolonged droughts punctuated by occasional floods. However, discharge of ground water pumped from mining activities over recent years has resulted in localised areas with constant surface water. Here we sought to assess impacts of prolonged saturation on the health and functioning of two co-occurring eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus victrix). While riparian vegetation is clearly adapted to partial root-zone hypoxia, we hypothesised that trees in inundated areas experience reduced root function due to an energy crisis, which will be reflected by symptoms in the foliage. We expected that complete saturation of the entire root system for an extended time period reduces physiological function through lower stomatal conductance and more negative water potential, results in canopy sparseness and reduces accumulation of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus. Trees (n=26) were assessed at two sites with artificially permanent surface water (discharge sites) and compared to trees (n=21) at a site with a naturally occurring permanent groundwater fed pool ('reference site'). Trees were sampled from a range of positions including the stream bed, the lower bank and the upper bank, in order to determine the extent of influence of the discharge water. No eucalypts grew in the stream bed at the reference site, indicating either the stream bed conditions were unsuitable for seedling survival or eucalypts were outcompeted by the flood tolerant tree Melaleuca argentea (which was absent from the impact sites). Soil redox potential, an indicator of oxygen availability and other soil chemical conditions, was measured with platinum redox probes at 25 cm depth. Trees were assessed for canopy cover, foliage water

  14. Vegetation-induced soil water repellency as a strategy in arid ecosystems. A geochemical approach in Banksia woodlands (SW Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordan, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Banksia woodlands (BW) are iconic ecosystems of Western Australia (WA) composed by an overstorey dominated by Proteaceae, e.g. Banksia menziesii and Banksia attenuata, in combination with other species, such as Eucalyptus spp., Verticordia spp. or Melaleuca spp. Although located in very poor dune soils, BW provide numerous ecosystem services and sustain a high biodiversity. In this area, annual rainfall is relatively high (about 800 mm) but permeability of the sandy substrate leads to a functionally arid ecosystem. Currently, BW are threatened by sand mining activities and urban expansion; therefore conservation and restoration of these woodlands are critical. Despite numerous efforts, the success of restoration plans is usually poor mostly due to the high sensitivity to drought stress and poor seedling survival rates (5-30%) (Benigno et al., 2014). A characteristic feature of BW is their root architecture, formed by a proteoid (cluster) system that spreads to form thick mats below the soil surface, favouring the uptake of nutrients (especially, P), and preventing soil erosion. Root exudates are related to numerous plant functions, as they facilitate penetration of roots in soil and enhance the extraction of scarce mineral nutrients and its further assimilation. Exudates may also interact directly with soil or indirectly through microbial mediated events being also related to soil water repellency (SWR; Lozano et al, 2014). Knowledge about the specific compounds able to induce SWR is limited (Doerr et al., 2000), but it is generally accepted that is caused by organic molecules coating the surface of soil mineral particles and aggregates (Jordán et al., 2013). Proteaceae release short-chained organic acids to enhance phosphate acquisition, which have been also reported to be related with SWR (Jiménez-Morillo et al., 2014). It is hypothesized that disruption of water dynamics in mature BW soils is underlying the failure of restoration plans. This