Science.gov

Sample records for melanitta perspicillata wintering

  1. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  2. Butyltins, trace metals and morphological variables in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Harris, M L; Wilson, L K; Smith, B D; Batchelor, S P; Maguire, J

    2007-09-01

    From 1998 to 2001 we examined spatial and temporal variation in uptake of contaminants by surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in the Georgia Basin region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Samples were collected during late fall and early spring at industrialized and reference locations, carcasses examined, and tissues collected for histology, biomarkers, and contaminant analyses. Scoters from both Vancouver and Victoria harbours had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of summation operatorbutyltins than birds from a reference site. In adult male surf scoters, hepatic summation operatorbutyltins increased over the winter at two sites (p=0.02, n=26), while mercury increased (p=0.03, n=15) and selenium decreased at one site (p=0.001, n=15). Body condition decreased over the winter at both the treatment site, Howe Sound (p<0.0001, n=12), and the reference site, Baynes Sound (p=0.02, n=15). Multiple regression analysis using Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC(C)) showed an association between hepatic butyltin concentrations and overall body condition (p=0.06, r=-0.237).

  3. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  4. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Perry, Matthew C; Kohn, Richard A; Paynter, Kennedy T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  5. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  6. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  7. Phenology and duration of remigial moult in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca) on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickson, Rian D.; Esler, Daniel; Hupp, Jerry W.; Anderson, E.M.; Evenson, J.R.; Barrett, J.

    2012-01-01

    By quantifying phenology and duration of remigial moult in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) and White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)), we tested whether timing of moult is dictated by temporal optima or constraints. Scoters (n = 3481) were captured during moult in Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington, and remigial emergence dates were determined. We provide evidence for a pre-emergence interval of 7.3 days that occurs after old primaries are shed and before new ones become visible. All age and sex classes of both scoter species exhibited a wide range of emergence dates (Surf Scoters: 26 June to 22 September; White-winged Scoters: 6 July to 21 September) suggestive of a lack of strong temporal optima for remigial moult. For both species, timing of moult was influenced by site, year, age, and sex. Relative to other waterfowl species, scoters have typical remigial growth rates (Surf Scoters: 3.9 mm·day–1; White-winged Scoters: 4.3 mm·day–1) but a long flightless period (34–49 days), in part because their relatively high wing-loading requires a greater proportion of feather regrowth to regain flight. Our data suggest that moulting scoters are not under strong selective pressure to complete moult quickly.

  8. Properties of Blood, Porphyrins, and Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) Overwintering on the South Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L. K.; Harris, M. L.; Trudeau, S.; Ikonomou, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a little-studied species of North American sea duck. Estimates suggest it has experienced a precipitous decline in breeding numbers over the latter half of the past century. To investigate the potential role of contaminant uptake and toxicity in the population decline, this study undertook to measure blood chemistry, porphyrin concentrations, EROD, and organic contaminants in mature surf scoters wintering in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Hepatic organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether, and nonylphenol concentrations were relatively low; for example, ΣTEQs (toxic equivalents) for PCBs, dioxins, and furans combined ranged from 4.7 ng/kg wet weight in reference-site (Baynes Sound) birds to 11.4 ng/kg wet weight in birds from Vancouver Harbour. Nonetheless, elevated EROD activity indicated that birds in Howe Sound were responding to an Ah-receptor-mediated stressor, which was also affecting hematocrit values and possibly vitamin A status. In addition, a low proportion of lymphocytes in individuals across locations in early spring samples was associated with poor body condition. The apparent loss of fitness just prior to the onset of northerly migrations to breeding grounds is of particular concern. Compromised health of mature birds at this point in the season might impact negatively on the productivity and survival of some individuals, particularly those overwintering in Howe Sound. PMID:20204344

  9. Predation rates, timing, and predator composition for scoters (Melanitta spp.) in marine habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.M.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Evenson, J.R.; Nysewander, D.R.; Ward, D.H.; Dickson, R.D.; Uher-Koch, B. D.; Vanstratt, C.S.; Hupp, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of declining populations of sea ducks have focused mainly on bottom-up processes with little emphasis on the role of predation. We identified 11 potential predators of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)) and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) in North American marine habitats. However, of 596 Scoters marked with VHF transmitters along the Pacific coast, mortalities were recovered in association with just two identifiable categories of predators: in southeast Alaska recoveries occurred mainly near mustelid feeding areas, while those in southern British Columbia and Washington occurred mainly near feeding areas of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)). Determining whether marked Scoters had been depredated versus scavenged was often not possible, but mortalities occurred more frequently during winter than during wing molt (13.1% versus 0.7% of both species combined, excluding Scoters that died within a postrelease adjustment period). In two sites heavily used by Scoters, diurnal observations revealed no predation attempts and low rates of predator disturbances that altered Scoter behavior (???0.22/h). These and other results suggest that predation by Bald Eagles occurs mainly at sites and times where densities of Scoters are low, while most predation by mustelids probably occurs when Scoters are energetically compromised.

  10. Predation rates, timing, and predator composition for Scoters (Melanitta spp.) in marine habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric J.; Esler, Daniel N.; Sean, Boyd W.; Evenson, Joseph; Nysewander, David R.; Ward, David H.; Dickson, Rian D.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Vanstratt, C.S.; Hupp, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Studies of declining populations of sea ducks have focused mainly on bottom-up processes with little emphasis on the role of predation. We identified 11 potential predators of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)) and Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) in North American marine habitats. However, of 596 Scoters marked with VHF transmitters along the Pacific coast, mortalities were recovered in association with just two identifiable categories of predators: in southeast Alaska recoveries occurred mainly near mustelid feeding areas, while those in southern British Columbia and Washington occurred mainly near feeding areas of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)). Determining whether marked Scoters had been depredated versus scavenged was often not possible, but mortalities occurred more frequently during winter than during wing molt (13.1% versus 0.7% of both species combined, excluding Scoters that died within a postrelease adjustment period). In two sites heavily used by Scoters, diurnal observations revealed no predation attempts and low rates of predator disturbances that altered Scoter behavior (≤ 0.22/h). These and other results suggest that predation by Bald Eagles occurs mainly at sites and times where densities of Scoters are low, while most predation by mustelids probably occurs when Scoters are energetically compromised.

  11. The Body Size-Dependent Diet Composition of North American Sea Ducks in Winter

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Jean-François; Vanpé, Cécile; Guillemette, Magella

    2013-01-01

    Daily food requirements scale with body mass and activity in animals. While small species of birds have higher mass-specific field metabolic rates than larger species, larger species have higher absolute energy costs. Under energy balance, we thus expect the small species to have a higher energy value diet. Also the weight and time constraints for flighted and diurnal foragers should set a maximum to the amount of prey items taken in one meal and to the daily number of meals, respectively. Further, avoidance of competition causes the species to reduce the amount of shared prey in their diet. Some diet segregation is therefore to be expected between species. We tested these hypotheses and investigated the role of body mass in the diet composition of 12 sea duck species (Somateria mollissima, Somateria spectabilis, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, Bucephala clangula, Bucephala islandica, Bucephala albeola, Melanitta nigra, Melanitta perspicillata, Melanitta deglandi, Histrionicus histrionicus and Clangula hyemalis) wintering in North America. This study was based on a literature survey with special emphasis given to the diet data from the former US Bureau of Biological Survey. The data supported our hypothesis that the energy value of winter diet of sea ducks scales negatively with body mass. Diet diversity also scaled negatively with body mass. Our results suggest the existence of a minimum for the energy value of avian diets. PMID:23755266

  12. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.; Thompson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium, cadmium, mercury, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lead, PCBs and DDE were accumulated by segments of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) population that winters in the Pacific Northwest, but whether the uptake occurred on breeding and/or wintering grounds was uncertain for some contaminants. Surf scoters collected in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay (in another study) during the same period (January 1985) contained similar concentrations of cadmium, but Alsea Bay scoters contained more. Cadmium was inversely related to both liver and body weights of Northwest scoters in January; similar weight losses were reported in experimental laboratory studies. Northwest and north San Francisco Bay scoters contained similar mercury concentrations, but those in south San Francisco Bay contained higher concentrations. San Francisco Bay scoters contained higher arsenic and selenium concentrations than those in the Northwest; however, the 43.4 ppm (geometric mean, dry wt) selenium in livers at Commencement Bay in January was above levels associated with the reproductive problems in aquatic birds at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Even higher concentrations of some elements may be found in surf scoters in March, because a later collection (March) at San Francisco Bay yielded higher concentrations than found there in January. Trace element concentrations in birds at a given wintering location are variable among species and may be influenced by diet, breeding grounds, and physiology (e.g., at Commencement Bay surf scoters with a sediment-associated diet contained 50X more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating western grebes [Aechmophorus occidentalis]). The numerous wildlife species that live on estuaries require further attention.

  13. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Movements of wintering surf scoters: predator responses to different prey landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Molly; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, Samuel A; Boyd, W Sean

    2008-04-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. PMID:18210158

  15. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  16. Mucocele in a spectacled owl (Pusilatrix perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Brandão, João; Sabater, Mikel; Stidworthy, Mark F; Forbes, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    A 6-year-old breeding female spectacled owl (Pusilatrix perspicillata) was presented for a soft, fluid-filled, spherical mass under the neck that had been increasing in size over the previous 3 days. Results of a fine-needle aspirate of the mass showed clear, pale-yellow fluid with a total protein of 12.6 g/L. Cytologic examination revealed erythrocytes, moderate numbers of heterophils, and numerous foamy mononuclear cells against a mucoid background. Macroscopically, the mass appeared to be attached firmly to the esophagus. The mass was excised surgically and submitted for histopathologic examination. The lesion comprised a circumscribed, fibrous-encapsulated multilocular cyst, lined by plump, goblet-type, cuboidal epithelial cells lying in abundant mucinous matrix. Findings were consistent with a mucocele of the esophageal mucosal gland. Excision was considered curative based on follow-up 6 months after initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in Strigiformes and indicates that mucocele should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses in birds.

  17. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. II: Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Bitter, Karen S; Heffner, Henry E

    2003-04-01

    We determined the audiograms of two short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata), 18-g phyllostomids from Central and South America. For testing, we used a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward. At an intensity of 60 dB SPL, the hearing of C. perspicillata extends from 5.2 to 150 kHz, showing a best sensitivity of 0 dB at 25 kHz and a secondary region of sensitivity at 71 kHz. Although C. perspicillata is frugivorous and therefore does not rely on sonar for detecting and pursuing insects, its audiogram is similar to that of insectivorous bats; similarly, there is no suggestion of unusual sensitivity associated with its low-intensity echolocation calls. The behavioral audiogram is compared to previously published physiological estimates of hearing.

  18. Electroejaculation and semen buffer evaluation in the microbat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Fasel, Nicolas Jean; Helfenstein, Fabrice; Buff, Samuel; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Scientific interests and conservation needs currently stress the necessity to better understanding bat reproductive biology. In this study, we present the first, safe, inexpensive, and reliable method to obtain sperm from a microbat species (Carollia perspicillata) by electroejaculation. This method revealed to be highly efficient (100% success rate). We obtained ejaculates composed of two characteristically different fractions. We compared three buffers and recommend using an Earle's balanced salt solution as a semen extender. Earle's balanced salt solution provided significant repeatable measure of swimming ability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.74, P < 0.01) and proportion of motile sperms (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.08, P = 0.01) and allowed sperm to maintain optimal swimming capacity over time. None of the buffers could dissolve all the coagulated sperm. Although the trypsin buffer freed a larger fraction of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, it impaired swimming ability without improving motility, viability, and stamina. We thus argue that the sperm population analyzed with Earle's balanced salt solution is a representative of the ejaculate. Finally, we found that the mean sperm velocity of C perspicillata (78.8 μm/s) is lower than that predicted by regressing sperm velocity on relative testes mass, a proxy of sperm competition. The question as to whether C perspicillata is an outsider for sperm velocity, or whether bats evolved yet another unique mechanism to cope with sperm competition deserves more investigations.

  19. Olfaction in the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Lays C; Mikich, Sandra B; Bianconi, Gledson V

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species. PMID:26536853

  20. Echolocation call intensity and directionality in flying short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Brinkløv, Signe; Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    The directionality of bat echolocation calls defines the width of bats' sonar "view," while call intensity directly influences detection range since adequate sound energy must impinge upon objects to return audible echoes. Both are thus crucial parameters for understanding biosonar signal design. Phyllostomid bats have been classified as low intensity or "whispering bats," but recent data indicate that this designation may be inaccurate. Echolocation beam directionality in phyllostomids has only been measured through electrode brain-stimulation of restrained bats, presumably excluding active beam control via the noseleaf. Here, a 12-microphone array was used to measure echolocation call intensity and beam directionality in the frugivorous phyllostomid, Carollia perspicillata, echolocating in flight. The results showed a considerably narrower beam shape (half-amplitude beam angles of approximately 16° horizontally and 14° vertically) and louder echolocation calls [source levels averaging 99 dB sound pressure level (SPL) root mean square] for C. perspicillata than was found for this species when stationary. This suggests that naturally behaving phyllostomids shape their sound beam to achieve a longer and narrower sonar range than previously thought. C. perspicillata orient and forage in the forest interior and the narrow beam might be adaptive in clutter, by reducing the number and intensity of off-axis echoes.

  1. Olfaction in the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Lays C; Mikich, Sandra B; Bianconi, Gledson V

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.

  2. Modification of sperm quality after sexual abstinence in Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Charlotte; Fasel, Nicolas; Richner, Heinz; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    In polygynous mating systems, few males have stable access to sexual mates. With an expected higher copulation rate, harem males may deplete seminal fluids or increase epididymal sperm maturation, generating poor sperm quality. In a first study, we reported a higher sperm quality in sneaker males of Carollia perspicillata To test whether the lower sperm quality observed in harem males was generated by an elevated copulation rate, we temporarily removed males of both social statuses from the colony. We thus assessed status-related changes of sperm quality resulting from sexual abstinence. Moreover, released from territory and female guarding, harem males were expected to show a reduction in somatic costs. On the basis of sperm competition models, we predicted a higher resource investment in the ejaculate with the reduction of pre-copulatory efforts. In line with our predictions, sperm quality of harem males improved significantly in contrast to sneaker males, whose sperm quality did not change. Without an increase in ejaculate lipid peroxidation, our results also provide evidence that the duration of sexual abstinence was not sufficient to generate sperm oxidative damage through senescence. Harem males did not show a reduction in blood lipid peroxidation or in the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. In line with the maintenance of these somatic costs, harem males did not invest more superoxide dismutase to the ejaculate to maintain sperm quality. Our results suggest that a difference in copulation rate rather than an adaptation to sperm competition provides sneaker males with higher sperm quality in C. perspicillata. PMID:27208034

  3. Reproductive Ecology and Habitat Use of Pacific Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra americana) Nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Abundance indices of Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra. americana) breeding in Alaska indicate a long-term population decline without obvious cause (s). However, few life history data are available for the species in North America. In 2001–2004, information was collected on nesting habitat and reproductive parameters (i.e. components of productivity) from a population of Black Scoters nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. A total of 157 nests were found over four years. Primarily, nests were among dense vegetation in shrub edge habitat, predominantly dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and Alaska spiraea (Spiraea beauverdiana), an average of 58 m from water. Females initiated nests from 11 June and 17 July across years. Clutch size averaged 7.5 eggs and did not vary annually. Nest success was highly variable among years and ranged from 0.01 to 0.37. Duckling survival to 30 days old varied among years, and ranged from 0.09 – 0.35. Nest success was poor in three of four years, likely due to predation by Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes). Black Scoters appear to have low but variable productivity, consistent with life-history patterns of other sea duck species. Information gained will direct future demographic research on Black Scoters, and highlights knowledge gaps impeding management strategies needed for population recovery.

  4. Cone bipolar cells in the retina of the microbat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Butz, Elisabeth; Peichl, Leo; Müller, Brigitte

    2015-04-15

    We studied the retinal cone bipolar cells of Carollia perspicillata, a microchiropteran bat of the phyllostomid family. Microchiroptera are strongly nocturnal, with small eyes and rod-dominated retinae. However, they also possess a significant cone population (2-4%) comprising two spectral types, which are hence the basis for daylight and color vision. We used antibodies against the calcium-binding protein recoverin and the carbohydrate epitope 15 (CD15) as reliable markers for certain cone bipolar cells. Dye injections of recoverin- or CD15-prelabeled cone bipolar cells in vertical slices revealed the morphology of the axon terminal system of individual bipolar cells. Seven distinct cone bipolar cell types were identified. They differed in the morphology and stratification level of their axon terminal system in the inner plexiform layer and in immunoreactivity for recoverin and/or CD15. Additional immunocytochemical markers were used to assess the functional ON/OFF subdivision of the inner plexiform layer. In line with the extended thickness of the ON sublayer of the inner plexiform layer in the microbat retina, more ON than OFF cone bipolar cell types were found, namely, four versus three. Most likely, in the bats' predominantly dark environment, ON signals have greater importance for contrast perception. We conclude that the microbat retina conforms to the general mammalian blueprint, in which light signals of intensities above rod sensitivity are detected by cones and transmitted to various types of ON and OFF cone bipolar cells. PMID:25521284

  5. The sound emission pattern and the acoustical role of the noseleaf in the echolocating bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Hartley, D J; Suthers, R A

    1987-12-01

    Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae) is a frugivorous bat that emits low-intensity, broadband, frequency-modulated echolocation pulses through nostrils surrounded by a noseleaf. The emission pattern of this bat is of interest because the ratio between the nostril spacing and the emitted wavelength varies during the pulse, causing complex interference patterns in the horizontal dimension. Sound pressures around the bat were measured using a movable microphone and were referenced to those at a stationary microphone positioned directly in front of the animal. Interference between the nostrils was confirmed by blocking one nostril, which eliminated sidelobes and minima in the emission pattern, and by comparison of real emission patterns with simple computer models. The positions of minima in the patterns indicate effective nostril spacings of over a half-wavelength. Displacement of the dorsal lancet of the noseleaf demonstrated that this structure directs sound in the vertical dimension. PMID:3429728

  6. Blood lead levels of wild Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and black scoters (Melanitta nigra) in Alaska using a portable blood lead analyzer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.S.; Luebbert, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Schamber, J.; Rosenberg, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sea duck populations are declining in Alaska. The reasons for the decline are not known; environmental lead exposure is one suspected cause. Thirty wild Steller's eider ducks (Polysticta stelleri) and 40 wild black scoter ducks (Melanitta nigra) were tested for blood lead levels using a portable blood lead analyzer (LeadCare; ESA, Inc., Chelmsford, Massachusetts 01824, USA). Sixty-seven and one-tenth percent of the sea ducks had undetectable blood lead levels, 30.0% had values indicating normal or background lead exposure, and 2.9% had values indicating lead exposure. None of the birds had values indicating lead toxicity, and no birds demonstrated clinical signs of toxicity. Birds in areas with higher human population density had higher blood lead levels than those in less densely populated areas. This is the first time a portable blood lead analyzer has been utilized with sea ducks in a field setting. Because it provides immediate results, it is valuable as a screening tool for investigators carrying out surgical procedures on birds in the field as well as establishing baseline blood lead data on sea ducks. Lead exposure does occur in wild sea ducks, and the study indicates that additional research is needed in order to determine the role environmental lead plays in declining sea duck populations. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  7. Winter Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Lois

    1981-01-01

    Try to learn all you can about a plant in the winter. As the season changes, you can see what the dried seed pod is like in bloom. You are a convert if you notice a spectacular show of summer wildflowers and wonder what sort of winter weed will result. (Author/CM)

  8. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  9. Baseline corticosterone in wintering marine birds: methodological considerations and ecological patterns.

    PubMed

    Palm, E C; Esler, D; Anderson, E M; Williams, T D; Love, O P; Wilson, M T

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have related levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT) of seabirds to variation in foraging conditions during the breeding period, but it is unclear whether similar relationships between foraging conditions and baseline CORT exist during other life stages. We validated methods for identifying baseline CORT of lethally sampled birds and assessed variation in baseline CORT relative to winter habitat conditions. We collected free-living white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) at four wintering sites during December and February. We found increasing CORT values beyond 3 min after time since flush (the duration between initial flush and death), presumably reflecting acute stress responses. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain baseline CORT from lethally sampled birds if the time from initial flush until death is measured. Our study sites varied appreciably in exposure to wind and waves, predation danger, diving depths, and the fraction of preferred foods in scoter diets. Despite these habitat differences, baseline CORT did not vary across sites or winter periods. We interpret this lack of variation as evidence that birds select wintering areas where they can successfully manage site-specific costs and maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:23629884

  10. Winter Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Outdoor Educators of Quebec, Montreal.

    Materials on 11 topics presented at a winter workshop for Quebec outdoor educators have been compiled into this booklet. Action story, instant replay, shoe factory, sound and action, and find an object to fit the description are described and recommended as group dynamic activities. Directions for five games (Superlative Selection; Data…

  11. Winter Wonderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  12. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  13. Estimating population abundance and mapping distribution of wintering sea ducks in coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Forsell, D.J.; Wortham, J.S.; Boomer, G.S.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Survey design for wintering scoters (Melanitta sp.) and other sea ducks that occur in offshore waters is challenging because these species have large ranges, are subject to distributional shifts among years and within a season, and can occur in aggregations. Interest in winter sea duck population abundance surveys has grown in recent years. This interest stems from concern over the population status of some sea ducks, limitations of extant breeding waterfowl survey programs in North America and logistical challenges and costs of conducting surveys in northern breeding regions, high winter area philopatry in some species and potential conservation implications, and increasing concern over offshore development and other threats to sea duck wintering habitats. The efficiency and practicality of statistically-rigorous monitoring strategies for mobile, aggregated wintering sea duck populations have not been sufficiently investigated. This study evaluated a 2-phase adaptive stratified strip transect sampling plan to estimate wintering population size of scoters, long-tailed ducks (Clangua hyemalis), and other sea ducks and provide information on distribution. The sampling plan results in an optimal allocation of a fixed sampling effort among offshore strata in the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast region. Phase I transect selection probabilities were based on historic distribution and abundance data, while Phase 2 selection probabilities were based on observations made during Phase 1 flights. Distance sampling methods were used to estimate detection rates. Environmental variables thought to affect detection rates were recorded during the survey and post-stratification and covariate modeling were investigated to reduce the effect of heterogeneity on detection estimation. We assessed cost-precision tradeoffs under a number of fixed-cost sampling scenarios using Monte Carlo simulation. We discuss advantages and limitations of this sampling design for estimating wintering sea duck

  14. Worrying about weird winters.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Winter is a key determinant of biological processes in temperate, alpine, and polar environments. Winters are changing, yet we currently lack the knowledge to adequately predict the impacts of climate change on winter biology, or to link winter conditions to the growing-season performance of most organisms. PMID:27580991

  15. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat.

  16. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989

  17. A Winter Survival Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The article is a condensation of materials from the winter survival unit of a Canadian snow ecology course. The unit covers: cold physiology, frostbite, snowblindness, hypothermia, winter campout, and survival strategies. (SB)

  18. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  19. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.

  20. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-07-01

    The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats. PMID:27425652

  1. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  2. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  3. The Winter Is Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Teacher, writer, and naturalist Phyllis S. Busch takes the reader on an early evening woodland walk in March, describing the many changes in plants and animals that are perceptible by sight, smell, and sound as nature awakens from winter. (NEC)

  4. Nutrition for winter sports.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  5. Winter depression and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Christine R

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common and often harmful disorder, which is frequently associated with the winter season. Research has shown a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression. Furthermore, diabetics with depression have a higher rate of adverse outcomes. Little has been published regarding the seasonality of depression in diabetics. The case report described in this article concerns a 65-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and a history of winter depression. Current evidence-based management options are reviewed. PMID:23089656

  6. Mammals in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapner, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Mammals that tolerate the winter cold and stay active all year exploit the harsh northern climate to their advantage. By simple experiments and observation you can better understand their adaptations which include furry bodies, snowshoe feet, extra blubber, light coloration, and strategically distributed food caches. (JHZ)

  7. The News. Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This Winter 2007 quarterly newsletter from the Community College League of California includes: (1) Incumbents: Some Win, Some Lose in November Trustee Elections; (2) Voters Approve $2 Billion in Bonds; (3) Photos from the "Together We Can" conference; (4) Report, Media Criticize Transfer, Completion Rates and Colleges; (5) District Leader…

  8. Teaching Ecology in Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching ecology in the winter. Suggested topic areas or units include snow insulation and density, snowflakes and snow crystals, goldenrod galls, bird behavior, survival techniques, bacteriology and decomposition, trees and keying, biomass and productivity, pollution, and soil organisms. A sample student activity sheet is…

  9. Winter Playscape Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    Winter, like all seasons, adds a new sense of mystery and discovery to the world of young children. It is the time when they can study snowflakes, find icicles, or observe the birds that share their yards. This article presents ideas and suggestions on how to plan a playscape. A playscape is a man-made seasonal playground for young children. It…

  10. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  11. Winter Here and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Joy

    This book contains a wide variety of winter-oriented ideas and activities that can be adapted to all elementary grade levels and can also be integrated into existing mathematics, science, social studies, and/or art programs. The activities aim to help students develop the skills of observation, appreciation, and problem solving as well as…

  12. Titan's Winter Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere has provided an interesting study in contrasts and similarities with Earth's. While both have N$_2$ as the dominant constituent and comparable surface pressures $\\sim1$ bar, Titan's next most abundant molecule is CH$_4$, not O$_2$, and the dissociative breakup of CH$_4$ and N$_2$ by sunlight and electron impact leads to a suite of hydrocarbons and nitriles, and ultimately the photochemical smog that enshrouds the moon. In addition, with a 15.95-day period, Titan is a slow rotator compared to Earth. While the mean zonal terrestrial winds are geostrophic, Titan's are mostly cyclostrophic, whipping around the moon in as little as 1 day. Despite the different dynamical regime, Titan's winter stratosphere exhibits several characteristics that should be familiar to terrestrial meteorologists. The cold winter pole near the 1 -mbar level is circumscribed by strong winds (up to 190 m/s) that act as a barrier to mixing with airmasses at lower latitudes. There is evidence of enhancement of several organic species over the winter pole, indicating subsidence. The adiabatic heating associated with this subsidence gives rise to a warm anomaly at the 0.01-mbar level, raising the stratopause two scale heights above its location at equatorial latitudes. Condensate ices have been detected in Titan's lower stratosphere within the winter polar vortex from infrared spectra. Although not always unambiguously identified, their spatial distribution exhibits a sharp gradient, decreasing precipitously across the vortex away from the winter pole. The interesting question of whether there is important heterogeneous chemistry occurring within the polar vortex, analogous to that occurring in the terrestrial polar stratospheric clouds in the ozone holes, has not been addressed. The breakup of Titan's winter polar vortex has not yet been observed. On Earth, the polar vortex is nonlinearly disrupted by interaction with large-amplitude planetary waves. Large-scale waves have not

  13. Deciduous Plant Twigs in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise

    1977-01-01

    Describing, via illustration and narrative, the winter twigs found in the U.S., this article presents a sophisticated discussion of: beech, white ash, aspen, sycamore, red oak, butternut, and other winter twigs. (JC)

  14. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  15. Use of binaural cues for sound localization in two species of Phyllostomidae: the Greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) and the Short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2010-11-01

    Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability to use binaural cues in 2 New World bats, Phyllostomus hastatus, large omnivores, and Carollia perspicillata, small frugivores, by testing their tone-localization ability using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Both species easily localized high-frequency tones, indicating that they could use the interaural intensity-difference cue. However, neither species was able to use the phase-difference cue to localize either low-frequency pure tones or amplitude-modulated tones (which provided an envelope for additional time analysis). We now know of 3 bat species that cannot use binaural time cues and 2 that can. Further exploration of localization in bats may provide insight into the neural analysis of time cues in species that do not hear low frequencies.

  16. Winter Frost and Fog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog.

    Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  17. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  18. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  19. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  20. Winter Survival: A Consumer's Guide to Winter Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses a variety of topics to help consumers prepare for winter. Tips for the home include: winterizing the home, dealing with a loss of heat or power failure, and what you need to have on hand. Another section gives driving tips and what to do in a storm. Health factors include suggestions for keeping warm, signs and treatment for…

  1. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  2. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-27

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  3. Foraging behaviors of Surf Scoters and White-Winged Scoters during spawning of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of Surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (M. fusca) are composed primarily of bivalves. During spawning of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in early spring, scoters shift their diets to herring eggs. Using radio-telemetry, we contrasted scoter foraging behaviorsbetween winter and herring spawning periods. Scoters increased their dive durations during herring spawning, likely to maximize the amount of roe consumed per dive; in winter, dives were typically terminated upon clam capture. Scoters spent approximately 50% less time foraging ( $min underwater hr^{-1}$ ) and decreased their dive rate (dives hr -1 ) by 70% when feeding on roe. The observed reduction in time spent foraging was presumably caused by the abundance of herring eggs, and thus a reduction in prey search-time. Scoters were able to meet energetic requirements with reduced effort, despite potentially increased demands related to spring fattening. Less time spentforaging may also allow more time for premigratory courtship behaviors

  4. Winter Anomaly 1982/83 in Comparison with Earlier Winters (1960-82)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The winter anomaly in the winter of 1982/83 is compared with the winter anomalies of earlier winters (1960-82) from the point of view of amplitude and timing of the winter anomaly, and geomagnetic and dynamic activity influences. Some evidence of a negative influence of sudden stratospheric warnings on the winter anomaly is given.

  5. Learners in Action, Winter 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Winter 2005 issue of "Learners in Action" contains the following: (1) Proud Dad Turns Family Life Around (Nick Prince); (2) Learners Make a Great Impression at Conference; (3) The Story behind the Story; and (4) Learner Resources.

  6. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  7. Resource selection and space use by sea ducks during the non-breeding season: implications for habitat conservation planning in urbanized estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Eadie, John M.; Miles, A. Keith; Yee, Julie; Spragens, Kyle A.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Wide-ranging marine birds rely on multiple habitats for wintering, breeding, and migrating, and their conservation may be dependent on protecting networks of key areas. Urbanized estuaries are critical wintering and stopover areas for many declining sea ducks in North America; however, conservation measures within estuaries are difficult to establish given lack of knowledge about habitat use by these species and the variety of competing human interests. We applied hierarchical modeling to evaluate resource selection of sea ducks (surf scoters, Melanitta perspicillata) wintering in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, a large and highly urbanized estuary. We also examined their distribution, home range, and movements with respect to key habitat features and regions within the estuary. Herring roe was the strongest predictor of bird locations; however, eelgrass, water depth and salinity were also highly-ranked, with sea ducks using deeper areas of higher salinity associated with herring roe and eelgrass presence during mid-winter. Sea ducks were also strongly associated with ferry routes, suggesting these areas may contain resources that are too important to avoid and emphasizing the need to better understand water traffic effects. Movements and home range size differed between males and females in early winter but became more similar in late winter. Birds traveled farther and used several sub-bays in early winter compared to mid-winter when herring roe availability peaked in the Central Bay. Our findings identified key environmental variables, highlighted core use areas, and documented critical periods for consideration when developing conservation plans for sea ducks in urbanized estuaries.

  8. Nuclear winter attracts additional scrutiny

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1984-07-06

    Prodded by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Congress has asked the Pentagon to provide what amounts to an environmental impact statement on the potential for nuclear weapons explosions to create enough soot and dust to cause a nuclear winter. The request has implications for arms control and civil defense as well as for weapons procurement and deployment. Little attention was given to the atmospheric and climatic effects of nuclear war until the nuclear winter concept was introduced in October of 1983. Only the Navy and the DOE took steps to follow up until pressure was put on Congress and the Pentagon for further study. Pentagon criticism of the nuclear winter presentation argues that the scenario assumptions that cities will be targeted and that a conflict will involve 5000-6500 megatons are incorrect.

  9. Winter Outdoor Education Activities: Snowshoes and Exploring the Winter Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.; And Others

    Designed as a resource base upon which elementary school educators can build outdoor learning experiences, this resource packet contains a basic, multidisciplinary snowshoeing lesson plan, pre- and post-trip suggestions, and suggestions for further winter outdoor study on snowshoes. Specifically, there are narratives and illustrations addressed at…

  10. Distribution patterns during winter and fidelity to wintering areas of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution patterns during winter of American black ducks were compared among age-sex classes using band recivery data. In addition, fidelity to wintering areas was compared between sexes and between coastal and inland wintering sites.

  11. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this experience,…

  12. Reducing winter injury in blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in ‘Apache’, ‘Boysenberry’, ‘Siskiyou’, and ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry. After tying p...

  13. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  14. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  15. Winter movement dynamics of Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998-Mar 2000) using capture-recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  16. GOES Satellite Movie of 2014 Winter Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery shows the movement of winter storms from January 1 to March 24 making for a snowier-than-normal winter along the U.S. East coast and Midwest...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open...

  20. Habitats used by black and surf scoters in eastern North America as determined by satellite radio telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Olsen, G.H.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radio telemetry was used to determine the movements and habitats of black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in eastern North America. A total of 21 surf scoters were instrumented during five years (2001-05) and 32 black scoters were instrumented during three years (2002-04) with implanted PTT 100 satellite transmitters (39 g) with external antenna. Nesting habitat of black scoters was more open than surf scoters (44% vs. 11%), whereas nesting habitat for surf scoters was located in more forested areas (66% vs. 20%). Locations of black scoters in breeding areas on average were at significantly higher latitude and lower elevations than sites used by surf scoters. Satellite telemetry determined that James Bay was the major molting area for male black and surf scoters, although some males molted along the coast of Labrador-Newfoundland. Black scoters instrumented on the Restigouche River, which is a major staging area, were widely distributed along the Atlantic Coast from Cape Cod to Georgia during winter. Major wintering areas for black scoters were Cape Cod (Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island), Long Island, and New Jersey. In these northern marine wintering areas, black scoters were located farther from shore (4.2 km) and in deeper water (8.3 m) than black scoters in more southern estuarine areas, where distance from shore was 3.1 km and water depth was 5.2 m. Surf scoters instrumented in Chesapeake Bay in late winter showed a strong tendency to return to the Bay the following winter after they had migrated to and from breeding areas. In Chesapeake Bay, black scoters and surf scoters were located mostly in mesohaline areas that had similar water depths (5.1 m vs. 7.5 m) and distances from shore (3.0 km vs. 2.9 km). Distance from shore and depth of water increased over time during the winter for both species. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on

  1. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  2. Winter mortality and its causes.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, W R

    2002-11-01

    In the 1970s scientific research focussed for the first time on dramatic rises in mortality every winter, and on smaller rises in unusually hot weather. Following the recent decline in influenza epidemics, approximately half of excess winter deaths are due to coronary thrombosis. These peak about two days after the peak of a cold spell. Approximately half the remaining winter deaths are caused by respiratory disease, and these peak about 12 days after peak cold. The rapid coronary deaths are due mainly to haemoconcentration resulting from fluid shifts during cold exposure; some later coronary deaths are secondary to respiratory disease. Heat related deaths often result from haemoconcentration resulting from loss of salt and water in sweat. With the possible exception of some tropical countries, global warming can be expected to reduce cold related deaths more than it increases the rarer heat related deaths, but statistics on populations in different climates suggest that, given time, people will adjust to global warming with little change in either mortality. Some measures may be needed to control insect borne diseases during global warming, but current indications are that cold will remain the main environmental cause of illness and death. Air pollution in cities may also still be causing some deaths, but these are hard to differentiate from the more numerous deaths due to associated cold weather, and clear identification of pollution deaths may need more extensive data than is currently available.

  3. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  4. Condensation during Titan's Polar Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kok, Remco; Irwin, P. G.; Teanby, N. A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Howett, C. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Bowles, N. E.; Taylor, F. W.

    2007-10-01

    Titan is currently experiencing winter in its northern hemisphere and the lower atmosphere of its north polar region has been in prolonged darkness since the solstice in October 2002. As a result, the north polar region is currently characterised by cold stratospheric temperatures and there is enrichment of trace gases due to downward atmospheric motion (e.g. Teanby et al., Icarus 181 pp. 243-255, 2006). These conditions make the polar winter very suitable for cloud formation in the stratosphere. A simple transport and condensation model has been made to explore condensation processes in Titan's northern stratosphere. In the model, the atmosphere is advected downwards and clouds are formed as the saturation pressure of various gases is reached. Upper limits of the gases C4N2 and propionitrile (C2H5CN) were determined from Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data to assess scenarios of chemical disequilibrium where the gas phase is far less abundant than the solid phase. The upper limit for C4N2 is 9e-9, which discounts the massive C4N2 build-up in the polar winter proposed by Samuelson et al. (PSS 45, pp. 941-948, 1997) to explain the observed C4N2 cloud at the Voyager epoch. The propionitrile upper limit is 8e-9, which is several orders of magnitude less than needed to create the condensate feature at 220 cm-1 of Khanna (Icarus 177, pp. 116-121) and de Kok et al. (Icarus, in press), assuming it is propionitrile ice, under the steady-state conditions explored by the aformentioned model. HCN ice seems to play an important role in the formation of a massive polar cloud (Haze B in de Kok et al., Icarus, in press), because of the unavailability of sufficient condensable gas other than HCN (and possibly HC3N) to produce the condensate features seen in far-infrared spectra at 220 cm-1.

  5. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Robock, A.; Mao, J.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95 percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  6. Winter leaf reddening in 'evergreen' species.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nicole M

    2011-05-01

    Leaf reddening during autumn in senescing, deciduous tree species has received widespread attention from the public and in the scientific literature, whereas leaf reddening in evergreen species during winter remains largely ignored. Winter reddening can be observed in evergreen herbs, shrubs, vines and trees in Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, and can persist for several months before dissipating with springtime warming. Yet, little is known about the functional significance of this colour change, or why it occurs in some species but not others. Here, the biochemistry, physiology and ecology associated with winter leaf reddening are reviewed, with special focus on its possible adaptive function. Photoprotection is currently the favoured hypothesis for winter reddening, but alternative explanations have scarcely been explored. Intraspecific reddening generally increases with sunlight incidence, and may also accompany photosynthetic inferiority in photosynthetically 'weak' (e.g. low-nitrogen) individuals. Red leaves tend to show symptoms of shade acclimation relative to green, consistent with a photoprotective function. However, winter-red and winter-green species often cohabitate the same high-light environments, and exhibit similar photosynthetic capacities. The factors dictating interspecific winter leaf colouration therefore remain unclear. Additional outstanding questions and future directions are also highlighted, and possible alternative functions of winter reddening discussed.

  7. International scientists on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, T.F.

    1985-12-01

    A report by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) leads new support to the warning of extreme climatic disruptions that would follow a nuclear war. The two-volume report does not deal explicitly with public policy questions, but focuses on scientific knowledge of physical effects and biological responses. The author reviews studies made since the warning of a nuclear winter began in 1982, and evaluates the new report. He finds the message of the report to be a clear warning that a major nuclear war would threaten the entire world. He hopes it will be a catalyst to world opinion in the same way that the public responded to the incident of radioactive fallout striking a Japanese fishing vessel in 1954.

  8. Introducing winter canola to the winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in the low-rainfall, winter wheat-fallow region of the Pacific Northwest are in need of an alternative crop to diversify their markets, manage pests, and increase wheat yields. Winter canola may be a viable crop option for growers in the region. However, agronomic research for winter canol...

  9. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  10. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  11. The Winter Environment. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Winter seems to hold more mysteries than any other season. It changes the behavior of wildlife and also brings about drastic changes in plant life. This unit, designed around the following two ideas: (1) to develop an appreciation and understanding of the winter season and (2) to understand how plants and wildlife are affected by the winter…

  12. Animals in Winter. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sairigne, Catherine

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the habits of a variety of animals during the winter. Topics include: (1) surviving during winter, including concepts such as migration, hibernation, and skin color change; (2) changing…

  13. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  14. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  15. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19 Section 1002.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding,...

  16. Does cold winter weather produce depressive symptoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Michael J.; Goodes, Mike; Furlong, Candy; Tollefson, Gary D.

    1988-06-01

    To examine whether harsh winter weather is associated with depressive symptoms, 45 healthy subjects from Minnesota were compared to 42 subjects from California near the end of the winter season. No differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms were found between the two groups.

  17. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  18. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  19. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  20. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  1. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19 Section 2.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing,...

  2. Short winters threaten temperate fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Troy M.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Dabrowski, Konrad; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to benefit temperate ectotherms by lengthening the summer growing season, declines in reproductive success following short, warm winters may counter such positive effects. Here we present long-term (1973–2010) field patterns for Lake Erie yellow perch, Perca flavescens, which show that failed annual recruitment events followed short, warm winters. Subsequent laboratory experimentation and field investigations revealed how reduced reproductive success following short, warm winters underlie these observed field patterns. Following short winters, females spawn at warmer temperatures and produce smaller eggs that both hatch at lower rates and produce smaller larvae than females exposed to long winters. Our research suggests that continued climate warming can lead to unanticipated, negative effects on temperate fish populations. PMID:26173734

  3. EPS Workshop on Nuclear Winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    This workshop was held in Geneva in October 1986 and was attended by invited delegates from both East (14) and West (13), members of the ACPS (5) and the President. Relevant disciplines as well as Physics were represented which lead to comprehensive discussions. The factors which have a bearing on the probabilities of a nuclear winter were reviewed using the SCOPE-ENUWAR studies as a basis. These covered the nature of a possible nuclear war; the quantities of dust and smoke thrown into the atmosphere, its particle size, height and lifetime; the resulting effects on sunlight and temperature; and the consequences for vegetation and animal life both terrestrial and marine. There are many uncertainties in such analyses. Much more work is needed on many facets. The more important were highlighted as further topics for East-West collaboration. Never the less it was concluded that:- Climatic effects involving temperature falls of only three or four degrees below normal combined with a large fall in light intensity during the growing season of cereal crops would have disastrous consequences.

  4. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  5. Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

    1946-01-01

    Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.

  6. Physical characteristics of Eurasian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the on-going global warming, recent winters in Eurasian mid-latitudes were much colder than average. In an attempt to better understand the physical characteristics for cold Eurasian winters, major sources of variability in surface air temperature (SAT) are investigated based on cyclostationary EOF analysis. The two leading modes of SAT variability represent the effect of Arctic amplification (AA) and the Arctic oscillation (AO), respectively. These two modes are distinct in terms of the physical characteristics, including surface energy fluxes and tropospheric circulations, and result in significantly different winter SAT patterns over the Eurasian continent. The AA-related SAT anomalies are dipolar with warm Arctic, centered at the Barents–Kara Seas, and cold East Asia. In contrast, the negative AO-related SAT anomalies are characterized by widespread cold anomalies in Northern Eurasia. Relative importance of the AA and the negative AO contributions to cold Eurasian winters is sensitive to the region of interest.

  7. How to Find Insects Weathering the Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jane

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how and where to find insects and other invertebrates in winter, as well as how to collect samples in order to watch those animals reappear in spring. Includes crickets, honey bees, mosquitoes, house flies, and butterflies and moths. (MA)

  8. ENSO and winter storms in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Bromirski, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of North Pacific winter storms that penetrate the California coast drives the winds, sea level, precipitation and streamflow that are crucial influences on coastal processes. There is considerable variability of these storm characteristics, in large part owing to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO} phenomenon. There is a great contrast of the storm characteristics during the El Nino phase vs. the La Nina phase, with the largest scale, southerly extensive winter storms generated during El Nino.

  9. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  10. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  11. Prairie Winter Play Patterns: (b) Winter and Play. Research Project 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Charles H.; Borowiecka, Alexandra

    This guidebook provides an empirically-based set of planning and design guidelines for the construction of winter play facilities for Canadian youth residing in locations where outdoor play in winter is curtailed for approximately 4 months of the year. Information used in developing the guidelines was derived from field observations, a literature…

  12. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  13. Nuclear winter: the implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is generally believed possible for some range of heavy nuclear attacks directed against cities that significant but not lethal climate alteration will ensue for at least a few weeks. Three-dimensional global circulation models being developed and used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the National Center for Atmospheric Research for a reasonable attack size seem to be converging on a temperature depression of the order of 10 to 15/degree/C, averaged over all land areas of the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. Temperature depressions as large as 25/degree/C are predicted in the interiors of continents for attacks in the summertime. Winter wars produce temperature depressions of only a few degrees. The authors have drawn the following implications for civil defense of the possibility of nuclear winter: (1) Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival. (2) The principal threat of nuclear winter is to agriculture. (3) Nuclear winter does not present an entirely new threat from nuclear war to the United States or the Soviet Union. (4) The consequences of nuclear winter would fall more heavily on the Soviet Union.

  14. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  15. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  16. BOREAS HYD-5 Winter Surface Flux Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl Fred (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS HYD-5 team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and surface temperature data on a frozen lake (Namekus Lake) and in a mature jack pine forest in the Beartrap Creek watershed. Both sites were located in the BOREAS SSA. The objective of this study was to characterize the winter energy and water vapor fluxes, as well as related properties (such as snow density, depth, temperature, and melt) for forested and nonforested areas of the boreal forest. Data were collected on Namekus Lake in the winters of 1994 and 1996, and at Beartrap Creek in the winter of 1994 only. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  17. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  18. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  19. Monitoring Canadian bird populations with winter counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, E.H.; Sauer, J.R.; Dunn, E.H.; Cadman, M.D.; Falls, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Two winter bird surveys in Canada have range-wide population monitoring potential: Christmas Bird Counts (CBCs) and Project FeederWatch (PFW). CBC trends are shown to be correlated to Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) trends, whether or not part of the winter range lies outside the CBC coverage area. Some species are poorly covered by this survey (e.g. seabirds, nocturnal species, and Neotropical migrants). Only eight Canadian breeding species that are not sampled by the BBS have their winter range well-covered by the CBC, but the CBC should be valuable as an independent source of trend data for many more species, including northern nesters with only marginal BBS coverage. More work is needed to show whether PFW trends match BBS trends; even if they do, PFW covers relatively few species, and most are monitored already by the BBS and/or CBC

  20. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. PMID:27207023

  1. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  2. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Dein, F.J.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay [Maryland, USA], we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe as aseptic, intraabdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.65) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  3. Effects of predation by sea ducks on clam abundance in soft-bottom intertidal habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have documented strong, top-down predation effects of sea ducks on mussel populations in rocky intertidal communities. However, the impact of these gregarious predators in soft-bottom communities has been largely unexplored. We evaluated effects of predation by wintering surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata and white-winged scoters M. fusca on clam populations in soft-bottom intertidal habitats of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Specifically, we documented spatial and temporal variation in clam density (clams m–2), scoter diet composition, and the consequences of scoter predation on clam abundance. Of the 3 most numerous clams, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum and varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata were the primary prey items of both scoter species, while clams of the genus Macoma were rarely consumed by scoters. Between scoter arrival in the fall and departure in the spring, Manila clams decreased in density at most sample sites, while varnish clam densities did not change or declined slightly. Our estimates of numbers of clams consumed by scoters accounted for most of the observed declines in combined abundance of Manila and varnish clams, despite the presence of numerous other vertebrate and invertebrate species known to consume clams. For Macoma spp., we detected an over-winter increase in density, presumably due to growth of clams too small to be retained by our sieve (<5 mm) during fall sampling, in addition to the lack of predation pressure by scoters. These results illustrate the strong predation potential of scoters in soft-bottom intertidal habitats, as well as their potentially important role in shaping community structure.

  4. Distribution of alewives in southeastern Lake Ontario in autumn and winter: a clue to winter mortalities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the Great Lakes are thought to avoid extreme cold in winter by moving to deep water where the temperature is usually highest because of inverse thermal stratification. Information collected in Lake Ontario during autumn and winter 1981–1984 with an echo sounder and bottom and midwater trawls indicated that many alewives remained at depths above 110 m, regardless of water temperature. Alewives in the Great Lakes that did not descend to greater depths would be exposed to potentially lethal temperatures during cold winters.inters.

  5. Mate loss in winter and mallard reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lercel, Barbara A.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cox, Robert R.

    1999-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) frequently pair during winter, and duck hunting seasons have been extended until the end of January in several southern states in the Mississippi Flyway. Therefore, we simulated dissolution of pair bonds from natural or hunting mortality by removing mates of wild-strain, captive, yearling female mallards in late January 1996 and early February 1997 to test if mate loss in winter would affect subsequent pair formation and reproductive performance. Most (97%) widowed females paired again. Nesting and incubation frequencies, nest-initiation date, days between first and second nests, and egg mass did not differ (P > 0.126) between widowed and control (i.e., no mate loss experienced) females in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, widowed females laid 1.91 fewer eggs in first nests (P = 0.014) and 3.75 fewer viable eggs in second nests (P = 0.056). Computer simulations with a mallard productivity model (incorporating default parameters [i.e., average environmental conditions]) indicated that the observed decreased clutch size of first nests, fewer viable eggs in second nests, and these factors combined had potential to decrease recruitment rates of yearling female mallards 9%, 12%, and 20%. Our results indicate that winter mate loss could reduce reproductive performance by yearling female mallards in some years. We suggest caution regarding extending duck hunting seasons in winter without concurrent evaluations of harvest and demographics of mallard and other duck populations.

  6. Variation In Winter Hardiness Among Safflower Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall planted safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) would provide management alternatives in crop rotations and potentially increase yield. Our objective was to relate several fall growth factors to winter survival in a diverse set of 11 safflower accessions grown at Central Ferry and Pullman WA, USA....

  7. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  8. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  9. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  10. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  11. Appalachia's Winter Secret: Downhill on the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Describes ski-industry and winter-tourism growth in Appalachia. Sketches ski-resort developments in Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Describes economic threats to industry, its economic impact on Appalachian states and region, resorts' general qualities, and ski industry's promotional efforts. (TES)

  12. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  13. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  14. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  15. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  16. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  17. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25/sup 0/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs.

  18. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  19. Latitudinal variation in population structure of wintering Pacific Black Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, J.L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Ward, D.H.; Hagmeier, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    Latitudinal variation in population structure during the winter has been reported in many migratory birds, but has been documented in few species of waterfowl. Variation in environmental and social conditions at wintering sites can potentially influence the population dynamics of differential migrants. We examined latitudinal variation in sex and age classes of wintering Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Brant are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient from Alaska to Mexico during the winter. Accordingly, migration distances for brant using different wintering locations are highly variable and winter settlement patterns are likely associated with a spatially variable food resource. We used resightings of brant banded in southwestern Alaska to examine sex and age ratios of birds wintering at Boundary Bay in British Columbia, and at San Quintin Bay, Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and San Ignacio Lagoon in Baja California from 1998 to 2000. Sex ratios were similar among wintering locations for adults and were consistent with the mating strategy of geese. The distribution of juveniles varied among wintering areas, with greater proportions of juveniles observed at northern (San Quintin Bay and Ojo de Liebre Lagoon) than at southern (San Ignacio Lagoon) locations in Baja California. We suggest that age-related variation in the winter distribution of Pacific Black Brant is mediated by variation in productivity among individuals at different wintering locations and by social interactions among wintering family groups.

  20. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  1. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  2. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  3. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  4. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and laying-up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wintering and laying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and laying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lay-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  5. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Lisa

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  6. Surgical Risks Associated with Winter Sport Tourism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. Methods We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. Results A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists’ influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Conclusion Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies. PMID:25970625

  7. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  8. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  9. An NOy Algorithm for Arctic Winter 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Greenblatt, J. B.; Podolske, J. R.; Gao, R. S.; Popp, P. J.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Hurst, D. F.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NOy, total reactive nitrogen, and the long-lived tracer N2O, nitrous oxide, were measured by both in situ and remote sensing instruments during the Arctic winter 1999-2000 SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE). The correlation function NOy:N2O observed before the winter Arctic vortex forms, which is known as NOy(sup), is an important reference relationship for conditions in the evolving vortex. NOy(sup) can, with suitable care, be used to quantify vortex denitrification by sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles when NOy data is taken throughout the winter. Observed NOy values less than the reference value can be interpreted in terms of semi-permanent removal of active nitrogen by condensation and sedimentation processes. In this paper we present a segmented function representing NOy(sup) applicable over the full range of altitudes sampled during SOLVE. We also assess the range of application of this function and some of its limitations.

  10. Winter protein requirements of bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Llewellyn, L.M.; Rensberger, M.J.

    1944-01-01

    Three experiments involving 714 bobwhite quail were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, during the winters of 1939-1941 to determine the protein requirement of quail maintained throug'h the winter.....Considering survival, live weights, feed consumption, and subsequent reproduction by the birds, the-9 to 13 per cent levels of crude dietary protein gave as good results as higher levels eggs, which in all cases was over 90 per and in some respects were better.....On the basis of these studies, it is recommended that the winter maintenance diet for bobwhite quail contain . about 11 to 12 per cent of crude protein. The following diet (parts by weight) conforms to these specifications and should be satisfactory:...Ground yellow corn 85.6....Dehvdrated alfalfa leaf meal 5 .O.....Soybean oil meal 7.0.....Special steamed bonemeal 1.2....Salt (or Salt Mixture II,see text) 1.0...Vitamin A and D feeding oil, fortified 0.2.

  11. Dehydration in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Jensen, Eric; Podolske, James; Selkirk, Henry; Anderson, Bruce; Avery, Melody; Diskin. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Recent work has shown that limited amounts of tropospheric air can penetrate as much as 1 km into the middleworld stratosphere during the arctic winter. This, coupled with temperatures that are cold enough to produce saturation mixing ratios of less than 5 ppmv at the tropopause, results in stratospheric cloud formation and upper tropospheric dehydration. Even though these "cold outbreaks" occupy only a small portion of the area in the arctic (1-2%), their importance is magnified by an order of magnitude because of the air flow through them. This is reinforced by evidence of progressive drying through the winter measured during SOLVE-1. The significance of this process lies in its effect on the upper tropospheric water content of the middle and high latitude tropopause region, which plays an important role in regulating the earth's radiative balance. There appears to be significant year-to-year variability in the incidence of the cold outbreaks. This work has two parts. First, we describe case studies of dehydration taken from the SOLVE and SOLVE2 aircraft sampling missions during the Arctic winters of 2000 and 2003 respectively. Trajectory based microphysical modeling is employed to examine the sensitivity of the dehydration to microphysical parameters and the nature of sub-grid scale temperature fluctuations. We then examine the year-to-year variations in potential dehydration using a trajectory climatology.

  12. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region.

    PubMed

    Henny, C J; Rudis, D D; Roffe, T J; Robinson-Wilson, E

    1995-05-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsqaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stellei) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 micrograms/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants. PMID:7556023

  13. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  14. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  15. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Rudis, Deborah D.; Roffe, Thomas J.; Robinson-Wilson, Everett

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), white-winged scoter (M. fusca), black scoter (M. nigra), oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis), spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri), and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 μg/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%), a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  16. Niche overlap, threshold food densities, and limits to prey depletion for a diving duck assemblage in an estuarine bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovvorn, James R.; De La Cruz, Susan; Takekawa, John Y.; Shaskey, Laura E.; Richman, Samantha E.

    2013-01-01

    Planning for marine conservation often requires estimates of the amount of habitat needed to support assemblages of interacting species. During winter in subtidal San Pablo Bay, California, the 3 main diving duck species are lesser scaup Aythya affinis (LESC), greater scaup A. marila (GRSC), and surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata (SUSC), which all feed almost entirely on the bivalve Corbula amurensis. Decreased body mass and fat, increased foraging effort, and major departures of these birds appeared to result from food limitation. Broad overlap in prey size, water depth, and location suggested that the 3 species responded similarly to availability of the same prey. However, an energetics model that accounts for differing body size, locomotor mode, and dive behavior indicated that each species will become limited at different stages of prey depletion in the order SUSC, then GRSC, then LESC. Depending on year, 35 to 66% of the energy in Corbula standing stocks was below estimated threshold densities for profitable foraging. Ectothermic predators, especially flounders and sturgeons, could reduce excess carrying capacity for different duck species by 4 to 10%. A substantial quantity of prey above profitability thresholds was not exploited before most ducks left San Pablo Bay. Such pre-depletion departure has been attributed in other taxa to foraging aggression. However, in these diving ducks that showed no overt aggression, this pattern may result from high costs of locating all adequate prey patches, resulting reliance on existing flocks to find food, and propensity to stay near dense flocks to avoid avian predation. For interacting species assemblages, modeling profitability thresholds can indicate the species most vulnerable to food declines. However, estimates of total habitat needed require better understanding of factors affecting the amount of prey above thresholds that is not depleted before the predators move elsewhere.

  17. Winter Albedo Characteristics at St. Paul, Minnesota.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Donald G.; Ruschy, David L.

    1989-03-01

    Mean and median daily albedos of the November-April period are presented for a nonforested station in the North Central region of the United States where frozen soil and persistent snow cover are common winter features. Three distinct albedo periods were found, the occurrence of which can be explained by comparison with associated daily records of air temperature and snow depth. These periods are: I) Introduction to Winter, 9-22 November, a transitional period in which snowfalls begin to occur but with insufficient frequency or duration to greatly alter the mean albedo from growing season values; II) the High Albedo Season, 23 November-17 March, that is characterized by mean and median albedos of 50% or higher and by a negatively skewed distribution of albedo values in contrast to periods I and III; and III) the transition period, Introduction to Spring, 18 March-12 April, where late season snowfalls of brief duration occur, but the mean albedo is lower than in period I because of the more common occurrence of moist surfaces due to snowmelt and rains.

  18. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  19. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  20. Winter status of White-eyed Vireos in northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2004, February 2005, and June 2005, we recaptured a White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus) that was banded on 19 May 2004 at the same location on the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, LA. This is the first documented permanent resident White-eyed Vireo outside of resident populations known from Florida and southern Texas. This individual appears to be resident near the northern limit of the winter range for the species. Although White-eyed Vireos are uncommon in northeastern Louisiana during winter, we detected other White-eyed Vireos during line transect surveys and banding during winters 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. The lack of research and observation of winter birds in northern Louisiana and the secretive and inconspicuous behavior of White-eyed Vireos in winter may have led to an underestimation of abundance at the northern limits of their winter range.

  1. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  2. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  3. Physiological processes during winter dormancy and their ecological significance

    SciTech Connect

    Havranek, W.M.; Tranquillini, W.

    1995-07-01

    Lengthy and severe winters require that trees in the forests of boreal and mountain zones undergo winter dormancy. Physiologically, a high resistance to subfreezing temperatures and concomitant dehydration are necessary. To accomplish this dormancy, both physiological and structural changes are needed at the cellular level that require induction by endogenous and photoperiodic control early in autumn. Endogenous rhythmicity promotes cold hardening in early autumn and the persistence of hardiness throughout the winter. Numerous physiological functions are maintained at a reduced level, or become completely inhibited during true winter dormancy. Winter hardiness also includes the capability to minimize water loss effectively when water uptake is severely impeded or impossible. Anatomical features such as tracheids act to minimize xylem embolism during frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and {open_quotes}crown{close_quotes} tissues enable buds to stay in a dehydrated and, thus, more resistant state during winter. Both these structural features are adaptations that contribute to the dominance of conifers in cold climates. Interestingly, deciduous tree species rather than evergreen conifers dominate in the most severe winter climates, although it is not clear whether limitations during winter, during the summer growth period, or during both are most limiting to conifer tree ecology. Additional work that evaluates the importance of winter and summer growth restriction, and their interaction, is needed before a comprehensive understanding of conifer tree ecophysiology will be possible.

  4. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  5. ERICA plans for winter storms field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadlock, Ron

    The Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic (ERICA) field study will be conducted between December 1, 1988, and February 28, 1989. The oceanic area that is approximately bounded by t he Gulf Stream and North America, from coastal Carolina to just east of Newfoundland, will be the region for special observations obtained by recently developed measurement systems, including high-resolution and safe Loran-C dropwindsondes, CLASS rawinsondes, an array of drifting data buoys, and multiple airborne Doppler radars. The special observations will be acquired within a framework of all conventional operational data available for the eastern United States and Canada, including that from the National Weather Service's land sites (plus supplemental rawinsonde observations), ocean platforms, U.S. Air Force WC-130 National Winter Storms Operations Plan reconnaissance flights, and civilian and military weather satellites. Satellite imagery and soundings willl be available in real time and archived through facilities of NOAA and the military.

  6. Winter weather conditions and myocardial infarctions.

    PubMed

    Ohlson, C G; Bodin, L; Bryngelsson, I L; Helsing, M; Malmberg, L

    1991-03-01

    The daily number of cases of myocardial infarctions admitted to a hospital in middle Sweden over three winter seasons 1984-87 was correlated to the weather conditions on a day-to-day basis. The study encompassed 634 days and all cases younger than 70 years, living within the catchment area, in all 382 subjects. Information on temperature, wind force, precipitation and atmospheric pressure was obtained from the Swedish Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. A low number of myocardial infarctions was seen on Saturdays and Sundays with a mild wind chill factor and on days with moderate snowfall and high atmospheric pressure. A high number was observed for workdays, especially Mondays, as day of diagnosis. Heterogeneity of the study population and a misclassification of the time relationships between dates of diagnosis and weather changes may have caused an underestimation of the impact of weather conditions. However, weather conditions do not seem to be a major triggering factor of myocardial infarctions in Sweden.

  7. Foods of Mountain Plovers wintering in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    Prey items were identified from the stomachs of wintering Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) collected in California at the Pixley National Wildlife Refuge and Carrizo Plain Natural Area in 1991, and south of the Salton Sea in 1992. Stomach contents of the 39 birds included 2,092 different food items representing 13 orders and at least 16 families of invertebrates. Diets at each of the three locales differed greatly, with coleopterans and hymenopterans dominating the Carrizo samples, lepidopterans the Pixley samples, and coleopterans and orthopterans the Salton Sea samples. Diets of males and females were similar. These findings counter the current perception that Mountain Plover diets are specialized on coleopterans and orthopterans, and bring the species more in line as a dietary generalist/opportunist as reported for most shorebirds.

  8. The winter dance of the Earth's pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, S. B.; Bizouard, C.; Dehant, V.

    2006-06-01

    During the 2005-2006 winter season, loops of amplitude around 10 cm or below were detected in the Earth's polar motion, which was running very slowly due to a cancellation of the two main oscillations. After cross-checking with the latest meteorological data, their origins were found in several continental-scale high or low pressure systems, especially on Northern America and Europe, helped by similar pheonomenon over Southern Pacific. This paper is a short version of the work of Lambert et al. (2006), published in Geophysical Research Letters, on which a press release has been issued on 26 June 2006 by the American Geophysical Union. See this paper and references therein for more details.

  9. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, �New Data From the Energy Frontier.� There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week�s events included a public lecture (�The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson� given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf� geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was �Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.� It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled �What Makes Up Dark Matter.� There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf� to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  10. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  11. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  12. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  13. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  14. Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jingning

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

  15. Waterbirds foods in winter-managed ricefields in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Gerard, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ricefields are important foraging habitats for waterfowl and other waterbirds in primary North American wintering regions. We conducted a large-scale experiment to test effects of post-harvest ricefield treatment, winter water management, and temporal factors on availabilities of rice, moist-soil plant seeds, aquatic invertebrates, and green forage in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV), Mississippi, USA, fall-winter 1995-1997. Our results revealed that a large decrease in rice grain occurred between harvest and early winter (79-99%), which, if generally true throughout the MAV, would have critical implications on foraging carrying capacity of ricefields for migrating and wintering waterbirds. During the remainder of winter, food resources generally were similar among treatment combinations. An exception was biomass of aquatic invertebrates, which demonstrated potential to increase by late winter in ricefields that remained flooded. We offer revised calculations of foraging carrying capacity for waterfowl in MAV ricefields and recommend continuing research and management designed to increase availability of residual rice and aquatic invertebrates in winter.

  16. 1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING DOWNSTREAM (NORTHEAST) ALONG WINTER'S RUN TOWARD THE MITCHELL'S MILL BRIDGE, SHOWING THE SETTING OF THE BRIDGE. CARRS MILL ROAD APPROACHES THE BRIDGE FROM THE SOUTH, ON THE RIGHT. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  17. The Altar of Patriarchy in John Ehle's "The Winter People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, M. Katherine

    In John Ehle's "The Winter People," the goddess Persephone is with Hades, and winter is upon the Appalachians in full force. Ehle's novel begins as Wayland Jackson and his daughter, Paula, arrive at the home of Collie Wright and her baby, Jonathan. The Jacksons' truck has broken down on their way from Pennsylvania to Tennessee following the…

  18. Yield and yield components of winter-type safflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a minor yet widely grown oil seed crop adapted to semi-arid regions. The nascent development of winter adapted safflower, allowing fall planting,could substantially increase seed production over spring planting. In this study four winter type safflower accessi...

  19. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development.

  20. 78 FR 73852 - Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Department of the Army Army Science Board Winter Plenary Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... the Federal Regulations (CFR 102-3.140 through 160, the Department of the Army announces the following committee meeting: Name of Committee: Army Science Board (ASB) Winter Plenary Session. Date: January...

  1. Paul Winter, Sun Singer...He Talks about Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslav, Marc

    1984-01-01

    Interviews Paul Winter, well-known musical emissary for the Earth and its wildlife among the environmental community. Incorporating voices of wolves, whales, and other creatures as accompanists to an uncategorizable blend of symphonic, jazz, African and Latin musical traditions, Winter's sound involves listeners in a guided experience of…

  2. Measurements of Chlorine Partitioning in the Winter Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachnik, R.; Salawitch, R.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    1999-01-01

    Under the extremely cold conditions in the polar winter stratosphere, heterogeneous reactions involving HCl and CIONO(sub 2) on the surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles can release large amounts of reactive chlorine from these reservoirs leading to rapid chemical loss of ozone in the Arctic lower stratosphere during late winter and early spring.

  3. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians.

    PubMed

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-11-01

    Distribution and abundance of temperate ectotherms is determined, in part, by the depletion of their limited caloric reserves during wintering. The magnitude of winter energy drain depends on the species-specific capacity to seasonally modify the minimal maintenance costs. We examined seasonal variation of minimum oxygen consumption between two newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris. Oxygen consumption was measured in both species during their active season (daily temperature range=12-22°C) and wintering period (4°C) at 4°C and 8°C. The seasonal reduction in metabolic rates differed between species and experimental temperatures. Wintering newts reduced their metabolic rates at 4°C and 8°C in I. alpestris, but only at 8°C in L. vulgaris. Both species reduced the thermal sensitivity of oxygen consumption during wintering. Theoretical calculations of winter depletion of caloric reserves under various thermal conditions revealed that seasonal metabolic reduction is more effective in I. alpestris than in L. vulgaris, and its effectiveness will increase with the proportion of warmer days during wintering period. The variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric newt species potentially contributes to their distribution patterns and population dynamics under climate change. PMID:27418441

  4. A risk analysis of winter navigation in Finnish sea areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub; Kujala, Pentti

    2015-06-01

    Winter navigation is a complex but common operation in north-European sea areas. In Finnish waters, the smooth flow of maritime traffic and safety of vessel navigation during the winter period are managed through the Finnish-Swedish winter navigation system (FSWNS). This article focuses on accident risks in winter navigation operations, beginning with a brief outline of the FSWNS. The study analyses a hazard identification model of winter navigation and reviews accident data extracted from four winter periods. These are adopted as a basis for visualizing the risks in winter navigation operations. The results reveal that experts consider ship independent navigation in ice conditions the most complex navigational operation, which is confirmed by accident data analysis showing that the operation constitutes the type of navigation with the highest number of accidents reported. The severity of the accidents during winter navigation is mainly categorized as less serious. Collision is the most typical accident in ice navigation and general cargo the type of vessel most frequently involved in these accidents. Consolidated ice, ice ridges and ice thickness between 15 and 40cm represent the most common ice conditions in which accidents occur. Thus, the analysis presented in this article establishes the key elements for identifying the operation types which would benefit most from further safety engineering and safety or risk management development. PMID:25819212

  5. Sex-specific differences in winter distribution patterns of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Winter band recovery distributions of North American Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) suggested that males and females exhibit comparable degrees of fidelity to general wintering areas. Of birds banded during the winter, the proportion of males was found to be higher in northern than in southern areas. Winter band recovery distributions of birds banded in particular areas during the summer were found to differ significantly between sexes, with females being recovered farther south. Factors that may have affected the evolution of sex-specific wintering distributions include: (1) possible reproductive benefits derived by males who winter in the north and thus reach northerly breeding areas early; (2) sexual dimorphism in body size, which may render the smaller females especially susceptible to periods of inclement weather and food shortages; and (3) interactions between sexes in which males may control food supply when food is scarce. Two lines of evidence from field data on Canvasbacks in the Chesapeake Bay suggest the existence of competition between males and females. First, Canvasbacks trapped during winter in smaller bodies of water tended to have higher proportions of females and weigh less than birds trapped in large open bodies of water. Second, analysis of aerial photographs of wintering rafts of Canvasbacks showed patterns of intersexual segregation, with females being found more frequently on peripheral areas of rafts.

  6. Factors Contributing to Extremely Wet Winters in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, B. T.; Ting, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    As California continues to battle the severe drought conditions, it becomes increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that may possible break this ongoing drought. Is a strong El Niño, such as the 2015/16 event, enough to break the drought? We examine in this study the possible factors that lead to extremely wet winters (the wettest 15%) in both Northern and Southern CA. The relationships between CA winter precipitation and sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific, as well as atmospheric circulation are determined by using observational and reanalysis data from 1901 to 2010. One of the key features of the atmospheric circulation is the location of the low pressure anomaly, whether caused by El Niño or other factors. If the anomaly locates right off the US west coast, CA tends to be wet, and vice versa. Furthermore, the duration of the circulation anomaly seems to be crucial. During wet El Niño winters, the peak of the circulation anomaly is in the late winter, whereas, during non-wet El Niño winters, the peak of the anomaly is in the early winter. Thus, an El Niño that can last to late winter is more likely to cause an extremely wet winter in the state. The intensity of El Niño is another critical factor. In the wettest tercile late winter, a strong El Niño can bring about 200% of climatological precipitation to CA, while a weak El Niño can bring only less than 150% of climatology. In combination, only a strong El Niño that can last to late winter may make extremely wet winters very likely in CA. To explore the other factors, composites of circulation anomaly during wet & non-El Niño winters were also analyzed. The results show that a zonally propagating wave train, originating from western North Pacific, contributes to low pressure center and wet winter conditions in the state. Thus, coastal low pressure anomaly is a consistent feature for an extremely wet winters in California, but the origin of forcing can

  7. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  8. Solar aquaculture: A wintering technique for parent prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Jin Long

    1994-09-01

    A new method of providing the warm water needed for parent prawn wintering using solar energy is described. Using solar energy for prawn wintering involves heat collection, heat storage and temperature maintenance. The system designed provides sufficient energy for the safe wintering of prawns with suitable water temperatures. The temperature control facilities consist of three parts: a salt gradient solar pond, a shallow solar pond and a plastic house. The technique involves use of a shallow solar pond for collection and storage of heat. The average temperature in the wintering pond plastic house was 11 degrees C and the minimum temperature in January was 5.4 degrees C. This system allowed the wintering process to be conducted using solar energy alone and may extend aquaculture to higher latitudes. The ratio of net profit with the solar energy system over investment is 1.5 which makes it economically viable.

  9. Salt Lake City, Utah, Winter 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a snowy, winter view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on February 8, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal

  10. [Safe wintering and economic and ecological benefit of winter rapeseed in dry and cold areas of northern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-qing; Sun, Wan-cang; Liu, Zi-gang; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Jun-yan; Li, Xue-cai; Fang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to realize the security of safe wintering of winter rapeseed in dry and cold regions of northern China. Experiments were conducted with 18 winter rapeseed (Brassica campestris) varieties at 57 sites from 2008 to 2013 to statistically analyze the wintering rate variation of different varieties in dry and cold regions of northern China. The results showed that, the wintering rate varied from 70% to 90% during the study period in different regions, which had no significant difference between different years and varieties, and had high stability and remarkable economic benefit. With Tianshui as a starting point of winter rapeseed planting, the wintering-safe regions included all Gansu Province , the south of Lasa and Linzhi of Xizang, the east of Minhe of Qinghai, up to Urumqi and Baicheng, and the south of Aletai, Tacheng, the east of Kashi of Xinjiang, it also included the regions along Yellow River eastward to Ningxia, the south of Linhe of Inner Mongolia, the north of Shaanxi, the vicinage of Qixian in Shanxi, Daming in Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, the north of Weifang of Shandong, the south of Huludao of Liaoning and Yanbian of Jilin. Longyou 6, Longyou 7, Longyou 8 and Longyou 9 were the wintering-safe B. rapa varieties.

  11. [Safe wintering and economic and ecological benefit of winter rapeseed in dry and cold areas of northern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-qing; Sun, Wan-cang; Liu, Zi-gang; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Jun-yan; Li, Xue-cai; Fang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to realize the security of safe wintering of winter rapeseed in dry and cold regions of northern China. Experiments were conducted with 18 winter rapeseed (Brassica campestris) varieties at 57 sites from 2008 to 2013 to statistically analyze the wintering rate variation of different varieties in dry and cold regions of northern China. The results showed that, the wintering rate varied from 70% to 90% during the study period in different regions, which had no significant difference between different years and varieties, and had high stability and remarkable economic benefit. With Tianshui as a starting point of winter rapeseed planting, the wintering-safe regions included all Gansu Province , the south of Lasa and Linzhi of Xizang, the east of Minhe of Qinghai, up to Urumqi and Baicheng, and the south of Aletai, Tacheng, the east of Kashi of Xinjiang, it also included the regions along Yellow River eastward to Ningxia, the south of Linhe of Inner Mongolia, the north of Shaanxi, the vicinage of Qixian in Shanxi, Daming in Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing, the north of Weifang of Shandong, the south of Huludao of Liaoning and Yanbian of Jilin. Longyou 6, Longyou 7, Longyou 8 and Longyou 9 were the wintering-safe B. rapa varieties. PMID:26995911

  12. View Northward from Spirit's Winter Roost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    One part of the research program that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is conducting while sitting at a favorable location for wintertime solar energy is the most detailed panorama yet taken on the surface of Mars. This view is a partial preliminary product from the continuing work on the full image, which will be called the 'McMurdo Panorama.'

    Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam) began taking exposures for the McMurdo Panorama on the rover's 814th Martian day (April 18, 2006). The rover has accumulated more than 900 exposures for this panorama so far, through all of the Pancam mineralogy filters and using little or no image compression. Even with a tilt toward the winter sun, the amount of energy available daily is small, so the job will still take one to two more months to complete.

    This portion of the work in progress looks toward the north. 'Husband Hill,' which Spirit was climbing a year ago, is on the horizon near the center. 'Home Plate' is a between that hill and the rover's current position. Wheel tracks imprinted when Spirit drove south from Home Plate can be seen crossing the middle distance of the image from the center to the right.

    This is an approximate true-color rendering combining exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters. The filters used are centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers and 430 nanometers.

  13. Winter Water Properties and the Chukchi Polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, C.; Mordy, C. W.; Salo, S. A.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-08-01

    Water properties from moored measurements (2010-2015) near Icy Cape on the eastern Chukchi shelf have been examined in relation to satellite observations of ice cover. Atlantic Water (AW), with temperature >-1°C and salinity >33.6, has been observed to upwell from deeper than 200 m in the Arctic Basin onto the Chukchi Shelf via Barrow Canyon. Most previous observations of AW on the Chukchi shelf have been in or near Barrow Canyon; observations of AW farther onto the shelf are rare. Despite mooring location on the shelf ˜225 km from the head of Barrow Canyon, five AW events have been observed at mooring C1 (70.8°N, 163.2°W) in 4 years of data. All but one of the events occurred under openings in the sea-ice cover (either a polynya or the ice edge). No events were observed during the winter of 2011/2012, a year with little polynya activity in the region. In addition to changes in temperature and salinity, the AW events are typically associated with southwestward winds and currents, changes in sea-ice cover, and increased nutrient concentrations in the bottom water. Estimates of heat content associated with the AW events suggest that the Chukchi Polynya can often be classified as a hybrid sensible heat/wind-driven polynya.

  14. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.

    The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.

    Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  15. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. PMID:26986796

  16. [Ecological benefits of planting winter rapeseed in western China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-fang; Sun, Wan-cang; Li, Fang; Kang, Yan-li; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Hong-xia; Zeng, Chao-wu; Fan, Chong-xiu

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the ecological benefits of popularizing winter rapeseed planting in western China, a wind tunnel simulation test was conducted with four kinds of farmland surface, i.e., winter rapeseed, winter wheat, wheat stubble, and bare field just after spring sowing, collected from west Gansu in April. The results showed that winter rapeseed surface had a roughness of 4.08 cm and a threshold wind velocity as high as 14 m x s(-1), being more effective in blown sand control than the other three surfaces. Under the same experimental conditions, the wind erosion modulus and sand transportation rate of winter rapeseed surface were only 4.1% and 485% of those of the bare field just after spring sowing, and the losses of soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzed N, available P and K, catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and microbes of winter rapeseed surface due to wind erosion were only 1.4%, 5.1%, 1.6%, 2.7%, 9.7%, 3.6%, 6.3%, 6.7% and 1.5% of those of the bare field, respectively. It was suggested that popularizing winter rapeseed planting in west China could control wind erosion, retain soil water and nutrients, increase multicropping index, and improve economic benefits of farmland. In addition, it could benefit the regional desertification control and ecological environment improvement.

  17. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  19. Winter weather and cardiovascular mortality in Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    PubMed

    Baker-Blocker, A

    1982-03-01

    A study of vital statistics data from five Minneapolis-St. Paul winters indicates cardiovascular mortality is influenced by winter temperatures and snow. Although air temperature was not statistically implicated in triggering cardiovascular mortality in four of the five study winters, during the winter of 1976-77, about 15 per cent of the variance in daily cardiovascular mortality could be attributed to fluctuations in the daily minimum air temperature. Snow influenced mortality on the day of occurrence as well as the two days following a snowfall. There appear to be some differences in the ability of winter weather to influence mortality from acute myocardial infarction (ICD 410) and old myocardial infarction (ICD 412). The variance in daily ICD 410 mortality attributable to the influence of snow is somewhat less than that in daily ICD 412 mortality. The greatest variance in daily ICD 412 mortality that could be ascribed to snow occurred during the winter of 1974-75, and was 13 per cent. It is likely that rain intermixed with snow may also trigger increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. A combination of rain and snow can produce dramatic increased in mortality from ICD 410. Study of mortality data from five winters indicates that snow is somewhat more important in triggering deaths from heart disease than is air temperature.

  20. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  1. Evaluation of aerial transects for counting winter mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Brown, M.W.; Nassar, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Winter waterfowl surveys rarely use sampling methods, and little is known about the precision and biases of their population estimates. Consequently, we developed aerial transect surveys (n=5) in 4 strata comprising 16 substrata in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley during winters 1987-88 through 1989-90 to estimate mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population indices and determine regional patterns of habitat use. Mallard population indices ranged from 1,147,628 (SE=192,341) in December 1988 to 1,790,708 (SE=179,406) in January 1988. Coefficients of variation (CV's) for early winter surveys averaged 0.15 and those for late winter surveys averaged 0.10. During early winter, 59-69% of mallards were on wetlands with water regimes managed for waterfowl; whereas in late winter, 52-79% used wetlands with unmanaged water regimes. Late winter was wet during 1987-88 and 1988-89, and most mallards (62-68%) were on naturally flooded croplands. Use of forested wetlands (3-11%) and moist-soil habitats (3-29%) varied among surveys but was not correlated with water conditions. The number of mallards using naturally flooded croplands (e.g., >1,100,000 in Jan 1988) illustrated the extent of habitat use on private lands. We recommend transect surveys (e.g., 5-yr intervals) for evaluating responses of mallard populations to management programs and as a sampling framework for integrating regional waterfowl research and management data.

  2. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria.

  3. Winter weather and cardiovascular mortality in Minneapolis-St. Paul.

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Blocker, A

    1982-01-01

    A study of vital statistics data from five Minneapolis-St. Paul winters indicates cardiovascular mortality is influenced by winter temperatures and snow. Although air temperature was not statistically implicated in triggering cardiovascular mortality in four of the five study winters, during the winter of 1976-77, about 15 per cent of the variance in daily cardiovascular mortality could be attributed to fluctuations in the daily minimum air temperature. Snow influenced mortality on the day of occurrence as well as the two days following a snowfall. There appear to be some differences in the ability of winter weather to influence mortality from acute myocardial infarction (ICD 410) and old myocardial infarction (ICD 412). The variance in daily ICD 410 mortality attributable to the influence of snow is somewhat less than that in daily ICD 412 mortality. The greatest variance in daily ICD 412 mortality that could be ascribed to snow occurred during the winter of 1974-75, and was 13 per cent. It is likely that rain intermixed with snow may also trigger increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. A combination of rain and snow can produce dramatic increased in mortality from ICD 410. Study of mortality data from five winters indicates that snow is somewhat more important in triggering deaths from heart disease than is air temperature. PMID:7058966

  4. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  5. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  6. Quantifying Subsidence in the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Elkins, James W.; Moore, Fred L.; Ray, Eric A.; Sen, Bhaswar; Margitan, James J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Quantifying the subsidence of the polar winter stratospheric vortex is essential to the analysis of ozone depletion, as chemical destruction often occurs against a large, altitude-dependent background ozone concentration. Using N2O measurements made during SOLVE on a variety of platforms (ER-2, in-situ balloon and remote balloon), the 1999-2000 Arctic winter subsidence is determined from N2O-potential temperature correlations along several N2O isopleths. The subsidence rates are compared to those determined in other winters, and comparison is also made with results from the SLIMCAT stratospheric chemical transport model.

  7. The Yearly Variation in Fall-Winter Arctic Winter Vortex Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Newman, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the change in HALOE methane profiles from early September to late March, we have estimated the minimum amount of diabatic descent within the polar which takes place during Arctic winter. The year to year variations are a result in the year to year variations in stratospheric wave activity which (1) modify the temperature of the vortex and thus the cooling rate; (2) reduce the apparent descent by mixing high amounts of methane into the vortex. The peak descent amounts from HALOE methane vary from l0km -14km near the arrival altitude of 25 km. Using a diabatic trajectory calculation, we compare forward and backward trajectories over the course of the winter using UKMO assimilated stratospheric data. The forward calculation agrees fairly well with the observed descent. The backward calculation appears to be unable to produce the observed amount of descent, but this is only an apparent effect due to the density decrease in parcels with altitude. Finally we show the results for unmixed descent experiments - where the parcels are fixed in latitude and longitude and allowed to descend based on the local cooling rate. Unmixed descent is found to always exceed mixed descent, because when normal parcel motion is included, the path average cooling is always less than the cooling at a fixed polar point.

  8. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer Summer 1930, ATTIC, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family Washhouse, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  9. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING SOCIAL HALL. - First Presbyterian Church, 101 Plymouth Avenue South, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  11. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Beat the Winter Blues Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness As the days get shorter, ... clock” responds to cues in your surroundings, especially light and darkness. During the day, your brain sends ...

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, DETAIL OF SOUTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, EAST ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Sisters' Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, SOUTHERN ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTHWEST CORNER OF MEETING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM WEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Washhouse & Canning Factory, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VISITORS' GALLERY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, NORTH ELEVATION, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Meetinghouse (second), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Brethren's Workshop, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, EXTERIOR VIEW OF KILN, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Apple Drying Kiln, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  6. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  7. Satellite Movie Sees Major Winter Storm Nearing Mid-Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Jan. 20 to 22 shows the movement of the system that is expected to bring a powerful winter storm to the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region. Credit: NASA...

  8. 9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 191828. WINTER SNOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. TROJAN MILL, EXTERIOR FROM NORTHWEST, c. 1918-28. WINTER SNOW SHOWS LINE OF CRUDE ORE BIN STAIR. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  10. 22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey James O. Milmoe, Photographer Winter 1979 GENERAL VIEW OF PLYMOUTH PLACE WITH CAPTIOL IN BACKGROUND - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer June 1931, NORTH AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer August 1931, BOTTLING AND PACKING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer 1920's, EXTRACTING ROOM, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Centre Family Medicine Factory, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, September 1926, VIEW FROM NORTHWEST, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, April 1925, INTERIOR VIEW WITH HERB PRESS, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family, Herb House, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. Estimated winter wheat yield from crop growth predicted by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1977-01-01

    An evapotranspiration and growth model for winter wheat is reported. The inputs are daily solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation/irrigation and leaf area index. The meteorological data were obtained from National Weather Service while LAI was obtained from LANDSAT multispectral scanner. The output provides daily estimates of potential evapotranspiration, transpiration, evaporation, soil moisture (50 cm depth), percentage depletion, net photosynthesis and dry matter production. Winter wheat yields are correlated with transpiration and dry matter accumulation.

  18. Accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid amides in winter wheat under snow.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shigeki; Yoshida, Midori; Nakajima, Takashi; Murai, Akio

    2003-06-01

    It was found that the content of antifungal compounds p-coumaroylagmatine [1-(trans-4'-hydroxycinnamoylamino)-4-guanidinobutane] and p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyagmatine [1-(trans-4'-hydroxycinnamoylamino)-3-hydroxy-4-guanidinobutane] in the crown of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Chihokukomugi) significantly increased under snow cover. This finding suggests that the accumulation of these hydroxycinnamic acid amides was caused by winter stress and related to protecting the plant against snow mold under snow cover.

  19. Characteristics of winter lightning currents struck an isolated tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, Yukihiro; Narita, Kenichi; Komuro, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    To make clear the characteristics of winter lightning flashes, the current waveforms of winter lightning flashes were measured by two resistive shunts which were connected to two lighting rods since the winter of 1981, and another measurement has started using a set of five Rogowsky type coils since the winter of 1982. They were recorded by computer controlled digital recording systems. Up to date, 145 current waveforms of the winter lightning flashes, which have the current amplitude over 1 kA, were obtained by the shunt systems and/or the coils system. They show that winter lightning flashes often have a very long duration or continuing current and sometimes have a very large amplitude over 200 kA in positive flashes. For example, the current parameters that were measured on 9 Jan. 1987 were the maximum current amplitude, +280 kA, maximum current derivative 1.0 x 10(exp 10) A/s, total charge +400 C, and action integral 1.5 x 10(exp 7)(sq. A)(s). The statistical evaluation shows that medium peak values of winter lightning flashes (50 percent values) were about 5 kA for negative and 10 kA for positive, and 5 percent values were about 30 kA for negative and 170 kA for positive. The winter lightning current waveforms are classified into three types: single stroke flashes, monopolar multistroke flashes, and bipolar flashes. Moreover, each flash is subdivided into positive or negative, single peak or multipeak, and with or without continuing current.

  20. Evaluation and economic value of winter weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Derrick W.

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of winter weather hazards produced daily, was evaluated for quality and economic value. Verification of the forecasts was performed with data from the Rapid Refresh numerical weather model. Two objective verification criteria were developed to evaluate the performance of the timeline forecasts. Using both criteria, the timeline forecasts had issues with reliability and discrimination, systematically over-forecasting the amount of winter weather that was observed while also missing significant winter weather events. Despite these quality issues, the forecasts still showed significant, but varied, economic value compared to climatology. Economic value of the forecasts was estimated to be 29.5 million or 4.1 million, depending on the verification criteria used. Limitations of this valuation system are discussed and a framework is developed for more thorough studies in the future.

  1. Demographic effects of extreme winter weather in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Altwegg, Res; Roulin, Alexandre; Kestenholz, Matthias; Jenni, Lukas

    2006-08-01

    Extreme weather events can lead to immediate catastrophic mortality. Due to their rare occurrence, however, the long-term impacts of such events for ecological processes are unclear. We examined the effect of extreme winters on barn owl (Tyto alba) survival and reproduction in Switzerland over a 68-year period (approximately 20 generations). This long-term data set allowed us to compare events that occurred only once in several decades to more frequent events. Winter harshness explained 17 and 49% of the variance in juvenile and adult survival, respectively, and the two harshest winters were associated with major population crashes caused by simultaneous low juvenile and adult survival. These two winters increased the correlation between juvenile and adult survival from 0.63 to 0.69. Overall, survival decreased non-linearly with increasing winter harshness in adults, and linearly in juveniles. In contrast, brood size was not related to the harshness of the preceding winter. Our results thus reveal complex interactions between climate and demography. The relationship between weather and survival observed during regular years is likely to underestimate the importance of climate variation for population dynamics. PMID:16645855

  2. Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

  3. Interannual variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhu, Xiuhua; Sielmann, Frank; Zhi, Xiefei

    2015-01-01

    The observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961-2010) is characterized by a monopole pattern of the 3-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI-3) whose interannual variability is related to the anomalies of East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) systems. Dynamic composites and linear regression analysis indicate that the intensity of EAWM and Siberia High (SH), the position of East Asian Trough (EAT), and El Niño events and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over South China Sea (SCS) influence different regions of anomalous Southeast China winter precipitation on interannual scales. The circulation indices (EAWM index, SH index, and EAT index) mainly affect the winter precipitation in the eastern part of Southeast China. El Niño events affect the South China winter precipitation due to the anticyclone anomalies over Philippines. The effect of SCS SST anomalies on the winter precipitation is mainly in the southern part of Yangtze River. Thus, a set of circulation regimes, represented by a handful indices, provide the basis for modeling precipitation anomalies or extremes in future climate projections.

  4. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  5. PMP-1 Report: the Fourth Winter of PMP-1, 1981 - 1982: a Winter with Several Interesting Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labitzke, K.

    1982-01-01

    A synoptic description is given for the fourth winter of pre-MAP project 1 (PMP-1), 1981/82. The main characteristics of this winter are a Canadian warming in the beginning of December, a very strong minor warming in January, and an early final warming in mid-March. The eddy momentum budget, calculated from the daily height and temperature charts, is discussed in terms of the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm-vector.

  6. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  7. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  8. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions. PMID:26075607

  9. 75 FR 76405 - Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order AGENCY: Consumer... Agreement with Winter Bee, Inc., containing a civil penalty of $200,000.00, to be suspended except for $40.... Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Winter Bee, Inc. (``Winter Bee'') and the...

  10. Winter climate change: a critical factor for temperate vegetation performance.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen

    2010-07-01

    Winter ecological processes are important drivers of vegetation and ecosystem functioning in temperate ecosystems. There, winter conditions are subject to rapid climate change. The potential loss of a longer-lasting snow cover with implications to other plant-related climate parameters and overwintering strategies make the temperate zone particularly vulnerable to winter climate change. A formalized literature search in the ISI Web of Science shows that plant related research on the effects of winter climate change is generally underrepresented. Temperate regions in particular are rarely studied in this respect, although the few existing studies imply strong effects of winter climate change on species ranges, species compositions, phenology, or frost injury. The generally positive effect of warming on plant survival and production may be counteracted by effects such as an increased frost injury of roots and shoots, an increased insect pest risk, or a disrupted synchrony between plants and pollinators. Based on the literature study, gaps in current knowledge are discussed. Understanding the relative effects of interacting climate parameters, as well as a stronger consideration of shortterm events and variability of climatic conditions is urgent. With respect to plant response, it would be particularly worthwhile to account for hidden players such as pathogens, pollinators, herbivores, or fungal partners in mycorrhization.

  11. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  12. Seasonal Forecasts for Northern Hemisphere Winter 2015/16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Sarah; Scaife, Adam; Comer, Ruth; Dunstone, Nick; Fereday, David; Folland, Chris; Gordon, Margaret; Karpechko, Alexey; Knight, Jeff; MacLachlan, Craig; Smith, Doug; Walker, Brent

    2016-04-01

    The northern winter of 2015/16 gave rise to the strongest El Niño event since 1997/8. Central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies exceeded three degrees and closely resembled the strong El Niño in winter of 1982/3. A second feature of this winter was a strong westerly phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and very strong winds in the stratospheric polar night jet. At the surface, intense extratropical circulation anomalies occurred in both the North Pacific and North Atlantic that were consistent with known teleconnections to the observed phases of ENSO and the QBO. The North Atlantic Oscillation was very positive in the early winter period (Nov-Dec) and was more blocked in the late winter. Initialised climate predictions were able to capture these signals at seasonal lead times. This case study adds to the evidence that north Atlantic circulation exhibits predictability on seasonal timescales, and in this case we show that even aspects of the detailed pattern and sub-seasonal evolution were predicted, providing warning of increased risk of extreme events such as the intense rainfall which caused extreme flooding in the UK in December.

  13. Spirit Nears North-Tilting Site for Winter Haven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit made daily progress in early December 2007 toward the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there (indicated by the blue-outlined rectangle) as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian winter.

    As indicated by the yellow line tracing the path Spirit has driven, the rover was near the western edge of the plateau on Sol (Martian day) 1,390 of the mission (Nov. 30, 2007), but nearing the northern edge by Sol 1,397 (Dec. 8, 2007).

    A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during winter months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during winter. For the third winter, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second winter.

    The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  14. Decadal change in factors affecting winter precipitation over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of winter precipitation variability over eastern China were analyzed on the basis of the empirical orthogonal function method. The results showed that the primary mode of winter precipitation variability over this area presented a homogeneous change during the study period, with a significant decadal change around the late 1980s. The factors that influenced winter precipitation variability over eastern China changed over different interdecadal periods. Before the late 1980s, the Eurasian (EU) mode and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) mode were the two major atmospheric factors. After the late 1980s, the influence of the EU mode remained. However, the impact of the NPO weakened significantly, and a new Rossby Wave (RW) pattern became a key factor. Further analyses of both observations and numerical simulations indicated that the convective activity over the western tropical Pacific strengthened significantly around the late 1980s; the convection encouraged the RW mode and ultimately contributed to the anomalous winter precipitation over eastern China after the late 1980s. The results imply that the prediction of winter precipitation should consider different interdecadal backgrounds; otherwise, the changing factors could result in failure of the prediction over some decadal periods.

  15. Daily movements of female mallards wintering in Southwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, P.T.; Afton, A.D.; Cox, R.R.; Davis, B.E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding daily movements of waterfowl is crucial to management of winter habitats, especially along the Gulf Coast where hunting pressure is high. Radio-telemetry was used to investigate movements of female Mallards (Anas platyrchychos) wintering in southwestern Louisiana. Movement distances were analyzed from 2,455 paired locations (diurnal and nocturnal) of 126 Mallards during winters 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to assess effects of winter, female age, areas closed (Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge [LAC], Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge [CAM], Amoco Pool [AMOCO] or open to hunting [OPEN]), and habitat type, including all interactions. Movement distances from the various land management categories were not consistent by age, date, or by winter. Flight distances from LAC increased with date, whereas those from CAM and OPEN did not vary significantly by date. Female Mallards moved short distances between diurnal and nocturnal sites (ranging from 3.1 to 15.0 km by land management category), suggesting that they are able to meet their daily energy requirements within a smaller area than Northern Pintails (Anas acuta, hereafter Pintails), and thus minimize transit energy costs.

  16. Winter precipitation variability over Korean Peninsula associated with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Hye-Young; Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Yoo, Jinho; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2014-06-01

    In this study, winter precipitation variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the Korean Peninsula was investigated using a 5-pentad running mean data because significant correlation pattern cannot be revealed using seasonal-mean data. It was found a considerably significant positive correlation between Niño3 sea-surface temperature and precipitation during early winter (from Mid-November to early-December), when the correlation coefficient is close to 0.8 in early-December; the correlation is distinctively weakened during late winter. It is demonstrated that such sudden intraseasonal change in relation to ENSO is associated with the presence of anticyclonic flow over the Kuroshio extension region (Kuroshio anticyclone). In early winter, there is strong southerly wind over the Korean Peninsula, which is induced by the Philippine Sea anticyclone and Kuroshio anticyclone. However, in January, although the Philippine Sea anticyclone develops further, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears; as a result, the impact of ENSO is considerably weakened over the Korean Peninsula. These results indicate that the Kuroshio anticyclone during El Niño peak phase plays a critical role by strongly affecting Northeast Asia climate, including the Korean Peninsula. In addition, it is also found that there are distinctive interdecadal changes of the relationship between ENSO and precipitation over the Korean Peninsula. In particular, the strong correlation in early winter is clearer in the recent 30 years than that in the previous period of 1950-1979.

  17. Winter climate change: a critical factor for temperate vegetation performance.

    PubMed

    Kreyling, Juergen

    2010-07-01

    Winter ecological processes are important drivers of vegetation and ecosystem functioning in temperate ecosystems. There, winter conditions are subject to rapid climate change. The potential loss of a longer-lasting snow cover with implications to other plant-related climate parameters and overwintering strategies make the temperate zone particularly vulnerable to winter climate change. A formalized literature search in the ISI Web of Science shows that plant related research on the effects of winter climate change is generally underrepresented. Temperate regions in particular are rarely studied in this respect, although the few existing studies imply strong effects of winter climate change on species ranges, species compositions, phenology, or frost injury. The generally positive effect of warming on plant survival and production may be counteracted by effects such as an increased frost injury of roots and shoots, an increased insect pest risk, or a disrupted synchrony between plants and pollinators. Based on the literature study, gaps in current knowledge are discussed. Understanding the relative effects of interacting climate parameters, as well as a stronger consideration of shortterm events and variability of climatic conditions is urgent. With respect to plant response, it would be particularly worthwhile to account for hidden players such as pathogens, pollinators, herbivores, or fungal partners in mycorrhization. PMID:20715613

  18. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Maurer, Hans Peter; Li, Guoliang; Tucker, Matthew R; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A; Hahn, Volker; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm. PMID:24927281

  19. Winter ecology of spectacled eiders: Environmental characteristics and population change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.R.; Douglas, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We described characteristics of the wintering area used by Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and evaluated these characteristics in relation to long-term population trends. Remoteness, limited daylight, and extreme weather conditions precluded direct observations, so we derived the location of the wintering area from satellite telemetry, ice conditions from remotely sensed data, weather conditions from archived data sets, and benthic communities from the literature. Based on analyses of two indices spanning 1957-2002 and 1988-2002, we identified no single environmental parameter that explained the precipitous decline in nesting populations in western Alaska. In general, we found that the number of days with extreme sea ice in winter, extreme winds, and winds in spring explained the greatest variability in annual indices. These analyses support the conclusion that annual population estimates on the breeding grounds can be negatively impacted by extended periods of dense sea-ice concentration and weather during the previous winter. Examination of population indices did not support the hypothesis that changes in benthic community on the wintering grounds have contributed to the decline or inhibited the recovery of the Spectacled Eider breeding population in western Alaska.

  20. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  1. Temperature-associated dynamics of songbird winter distributions and abundances.

    PubMed

    Butler, J Russell; MacMynowski, Dena P; Laurent, Chad; Root, Terry L

    2007-12-01

    Using Christmas Bird Count data, we analyze the annual spatio-temporal abundances of six passerine species in the upper Great Plains, US (1960-1990). This study provides new insight into how global warming could cause separation of species within present-day communities. We find that winter relative abundances of similarly-sized songbirds are differentially affected by ambient winter temperature. As such, average annual winter temperature fluctuations (i.e., severity of winter) are significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the relative abundances of three species while the other three are not. Our conditional probability-of-occurrence analysis indicates that the abundances of the three temperature-associated species declined markedly below -4 degrees C while the abundances of the other three species fluctuated little from 8 degrees C to -16 degrees C. We conclude that even in colder climates i) the winter distributions of some, but not all, songbirds are directly or indirectly limited by temperature; and ii) these birds have dynamic abundances that can quickly respond to temperature changes.

  2. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    SciTech Connect

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  3. Winter fuels report. Week ending, October 21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zitomer, M.; Griffith, A.; Zyren, J.

    1994-10-01

    Demand for distillate fuel oil is expected to show a slight decline this winter (October 1, 1994-March 31, 1995) from last, according to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1994 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. EIA projects winter demand to decline one percent to 3.3 million barrels per day, assuming normal weather conditions. The effects of expected moderate growth in the economy and industrial production will likely be offset by much warmer temperatures than those a year ago. EIA projects prices for both residential heating oil and diesel fuel to be moderately higher than prices last winter. Increases are likely, primarily because crude oil prices are expected to be higher than they were a year earlier (Table FE5).

  4. Night eating syndrome and winter seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Serge; Even, Christian; Thuile, Jacques; Rouillon, Frédéric; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) and winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) share some features such as snacking for high-carbohydrate/high-fat food with increased weight, emotional distress, circadian disturbances, good response to serotoninergic antidepressants (SSRIs) and bright-light therapy. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographical and clinical correlates of the NES in a sample of 62 consecutive depressed outpatients with winter seasonal features (DSM-IV criteria). Depression was assessed with the 29 item-HDRS and Sigh-SAD version and with the 7-item depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The prevalence of NES was low (4.8%). Patients suffering from NES were significantly older with a greater duration of the illness. NES was not related to depression and to Body Mass Index. NES and winter SAD are not overlapping disorders.

  5. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  6. Winter rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A

    1978-06-01

    Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding winters, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-winter precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet winters (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations.

  7. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  8. Winter rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A

    1978-06-01

    Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding winters, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-winter precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet winters (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations. PMID:17740697

  9. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  10. Collecting winter data on U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyserman, Ben O.; Woityra, William C.; Bullerjahn, George S.; Beall, Benjamin F. N.; McKay, Robert Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Winter research and monitoring of icebound rivers, lakes, and coastal seas to date has usually involved seagoing civilian scientists leading survey efforts. However, because of poor weather conditions and a lack of safe research platforms, scientists collecting data during winter face some difficult and often insurmountable problems. To solve these problems and to further research and environmental monitoring goals, new partnerships can be formed through integrating efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with citizen science initiatives. USCG and a research group at Ohio's Bowling Green State University are entering the third year of such a partnership, in which icebreaking operations in Lake Erie using USCG Cutter Neah Bay support volunteer data collection. With two additional USCG vessels joining the program this winter season, the partnership serves as a timely and useful model for worldwide environmental research and monitoring through citizen science and government collaboration.

  11. Automated Syndromic Surveillance for the 2002 Winter Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Gesteland, Per H.; Gardner, Reed M.; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Rolfs, Robert T.; James, Brent C.; Chapman, Wendy W.; Moore, Andrew W.; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Olympic Winter Games were held in Utah from February 8 to March 16, 2002. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax release in October 2001, the need for bioterrorism surveillance during the Games was paramount. A team of informaticists and public health specialists from Utah and Pittsburgh implemented the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system in Utah for the Games in just seven weeks. The strategies and challenges of implementing such a system in such a short time are discussed. The motivation and cooperation inspired by the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were a powerful driver in overcoming the organizational issues. Over 114,000 acute care encounters were monitored between February 8 and March 31, 2002. No outbreaks of public health significance were detected. The system was implemented successfully and operational for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and remains operational today. PMID:12925547

  12. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  13. Tropical Pacific impacts on cooling North American winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.

    2016-10-01

    The North American continent generally experienced a cooling trend in winter over the early 2000s. This cooling trend represented a significant deviation from expected anthropogenic warming and so requires explanation. Previous studies indicate that climate variations in the tropical Pacific contributed to many mid-latitude climate variations over the early twenty-first century. Here we show using large ensembles of fully coupled, partially coupled and uncoupled model simulations that in northwest North America the winter cooling was primarily a remote response to climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific. By contrast, in central North America the winter cooling appears to have resulted from a relatively rare fluctuation in mid-latitude circulation that was unrelated to the tropical Pacific. Our results highlight how decadal climate signals--both remote and local in origin--can together offset anthropogenic warming to produce continental-scale cooling.

  14. Physiologic response of elk to differences in winter range quality

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, B.J.; Wolfe, M.L.; White, G.C.; Rowland, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of differences in winter range quality on elk body condition and reproductive rates. The study area was in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. An area of Bandelier National Monument burned by the June 1977 La Mesa wildfire was selected as one study site (BURN). An unburned winter range (BACA) at an elevation of about 3000 m, 20 km northwest of the BURN site, was selected for comparative purposes. Comparisons of elk weights from the two areas yielded higher values for elk from the BURN. Despite differences in the condition indices, all adult female elk captured were pregnant. Results from this study suggest that differences in winter range quality have an important role in determining elk condition. 26 references, 3 tables.

  15. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  16. Predictable interregional movements by female northern pintails during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing initiation of regional and interregional movements by nonbreeding ducks are poorly understood, especially during winter. During winters 1990-1991 through 1992-1993, we radiotagged 347 female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) in southwestern Louisiana and monitored their movements to three regions: (1) the Gulf Coast Region of Louisiana and Texas (outside of southwestern Louisiana), (2) the Rice Prairie Region of Texas, and (3) the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We found that adult females were 1.9 times more likely than were immatures to emigrate from southwestern Louisiana during winter. During winters 1990-1991 and 1991-1992, females were more likely to emigrate during stormy than during fair weather, whereas they were more likely to emigrate during fair weather in 1992-1993. Females were more likely to emigrate during duck-hunting seasons than during nonhunting seasons, regardless of weather. Daily emigration probabilities did not differ in relation to body condition when released (body mass adjusted for body size) or to number of previous emigration events. Each winter, large numbers of females consistently moved from the Gulf Coast Region to areas with abundant rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. We conclude that destination of interregional movements by this population of Northern Pintails is highly predictable, and that initiation of such movements is influenced by female age and long-term winter precipitation patterns in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Furthermore, timing of these movements is predictable, based not on calendar date, but rather on duck-hunting seasons and, usually, the environmental cues to habitat availability provided by stormy weather.

  17. Forest tree seedlings may suffer from predicted future winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domisch, Timo; Repo, Tapani; Martz, Françoise; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased precipitation and air temperatures, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter, spring and autumn. However, soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the insulating snow cover. Warm periods during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles and flooding, which again can result in the formation of ice layers, affecting soil properties, soil gas concentrations and the survival of tree seedlings. We conducted two laboratory experiments of 20 weeks duration each, simulating winter, spring and early summer, and imposed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings to four different winter scenarios: (1) ambient snow cover, (2) compressed snow and ice encasement, (3) frozen flood and (4) no snow. We estimated the stress that the seedlings experienced by means of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and determining above- and belowground biomass and carbohydrate contents, as well as measuring soil oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The seedlings in the snow and compressed snow treatments survived until the end of the experiments, although only those covered with an ambient snow cover showed normal height growth and typical carbohydrate contents. The seedlings in the other treatments showed symptoms of dieback already during early spring and had almost completely died at the end of the experiment. Our results suggest the crucial significance of the protective snow cover, and that a missing soil cover or soil hypoxia and anoxia during winter can be lethal for seedlings, and that respiratory losses and winter desiccation of aboveground organs can further lead to the death of tree seedlings.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.

    1984-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The winter range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their wintering habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the wintering range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, winter populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In wintering areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and wintering American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.

  19. Winter wheat: A model for the simulation of growth and yield in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Smika, D. E.; Black, A. L.; Willis, W. O.; Bauer, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The basic ideas and constructs for a general physical/physiological process level winter wheat simulation model are documented. It is a materials balance model which calculates daily increments of photosynthate production and respiratory losses in the crop canopy. The partitioning of the resulting dry matter to the active growing tissues in the plant each day, transpiration and the uptake of nitrogen from the soil profile are simulated. It incorporates the RHIZOS model which simulates, in two dimensions, the movement of water, roots, and soluble nutrients through the soil profile. It records the time of initiation of each of the plant organs. These phenological events are calculated from temperature functions with delays resulting from physiological stress. Stress is defined mathematically as an imbalance in the metabolite supply; demand ratio. Physiological stress is also the basis for the calculation of rates of tiller and floret abortion. Thus, tillering and head differentiation are modeled as the resulants of the two processes, morphogenesis and abortion, which may be occurring simulaneously.

  20. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds. PMID:24930242

  1. Nuclear winter. The human and environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Winter is an analysis of the consequences of nuclear war for humans and the environment. It is an account of the world after nuclear war that includes both effects on humans and the phenomenon of nuclear winter. Contents: Foreward by Russell W. Peterson. Introduction. Scenario Development. Initial Conditions: Human Health Effects; State of Physical and Biological Systems; State of Atmospheric Systems; Local Fallout Patterns; Summary of Immediate Effects. Intermediate and Long-Term Consequences: Major Problem Areas: Effects of Reduced Temperatures; Effects of Reduced Light Levels; Effects on Agricultural Production; Societal Disruptions. Relatively Lesser Problem Areas. Recovery Processes. Summary of Consequences.

  2. Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. A.; Moore, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Stream temperature is a principal determinant of aquatic ecosystem composition and productivity. There are increasing concerns that changes in land cover and climatic conditions could produce changes in stream thermal regimes that would be deleterious to existing aquatic communities. Most stream temperature research has focused on summer periods and few studies have examined winter periods despite the growing recognition of its biological importance. The winter thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital winter habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined winter stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two working hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1) winter stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2) stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain on bare ground, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. These hypotheses were tested statistically using historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics for a forested headwater catchment. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during winter rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. This historical analysis was complemented with detailed field data collected during the winter of 2011-2012 from an ongoing field study in a partially logged catchment. Stream temperature response to a large rain

  3. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-04-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  4. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  5. An outbreak of fowl cholera in waterfowl on the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Stotts, V.; Wolfhard, G.

    1970-01-01

    An outbreak of fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida infection) occurred in waterfowl wintering on the Chesapeake Bay during February to March 1970. Losses were primarily confined to sea ducks: oldsquaws (Clangula hyemalis), white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula), and buffleheads (Bucephala albeola).

  6. Registration of 'TAM 305' hard red winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf and stripe rusts (cause by Puccinia triticina Erikss. and Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss., respectively) are major disease problems in South Texas, Rolling Plains, and the Blacklands area of the state where hard red winter wheat (HRW; Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop a...

  7. Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Joe’, a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...

  8. Overseas Varietal Analysis: 2008 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties DK 9577, USG 3665, and USG 3350 from Arkansas, Jamestown, Tribute, and USG 3555 from Virginia, Branson, Magnolia, and Coker 9553 from North Carolina, and Bess from Missouri. Samples were evaluate...

  9. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  10. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  11. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2016-06-01

    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:27429782

  12. Protecting Blackberries for Winter: A No Tunnel Alternative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  13. a Climatology of Extreme Minimum Winter Temperatures in Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, Dennis Joe

    The Extreme Minimum Winter Temperature (EMWT) is the coldest temperature recorded each winter at a given weather station. This variable is a measure of winter temperature stress. Extreme cold influences the geographic distribution of plants, and is a prime control for the production of some valuable fruit crops grown in Ohio. EMWT values are often used to map plant hardiness zones, however the magnitude of EMWT and the date that it occurs has varied widely from year to year. Climatic variables rarely remain constant over time, and the plant hardiness zones could shift significantly if the climate changes and there is a trend towards warmer EMWTs. Plants that have their present geographic ranges limited by cold winter temperatures could increase their spatial extent. Furthermore, EMWT has impacts on human health and has applications for architecture. EMWTs at eighty-nine weather stations in Ohio were analyzed. Summary statistics and return period intervals for critical EMWTs are tabulated and mapped. Return period maps may be more useful for environmental planning than plant hardiness zone maps based on average EMWT, especially in a variable climate. Graphical methods, curve fitting and a probability model for the mean were utilized to examine the long term trend. The EMWT has not warmed during the known climatic record of this variable in Ohio. This study demonstrates the need for more applied climatological studies based on the observed climate record, not obscured by the assumptions of the global warming paradigm.

  14. Let's Celebrate Winter: Activities for Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, Ca. Div. of Instructional Services.

    One of a series of activity guides, this publication offers a variety of learning activities and resource materials to enhance student recognition of American history, citizenship, and famous Americans through the observance of special days and events in the winter months. Lesson plans are provided to develop communications skills. The guide…

  15. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's or 1930's GENERAL VIEW OF WATERVLIET SHAKERS SOUTH FAMILY, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker South Family, General Views, Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  17. Winter runoff of surface applied animal manure in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USEPA-ORD, USEPA Region 5 NPDES program branch, and USDA-ARS are collaborating to improve the scientific foundation for guidance regarding winter application of manure to land when the soil is frozen. Vegetative filter strips, unmanured setbacks, and nutrient-limited manure application are bein...

  18. OATYC Journal, Vol. III, No. 1, Winter 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, James, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    "OATYC Journal," which is published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, is designed as a forum for the exchange of concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. Along with commentaries and letters of reaction from the readership, the Winter 1978 issue presents the following articles: (1) "Statewide Efforts…

  19. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, William F. Winter, Jr., Photographer, 1920's. GENERAL VIEW OF INNER 'YARD' LOOKING NORTH - CLOSE-UP, Gift of New York State Department of Education. - Shaker Church Family (General Views), Watervliet Shaker Road, Colonie Township, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  1. Winter safflower, a potential alternative crop for the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dryland cropping system in the Pacific Northwest is dominated by a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system that occupies more than 90% of the dryland hectares. Success in finding a viable alternative crop has been limited because the annual precipitation in this region varies from less than 1...

  2. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  3. Wintering ovenbird from Belize recovered on Pennsylvania breeding ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    A first-winter Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) banded in a cacao plantation in central Belize on 8 February 1989 was found dead on the deck of a home on its breeding ground in northwestern Pennsylvania on 28 June 1997, tying the 9-year age record for the species.

  4. Abrupt Decline in the Arctic Winter Sea Ice Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2007-01-01

    Maximum ice extents in the Arctic in 2005 and 2006 have been observed to be significantly lower (by about 6%) than the average of those of previous years starting in 1979. Since the winter maxima had been relatively stable with the trend being only about -1.5% per decade (compared to about -10% per decade for the perennial ice area), this is a significant development since signals from greenhouse warming are expected to be most prominent in winter. Negative ice anomalies are shown to be dominant in 2005 and 2006 especially in the Arctic basin and correlated with winds and surface temperature anomalies during the same period. Progressively increasing winter temperatures in the central Arctic starting in 1997 is observed with significantly higher rates of increase in 2005 and 2006. The Atlantic Oscillation (AO) indices correlate weakly with the sea ice and surface temperature anomaly data but may explain the recent shift in the perennial ice cover towards the western region. Results suggest that the trend in winter ice is finally in the process of catching up with that of the summer ice cover.

  5. 76 FR 73503 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Winters, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... controlled airspace at Winters Municipal Airport (76 FR 53354) Docket No. FAA-2011-0608. Interested parties...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  6. KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-Winter 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and winter 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…

  7. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  8. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  9. Diseases of winter and Spring wheat in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of damage in the disease complex of winter and spring wheat showed that crop losses for the period 2001-2005 were 8-19%. A principal cause of the losses was intensive development of diseases. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), Septoria leaf lotch (Septoria tritici, S. nodorum), powdery mildew...

  10. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  11. EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION IN WINTER. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three different methods are used to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA)
    concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the winter of 1995-1996 [Integrated
    Monitoring Study, (IMS95)]. The first of these methods estimates SOA by using elemental carbon as

  12. Winter cereals as a pasture-hay system in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006-2008 ‘Willow Creek’ winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ‘Trical 102’ triticale (X Triticosecale Wttn.) were evaluated, under dryland conditions, for biomass production and forage quality under grazing and haying systems. Grazing enclosures were constructed in uniform sites of the fields....

  13. N response of no-till dryland winter triticale forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland winter triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...

  14. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2016-06-01

    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain.

  15. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT QUALITY AND DENSITY OF JUVENILE WINTER FLOUNDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used a digital video camera mounted to a 1-m beam trawl together with an attached continuous recording YSI sonde and GPS unit to quantify juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) densities and fish habitat. The YSI sonde measured temperature, salinity, dissolve...

  17. Winter ecology of bald eagles in southcentral Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lingle, G.R.; Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 200 bald eagles wintered along a 370-km section of the Platte and North Platte rivers in Nebraska during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80. A preponderance of the wintering eagles were adults, with the adult:subadult ratio highest during the harsh winter of 1978-79. Nocturnal roosts were located primarily in tree plantings near the river, with mean tree age at the roosts ranging from 39 to 84 years. Bald eagles utilized a diverse prey base that included fish, birds, and mammals. Remains of 56 prey species were identified from pellets; 76% of pellets contained birds, 34% mammals, and 11% fish. Eagles foraged principally on fish when ice covered less than 80% of channels and water levels were moderate to low. Waterfowl and mammals dominated the diet when the river was almost entirely frozen or water levels were high. Mallards, eastern cottontails, and carp were the principal avian, mammalian, and piscine prey, respectively. Eagles traveled long distances from the river to feed on field-feeding waterfowl when alternate prey were not available. Fish were underrated in pellets because body components are more digestible than other major prey consumed.

  18. Impact of forage clipping treatments on performance of winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, S A; Ullah, H; Mohammad, F; Khalil, I H; Alam, M; Shahwar, D; Malik, M F A; Jamal, Y

    2013-01-01

    Farmers in northern parts of Pakistan face severe shortage of green forage for their livestock during the harsh winter season. Winter wheat has the potential to be used as a dual-purpose crop for forage plus grain production in these areas. Ten elite winter wheat lines from Oklahoma State University were evaluated at Hazara Research Station Abbottabad under unclipped and clipped treatment level during 2005-06. The material was planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications, with a row length of four meters and a row to row space of 25 cm. Data were recorded on green forage yield, plant height, spike length, spikelets/spike, days to maturity, spike weight, biological weight, and grain yield. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among genotypes for all traits except spike length. Similarly all traits except spikelets/spike exhibited significant differences between unclipped and clipped treatment levels. Genotype x clipping interaction was non-significant for all traits except grain yield. Overall, winter wheat lines OK98G508W and OK00611W performed better for important traits such as early maturity, biological yield and grain yield, although over-environment testing is needed before recommendations can be made to the farmers. PMID:24301789

  19. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Catriona A.; Robinson, Robert A.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:27429782

  20. Registration of ‘Sprinter’ hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High grain protein concentration and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) resistance are important traits for hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The objective of this research wa...

  1. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  2. Exceptionally cold and mild winters in Europe (1951-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twardosz, Robert; Kossowska-Cezak, Urszula

    2016-07-01

    Extreme thermal conditions appear to occupy an important place among research subjects at a time of climate warming. This study investigates the frequency, duration and spatial extent of thermally anomalous winters in Europe during the 60 years between 1951 and 2010. Exceptionally cold winters (ECWs) and exceptionally mild winters (EMWs) were identified using the statistical criterion of plus/minus two standard deviations from the long-term winter temperature (January-December) recorded at 60 weather stations. It was demonstrated that ECWs have occurred more frequently and covered larger territories than EMWs and that they may occur anywhere in Europe, while EMWs were limited to its southern and western parts. ECWs are characterised by greater absolute temperature anomalies, as anomalies greater than |6.0 °C| account for 35 % of ECWs, but only for 8 % of EMWs. The greatest anomalies are found in the east of the continent. The largest territory affected by an ECW included 24 stations in 1962/1963, while the equivalent among the EMWs included 11 stations in 2006/2007. The study also confirmed an expected trend whereby ECWs diminished in frequency in favour of EMWs in the second half of the 60-year study period.

  3. Stable fly control in cattle winter feeding sites with Novaluron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock winter feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...

  4. Antarctic winter mercury and ozone depletion events over sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M.; Gårdfeldt, K.; Jourdain, B.; Abrahamsson, K.; Granfors, A.; Ahnoff, M.; Dommergue, A.; Méjean, G.; Jacobi, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    During atmospheric mercury and ozone depletion events in the springtime in polar regions gaseous elemental mercury and ozone undergo rapid declines. Mercury is quickly transformed into oxidation products, which are subsequently removed by deposition. Here we show that such events also occur during Antarctic winter over sea ice areas, leading to additional deposition of mercury. Over four months in the Weddell Sea we measured gaseous elemental, oxidized, and particulate-bound mercury, as well as ozone in the troposphere and total and elemental mercury concentrations in snow, demonstrating a series of depletion and deposition events between July and September. The winter depletions in July were characterized by stronger correlations between mercury and ozone and larger formation of particulate-bound mercury in air compared to later spring events. It appears that light at large solar zenith angles is sufficient to initiate the photolytic formation of halogen radicals. We also propose a dark mechanism that could explain observed events in air masses coming from dark regions. Br2 that could be the main actor in dark conditions was possibly formed in high concentrations in the marine boundary layer in the dark. These high concentrations may also have caused the formation of high concentrations of CHBr3 and CH2I2 in the top layers of the Antarctic sea ice observed during winter. These new findings show that the extent of depletion events is larger than previously believed and that winter depletions result in additional deposition of mercury that could be transferred to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. HABITAT RELATIONS OF WATERFOWL WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a project investigating the effect of changes in habitat quality brought about by habitat loss or impairment on resident wildlife in coastal ecosystems, we conducted periodic surveys of wintering waterfowl in Narragansett Bay. A total of 17 species of waterfowl were i...

  6. Winter Streams: The Web of Life Goes On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokora, Daniel L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes scope and significance of a high school water monitoring project and discusses problems and solutions related to water testing in general and winter water testing in particular. Discussions of stream velocity, stream flow, biotic index, and coliform bacteria tests are included. (DC)

  7. Logistic Regression Analysis of Freezing Tolerance in Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four winter wheat cultivars, Eltan, Froid, Kestrel, and Tiber, were cold-acclimated for five weeks and then tested for freezing tolerance in a programmable freezer. The temperature of the soil was recorded every two minutes and the freezing episode was described as five parameters: the minimum temp...

  8. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  9. Selenium accumulation in sea ducks wintering at Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michael L; Badzinski, Shannon S; Petrie, Scott A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2010-04-01

    Numbers of wintering sea ducks, including buffleheads (Bucephala albeola; BUFF), common goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; COGO), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; LTDU), increased substantially at Lake Ontario after Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) colonized the Great Lakes. Invertebrates, including Dreissenid mussels, are major diving duck prey items that can transfer some trace elements, such as selenium (Se) to higher trophic levels. Se can be problematic for waterfowl and it often has been detected at elevated levels in organisms using the Great Lakes. There are, however, few data on hepatic Se concentrations in sea ducks, particularly during the winter at Lake Ontario. In this study, we evaluated interspecific differences and temporal trends in hepatic Se concentrations among BUFF (n = 77), COGO (n = 77), and LTDU (n = 79) wintering at Lake Ontario. All three species accumulated Se throughout winter, but COGO did so at a higher rate than did BUFF and LTDU. Overall, Se concentrations were higher in LTDU [mean = 22.7; 95% CI = 20.8-24.8 microg/g dry weight (dw)] than in BUFF ([mean = 12.3; 95% CI = 11.6-13.1 microg/g dw) and COGO ([mean = 12.0; 95% CI = 10.7-3.5 microg/g dw) throughout the winter. Se concentrations were deemed elevated (>33 microg/g dw) in 0%, 5%, and 19% of BUFF, COGO, and LTDU, respectively. Presently there are no data on Se toxicity end points for these species, so it is unclear how acquiring concentrations of these magnitudes affect their short- and long-term health or reproduction. PMID:19653029

  10. Periphyton dynamics in a subalpine mountain stream during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustina, G.W.; Hoffmann, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to determine the activity of and factors which control periphyton during winter in Stevensville Brook, Vermont. The first experiment during winter/spring 1994 examined the effect of a 300 to 450% difference in light and doubling of flow (low and high light, slow and fast flow) on periphyton chlorophyll a (chl a) and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) from stream rocks and artificial substrata. A second experiment was performed to determine whether periphyton was nitrogen or phosphorus limited. In addition, stream water was sampled during fall/winter 1994/95 for nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH4), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and total phosphorus (TP) to determine the availability of nutrients in Stevensville Brook. Increases of up to 250% for AFDM and 600% for chl a during the first study indicated robust activity throughout the winter despite low temperatures and light. Flow had a negative effect and sampling date was found to have a significant effect on periphyton biomass (chl a and AFDM) while light was found to influence increases in AFDM on clay tiles only. Water analyses showed that SRP was less than 0.001 mg L-1, NH4 and TP were low and often undetectable, and NO3 remained at about 0.20 mg L-1. Results from the nutrient enrichment experiment showed a significant response of chl a to P but not N and no response of AFDM to enrichment with either N or P. In Stevensville Brook during winter, the algal community, as represented by the chl a concentration, is predominantly controlled by phosphorus concentrations and is influenced to a lesser extent by flow; the periphyton community as a whole, represented by AFDM, is controlled mostly by stream flow and light.

  11. Travel distance and mass gain in wintering blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Cresswell

    1999-11-01

    Birds that range over a large area will have a greater mass-dependent risk of predation than more sedentary birds. Birds that travel more may then reduce winter mass gain to compensate for the increased predation risk that greater travelling entails. I tested whether European blackbirds, Turdus merula, that travelled more in winter had a lower mass than more sedentary birds, independently of any confounding effects of food supply on both ranging behaviour and mass gain. I measured change in winter mass and amount of food eaten in conjunction with the distance that blackbirds travelled to a randomly sited mobile feeder. Blackbirds that travelled shorter distances (per trip and in total) and less often to the feeder had the highest mass midwinter relative to their spring mass. Blackbirds with a higher mean mass midwinter also travelled, on average, shorter distances to the feeder. The distance an individual blackbird travelled to the feeder at any one time was probably independent of the state of its daily energy reserves (how much of its daily total mass gain it had achieved at that point). The relationship between distance travelled and mass was probably independent of food supply because distances actually increased at the end of the winter and the amount of food eaten per individual changed little. More mobile blackbirds were therefore likely to have compensated for any increases in predation risk associated with their greater ranges by decreasing winter mass gain, but will have had an increased risk of starvation because of their lower mass. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Nitrate sequestration by corticolous macrolichens during winter precipitation events.

    PubMed

    Levia, Delphis F

    2002-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in the biogeochemistry of forested ecosystems. The influence of canopy lichens on the winter biogeochemistry of nitrate in broadleaved deciduous forests is examined and it is hypothesized that nitrate sequestration will not differ between winter precipitation events. Rejection of this hypothesis would mean that meteorological conditions of winter precipitation events have a detectable influence on nitrate sequestration by canopy lichens and nitrate input to the forest floor. Canopy lichens of the genus Parmelia were found to influence winter nitrate stemflow inputs to forest soils differentially. Epiphytic lichens on an individual Carya glabra Mill. (pignut hickory) canopy tree, centrally located within the stand of an open deciduous forest, actively sequestered nitrate leached from the tree's woody frame, lowering aqueous stemflow inputs at the tree base. The quantities of nitrate sequestered by corticolous lichens during the 2 February 1999 mixed-precipitation event were significantly greater than those during all other precipitation events examined. Greater rates of nitrate uptake during the 2 February 1999 event may be attributed to (1) its intermediate rain intensity, which would have soaked the lichen thalli in a nutrient-rich bath, and (2) an air temperature range between -2 degrees C and 8 degrees C that would have increased viscosity and surface tension of stemflow drainage, thereby decreasing stemflow velocity and increasing the contact time of stemflow water on the lichen thalli. Other precipitation events were either too cold to promote metabolic activity by canopy lichens or too warm and intense for an optimal contact time of stemflow with lichen thalli, resulting in lower quantities of nitrate sequestered. Meteorological conditions of winter precipitation events have been documented to influence sequestration of nitrate by corticolous lichens and decrease aqueous stemflow inputs to the forest floor of broadleaved

  13. Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering redheads in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    An estimated 80% of redheads (Aythya americana) winter on the Laguna Madre of south Texas and Mexico and feed almost exclusively on shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) rhizomes. Shoalgrass abundance has decreased by 60% over the past 30 years, and because the effects of shoalgrass loss on wintering redheads are unknown, we initiated a study to define habitat selection criteria and document the effect of wintering redheads on shoalgrass in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Redheads consumed an average of 75% of shoalgrass rhizome biomass at collection sites each winter. When rhizome biomass was grazed to a mean biomass of ltoreq 0.18 g dry mass/core (approximately 10 g dry mass/ml), shoalgrass did not recover to its previous level the following growing season. Thirty-three percent of the sites (10) were grazed below 0.18 g dry mass/core during both years of the study, while 64% (19) were grazed below 0.18 g during 1 or the other of the 2 winters. Ramet number was positively correlated (P lt 0.001, r-2 = 0.54) with rhizome biomass; however, this relationship was influenced by grazing intensity. Heavy grazing reduced the amount of rhizome attached to each ramet compared with ungrazed ramets. Grazing had no effect on root biomass (P = 0.388), rhizome moisture content (P = 0.553), or soil magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium (P = 0.102, 0.499, 0.162, respectively). Redhead presence increased (P = 0.042) soil nitrogen levels. Foraging areas selected by redheads within the lower Laguna Madre had lower (P = 0.026) salinities (24 ppt) than areas not selected (35 ppt). Redheads did not select foraging areas in relation to crude protein levels in rhizomes. Shoalgrass habitat in the Laguna Madre should be protected from further losses and enhanced where possible.

  14. Impact of snow cover on photoinhibition and winter dessication in evergreen Rhododendron ferrugineum leaves during subalpine winter.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Gilbert; Ambach, Dorothea; Aichner, Klara

    1999-09-01

    Effects of winter snow cover on photoinhibition and possible interactions with winter desiccation were investigated in situ in an evergreen subalpine woody species, Rhododendron ferrugineum L., at the alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.). Timing and duration of complete snow cover markedly influenced potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII; F(v) /F(m)). Lack of snow cover led to severe but mostly reversible photoinhibition with F(v)/F(m) values as low as 0.05. Complete snow cover immediately stopped further reductions in PSII efficiency. Snow cover promoted recovery from photoinhibition, but only if, in addition to shading by snow, plants were exposed to nonfreezing temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The F(v)/F(m) ratio was closely related to minimum leaf temperatures because both photoinhibition and recovery from photoinhibition were strongly influenced by temperature. The period without major reductions in PSII efficiency lasted for only two months, reflecting the extremely short growing period in the subalpine environment. Compared with complete snow cover, incomplete snow cover led to significantly higher water losses as well as lower dehydration tolerance, because both osmotic adjustment and changes in turgor maintenance capacity were significantly reduced. Interactions between photoinhibition and winter desiccation were masked by the direct effects of freezing temperatures. However, both photoinhibition and winter desiccation are closely linked and occur together under field conditions in this evergreen subalpine woody species.

  15. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. PMID:24720862

  16. Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Peter J; Powell, Thomas H Q; Walden, Kimberly K O; Schieferecke, Adam J; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Robertson, Hugh M; Berlocher, Stewart H; Ragland, Gregory J

    2016-09-01

    The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population. Marked differences in transcription between the two populations during winter suggests that the 'early' apple population is developmentally advanced compared with the 'late' hawthorn population prior to spring warming, with transcripts participating in growth and developmental processes relatively up-regulated in apple pupae during the winter cold period. Thus, regulatory differences during winter ultimately drive phenological differences that manifest themselves in the following summer. Expression and polymorphism analysis identify candidate genes in the Wnt and insulin signaling pathways that contribute to population differences in seasonality. Both populations remained in diapause and displayed a pattern of up- and then down-regulation (or vice versa) of growth-related transcripts following warming, consistent with transcriptional repression. The ability to repress growth stimulated by permissive temperatures is likely critical to avoid mismatched phenology and excessive metabolic demand. Compared with diapause studies in other insects, our results suggest some overlap in candidate genes/pathways, though the timing and direction of changes in transcription are likely species specific. PMID:27312473

  17. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  18. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. PMID:26470288

  19. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  20. Thermoregulation in pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana, Ord) in winter.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J; Lust, A; Fuller, A; Maloney, S K; Mitchell, D; Mitchell, G

    2008-03-01

    Conservation of energy is a prerequisite thermoregulatory strategy for survival in northern hemisphere winters. We have used thermistor/data logger assemblies to measure temperatures in the brain, carotid artery, jugular vein and abdominal cavity, in pronghorn antelope to determine their winter body temperature and to investigate whether the carotid rete has a survival role. Over the study period mean black globe and air temperature were -0.5+/-3.2 degrees C and -2.0+/-3.4 degrees C, respectively, and mean daytime solar radiation was approximately 186 W m(-2). Brain temperature (T(brain), 39.3+/-0.3 degrees C) was higher than carotid blood temperature (T(carotid), 38.5+/-0.4 degrees C), and higher than jugular temperature (T(jugular), 37.9+/-0.7 degrees C). Minimum T(brain) (38.5+/-0.4 degrees C) and T(carotid) (37.8+/-0.2 degrees C) in winter were higher than the minimum T(brain) (37.7+/-0.5 degrees C) and T(carotid) (36.4+/-0.8 degrees C) in summer that we have reported previously. Compared with summer, winter body temperature patterns were characterized by an absence of selective brain cooling (SBC), a higher range of T(brain), a range of T(carotid) that was significantly narrower (1.8 degrees C) than in summer (3.1 degrees C), and changes in T(carotid) and T(brain) that were more highly correlated (r=0.99 in winter vs r=0.83 in summer). These findings suggest that in winter the effects of the carotid rete are reduced, which eliminates SBC and prevents independent regulation of T(brain), thus coupling T(brain) to T(carotid). The net effect is that T(carotid) varies little. A possible consequence is depression of metabolism, with the survival advantage of conservation of energy. These findings also suggest that the carotid rete has wider thermoregulatory effects than its traditional SBC function. PMID:18281337

  1. Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semadeni-Davies, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from cold regions in North America has shown that the performance of stormwater ponds differs between winter and summer. The pond hydraulics change seasonally, and winters have lowered removal efficiency due to a combination of an ice cover, cold water and de-icing salts. This study examines the function of the Bäckaslov stormwater pond under the more mild conditions of southern Sweden, where there are several snow and melt cycles per year.Event sampling in the summer of 1997 showed good removal efficiencies for nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS) and a selection of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), but winter grab-tests taken in 1995-96 and 1997-98 suggest that the pond acts as a pollutant source under cold conditions. To better assess winter and spring pond performance, water at the inflow and outflow was sampled from January to April 2003. The low intensity of runoff delivery and slow inflow velocities meant that time- rather than flow-weighted sampling was used. Five consecutive events were sampled and analysed for TSS, chloride and the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. YSI probes were in place at both the inlet (pH, temperature) and outlet (pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen) to determine the timing of pollution flows. In addition, profiles of the same quality indicators allowed snapshots of pond processes.De-icing salt has a major effect on pond hydraulics. Strong stratification occurred after each snowmelt-generated flow event and up to 80% of chloride could be retained by the pond. However, continuous conductivity measurements show that chloride is flushed between events. Ice changes retention times and causes oxygen depletion, but bed scour was not observed. Pond performance decreased during the winter and spring, albeit not as badly as the grab tests suggest. A seasonal comparison of the removal efficiencies showed that removal of Cd (75%) and Cu (49%) was about the same for summer and winter-spring, but removal of Pb, Zn and TSS

  2. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  3. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  4. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones...

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING TIME-ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF BUFFLEHEAD WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT, BAY, RI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily activities of wintering waterfowl can be influenced by the physical environment and by habitat factors such as prey abundance and availability. We examined variability in diurnal activity budgets of Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) wintering at seven locations within Narragan...

  6. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park....

  7. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  8. Does organic farming benefit farmland birds in winter?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A; Johnson, P J; Norton, L; Feber, R E; Fuller, R J

    2010-02-23

    The generally higher biodiversity on organic farms may be influenced by management features such as no synthetic pesticide and fertilizer inputs and/or by differences in uncropped habitat at the site and landscape scale. We analysed bird and habitat data collected on 48 paired organic and conventional farms over two winters to determine the extent to which broad-scale habitat differences between systems could explain overall differences in farmland bird abundance. Density was significantly higher on organic farms for six out of 16 species, and none on conventional. Total abundance of all species combined was higher on organic farms in both years. Analyses using an information-theoretic approach suggested that both habitat extent and farm type were important predictors only for starling and greenfinch. Organic farming as currently practised may not provide significant benefits to those bird species that are limited by winter food resources, in particular, several declining granivores.

  9. Winter Cover Crops and Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Early Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. K.; Walter, M. T.; Reiss, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Winter cover crops mixtures can be used to manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during critical periods such as spring thaw. Legumes are added to cover crops mixtures to increase crop productivity, but it is unknown if this effect decreases N2O emissions. In this project we investigate the relationship between biodiversity, productivity and GHG fluxes in cover crops varieties typically grown for soil heath in agricultural systems. Surface GHG emissions were measured with closed chambers beginning during snowmelt events and continuing until crops were tilled into the soil in early summer. We found that nitrous oxide emissions were reduced in cover cropped plots during the early spring thaw period when compared to bare soil. GHG emission reductions in agriculture can be achieved with proper selection of winter hardy cover crops.

  10. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  11. Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie

    1992-01-01

    We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

  12. Winter-annual pasture as a supplement for beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; Cassida, K A; Beck, P A; Phillips, J M

    2002-05-01

    In each of two experiments, 120 pregnant beef cows were stratified by body condition score, BW, breed, and age, randomly divided into six groups of 20, and assigned to one of six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures (two replicates/ treatment) in early January to evaluate the use of winter-annual pasture as a supplement. All cows in Exp. 1 and 2 had ad libitum access to bermudagrass/dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) hay plus three treatments: 1) a concentrate-based supplement fed 3 d/wk, 2) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 2 d/wk (7 hr/ d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)), or 3) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 3 d/wk (7 hr/d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)) sod-seeded into a portion of the pasture until mid-May. The seeded portion of pastures in Exp. 1 was planted with a mixture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was added to the seed mixture in Exp. 2. In mid-May, cows were blocked by treatment and the previous sorting factors, randomly assigned to six new groups of 20, and placed on the six perennial pastures until calves were weaned. Groups of cows were exposed to a bull for 60 d beginning in mid-May. In Exp. 1 and 2, limit-grazing winter-annual pasture compared to the concentrate-based supplement or limit grazing 2 vs 3 d/wk did not affect (P > 0.15) cow BW. In Exp. 1, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had a lower (P = 0.05) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement in the early spring. However, in Exp. 2, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had higher (P < or = 0.07) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement. The conception rate of cows in Exp. 1 and 2 did not differ (P > 0.22) between cows fed concentrate-based supplements and cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture. In Exp. 2, cows limit grazed 2 d/wk tended to have a greater (P = 0.10) conception rate than cows limit

  13. Fossils tell of mild winters in an ancient hothouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1993-08-06

    Fossil evidence from the Eocene points to a warmer winter climate in the continental interior (e.g. North Dakota) than that predicted by computer models. Paleobotanists have been able to quantify approximate winter mean temperatures by using leaf characteristics. As one example, leaves from colder climates have toothed edges. Leaf structure was correlated with modern climate regimes, and these relations were then applied to Eocene fossils. They found cold-month mean temperatures of 1-8[degrees]C in Wyoming and Montana, well above model predictions. Climate models can be manipulated to reproduce these temperatures, but not without overheating the entire globe. The problem could be that the Eocene atmospheric circulation was different from today, something not accounted for well by climate models.

  14. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-24

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lesser snow goose (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, John C.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1985-01-01

    The lesser snow goose may have the largest population of any goose in the world (Cooch 1958; Kerbes 1975; Ogilvie 1978). Its arctic breeding range has greatly expanded since the mid-1950's (Bellrose 1976). In the United States, it normally ranks behind only the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) in population size (Bellrose 1976; Owen 1980) and in harvest (Carney et al. 1981, 1982). Because up to 70% of the geese harvested annually by hunters in Texas and Louisiana are lesser snow geese (Carney et al , 1981), its importance as a waterfowl species of the Gulf of Mexico coast cannot be overemphasized. Surveys taken in the Central and Mississippi Flyways from 1955 to 1975 have shown an upward trend in the number of wintering snow geese (Bellrose 1976). On the wintering grounds snow geese tend to remain in large, very conspicuous flocks that please both hunters and non-consumptive viewers of wildlife.

  16. Anthropogenic effects on winter behavior of ferruginous hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumpton, D.L.; Andersen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Little information is known about the ecology of ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) in winter versus the breeding season and less about how the species adapts to fragmented grassland habitats. Accordingly, we studied the behavior of 38 radiotagged ferruginous hawks during 3 winters from 1992 to 1995. We used 2 adjacent sites in Colorado that were characterized by low and high levels of anthropogenic influence and habitat fragmentation: the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR; low-level influence), and several adjacent Denver suburbs (high-level influence). Relative abundance of ferruginous hawks differed by treatment area and year (P 0.05) at RMANWR and suburban sites. Ferruginous hawks appear to modify their behavior in fragmented, largely human-altered habitats, provided some foraging habitats with adequate populations of suitable prey species are present.

  17. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  18. [Morphophysiological and Behavioral Adaptations of Elk to Wintering].

    PubMed

    Glushkov, V M; Kuznetsov, G V

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies morphometric parameters (body weight, weight of internal organs, body size, etc.) in 170 elk of various sex and age obtained in the Vyatka taiga area in winter. A number of physiological parameters (specific metabolism and thermal conductivity, heat loss rate, etc.) characterizing the metabolic rate and energy balance in the body were calculated for model animals (calf, male, and female). It is noted that in the transition from the first to the second half of winter the specific metabolism in model animals decreased from 20.6, 16.9, and 15.9 to 18.7, 15.4, and 14.5 kcal/(kg day), respectively. It is shown that changes in the rhythm of motor activity of elk are synchronized with the daily air temperature and the maximum flight distance depends on the amount of energy received by the body with food. PMID:26415285

  19. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  20. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L.; Catto, Jennifer L.; Clark, Peter A.

    2012-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength.

  1. Waterfowl and their wintering grounds in Mexico, 1937-64

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, George B.; Saunders, Dorothy Chapman

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been interested in migratory birds, especially waterfowl, in Mexico for many years, An early period of cooperation in waterfowl administration was culminated in 1937 with the final ratification of the Convention Between the United States and the United Mexican States for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals, usually referred to as the Migratory Bird Treat. Management of waterfowl on this continent is primarily carried out by hunting regulations. Current information on the status of each species must be obtained each year to serve as a basis for any needed modifications in the regulations. In the United States and Canada, wildlife biologists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Wildlife Service annually make the surveys to obtain this basic information. But the Government of Mexico has made no comparable surveys. Mexicans are not interested in hunting waterfowl to the extent that citizens of the United States and Canada are. As a consequence, Mexico's Department of Game emphasizes activities other than waterfowl management. Waterfowl, especially ducks, winter in or migrate through Mexico in large numbers, so it is obvious that and continental surveys of the winter population should include Mexico. Some general investigations of waterfowl distribution there were made in 1926 and earlier by E. A. Goldman. He was familiar with much of Mexico because he and E. W. Nelson studied mammals and biota there for many years. In the 1930's, because of the greater emphasis on waterfowl conservation and management, more detailed surveys were made of the continental breeding and wintering populations. One of these activities was designated as the midwinter, or January, inventory. In the early 1940's the senior author, who had been the Central Flyaway Biologist since 1937, recommended that the waterfowl wintering grounds in Mexico be included in the coverage of the midwinter waterfowl inventory. This was arranged

  2. A Downturn of the Strong Winter-Warming Trend In Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, Dennis; Koslowsky, Dirk; Wos, Alojzy; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Surface-air temperatures measured in winter at 3 meteorological stations in central Europe rise substantially for most of the second-half of the 20th century. This means shorter winter, and longer growing season, which has positive implications for regional agriculture. However, these positive trends stopped in winter of 1996, and for the recent 7 years no further climatic amelioration is reported.

  3. Going outside in Winter: A Qualitative Study of Preschool Dressing Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Beth; Squibb, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study focused on describing typical routines of preparing for winter outdoor play with preschool children and their teachers. Naturalistic observations, interviews and photographs resulted in extensive examples of children's development in cognitive understanding of winter and winter-related concepts. Observations of teachers and…

  4. Grazing Stategy To Decrease Dietary Crude Protien Wastage In Stocker Calves Grazing Winter Wheat Pasture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cool-season grasses, primarily winter wheat, provide high quality forage for stocker calves during the fall, winter and spring grazing seasons for stocker enterprises in the southern Great Plains. The crude protein (CP) content of winter wheat pasture exceeds the stocker calf’s daily CP requi...

  5. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  6. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  7. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east. Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales. In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned. These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  8. Wet Winters in the Eastern Siberian Arctic during the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Davydov, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Eastern Siberia (a 7.3 million km2 area, similar to Australia in size) features numerous plant fossil localities, many with spectacularly preserved Neogene fossils (e.g., Baekovo and Nekkeiveem; Khapchan-Timmerdekh; Mamontova Gora). Although these sites have been described in full using classical methods (e.g., Baranova and Grinenko, 1989; Baranova et al., 1970; Biske, 1970; Dorofeev, 1969; Grinenko et al., 1989; Nikitin, 2006, 2007), geochemical proxy techniques have not yet been applied. Here we report the first stable isotope analyses of fossil wood from northeastern Siberia: 512 high-resolution intra-ring analyses of carbon isotopes (IRA-δ13C) in 6 specimens of Miocene wood from the Finish Creek site, located near Cherskiy, Sakha Republic, Russia. Using our model for reconstructing the ratio of summer to winter precipitation (Ps/Pw) from IRA-δ13C (Schubert and Jahren, 2011, GCA), we quantified the seasonal precipitation in far northeastern Siberia (~69 oN) during the Miocene. Although the median value for Ps/Pw during the Miocene was similar to today (Ps/Pw = ~2), we observed much greater variability in Ps/Pw during the Miocene than today. Specifically, years with Ps/Pw < 1/2 occurred ~4 times more frequently during the Miocene than today. When taken with independent estimates of mean annual precipitation based on nearest living relatives (581 to 1206 mm; Popova et al., 2012), our Miocene values for Ps/Pw suggest at least 2.8 times greater winter precipitation during the Miocene relative to today, and at least 5.5 times greater winter precipitation than today in ~10% of years sampled (6-month winter precipitation averages ~70 mm/yr today). Our result differentiates the Siberian Arctic Miocene from the Canadian Arctic Eocene which featured wet summers in the Eocene Arctic of Canada using similar methods, highlighting spatial and temporal variability in the Arctic paleoclimate record of the middle Cenozoic.

  9. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    PubMed

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  10. Winter energetics of female Indiana bats Myotis sodalis.

    PubMed

    Day, Katie M; Tomasi, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding physiological limits and environmental optima is critical to developing protection strategies for endangered and threatened species. One theory to explain the decline in endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis populations involves increasing cave temperatures in winter hibernacula. Altered cave temperatures can raise metabolism and cause more arousals in torpid bats, both of which use more fat reserves. In addition, fluctuations in cave temperatures may cause additional arousals. Our objectives were to quantify the effect of temperature and fluctuations thereof on torpid metabolism and arousal frequency in this species. Female Indiana bats (n=36) were collected from caves just before hibernation, maintained in an environmental chamber that simulated hibernacula conditions, and had skin temperature recorded every 30 min throughout the winter. One environmental chamber containing bats (n=12) was sequentially set at 8°, 6°, and 4°C over the winter. The second chamber containing bats (n=12) experienced the same mean temperatures, but temperature fluctuated ±2°C on a regular basis. Torpor bouts were longest at 4°C and were not affected by temperature fluctuations. However, the temperature fluctuations appeared to cause longer arousals. Other bats (n=12) were individually placed in metabolic chambers to calculate oxygen consumption during torpor and during arousals. Torpid metabolism was affected by temperature; at 9°C, it was higher than at 7° or 5°C. Metabolism during arousals was not different among temperature treatments, but rates were almost 200 times higher than torpid metabolic rates. We calculated a winter energy budget and, from the energetic perspective, determined an optimum hibernation temperature (3°-6°C) for female Indiana bats. These findings suggest that hibernacula that provide these conditions deserve extra protection, although other factors in addition to energetics may play a role in temperature preferences. PMID:24457921

  11. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  12. The use of fields at night by wintering American woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berdeen, James; Krementz, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Because limited information is available regarding preferences for nocturnal habitat during winter, we studied use of nocturnal habitats by American woodcock (Scolopax minor) wintering in the Georgia Piedmont (1994-95). During the evening crepuscular period, woodcock on the wintering grounds move from forested to field habitats, presumably to feed, conduct courtship displays, roost, and avoid predators. We conducted crepuscular flight surveys and tracked radiomarked woodcock to compare the use of fields of different sizes (40.0 ha) and types (seed tree-clearcuts, fallow-old fields, hayfields, pastures). Fields ???5.5 ha were used more frequently than fields <5.5 ha (P < 0.001). Seed tree-clearcuts and fallow-old fields were more frequently used than pastures (P = 0.003), Woodcock also most frequently used fields with greater foliage volume at 0.8-2.0 m in height and a high percentage of bare soil (P < 0.001). Nocturnal use of fields or forests by radiomarked woodcock did not differ among age or sex classes. However, females moved an average of 230 ?? 32.1 m (x?? ?? SE) between diurnal and nocturnal locations, while males moved 525 ?? 53.1 m (P = 0.085). Movements differed among moon phases (P < 0.003), ranging from 579 ?? 79.6 m during the new moon to 213 ?? 50.5 m during the full moon. To manage habitat on the wintering grounds, seed tree-clearcuts and fallow-old fields should be created or maintained near preferred diurnal habitats.

  13. Sea birds wintering off Maryland shores, 1972-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowlett, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    During the winter of 1972-73, studies were conducted to determine the status and distribution of pelagic species of birds occurring at sea as far as 38 miles east of Ocean City, Md. The wintering off-shore avifauna was found to be impressively rich in variety of species and numbers of individuals. Sightings included Fulmar and Skua, both first sight records for Maryland. Large alcids, especially Razorbills, were observed in unprecedented numbers and on five of the seven trips undertaken. Thick-billed Murre was sighted once and Dovekie, once. A Pomarine Jaeger was a mid-winter first for Maryland. Black-legged Kittiwakes were sighted on all seven trips, with age ratios consistently averaging about three adults to one immature. Likewise, Gannets were observed on all seven trips, 7.5 adults to one immature. Iceland Gulls were seen twice and Black-headed Gulls on three trips. Evidence of a definite migration was noted on Nov. 19, as Gannets were observed flying south in a narrow band, four miles wide, five to nine miles east of Ocean City, and Black-legged Kittiwakes, likewise, were heading south in a steady stream no closer than 14 miles east of Ocean City. Data accumulated from December through March suggest most pelagics occurring in Maryland waters during this period were truly wintering and not transients. This report is concerned primarily with the true pelagics normally found well away from the sight of land and does not dwell on those 'sea birds' commonly seen in immediate coastal waters.

  14. Government must act now to prevent looming winter crisis.

    PubMed

    2016-08-24

    It may seem odd to be talking about winter pressures now, but there are signs that the next 6-8 months are going to be challenging in the extreme. A report from the RCN and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine suggests that emergency department staff are locked in a cycle of permanent crisis. Add a spell of icy weather into the mix and the NHS could collapse under the strain. PMID:27641549

  15. Wintering birds in riverine tree communities: Yakima River flood plain

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1982-04-01

    For 20 years there has been little change in wintering bird species composition or their relative abundance in a Yakima River riverine tree community. Clandestine tree cutting has opened the community to the point where it is not acceptable as a daytime roost for the Great Horned Owl. In 1981-1982 the Robin was the most abundant bird observed. It was not observed in surveys conducted 10 and 20 years ago. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. The long darkness: Psychological and moral perspectives on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspoon, L.

    1986-01-01

    The aftermath of nuclear war - a sustained period of devastation called nuclear winter - would threaten the survival of civilization, even of the human species. In this book some opponents of the arms race describe the consequences of nuclear warfare and offer explanations - drawn from their knowledge of psychiatry, history, religion, and biology - for the irrational behavior of political leaders who risk these consequences and for the reluctance of ordinary citizens to face the horror of the nuclear threat.

  17. The urban heat island in winter at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Klene, Anna E.; Bell, Julianne H.

    2003-12-01

    The village of Barrow, Alaska, is the northernmost settlement in the USA and the largest native community in the Arctic. The population has grown from about 300 residents in 1900 to more than 4600 in 2000. In recent decades, a general increase of mean annual and mean winter air temperature has been recorded near the centre of the village, and a concurrent trend of progressively earlier snowmelt in the village has been documented. Satellite observations and data from a nearby climate observatory indicate a corresponding but much weaker snowmelt trend in the surrounding regions of relatively undisturbed tundra. Because the region is underlain by ice-rich permafrost, there is concern that early snowmelt will increase the thickness of the thawed layer in summer and threaten the structural stability of roads, buildings, and pipelines. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a strong urban heat island (UHI) during winter. Data loggers (54) were installed in the 150 km2 study area to monitor hourly air and soil temperature, and daily spatial averages were calculated using the six or seven warmest and coldest sites. During winter (December 2001-March 2002), the urban area averaged 2.2 °C warmer than the hinterland. The strength of the UHI increased as the wind velocity decreased, reaching an average value of 3.2 °C under calm (<2 m s-1) conditions and maximum single-day magnitude of 6 °C. UHI magnitude generally increased with decreasing air temperature in winter, reflecting the input of anthropogenic heat to maintain interior building temperatures. On a daily basis, the UHI reached its peak intensity in the late evening and early morning. There was a strong positive relation between monthly UHI magnitude and natural gas production/use. Integrated over the period September-May, there was a 9% reduction in accumulated freezing degree days in the urban area. The evidence suggests that urbanization has contributed to early snowmelt in the village.

  18. A quick-catch corral trap for wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    We designed a bait trap for wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) that has proven more effective than conventional funnel or slot entrance traps for diving ducks. The unique feature of this trap is the corral entrance that presents unimpaired access to the bait and thus ease of entrance to the trap. Catches of 50-75 ducks have been made in a matter of minutes at prebaited sites.

  19. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Randall, Lori A.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998–1999 and 1999–2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998–1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  20. Seasonal prediction and predictability of the Asian winter temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, June-Yi; Lee, Sun-Seon; Wang, Bin; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2013-08-01

    Efforts have been made to appreciate the extent to which we can predict the dominant modes of December-January-February (DJF) 2 m air temperature (TS) variability over the Asian winter monsoon region with dynamical models and a physically based statistical model. Dynamical prediction was made on the basis of multi-model ensemble (MME) of 13 coupled models with the November 1 initial condition for 21 boreal winters of 1981/1982-2001/2002. Statistical prediction was performed for 21 winters of 1981/1982-2001/2002 in a cross-validated way and for 11 winters of 1999/2000-2009/2010 in an independent verification. The first four observed modes of empirical orthogonal function analysis of DJF TS variability explain 69 % of the total variability and are statistically separated from other higher modes. We identify these as predictable modes, because they have clear physical meaning and the MME reproduces them with acceptable criteria. The MME skill basically originates from the models' ability to capture the predictable modes. The MME shows better skill for the first mode, represented by a basin-wide warming trend, and for second mode related to the Arctic Oscillation. However, the statistical model better captures the third and fourth modes, which are strongly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability on interannual and interdecadal timescales, respectively. Independent statistical forecasting for the recent 11-year period further reveals that the first and fourth modes are highly predictable. The second and third modes are less predictable due to lower persistence of boundary forcing and reduced potential predictability during the recent years. In particular, the notable decadal change in the monsoon-ENSO relationship makes the statistical forecast difficult.

  1. Wintering localities of Cooper's hawks nesting in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The life span of the Cooper's Hawks banded between 1974 and 1979 is now believed completed. The band recoveries provide the first information on the migratory characteristics of the species in the Pacific Northwest. Cooper's Hawks nesting in northeastern Oregon winter in western Mexico. The second-year female shot near Zihuatanejo, Guerrero, Mexico on November, 12, 1977, is one of the southernmost records for the species.

  2. PM10 modeling of Beijing in the winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Minsi; Cai, Xuhui

    The megacity of Beijing, China, has had an air pollution problem since the 1990s. The concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) in Beijing in the winter of 2000 were high; the average value of 188 μg m -3 was nearly four times the first grade national standard of 50 μg m -3. The CALPUFF modeling system was used to simulate PM10 dispersion from 1 January 2000 to 29 February 2000. We used near real-time landcover data from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). Statistical evaluation indicated that the model agreed well with the observations. The fluctuations of 24-h PM10 concentrations followed the winter synoptic winds. Cold air from the northwest or north intruded over Beijing for average periods of 4 days in winter, accompanied by high wind speeds. PM10 was swept out of Beijing after the cold fronts and accumulated again once the winds stopped, until the next cold air intrusion. Capital Steel Corporation Limited contributed 46% of the PM10 mass concentrations observed in the Shijingshan industrial area, and had little effect on the eastern part or the center of Beijing. The other industrial regions distributed in southeastern Beijing accounted for an average of 18% of the PM10 in Beijing. Boilers associated with coal consumption mostly for winter heating contributed 31%. Motor vehicles and road dust contributed 5% and 13%, respectively. The total of residential heating in old houses and restaurants contributed approximately 7%. The primary PM10 emissions from electrical generating units were relatively low. Some suggestions are proposed for reducing PM10 pollution in Beijing.

  3. Winter and summer simulations with the GLAS climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.; Straus, D.; Randall, D.; Sud, Y.; Marx, L.

    1981-01-01

    The GLAS climate model is a general circulation model based on the primitive equations in sigma coordinates on a global domain in the presence of orography. The model incorporates parameterizations of the effects of radiation, convection, large scale latent heat release, turbulent and boundary layer fluxes, and ground hydrology. Winter and summer simulations were carried out with this model, and the resulting data are compared to observations.

  4. Travel and health: illness associated with winter package holidays

    PubMed Central

    Cossar, Jonathan H.; Dewar, Robert D.; Reid, Daniel; Grist, Norman R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 263 people who had winter package holidays abroad revealed that 21 per cent of the travellers had been ill. Forty-eight per cent of those who had been unwell reported an alimentary upset and 26 per cent reported respiratory symptoms. Illness was recorded most frequently by travellers to countries in the Mediterranean region. More readily available advice or information would be useful in reducing the amount of illness associated with package holidays. PMID:6644668

  5. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  6. Directional scattering properties of a winter deciduous hardwood canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Newcomb, W. Wayne

    1987-01-01

    The unique directional scattering properties of a deciduous hardwood forest without leaves during the winter period was measured in a visible and near-infrared band. A radiative transfer model was used to explore the scattering properties of such a forest. The reflectance distributions look similar to sparse homogeneous vegetation canopies. The overall reflectance distribution is a combination of the extreme azimuthal scattering behavior of tree limbs and the more typical scattering behavior of understory litter.

  7. Winter operation of nation's largest potable flotation plant. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Krofta, M.; Wang, L.K.

    1987-09-20

    The heart of the Pittsfield (Massachusetts) water-supply system is two potable flotation plants: Ashley Plant (2 Sandfloats) and Cleveland Plant (4 Sandfloats). Each sandfloat unit has a capacity of 6.25 MGD (million gallons per day). Sandfloat is a package clarifier consisting of flocculation, flotation, and filtration. Complete chronological testing of Pittsfield's two plants in the winter period, December 1986 through March 1987, is documented. The technical and economical feasibilities of Sandfloat are presented. Cleveland raw water having sufficient alkalinity and low temperature in winter was treated satisfactorily by Sandfloat at 6.25 MGD per unit using the chemical combination of sodium aluminate, polymer, and alum at a cost of $0.02458/1000 gal. At Ashley Plant, the mixture of 28% Ashley raw water and 72% Farnham raw water, having moderate alkalinity and low winter temperature was treated adequately by Sandfloat at 5.5-5.8 MGD per unit using the same chemicals. When 100% Farnham raw water with extremely low alkalinity and low pH was treated at Ashley Plant, PAC, sodium aluminate and polymer 1849A was found to be the best chemical combination for clarification.

  8. Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

  9. Red spruce decline---Winter injury and air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T.M. )

    1989-10-01

    There has been a widespread decline in growth of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) since 1960 in the eastern United States. There is evidence that this decline is at least partly attributable to age- and density-related growth patterns, particularly at lower elevations. Mortality has been severe at high elevation sites where similar episodes have occasionally occurred in the last 100 years. At these sites, periods of low growth preceding 1960 were related to periods with warm late summers and cold early winters. Since 1960, this relationship no longer holds, although there is an association with unusual deviations from mean temperatures. There are field reports that one of the main causes of reduced growth and mortality is apical dieback induced by severe winter conditions. Preliminary observations suggest that high elevation red spruce may not be sufficiently hardened to tolerate low autumn temperatures. However, appearance of injury in the spring, association of injury with wind exposure and correlation of provenance susceptibility with cuticular transpiration rates, including the importance of desiccation injury. Sensitivity to both types of winter injury may be increased by air pollutants (particularly ozone and less probably, acid mist or excess nitrogen deposition). Nutrient deficiency (particularly magnesium and to a lesser extent potassium) may also increase cold sensitivity. The nature and extent of these interactions are being actively researched for red spruce. 48 refs.

  10. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  11. Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2010-01-01

    Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range. PMID:20421473

  12. Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics Land Surface Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, N. B.; Belair, S.; Tong, L.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Mailhot, J.

    2009-04-01

    Environment Canada's land surface forecast system developed for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is presented together with an evaluation of its performance for winters 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The motivation for this work is threefold: it is i) application driven for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, ii) a testbed for the panCanadian operational land surface forecast model being developed, and iii) the precursor to the fully coupled land-surface model to come. The new high resolution (100m grid size), 2D, and novel imbedded point-based land surface forecast model used to predict hourly snow and surface temperature conditions at Olympic and Paralympic Competition Sites are described. The surface systems are driven by atmospheric forcing provided by the center's operational regional forecast model for the first 48 hours and by the operational global forecast model for hours 49 to 96. The forcing fields are corrected for elevation discrepancies over the rapidly changing and complex mountainous settings of the Vancouver Olympics that arise from resolution differences. Daily 96h land surface forecasts for 2 winters and snow depth and surface air temperature observations collected at several specially deployed competition sites are used to validate the land surface model. We show that the newly implemented surface forecast model refines and improves snow depth and surface temperature forecast issued by the operational weather forecast system throughout the forecast period.

  13. Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Annette C; Coyne, Michael S; Fuller, Wayne J; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J

    2007-01-01

    While fidelity to breeding sites is well demonstrated in marine turtles, emerging knowledge of migratory routes and key foraging sites is of limited conservation value unless levels of fidelity can be established. We tracked green (Chelonia mydas, n=10) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta, n=10) turtles during their post-nesting migration from the island of Cyprus to their foraging grounds. After intervals of 2–5 years, five of these females were recaptured at the nesting beach and tracked for a second migration. All five used highly similar migratory routes to return to the same foraging and over-wintering areas. None of the females visited other foraging habitats over the study period (units lasted on average 305 days; maximum, 1356 days), moving only to deeper waters during the winter months where they demonstrated extremely long resting dives of up to 10.2 h (the longest breath-holding dive recorded for a marine vertebrate). High levels of fidelity and the relatively discrete nature of the home ranges demonstrate that protection of key migratory pathways, foraging and over-wintering sites can serve as an important tool for the future conservation of marine turtles. PMID:17456456

  14. Winter survival of lesser scaup in east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Collazo, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The North American continental population of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been declining since the mid-1980s. Seasonal survival estimates may provide insights about the ecological basis for this decline, but such data are not available. We estimated post-harvest winter survival of lesser scaup in east-central Florida, USA, where 62% of the Atlantic Flyway population winters. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate from 11 January to 14 March 2002 was 0.95 ?? 0.04 (SE) for females and 0.90 ?? 0.09 for males. These estimates were not different (P = 0.64), and pooled survival was 0.93 ?? 0.04. Temporary emigration (movement out of and return to the study area) was exhibited by 25% of the birds during survey periods, but absences were short and were believed to have had little effect on precision of survival estimates. Our findings suggested that natural mortality at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) and surrounding estuarine areas was relatively low. Our results also indicate that habitat quality in this portion of east-central Florida was sufficient to meet overwintering requirements and likely contributed to the reported survival rates. Estimating survival during other stages of the annual cycle, as well as an overall winter estimate reflecting harvest mortality, is necessary to determine whether low survival rates are responsible for continental population declines.

  15. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  16. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  18. Evaluation of aerial transect surveys for wintering American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Goldsberry, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Stotts, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    We used an experimental aerial transect survey with stratified random sampling, to estimate the size of the population of wintering black ducks (Anas rubripes) in coastal New Jersey during 2 winters, and the coastal Atlantic Flyway (Me. to S.C.) during 4 years. Population estimates were precise (CV < 0.20) on a flyway basis, whereas individual strata (states) had coefficients of variation of 0.16-0.71. Population estimates agreed with the conventional mid-winter waterfowl surveys (MWS) for all 4 years (MWS within 95% CI of N). We recommend continuing these surveys to provide precise and statistically defensible population estimates for black ducks. Additional improvements in precision may be achieved using recent developments in estimation such as Bayesian techniques. Techniques to decrease bias through air-ground comparisons are likely to be expensive and will require more development. Air-ground comparisons can probably be justified if there is a demonstrable need for an estimate of the absolute size of the black duck population versus an index.

  19. Extinction cascade: biological consequence of nuclear war/winter

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, G.L.; Pimm, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current estimates suggest that direct human casualties in a full-scale nuclear war will exceed one billion people, largely centered around urban and military/industrial centers of the northern hemisphere. The sheer magnitude of potential for immediate human death and suffering in nuclear attack and retaliatory response has served as an effective deterrent for >40 yr. It has become apparent, however, that short-term human mortality and mobidity may not be the factors of greatest concern. It is probable that a larger impact may be attributable to long-term environmental degradation. The general consensus is that a large nuclear war would produce enough smoke to alter and darken the atmosphere so that most of the northern hemisphere would experience reduced temperature, low light levels, altered rainfall patterns, and toxic smog/rain as well as significant exposure to radioactive fallout. Analysis of the environmental changes associated with early nuclear winter scenarios showed a potential for the extinction of a large portion of the earth's plants and animals. Estimates of nuclear winter consequences contain considerable uncertainty. The considerable uncertainties contained in nuclear winter predictions are mentioned. Considering these uncertainties, it is difficult to make definitive statements about the survival of any individual species. It is not, however, difficult to predict that, even with the mitigated nuclear autumn scenario, a mass extinction of biological species, floral and faunal, will result from large-scale nuclear war.

  20. Decreased winter severity increases viability of a montane frog population.

    PubMed

    McCaffery, Rebecca M; Maxell, Bryce A

    2010-05-11

    Many proximate causes of global amphibian declines have been well documented, but the role that climate change has played and will play in this crisis remains ambiguous for many species. Breeding phenology and disease outbreaks have been associated with warming temperatures, but, to date, few studies have evaluated effects of climate change on individual vital rates and subsequent population dynamics of amphibians. We evaluated relationships among local climate variables, annual survival and fecundity, and population growth rates from a 9-year demographic study of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana. We documented an increase in survival and breeding probability as severity of winter decreased. Therefore, a warming climate with less severe winters is likely to promote population viability in this montane frog population. More generally, amphibians and other ectotherms inhabiting alpine or boreal habitats at or near their thermal ecological limits may benefit from the milder winters provided by a warming climate as long as suitable habitats remain intact. A more thorough understanding of how climate change is expected to benefit or harm amphibian populations at different latitudes and elevations is essential for determining the best strategies to conserve viable populations and allow for gene flow and shifts in geographic range.

  1. Relation between lag times in winter foods from agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejduk, Agnieszka; Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    Investigation carried out by the Department of Hydraulic Engineering of SGGW in Zagożdżonka River have shown an intensive suspended sediment transport during the winter season, when occurring floods are caused by rainfall and snowmelt as well. The relation between rainfall/snowmelt -runoff - sediment transport have been investigated in small, agricultural catchment in central Poland. The hydrological and meteorological data collected in Zagożdżonka catchment during winter season have been used to calculate lag time of runoff (Lag) and lag time of sediment yield (Lags). Both, Lag and Lags are important characteristics of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) and instantaneous unit sedimentgraph (IUSG).These characteristics are interrelated. Field data from Zagożdżonka River catchment have been used to demonstrate the relationship between lag times. The results of investigation show that: a) there is a strong relationship between Lag and Lags; b) in most cases the value of a = Lags/Lag is smaller than 1; c) in case of snowmelt floods there was only poor correlation between parameter a and the total runoff depth (water supply). Key words: snowmelt floods, winter season, suspended sediment transport, lag time of runoff and sediment yield

  2. [Avian diversity in Wuhu City in summer and winter].

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2006-02-01

    From May 2004 to February 2005, an investigation was made on the avian communities in four typical habitats, i.e., village and farmland, urban woodlot, floodplain, and riverine wetland in Wuhu City, with the related diversity indices analyzed. A total of 117 species belonging to 15 orders and 31 families was recorded. The avian species and G-F index in village and farmland, urban woodlot, and floodplain were higher in summer than in winter, while the species number, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index in riverine wetland were significantly higher in winter than in summer. The avian species and G-F index in urban woodlot were the highest, and the Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index in floodplain were higher than those in other three habitats. The highest density was observed in village and farmland in summer and in urban woodlot in winter, being 31.1140 and 42.9160 ind x hm(-2), respectively. The avian species, density, Shannon-Wiener index and G-F index in riverine wetland were the lowest. Avian diversity could be enhanced by increasing spatial heterogeneity and reducing human disturbance.

  3. A case study of winter storm-induced continental shelf waves in the northern South China Sea in winter 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Zheng, Quanan; Hu, Jianyu; Xie, Lingling; Zhu, Jia; Fan, Zhenhua

    2016-08-01

    This study deals with winter storm-induced continental shelf waves (CSWs) in the northern South China Sea in winter 2009 using tidal gauge data and along-track satellite altimeter data. The results show that the periods of CSWs propagating along the coast from Kanmen to Shuidong are in bands of 62 and 133 h. The phase speeds are in a range from 8 to 13 m s-1 between Kanmen and Shantou, from 9 to 11 m s-1 between Shantou and Huizhou and from 10 to 15 m s-1 between Huizhou and Shuidong, respectively. Satellite altimeter captured along-track sea level anomaly during the CSW events. Further analysis using the theoretical cross-shore CSW modes to fit the along-track sea level anomaly data indicates that the first three wave modes play important roles during the CSW events and the first mode is a dominant component.

  4. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings. PMID:27228711

  5. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  6. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    PubMed

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  7. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    PubMed

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  8. Sensing winter soil respiration dynamics in near-real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contosta, A.; Burakowski, E. A.; Varner, R. K.; Frey, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the largest reductions in seasonal snow cover are projected to occur in temperate latitudes. Limited measurements from these ecosystems indicate that winter soil respiration releases as much as 30% of carbon fixed during the previous growing season. This respiration is possible with a snowpack that insulates soil from ambient fluctuations in climate. However, relationships among snowpack, soil temperature, soil moisture, and winter soil respiration in temperate regions are not well-understood. Most studies have infrequently sampled soil respiration and its drivers, and most measurements have been limited to the soil surface. We made near-real time, continuous measurements of temperature, moisture, and CO2 fluxes from the soil profile, through the snowpack, and into the atmosphere in a deciduous forest of New Hampshire, USA. We coupled these data with daily sampling of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Our objectives were to continuously measure soil CO2 production (Psoil) and CO2 flux through the snowpack (Fsnow) and to compare Fsnow and Psoil with environmental drivers. We found that Fsnow was more dynamic than Psoil, changing as much as 30% over several days with shifting environmental conditions. Multiple regression indicated that SWE, air temperature, surface soil temperature, surface soil CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture at 15 cm were significant predictors of Fsnow. The transition of surface temperature from below to above 0°C was particularly important as it represented a phase change from ice to liquid water. Only air temperature and soil moisture at 15 cm were significant drivers of Psoil, where higher moisture at 15 cm resulted in lower Psoil rates. Time series analysis showed that Fsnow lagged 40 days behind Psoil. This lag may be due to slow CO2 diffusion through soil to overlying snow under high moisture conditions. Our results suggest that surface soil CO2 losses are driven by rapid changes in snow cover, surface temperature

  9. Interdecadal and Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.

    2013-12-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features over Southeast China involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over western Pacific. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization of wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (ii) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that the precipitation increase in Southeast is attributed circulation anomalies over mid-to-high latitudes which are related to AO. (iii) The abnormal moisture flux along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan (and its anomalous south-easterlies) is modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over Western Pacific; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) the warm and moist air flow, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China. This demonstrates the collaborative effect of AO and SST anomalies in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China. For interannual time scales the dominating spatial pattern also represents monopole patterns. Composite analysis (with resampling test) of the associated circulation anomalies reveals the following results: (i) The wet (dry) winter is a result of the strengthened (weakened) northward warm moist air over east coast of

  10. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: Implications for winter dry deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, D.W.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Mast, M.A.; Turk, J.T.; Campbell, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO42- or NO3- (p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences (p???0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3??eql-1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9??eql-1 and a maximum of 12??eql-1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO42- and NO3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO42- and NO3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  11. The Remarkable 2003-2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the 40-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly two months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with two previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged mid-winter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over two standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (seven in the past six years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during six of the past seven years, with five having much lower than usual potential for PSC formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of five of the last seven years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every approximately 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  12. Effects of winter burning and structural marsh management on vegetation and winter bird abundance in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.; Wilson, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Marshes in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain provide important winter habitats for many species of birds. Many of these marshes are managed intensively through a combination of fall/winter burning and construction of impoundments to improve wintering waterfowl habitat, reduce wetland loss, and create emergent wetlands. Little information is available on effects of this management on wintering birds, particularly passerines. We conducted experimental burns in impounded and unimpounded marshes on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge in southwest Louisiana and recorded species composition and abundance of birds during the 1996 and 1997 winters. We found that burning and impoundment influenced vegetation structure, which in turn influenced bird abundance and species composition. Blackbirds (Icteridae) preferred recently burned plots. Sparrows (Emberizidae) and wrens (Troglodytidae) avoided recently burned plots but recolonized these plots after one year of vegetation recovery. Sparrows and wrens present in burned plots during the first winter following burning generally were observed in scattered patches of unburned vegetation. Suitability of Chenier Plain marshes as winter habitat for several bird species was reduced during the winter in which burning was conducted, particularly if a high proportion of the plot was burned. We recommend that patchy burns be used, at both the landscape level and within specific burned areas, to achieve management objectives and still provide suitable winter habitat for non-target species. Although many groups of birds depend on Chenier Plain marshes for winter habitat, these groups differ in their specific habitat requirements. We recommend that a diverse wetland complex (e.g., impoundments managed for waterfowl foraging habitat interpersed with those managed for passerine winter cover) be maintained.

  13. Do we have to correct winter precipitation for nowcast applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, Kay; Koch, Roland; Olefs, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In mountain regions like the Alps, a significant fraction of the annual precipitation falls as snow. There is an increasing demand for high-quality analysis, nowcast and short-range forecasts of snowfall. Operational services, such as traffic maintenance, real-time flood-warning systems of hydrological services and avalanche warning products, but also hydropower companies and ski resorts need reliable information on precipitation, snow depth and the corresponding snow water equivalent. However, producing accurate precipitation maps in complex terrain using only remote sensing techniques and uncorrected rain gauge data is a difficult task. In cold and windy conditions, conventional rain gauge measurements are prone to large errors when snow passes the rain gauge and sublimation occurs at heated devices. Empirical correction formulas are given by the WMO to compensate the potential undercatch (Goodison, 2008). The project pluSnow aims to combine snow depth measurements and precipitation data to minimize the error of gauge undercatch on the basis of snow depth data from 63 automatic weather stations (TAWES), operated by the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). These TAWES are equipped with SHM30 laser sensors to measure snow depth with high accuracy and temporal resolution of 0.01 m and 10 minutes, respectively. The pluSnow project will contribute to existing research efforts around the globe which focus on improving the precision of solid precipitation measurements. Here we present a first study based on the original TAWES data between 2006 and 2015. The fraction of solid precipitation to total winter precipitation between November and April (NDJFMA) and the potential undercatch of measured precipitation following Goodison (2008) for all TAWES sorted by altitude are analysed. Examples of the TAWES data in the original high temporal resolution of 10 min are given. The two main parameters used for the correction of precipitation

  14. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  15. Population size and winter distribution of eastern American oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.C.; Schulte, Shiloh A.; Harrington, B.; Winn, Brad; Bart, J.; Howe, M.

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of the eastern subspecies of the American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is a high priority in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan, but previous population estimates were unreliable, information on distribution and habitat associations during winter was incomplete, and methods for long-term monitoring had not been developed prior to this survey. We completed the aerial survey proposed in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan to determine population size, winter distribution, and habitat associations. We conducted coastal aerial surveys from New Jersey to Texas during November 2002 to February 2003. This area comprised the entire wintering range of the eastern American oystercatcher within the United States. Surveys covered all suitable habitat in the United States for the subspecies, partitioned into 3 survey strata: known roost sites, high-use habitat, and inter-coastal tidal habitat. We determined known roost sites from extensive consultation with biologists and local experts in each state. High-use habitat included sand islands, sand spits at inlets, shell rakes, and oyster reefs. Partner organizations conducted ground counts in most states. We used high resolution still photography to determine detection rates for estimates of the number of birds in particular flocks, and we used ground counts to determine detection rates of flocks. Using a combination of ground and aerial counts, we estimated the population of eastern American oystercatchers to be 10,971 +/- 298. Aerial surveys can serve an important management function for shorebirds and possibly other coastal waterbirds by providing population status and trend information across a wide geographic scale.

  16. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions. PMID:27090425

  17. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (P<0.001), Bison utilized geothermal features, a network of trails they established, and river and stream banks for travel. Bison road use was negatively correlated with road grooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  18. Simulating Observed Ozone Loss in the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Lait, L. R.; Considine, D. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Baumgardner, D.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Richard, E. C.; Jost, H.; Rex, M.; Toon, G. C.; Webster, C. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ozone amounts observed at high Northern latitudes in late winter and early spring have been relatively very low in four of the last six years. On the face of it, this decline appears similar to that observed in the Antarctic in the mid-1980s in spite of the fact that the abundance of stratospheric chlorine is currently steady or decreasing. In order to predict the extent to which this change represents a trend, and to understand what combination of factors produces the low ozone, we need to accurately simulate these observations with models. In this presentation, we focus on the winter of 1999-2000, which exhibited some of the lowest ozone ever recorded in the Northern hemisphere. It also contained the largest-ever assembled set of atmospheric measurements and modeling activities in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment/Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (SOLVE/THESEO). We use SOLVE/THESEO observations in comparison with the Goddard 3-D global model of stratospheric chemistry and transport to explore the model's capability to simulate the evolution of ozone and other species through the winter. We will discuss advective transport and mixing, chlorine activation, and denitrification, which are key processes to accurately simulating wintertime ozone. Preliminary results show that, although the model tracer transport and chlorine activation compare relatively well with observations, the magnitude of observed ozone loss is difficult to achieve in the model. Calculated ozone loss is sensitive to denitrification, which presents a major challenge to parameterization in a global model. Simulation requirements and uncertainties will be evaluated.

  19. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  20. Ice Nucleating Particles and their Role in California Winter Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prather, K. A.; Hill, T. C. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Levin, E. J.; Suski, K. J.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Rosenfeld, D.; Leung, L. R.; Comstock, J. M.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Petters, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Field studies are providing the opportunity to characterize ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations, their varied sources, and to examine their influence on ice formation and precipitation processes in winter clouds in California. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties in California include pollution, marine aerosols, and transported dusts. Vertical stratification affects the role of different aerosol types. Boundary layer dust and pollution in Central Valley locations may influence cloud properties at times, but may be decoupled from cloud layers at other times or be restricted in affecting clouds by the Sierra barrier jet phenomenon. Marine layers may sometimes be lifted over topography to influence clouds. Finally, long range transported dust/biological particles may directly enter upper cloud levels to act as the trigger for ice initiation. We present analyses of INP number concentrations, INP chemical composition, and related data collected from flights on the DOE G-1 aircraft during the CalWater 1 field study in winter 2011. Sampling of mostly marine boundary layer INP during the surface-based BBACPAX (Bodega Bay Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation in Atmospheric rivers eXperiment) study in 2014 included first sampling with an online method for measuring the mass spectral composition of INP, and new immersion freezing INP measurements extending to the warm temperature limit of heterogeneous ice formation. Studies reveal the strong influence of long range transported aerosols on INP populations and typically lower INP concentrations in marine air layers. Plans for new studies including G-1 aircraft flights during the ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment) study, overlapping with ground-based measurements in the CalWater-2 campaign in winter 2015 will be introduced. Analyses are being applied toward numerical modeling studies of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in California, presented separately in this session.

  1. Regional Variation of Winter Temperatures in the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Miletta Adams, Jennifer; Bond, Nicholas A.

    1997-05-01

    The surface temperature field in the Arctic winter is primarily controlled by downward longwave radiation, which is determined by local atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles and the presence of clouds. The authors show that regional differences in the atmospheric thermal energy budget are related to the tropospheric circulation in the Arctic. Data sources include several gridded meteorological datasets and surface and rawinsonde observational data. Four independent climatologies of mean January surface temperature show consistent spatial patterns: coldest temperatures in the western Arctic north of Canada and warmer regions in the Chukchi, Greenland, and Barents Seas. Data from the five winters of 1986-90 illustrate the coupling between the surface temperature, the downward longwave radiative fields, and the tropospheric temperature and humidity fields, with monthly surface-upper-air correlations on the order of 0.6. Upper-level circulation patterns reveal features similar to the surface temperature fields, notably a persistent low center located over northern Canada; the cyclonic flow around the low is a tropospheric extension of the polar vortex. Colder and drier conditions are maintained within the vortex and communicated to the surface through radiative processes. The polar vortex also steers transient weather systems, the most important mechanism for horizontal heat transport, into the eastern Arctic, which results in as much as 25 W m2 more heat flux into the eastern Arctic than the western Arctic. A reason for the colder temperatures in the western Arctic is that the polar vortex tends to be situated downstream of the northern Rocky Mountains; this preferred location is related to orographic forcing of planetary waves. Monthly and interannual variability of winter temperatures is conditioned by the interaction of the Arctic and midlatitude circulations through the strength and position of the polar vortex.

  2. Depletions in winter total ozone values over southern England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapworth, A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the recently re-evaluated time series of daily total ozone values for the period 1979 to 1992 for southern England. The series consists of measurements made at two stations, Bracknell and Camborne. The series shows a steady decline in ozone values in the spring months over the period, and this is consistent with data from an earlier decade that has been published but not re-evaluated. Of exceptional note is the monthly mean for January 1992 which was very significantly reduced from the normal value, and was the lowest so far measured for this month. This winter was also noteworthy for a prolonged period during which a blocking anticyclone dominated the region, and the possibility existed that this was related to the ozone anomaly. It was possible to determine whether the origin of the low ozone value lay in ascending stratospheric motions. A linear regression analysis of ozone value deviation against 100hPa temperature deviations was used to reduce ozone values to those expected in the absence of high pressure. The assumption was made that the normal regression relation was not affected by atmospheric anomalies during the winter. This showed that vertical motions in the stratosphere only accounted for part of the ozone anomaly and that the main cause of the ozone deficit lay either in a reduced stratospheric circulation to which the anticyclone may be related or in chemical effects in the reduced stratospheric temperatures above the high pressure area. A study of the ozone time series adjusted to remove variations correlated with meteorological quantities, showed that during the period since 1979, one other winter, that of 1982/3, showed a similar although less well defined deficit in total ozone values.

  3. Measurement of evapotranspiration in a winter wheat field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Changming; Shen, Yanjun; Kondoh, A.; Tang, Changyuan; Tanaka, T.; Shimada, J.

    2002-10-01

    Daily evapotranspiration from a winter wheat field on the North China Plain measured by large-scale weighing lysimeter was linearly related to that measured by the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Soil evaporation averaged about 23·6% of evapotranspiration from the post-winter dormancy revival stage to the grain ripening stage in 1999. On clear days during winter dormancy, about half of the net radiation flux Rn was used to warm soil. During the revival stage, conductive heat flux G also used most of the incoming Rn, but the ratio of latent heat flux E to Rn increased. During the stem-extension stage, E was about 50% of Rn; thereafter, E/R

  4. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  5. Aspects of food finding by wintering Bald Eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Susan K.; Knight, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    We examined three aspects of food location by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering along the Nooksack River, Washington. First, eagles used intra- and interspecific local enhancement to locate food. Second, the time that eagles spent aerially searching for food, as indicated by the percentage of eagles flying or soaring, was negatively correlated with relative food availability. Third, eagles often followed others when departing from or arriving at communal night roosts. Following was most frequent when all food was eliminated by flood waters, suggesting a possible food-location function of this behavior. During the flood period, adult eagles were flowed more often than immatures.

  6. Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Salt Lake City, situated near the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake, is host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, which open Friday, February 8. Venues for five of the scheduled events are at city (indoor) locations, and five in mountain (outdoor) facilities. All ten can be found within the area contained in these images. Some of the outdoor events take place at Ogden, situated north of Salt Lake City and at Park City, located to the east.

    Salt Lake City is surrounded by mountains including the Wasatch Range to the east, and the temperature difference between the Great Salt Lake and the overlying atmosphere enhances the moisture content of winter storms. These factors, in combination with natural cloud seeding by salt crystals from the lake, are believed to result in greater snowfall in neighboring areas compared to more distant locales.

    In addition to the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent in these images. The distinctly different coloration between the northern and southern arms of the Great Salt Lake is the result of a rock-filled causeway built in 1953 to support a permanent railroad. The causeway has resulted in decreased circulation between the two arms and higher salinity on the northern side. The southern part of the lake includes the large Antelope Island, and at full resolution a bridge connecting it to the mainland can be discerned.

    These images are natural color views acquired on February 8, 2001 and June 16, 2001, during Terra orbits 6093 and 7957, respectively. Each image represents an area of about 220 kilometers x 285 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth

  7. Development of a winter wheat adjustable crop calendar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. After parameter estimation, tests were conducted with variances from the fits, and on independent data. From these tests, it was generally concluded that exponential functions have little advantage over polynomials. Precipitation was not found to significantly affect the fits. The Robertson's triquadratic form, in general use for spring wheat, was found to show promise for winter wheat, but special techniques and care were required for its use. In most instances, equations with nonlinear effects were found to yield erratic results when utilized with daily environmental values as independent variables.

  8. Climatic change projections for winter streamflow in Guadalquivir river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesús Esteban Parra, María; Hidalgo Muñoz, José Manuel; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz Fortis, Sonia; Castro Díez, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    In this work we have obtained climate change projections for winter streamflow of the Guadalquivir River in the period 2071-2100 using the Principal Component Regression (PCR) method. The streamflow data base used has been provided by the Center for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, CEDEX. Series from gauging stations and reservoirs with less than 10% of missing data (filled by regression with well correlated neighboring stations) have been considered. The homogeneity of these series has been evaluated through the Pettit test and degree of human alteration by the Common Area Index. The application of these criteria led to the selection of 13 streamflow time series homogeneously distributed over the basin, covering the period 1952-2011. For this streamflow data, winter seasonal values were obtained by averaging the monthly values from January to March. The PCR method has been applied using the Principal Components of the mean anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP) in winter (December to February averaged) as predictors of streamflow for the development of a downscaled statistical model. The SLP database is the NCEP reanalysis covering the North Atlantic region, and the calibration and validation periods used for fitting and evaluating the ability of the model are 1952-1992 and 1993-2011, respectively. In general, using four Principal Components, regression models are able to explain up to 70% of the variance of the streamflow data. Finally, the statistical model obtained for the observational data was applied to the SLP data for the period 2071-2100, using the outputs of different GCMs of the CMIP5 under the RPC8.5 scenario. The results found for the end of the century show no significant changes or moderate decrease in the streamflow of this river for most GCMs in winter, but for some of them the decrease is very strong. Keywords: Statistical downscaling, streamflow, Guadalquivir River, climate change. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been financed by the

  9. The long winter model of Martian biology - A speculation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1971-01-01

    A temporal microenvironment model is proposed for Martian biology that is based on an estimated mean thickness of nearly 1 km of frost in the Martian north polar cap summer remnant. If vaporized, this frost could yield not only 1 kg per sq cm of atmosphere, but also higher global temperatures through the greenhouse effect and a greatly increased likelihood of liquid water. Vaporization of such cap remnants may occur twice each equinoctial precession, and Martian organisms may now be in cryptobiotic repose awaiting the end of the long precessional winter. The Viking biology experiments might test this hypothesis.

  10. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    In Norway many inland and mountainous catchments have a hydrological regime where snow accumulates during winter. The runoff is delayed until the snow melts during spring. These processes are important for flood forecasting and water resource management, such as operation of hydropower reservoirs. It is commonly assumed that spring flood volume and peak linked to antecedent conditions such as winter snowpack, i.e. a large winter snowpack results in a high spring flood. The aims of this study are (i) to identify for which catchments a high correlation between snow water equivalent (SWE) at the end of the snow accumulation season and the subsequent spring flood, and (ii) establish regression models for these catchments to be used for seasonal flood forecasting. Daily runoff data from 43 distributed catchments all over Norway, each with at least 50 years of observations and a flood regime which is significantly influenced by snowmelt, were used. For each of these catchments we extracted SWE, precipitation and temperature on daily resolution from the on gridded data of Senorge.no. A peak-over-threshold approach was used to select independent flood events above the 90-th percentile. Maximum discharge, duration and volume were calculated for each event. The contribution of rain and snowmelt to each flood was additionally determined, based on snowmelt, precipitation and temperature data. The spring flood was defined as the first flood event that occurs after the date of maximum SWE, and the snowmelt contribution of at least 70%. The contribution of rain to a spring flood is independent of maximum SWE, resulting in a weaker correlation between maximum SWE and spring flood size. We therefore scaled the flood with the percentage of snow contribution to the flood event in order to adjust for the contribution from rain. The correlations between SWE and the spring flood were higher for scaled spring floods than for the unscaled ones. The results show for half of the stations a

  11. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  12. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, R.W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  14. Sea ducks and aquaculture: the cadmium connection.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2011-03-01

    Elevated concentrations of cadmium have been reported in the kidneys of sea ducks that forage along the Pacific Northwest, and cadmium has been postulated as a possible cause of population declines. The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) which occurs in dense numbers on aquaculture structures and are a primary prey item for sea ducks also contain elevated cadmium concentrations. To determine if foraging on mussels associated with aquaculture structures could pose a toxicological risk to sea ducks, amounts of cadmium ingested per body weight per day by a representative sea duck species, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), were estimated and compared to the reported avian cadmium NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) and LOAEL (lowest observable adverse effect level). Results indicate that in some locations within the Pacific Northwest, sea ducks could be exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium associated with mussels foraged from aquaculture structures. This raises the possibility that such exposure could be contributing to observed population declines in these species.

  15. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  16. Beyond arctic and alpine: the influence of winter climate on temperate ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Laura M; Ratajczak, Zak R; Ocheltree, Troy W; Hafich, Katya A; Churchill, Amber C; Frey, Sarah J K; Fuss, Colin B; Kazanski, Clare E; Muñoz, Juan D; Petrie, Matthew D; Reinmann, Andrew B; Smith, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    Winter climate is expected to change under future climate scenarios, yet the majority of winter ecology research is focused in cold-climate ecosystems. In many temperate systems, it is unclear how winter climate relates to biotic responses during the growing season. The objective of this study was to examine how winter weather relates to plant and animal communities in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems ranging from warm deserts to alpine tundra. Specifically, we examined the association between winter weather and plant phenology, plant species richness, consumer abundance, and consumer richness in 11 terrestrial ecosystems associated with the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. To varying degrees, winter precipitation and temperature were correlated with all biotic response variables. Bud break was tightly aligned with end of winter temperatures. For half the sites, winter weather was a better predictor of plant species richness than growing season weather. Warmer winters were correlated with lower consumer abundances in both temperate and alpine systems. Our findings suggest winter weather may have a strong influence on biotic activity during the growing season and should be considered in future studies investigating the effects of climate change on both alpine and temperate systems.

  17. Beyond arctic and alpine: the influence of winter climate on temperate ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Laura M; Ratajczak, Zak R; Ocheltree, Troy W; Hafich, Katya A; Churchill, Amber C; Frey, Sarah J K; Fuss, Colin B; Kazanski, Clare E; Muñoz, Juan D; Petrie, Matthew D; Reinmann, Andrew B; Smith, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    Winter climate is expected to change under future climate scenarios, yet the majority of winter ecology research is focused in cold-climate ecosystems. In many temperate systems, it is unclear how winter climate relates to biotic responses during the growing season. The objective of this study was to examine how winter weather relates to plant and animal communities in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems ranging from warm deserts to alpine tundra. Specifically, we examined the association between winter weather and plant phenology, plant species richness, consumer abundance, and consumer richness in 11 terrestrial ecosystems associated with the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. To varying degrees, winter precipitation and temperature were correlated with all biotic response variables. Bud break was tightly aligned with end of winter temperatures. For half the sites, winter weather was a better predictor of plant species richness than growing season weather. Warmer winters were correlated with lower consumer abundances in both temperate and alpine systems. Our findings suggest winter weather may have a strong influence on biotic activity during the growing season and should be considered in future studies investigating the effects of climate change on both alpine and temperate systems. PMID:27145612

  18. Using an algorithmic model to reveal individually variable movement decisions in a wintering sea duck.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; Dickson, D Lynne

    2009-05-01

    1. Many migratory birds are assumed to remain fairly stationary during winter. However, recent research indicates that mid-winter movements are evident in a variety of bird species, and the factors causing individuals to move are poorly understood. 2. We examined the winter movements of 95 individual king eiders (Somateria spectabilis, L.) tracked with satellite transmitters in the Bering Sea between 2002 and 2006 to explore whether environmental factors such as day length, location, sea ice, and habitat quality could explain the occurrence of winter movements longer than 50 km. 3. We used a novel algorithmic random forest model to assess the importance of variables predicting whether a bird remained or departed from a wintering site. 4. We found extremely high individual variability in winter movement decisions by king eiders, and the individual bird was the most important variable followed by location, date, and sea ice concentration. 5. We conclude that individual strategies exist that interact with environmental conditions to form multiple movement patterns. 6. While a minor proportion of winter movements may be forced by environmental conditions, we propose that many winter movements may be of an exploratory nature where individuals aim to acquire information about alternative wintering sites that may enhance their survival probability at some point in time when environmental fluctuation renders their preferred wintering site unsuitable.

  19. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    PubMed

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology. PMID:27069602

  20. The Remarkable 2003--2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Kruger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the approximately 50-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly 2 months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with 2 previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged midwinter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over 2 standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (7 in the past 6 years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during 6 of the past 7 years, with 5 having much lower than usual potential for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of 5 of the last 7 years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  1. Links between solar wind variations, the global electric circuit, and winter cyclone vorticity, and possibly to cold winters in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    There are a number of inputs to the atmosphere and the climate system that are modulated by solar activity that have their only common feature the modulation of the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, and to which it has now been shown there are small atmospheric responses in winter storm vorticity, surface pressure, and cloud cover. Similar responses are found to internal atmospheric inputs that modulate Jz. An inductive mechanism for initial storm electrification is described that responds to Jz and provides space charge for aerosol particles and droplets throughout the updraft region. The charge on droplets and aerosol particles, by the process of charge modulation of aerosol scavenging (CMAS), increases condensation nuclei concentrations and shifts their distributions to smaller average sizes. This produces smaller and more numerous droplets, and as shown by Rosenfeld et al (2008), delays initial precipitation and increases ice production and the vigor of the storm updraft. For baroclinic storms the additional latent heat release and updraft velocity increases storm vorticity. The result depends on both aerosol characteristics and the Jz variation. The cumulative effect of winter storm intensification, for example in the Icelandic Low cyclogenesis region, responding to Jz changes, is to increase blocking in the Atlantic Ocean. Such blocking reduces the flow of relatively warm moist ocean air onto Europe, while increasing the incidence of outbreaks of cold, dry, Arctic air. The possibility is examined that increases in cosmic ray flux and in Jz, at times of decadal and longer minima in solar activity, contributes to the changes in atmospheric circulation and the resulting unusually severe winters in the UK and Europe such as have occurred during extended solar minima in the late 17th century and early 21st century.

  2. Changes in hematological profiles during winter field operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Reed, L.; D'Alesandro, M. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors have previously shown that there are changes in hematological profiles during experimental cold acclimation. They now report on hematological changes in 9 military volunteers during a 12 week winter field operation and show results similar to those observed during experimental cold acclimation. Blood was collected before and after completion of winter field operations and analyzed in a paired fashion. Hematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte counts (RBC) were decreased; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma volume (PV), which was calculated from hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and HCT, were increased. In addition, the reticulocyte count was increased from 1.37 {plus minus} 0.10% to 2.62 {plus minus} 0.24% after completion of field operations. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between HCT and reticulocyte count, indicating the need for an enhanced rate of red cell production. Hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count, and mean corpuscular volume were unchanged. The RBC population, to remain at steady state during periods of chronic cold exposure, shows alterations in the number of circulating cells, Hb concentration per cell and possibly cell turnover.

  3. Pinatubo eruption winter climate effects: Model versus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, HANS-F.; Kirchner, Ingo; Schult, Ingrid; Robock, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Large volcanic eruptions, in addition to the well-known effect of producing global cooling for a year or two, have been observed to produce shorter-term responses in the climate system involving non-linear dynamical processes. In this paper, we use the ECHAM2 general circulation model forced with stratospheric aerosols to test some of these ideas. Run in a perpetual-January mode, with tropical stratospheric heating from the volcanic aerosols typical of the 1982 El Chichon eruption or the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, we find a dynamical response with an increased polar night jet in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and stronger zonal winds which extended down into the troposphere. The Azores High shifts northward with increased tropospheric westerlies at 60N and increased easterlies at 30N. Surface temperatures are higher both in northern Eurasia and North America, in agreement with observations for the NH winters or 1982-83 and 1991-92 as well as the winters following the other 10 largest volcanic eruptions since 1883.

  4. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  5. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  6. Winter Eurasian Climate Variability: Role of Cyclone and Anticyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, X.; Guan, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates variability of extratropical Eurasian cyclone and anticyclone activity by using a modified automated cyclone and anticyclone identification and tracking algorithm. The cyclone and anticyclone activities are quantified by their regionally integrated intensity (CI and ACI) during 1978/79-2011/2012 winter seasons. We found that the time evolutions of the CI and ACI exhibit a general negative correlation of -0.7 between them at a significant level of 99.99%. This anticyclone (cyclone) variability contributes to the substantially large-scale sea level pressure variability over extratropical Eurasian continent, and explains the interannual fluctuation of surface air temperature over mid latitude Eurasia as well as the adjacent continents. The ACI swings from one phase to another, also producing large changes in snow cover extend, snow equivalent water as well as frequency of extreme cold events over the Eurasian continent. The strengthening of anticyclone intensity is preceded by retreated of the October sea-ice extent over Barents-Kara Sea, which associates tightly with an increasing stability at lower troposphere around the Ural Mountains and induces strengthening Eurasian anticyclones activity in the subsequent winter.

  7. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Hipskino, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999-2000 winter season. Aircraft based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements are analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the arctic lower-most stratosphere, and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to- stratosphere exchange extends into the arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases idly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of about 5 ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20\\% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early Spring temperatures at the tropopause are cold enough so that 5-10\\% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100\\%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during, this period the arctic tropopause can play an important role in maintaining a very dry upper troposphere during early Spring.

  8. Winter convection in the Irminger Sea in 2004-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, S. V.; Gladyshev, V. S.; Falina, A. S.; Sarafanov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Winter convection in the Irminger Sea leading to the formation of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is analyzed using CTD data collected along the 59.5° N transatlantic section in 2004-2014, winter Argo data from 2012-2014, and daily North American regional reanalysis (NARR). The interannual variability of LSW in the Irminger Sea is investigated. The dissolved oxygen saturation rate of 93% is used to indicate maximal local convection depth. It is shown that the deepest convection (up to 1000 m) resulting in the largest LSW volume that formed in the Irminger Sea in 2008 and 2012. These years were characterized by numerous storms with anomalously strong turbulent heat loss from the ocean to the atmosphere and negative air temperature to the east of the southern tip of Greenland in January-March. LSW became warmer by 0.42°C, saltier by more than 0.03 PSU, and more oxygenated by 8 µmol/kg between 2004 and 2014. A strong LSW decay in the Iceland Basin is also noted.

  9. Climate Curriculum Modules on Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    To support a climate dynamics multidisciplinary curriculum for graduate and senior university students, I will describe on-line modules on volcanic eruptions and climate, geoengineering, and nuclear winter. Each of these topics involves aerosols in the stratosphere and the response of the climate system, but each is distinct, and each is evolving as more research becomes available. As reported for the first time in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, volcanic eruptions are a natural analog for the climate impacts of potential anthropogenic aerosol injections into the stratosphere, either sulfates from potential attempts to cool the climate to counteract global warming, or smoke that would be produced from fires in cities and industrial targets in a nuclear war. The volcanic eruptions module would stand alone, and would also serve as a prerequisite for each of the other two modules, which could be taught independently of each other. Each module includes consideration of the physical climate system as well as impacts of the resulting climate change. Geoengineering includes both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide reduction. The geoengineering and nuclear winter modules also include consideration of policy and governance issues. Each module includes a slide set for use in lecturing, links to related resources, and student exercises. The modules will be regularly updated.

  10. Vertebrate diet decreases winter torpor use in a desert marsupial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavey, Chris R.; Burwell, Chris J.; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2009-06-01

    One of the energetic benefits of daily torpor over prolonged hibernation is that it enables animals to regularly forage and, therefore, replenish food reserves between bouts of torpor. However, little is known about the diet of predators undergoing torpor or whether differences in prey composition among individuals influence torpor characteristics. Here, we test the hypothesis that prey composition affects winter torpor use and patterns of a population of carnivorous marsupial, the brush-tailed mulgara ( Dasycercus blythi), in the Great Sandy Desert, Australia. Mulgaras in the study population captured a wide range of prey including vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, birds), seven insect orders, spiders and centipedes. The proportion of vertebrates in the diet was negatively correlated with both frequency of torpor use and maximum bout duration. This variation in torpor use with diet can be explained by the higher energetic content of vertebrates as well as their larger size. Even assuming uniform intake of prey biomass among individuals, those that subsisted on an invertebrate-dominated diet during winter apparently suffered energetic shortages as a result of the scarcity of invertebrate taxa with high energy content (such as insect larvae). Our study is the first to demonstrate a link between diet composition and daily torpor use in a free-ranging mammal.

  11. The Energy Balance of the Winter Boreal Landscape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, R. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    1996-11-01

    During the winter of 1993/94 a study to quantify the winter energy balance of the main cover types of the boreal landscape took place. The study was based on the southern edge of boreal forest in Canada. Measurements were made over a mature jack pine stand and a frozen lake. Shortwave albedos of 12% to 14% over the jack pine and 20% to 88% on the frozen lake (both depending on snow cover) were measured. There were correspondingly large contrasts in the total radiation inputs and the turbulent heat fluxes. The mean net all-wave radiation input was large and positive into the forest and negative over the lake. The sensible heat fluxes were of the same sign as the radiative inputs with positive values over the forest peaking at +200 W m2 and failing to 100 W m2 over the lake. The evaporation from the forest depended on whether the there was snow on the canopy. When the canopy was snow-free, the evaporation was low, about 50% of net radiation but, when there was snow on the canopy, the evaporation was large, 4 mm over a 36-hour period. The results of these experiments are being used to design much-improved descriptions of boreal forest within the next generation of climate, models.

  12. Long-range forecasts of UK winter hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Bell, V. A.; Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Hannaford, J.; Davies, H. N.; Arribas, A.; Stanley, S.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are beneficial for planning agricultural activities, river navigation, and for management of reservoirs for public water supply and hydropower generation. In the United Kingdom (UK), skilful seasonal river flow predictions have previously been limited to catchments in lowland (southern and eastern) regions. Here we show that skilful long-range forecasts of winter flows can now be achieved across the whole of the UK. This is due to a remarkable geographical complementarity between the regional geological and meteorological sources of predictability for river flows. Forecast skill derives from the hydrogeological memory of antecedent conditions in southern and eastern parts of the UK and from meteorological predictability in northern and western areas. Specifically, it is the predictions of the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic that provides the skill at the seasonal timescale. In addition, significant levels of skill in predicting the frequency of winter high flow events is demonstrated, which has the potential to allow flood adaptation measures to be put in place.

  13. Stamen development and winter dormancy in apricot (Prunus armeniaca)

    PubMed Central

    Julian, C.; Rodrigo, J.; Herrero, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims In temperate woody perennials, flower bud development is halted during the winter, when the buds enter dormancy. This dormant period is a prerequisite for adequate flowering, is genetically regulated, and plays a clear role in possibly adapting species and cultivars to climatic areas. However, information on the biological events underpinning dormancy is lacking. Stamen development, with clear differentiated stages, appears as a good framework to put dormancy in a developmental context. Here, stamen developmental changes are characterized in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and are related to dormancy. Methods Stamen development was characterized cytochemically from the end of August to March, over 4 years. Developmental changes were related to dormancy, using the existing empirical information on chilling requirements. Key Results Stamen development continued during the autumn, and the flower buds entered dormancy with a fully developed sporogenous tissue. Although no anatomical changes were observed during dormancy, breaking of dormancy occurred following a clear sequence of events. Starch accumulated in particular places, pre-empting further development in those areas. Vascular bundles developed and pollen mother cells underwent meiosis followed by microspore development. Conclusions Dormancy appears to mark a boundary between the development of the sporogenous tissue and the occurrence of meiosis for further microspore development. Breaking of dormancy occurs following a clear sequence of events, providing a developmental context in which to study winter dormancy and to evaluate differences in chilling requirements among genotypes. PMID:21474504

  14. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration.

  15. Transport of nitrogen oxides through the winter mesopause in HAMMONIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meraner, Katharina; Schmidt, Hauke

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the importance of individual transport processes for the winter polar downward transport of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the thermosphere to the mesosphere. The downward transport of NOx produced by energetic particle precipitation induces chemical alterations in the middle atmosphere and influences ozone chemistry. However, it remains unclear how much each transport process contributes to the downward transport. We use simulations of the atmospheric general circulation and chemistry model HAMMONIA (Hamburg Model of Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere) for the extended winter 2008/2009 with a passive tracer. The model enables us to separate the contributions of advection, eddy and molecular diffusion on the total transport by switching off processes. The results show that molecular diffusion and resolved vertical mixing due to advection effectively transport NOx to the mesosphere. While the impact of molecular diffusion on the transport rapidly decreases below 0.001 hPa, the impact of advection increases. Around the central date of the sudden stratospheric warming in January 2009, advection is strongly enhanced in the thermosphere and mesosphere and the downward transport through the mesopause region is almost entirely driven by advection. Eddy diffusion has limited impact on the transport in the upper mesosphere and negligible impact on the transport in the thermosphere. If eddy diffusion is enhanced as suggested by observations, it can potentially have a larger impact on transport through the mesopause than was previously assumed.

  16. Winter evaluation of a postmilking powdered teat dip.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J J; Murdough, P A; Howard, A B; Drechsler, P A; Pankey, J W; Ledbetter, G A; Day, L L; Day, J D

    1994-03-01

    A powdered teat dip designed for winter usage was evaluated for bacteriological efficacy and teat conditioning qualities. A positive control, natural exposure field trial was conducted for 3 mo on 509 lactating cows. Two sets of cows, primiparous and multiparous, were used. The trial compared efficacy of a powdered teat dip with a teat dip of 1% iodine plus 10% glycerin. Bacteriological efficacy among primiparous cows was equivalent for all major mastitis pathogens, environmental pathogens, and streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae. Efficacy was not equivalent against coagulase-negative staphylococci and all mastitis pathogens. Results suggested that the positive control product was more efficacious. Among multiparous cows, efficacy was equivalent against environmental mastitis pathogens and bacteriologically negative, clinical mastitis. The products were not equivalent against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, or all major mastitis pathogens, once again suggesting that the positive control product was more efficacious. Data indicated that germicidal activity of the powdered dip was not sufficient to reduce the incidence of new IMI caused by contagious or minor pathogens normally associated with teat skin. Application of a powdered postmilking teat dip during 3 winter mo in Idaho resulted in improved teat end condition among primiparous and multiparous dairy cows. Teat skin condition improved among primiparous but not among multiparous cows. PMID:8169283

  17. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  18. Regionalization of winter low-flow characteristics of Tennessee streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures were developed for estimating winter (December-April) low flows at ungaged stream sites in Tennessee based on surface geology and drainage area size. One set of equations applies to West Tennessee streams, and another set applies to Middle and East Tennessee streams. The equations do not apply to streams where flow is significantly altered by the activities of man. Standard errors of estimate of equations for West Tennessee are 22% - 35% and for middle and East Tennessee 31% - 36%. Statistical analyses indicate that summer low-flow characteristics are the same as annual low-flow characteristics, and that winter low flows are larger than annual low flows. Streamflow-recession indexes, in days per log cycle of decrease in discharge, were used to account for effects of geology on low flow of streams. The indexes in Tennessee range from 32 days/log cycle for clay and shale to 350 days/log cycle for gravel and sand, indicating different aquifer characteristics of the geologic units that contribute to streamflows during periods of no surface runoff. Streamflow-recession rate depends primarily on transmissivity and storage characteristics of the aquifers, and the average distance from stream channels to basin divides. Geology and drainage basin size are the most significant variables affecting low flow in Tennessee streams according to regression analyses. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

    PubMed

    Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Ackerman, T P; Pollack, J B; Sagan, C

    1990-01-12

    The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying the production and injection of soot by large-scale fires, the regional and global atmospheric dispersion of the soot, and the resulting physical, environmental, and climatic perturbations. New information has been obtained from laboratory studies, field experiments, and numerical modeling on a variety of scales (plume, mesoscale, and global). For the most likely soot injections from a full-scale nuclear exchange, three-dimensional climate simulations yield midsummer land temperature decreases that average 10 degrees to 20 degrees C in northern mid-latitudes, with local cooling as large as 35 degrees C, and subfreezing summer temperatures in some regions. Anomalous atmospheric circulations caused by solar heating of soot is found to stabilize the upper atmosphere against overturning, thus increasing the soot lifetime, and to accelerate interhemispheric transport, leading to persistent effects in the Southern Hemisphere. Serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. The basic physics of nuclear winter has been reaffirmed through several authoritative international technical assessments and numerous individual scientific investigations. Remaining areas of uncertainty and research priorities are discussed in view of the latest findings.

  20. Theoretical models of adaptive energy management in small wintering birds.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Anders

    2007-10-29

    Many small passerines are resident in forests with very cold winters. Considering their size and the adverse conditions, this is a remarkable feat that requires optimal energy management in several respects, for example regulation of body fat reserves, food hoarding and night-time hypothermia. Besides their beneficial effect on survival, these behaviours also entail various costs. The scenario is complex with many potentially important factors, and this has made 'the little bird in winter' a popular topic for theoretic modellers. Many predictions could have been made intuitively, but models have been especially important when many factors interact. Predictions that hardly could have been made without models include: (i) the minimum mortality occurs at the fat level where the marginal values of starvation risk and predation risk are equal; (ii) starvation risk may also decrease when food requirement increases; (iii) mortality from starvation may correlate positively with fat reserves; (iv) the existence of food stores can increase fitness substantially even if the food is not eaten; (v) environmental changes may induce increases or decreases in the level of reserves depending on whether changes are temporary or permanent; and (vi) hoarding can also evolve under seemingly group-selectionistic conditions.

  1. Habitat associations of birds in the Georgia piedmont during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Kepler, C.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; Sykes, P.W.; Seginak, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    During three winter seasons (1991-1994), we studied the distribution and abundance of birds in three habitat types of the Georgia Piedmont. Bird densities were calculated using data from 2160 variable circular-plot counts, 720 each in the interiors of the three habitats. Habitat variables were measured in 135 0.04-ha circles, 45 in each of the three habitats. The objective was to compare bird densities during winter in the Piedmont?s fragmented mature (60+ yr) pine forests and upland hardwood forests with those in planted pine plantations, a major replacement type. A total of 49 species was detected: 44 in mature pines, 42 in mature upland hardwoods, and 32 in 20-30-yr old pine plantations. Twenty-nine species occurred across all habitats. Overall, density estimates were low and variability among counts was high; consequently, significant (P <0.05) habitat preferences were found for only about 25% of the species. Species richness (S) and diversity (H ) were greatest (P <0.05) in mature pines and lowest (P <0.05) in planted pine plantations. Also, species evenness (E) was higher (P <0.05) in mature pines and upland hardwoods than in planted pine plantations.

  2. Environmental contaminants in redheads wintering in coastal Louisiana and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michot, T.C.; Custer, T.W.; Nault, A.J.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Whole body and liver analyses indicated that wintering redheads (Aythya americana; n = 70) in coastal Louisiana (one site) and Texas (two sites) were relatively free of contamination with common trace elements, organochlorines, and hydrocarbons. Most trace elements, including As, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn, were within background concentrations in livers; levels of B, Cd, Cu, and Fe were elevated in some specimens. Only one organochlorine, DDE, was detected in redhead carcasses, but its concentration was below reported toxic levels in waterfowl. Body burdens of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were generally low, but levels of pristane, total hydrocarbons, and the ratios of phytane:n-octadecane and pristane:n-heptadecane were indicative of possible chronic exposure to petroleum. Based on brain cholinesterase assays, redheads were not recently exposed to organophosphorous or carbamate pesticides. Of 30 elements or compounds tested for seasonal differences, only Se increased from early to late winter at one of the three sites. Eight of 57 contaminants differed among the three sites; no sex or age differences were found.

  3. Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

    PubMed

    Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Ackerman, T P; Pollack, J B; Sagan, C

    1990-01-12

    The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying the production and injection of soot by large-scale fires, the regional and global atmospheric dispersion of the soot, and the resulting physical, environmental, and climatic perturbations. New information has been obtained from laboratory studies, field experiments, and numerical modeling on a variety of scales (plume, mesoscale, and global). For the most likely soot injections from a full-scale nuclear exchange, three-dimensional climate simulations yield midsummer land temperature decreases that average 10 degrees to 20 degrees C in northern mid-latitudes, with local cooling as large as 35 degrees C, and subfreezing summer temperatures in some regions. Anomalous atmospheric circulations caused by solar heating of soot is found to stabilize the upper atmosphere against overturning, thus increasing the soot lifetime, and to accelerate interhemispheric transport, leading to persistent effects in the Southern Hemisphere. Serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. The basic physics of nuclear winter has been reaffirmed through several authoritative international technical assessments and numerous individual scientific investigations. Remaining areas of uncertainty and research priorities are discussed in view of the latest findings. PMID:11538069

  4. Reservoir storage loss due to grounded ice during winter operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidou, O.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Bilodeau, L.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryThe immobilization of water in the form of deposited ice on the reservoir's embankments during winter operations has received little attention in hydrological literature. In Nordic countries like Canada, this phenomenon is likely to have significant negative impacts on reservoir operation. In a previous work (Seidou, O., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., Bilodeau, L., Hessami, M., St-Hilaire, A., Bruneau, P., 2006. Modeling ice growth on Canadian lakes using artificial neural metworks. Water Resources Research 42. doi: doi:10.1029/2005WR004622); the authors developed a global artificial neural network model to predict ice thickness growth in unmonitored Canadian lakes and reservoirs. This model is used in this paper to compute a time series of ice thickness on the Gouin reservoir (Saint-Maurice River, Quebec, Canada) and the Outardes 4 reservoir (Aux Outardes River, Quebec, Canada). This and the relationship between surface water area and water level were then used to evaluate the volume of ice left on the banks of the two reservoirs during winter operation, as its water level is progressively lowered in order to release water for hydroelectric production at downstream power dams. Results show that the ratio of frozen water left on the banks to the active storage varies from 2% to 8% at the Gouin reservoir, and from 0.41% to 1.15% at the Outardes 4 reservoir depending on the water usage policy and the geometry of the reservoir.

  5. Irreverent Soils: Nitrogen Dynamics In Taiga Forests During Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielland, K.

    2003-12-01

    We measured annual net nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and amino acid production in situ across a primary successional sequence in interior Alaska, USA. Net N mineralization rates during the growing season from green-up (late May) through freeze-up (late September) accounted for approximately 60% of the annual inorganic N flux, whereas the remaining N was released during the apparent dormant season. Nitrogen release during winter occurred primarily during October-January with only negligible N mineralization during early spring in stands of willow, alder, balsam poplar and white spruce. By contrast, black spruce stands also exhibited substantial mineralization after snow melt during early spring. The high rates of N mineralization in late autumn through early winter coincides with high turnover of fine root biomass in these stands, suggesting that labile substrate production, rather than temperature, is a major controlling factor over N release in these ecosystems. The results are consistent with the low temperature sensitivity of N mineralization previously documented for taiga soils, and demonstrate that measurements of soil processes restricted to the growing season may greatly underestimate annual flux rates of inorganic nitrogen in high-latitude ecosystems.

  6. Techniques for trapping, aging, and banding wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; McAuley, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques used to trap, band, and determine age of Canvasbacks during winter on Chesapeake Bay are presented. Canvasbacks were captured with welded-wire traps baited with corn. Two trap designs were used and traps and trapping techniques are described. Ducks were dipnetted from traps and held in modified poultry crates that provided seclusion and ventilation and allowed birds to dry unsoiled. Carney's (1964) wing plumage methodology was found most efficient in determining age of Canvasbacks during large-scale bandings. This technique was rapid and was easily taught to inexperienced personnel. In contrast, the cloacal technique could be performed efficiently only by experienced and skillful banders. Band wear was observed to vary widely on individual birds and rounding of bands was recognized as an important technique in extending band life. Bands were placed upside down on the tarsus so that wear along the upper edge would be less likely to destroy band numbers. In 5 winter seasons, over 17,000 Canvasbacks were captured. Mortality rate for the program was .3%.

  7. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  8. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Lee, Thomas D; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S; Boettner, George H; Dodds, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  9. Factors affecting the distribution of mallards wintering in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Reinecke, K.J.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) is the principal wintering area for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) in the Mississippi Flyway. Here the authors consider it a distinct habitat, i.e., fitness is relatively homogeneous among ducks within the MAV but different from that of ducks in other such habitats. They analyzed recovery distributions of mallards banded preseason (July-September 1950-1980) to test hypotheses concerning the effects of winter temperatures, precipitation, and population levels on mallard winter distribution. When two groups of years that comprised extremes of warm and cold winter weather were compared, recovery distributions of all four age and sex classes (adult males and females, young males and females) differed significantly; recoveries were located farther south in cold years. The authors concluded that temperature, water conditions, and population size affect the habitat suitability of mallard wintering areas and that mallards exhibit considerable flexibility in winter distribution associated with these factors.

  10. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  11. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  12. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold.

  13. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Winter Operational Runway Friction Measurement Equipment, Procedures, and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document produced by the FAA/Industry Winter Runway Friction Measurement and Reporting Working Group, is designed to provide an overview of current information on the present guidance, practices, and procedures for reporting runway pavement surface conditions during winter operations at airports. It contains recommendations on the desirability of providing the best procedural consistency and standardization and discusses the available means to implement the guidance that will result in improved aviation safety at airports during hazardous winter conditions.

  15. Change in abundance of pacific brant wintering in alaska: evidence of a climate warming effect?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Dau, C.P.; Lee, T.; Sedinger, J.S.; Anderson, B.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Winter distribution of Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) has shifted northward from lowtemperate areas to sub-Arctic areas over the last 42 years. We assessed the winter abundance and distribution of brant in Alaska to evaluate whether climate warming may be contributing to positive trends in the most northern of the wintering populations. Mean surface air temperatures during winter at the end of the Alaska Peninsula increased about 1??C between 1963 and 2004, resulting in a 23% reduction in freezing degree days and a 34% decline in the number of days when ice cover prevents birds from accessing food resources. Trends in the wintering population fluctuated with states of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, increasing during positive (warm) phases and decreasing during negative (cold) phases, and this correlation provides support for the hypothesis that growth in the wintering population of brant in Alaska is linked to climate warming. The size of the wintering population was negatively correlated with the number of days of strong northwesterly winds in November, which suggests that the occurrence of tailwinds favorable for migration before the onset of winter was a key factor in whether brant migrated from Alaska or remained there during winter. Winter distribution of brant on the Alaska Peninsula was highly variable and influenced by ice cover, particularly at the heavily used Izembek Lagoon. Observations of previously marked brant indicated that the Alaska wintering population was composed primarily of birds originating from Arctic breeding colonies that appear to be growing. Numbers of brant in Alaska during winter will likely increase as temperatures rise and ice cover decreases at high latitudes in response to climate warming. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  16. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  17. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  18. Clustering of European winter storms: A multi-model perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renggli, Dominik; Buettner, Annemarie; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel; Zimmerli, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The storm series over Europe in 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke, Herta) and 1999 (Anatol, Lothar, Martin) are very well known. Such clusters of severe events strongly affect the seasonally accumulated damage statistics. The (re)insurance industry has quantified clustering by using distribution assumptions deduced from the historical storm activity of the last 30 to 40 years. The use of storm series simulated by climate models has only started recently. Climate model runs can potentially represent 100s to 1000s of years, allowing a more detailed quantification of clustering than the history of the last few decades. However, it is unknown how sensitive the representation of clustering is to systematic biases. Using a multi-model ensemble allows quantifying that uncertainty. This work uses CMIP5 decadal ensemble hindcasts to study clustering of European winter storms from a multi-model perspective. An objective identification algorithm extracts winter storms (September to April) in the gridded 6-hourly wind data. Since the skill of European storm predictions is very limited on the decadal scale, the different hindcast runs are interpreted as independent realizations. As a consequence, the available hindcast ensemble represents several 1000 simulated storm seasons. The seasonal clustering of winter storms is quantified using the dispersion coefficient. The benchmark for the decadal prediction models is the 20th Century Reanalysis. The decadal prediction models are able to reproduce typical features of the clustering characteristics observed in the reanalysis data. Clustering occurs in all analyzed models over the North Atlantic and European region, in particular over Great Britain and Scandinavia as well as over Iberia (i.e. the exit regions of the North Atlantic storm track). Clustering is generally weaker in the models compared to reanalysis, although the differences between different models are substantial. In contrast to existing studies, clustering is driven by weak

  19. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  20. Glycogen, not dehydration or lipids, limits winter survival of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    PubMed

    Zani, Peter A; Irwin, Jason T; Rollyson, Mary E; Counihan, Jessica L; Healas, Sara D; Lloyd, Emily K; Kojanis, Lee C; Fried, Bernard; Sherma, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is causing winters to become milder (less cold and shorter). Recent studies of overwintering ectotherms have suggested that warmer winters increase metabolism and decrease winter survival and subsequent fecundity. Energetic constraints (insufficient energy stores) have been hypothesized as the cause of winter mortality but have not been tested explicitly. Thus, alternative sources of mortality, such as winter dehydration, cannot be ruled out. By employing an experimental design that compared the energetics and water content of lizards that died naturally during laboratory winter with those that survived up to the same point but were then sacrificed, we attempt to distinguish among multiple possible causes of mortality. We test the hypothesis that mortality is caused by insufficient energy stores in the liver, abdominal fat bodies, tail or carcass or through excessive water loss. We found that lizards that died naturally had marginally greater mass loss, lower water content, and less liver glycogen remaining than living animals sampled at the same time. Periodically moistening air during winter reduced water loss, but this did not affect survival, calling into question dehydration as a cause of death. Rather, our results implicate energy limitations in the form of liver glycogen, but not lipids, as the primary cause of mortality in overwintering lizards. When viewed through a lens of changing climates, our results suggest that if milder winters increase the metabolic rate of overwintering ectotherms, individuals may experience greater energetic demands. Increased energy use during winter may subsequently limit individual survival and possibly even impact population persistence. PMID:22875774

  1. Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrineau, C.E.; Hubert, W.A.; Dey, P.D.; Annear, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    There is little information on the winter features of salmonid habitats associated with constructed instream structures to provide guidance when planning habitat improvement projects. We assessed winter habitat features for trout of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus in pools associated with two types of instream structures constructed on a low-gradient reach of a mountain stream in western Wyoming with a mean wetted width of 6.4 m. Pool habitat was affected by temporal variability in ice formations from fall into winter. As surface ice and snow accumulated with the progression of winter, variation in ice formations was less frequent and winter habitat conditions became more stable. However, groundwater inflow that maintained water temperatures at 0.2-0.6??C in a portion of the study reach appeared to contribute to incomplete surface ice cover and variation in ice formations in pools through most of the winter. Hanging dams and anchor ice dams were the primary ice features that affected winter habitat in pools associated with constructed instream structures. Trout were observed in these pools in the fall but tended to abandon pools with variation in ice formations as winter progressed. The potential impacts of groundwater inflow and winter ice processes on trout habitat in pools associated with instream structures should be considered when planning habitat improvement projects. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. The value of agricultural wetlands as invertebrate resources for wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes have received little recognition for the food resources they provide to wintering waterbirds. In the Willamette Valley of Oregon, modest yet significant populations of wintering shorebirds (Charadriiformes) regularly use hundreds of dispersed wetlands on agricultural lands. Benthic invertebrates are a critical resource for the survival of overwintering shorebirds, yet the abundance of invertebrate resources in agricultural wetlands such as these has not been quantified. To evaluate the importance of agricultural wetlands to a population of wintering shorebirds, the density, biomass, and general community composition of invertebrates available to birds were quantified at a sample of Willamette Valley sites during a wet (1999a??2000) and a dry winter (2000a??2001). Invertebrate densities ranged among wetlands from 173 to 1925 (mean A? S.E.: 936 A? 106) individuals/m2 in the wet winter, and from 214 to 3484 (1028 A? 155) individuals/m2 in the dry winter. Total invertebrate estimated biomass among wetlands ranged from 35 to 652 (mean A? S.E.: 364 A? 35) mg/m2 in the wet winter, and from 85 to 1405 (437 A? 62) mg/m2 in the dry winter. These estimates for food abundance were comparable to that observed in some other important freshwater wintering regions in North America.

  3. Winter Sea Ice Mapping From Multi-Parameter Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Drinkwater, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents examples of quantitative improvements in classification accuracy of six winter ice conditions using SAR data resulting from the combination of multiple polarizations and frequencies.

  4. A winter survey of domestic heating among elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Blair, A; King, D

    1996-02-01

    Elderly people have a greater need for domestic heating given the time they spend at home and the decline in the body thermoregulation that occurs with ageing. The use of domestic heating by 200 mentally competent newly admitted elderly in patients was evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. Most patients (69%) were aware of the addition of value added tax (VAT) to their fuel bill and 31% said they had reduced the amount of heating they use because of this. A third of patients (29.5%) said they had difficulty keeping warm prior to this admission. The majority of patients said they could not manage to keep warm in the winter without financial hardship. In addition, 29% said they had reduced the amount spent on food in order to pay for fuel bills. This study suggests that cold may contribute to hospital admissions in elderly patients. This should have implications for government spending and taxation policy on domestic heating. PMID:8683507

  5. Influence of circulation indices upon winter temperature variability in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmallah, E. S.; Elsharkawy, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Trends of winter surface air temperature anomalies, WSATA, are investigated using data obtained from 13 monitoring stations. The analysis is performed in two steps; one deals with separate stations independently and the other deals with stations' groups. Groups' anomalies are correlated to circulation indices showing negative correlation between temperature with North Atlantic Oscillations and positive one with Mediterranean Oscillation Index. Both power analysis and frequency distribution analysis are applied. The results show existence of Schwabe, Hale and Gleissberg cycles and declare that there are no critical thermal changes of climate in Egypt. It is concluded that the temperature changes during the past three decades are not only because of the human activity but the extraterrestrial impacts as well.

  6. Fatal winter dysentery with severe anemia in an adult cow.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Sumiko; Goto, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Ueo, Hiroshi; Komori, Toshihiro; Shirakawa, Hitomi; Uchinuno, Yukinori

    2007-09-01

    An adult dairy cow fatally affected with winter dysentery was investigated pathologically and virologically. The cow had severe anemia and diarrhea with massive blood. Pathologically, the loss of surface epithelial cells and necrosis of crypt epithelial cells in the large intestine were observed. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen was observed in necrotic crypt epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virus particles were found in the necrotic epithelial cells of the large intestine. Virologically, BCV was isolated from the feces of the dead cow. The dead cow had no serum antibody against BCV although the co-habitants did. These suggest that severe infection of BCV in the cow without the BCV antibody accompanied by severe hemorrhagic anemia resulted in the cow's death.

  7. Winter fuels report, week ending December 7, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Identification of winter wheat from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Morain, S. A.; Barker, B.; Coiner, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Continuing interpretation of the test area in Finney County, Kansas, has revealed that winter wheat can be successfully identified. This successful identification is based on human recognition of tonal signatures on MSS images. Several different but highly successful interpretation strategies have been employed. These strategies involve the use of both spectral and temporal inputs. Good results have been obtained from a single MSS-5 image acquired at a critical time in the crop cycle (planting). On a test sample of 54,612 acres, 89 percent of the acreage was correctly classified as wheat or non-wheat and the estimated wheat acreage (19,516 acres) was 99 percent of the actual acreage of wheat in the sample area.

  9. Winter fuels report, week ending October 6, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-06

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topcs: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s, I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Informatoin Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  10. Winter fuels report, week ending December 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-07

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices. Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6--10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  11. Winter fuels report, week ending October 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-18

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city.

  12. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  13. Analysis of operational plan for Lake Chippewa near Winter, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, William R.

    1975-01-01

    Historical inflows into Lake Chippewa for 39 years of record were analyzed to determine the possibility of operating the flowage within a 2-foot (0.6-metre) range of stage while maintaining a minimum discharge of 57 cubic feet per second (1.6 cubic metres per second) and limiting the maximum discharge to 7,000 cubic feet per second (200 cubic metres per second). This proposed operating plan could be followed successfully most of the time. Some periods of low flow, mainly in winter, would require drawdowns below the minimum stage to maintain minimum discharge. Occasional large floods occurring about once in 5 years would require surcharges over the maximum stage to limit the maximum discharge. The flowage could be filled from minimum to maximum stage withing 45 days (frequently fewer) starting from April 1.

  14. Probable maximum flood at Lake Chippewa near Winter, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krug, William R.

    1976-01-01

    The probable maximum flood was computed for Lake Chippewa, Wisconsin, and routed through the lake to determine maximum lake stage. The peak discharge of the probable maximum flood at Lake Chippewa was computed to be about 75,000 cubic feet per second, primarily caused by rainfall on the lake. A secondary peak of about 41,000 cubic feet per second was due to streamflow entering Lake Chippewa. The 14-day volume of this flood was 450 ,000 acre-feet. Using an assumed operating procedure for Winter Dam, the maximum lake stage for the probable maximum flood was computed to be about 1,318 feet above mean sea level--about 3 feet below the dam crest and 6 feet above the proposed normal summer operating level. The probability of this flood occurring in any year is less than 1 in 10,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Winter fuels report, week ending November 30, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-06

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cites; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L.E.; Kanemasu, E.T.

    1982-09-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  17. Cell mediated immunity in Antarctic wintering personnel; 1984-1992.

    PubMed

    Muller, H K; Lugg, D J; Quinn, D

    1995-08-01

    Cell-mediated immune responses were studied in 12 Antarctic and sub-Antarctic wintering groups at quarterly intervals over the period 1984-1992, using the cutaneous CMI Multitest. These populations are among the most isolated on earth. While the sub-Antarctic population at Macquarie Island had levels of responsiveness and hypoergy (9%) comparable to healthy populations in temperate zones, the Antarctic Continental group showed a level of hypoergy of 36%. There was no seasonal variation in the pattern of responses. It is concluded that the extreme and isolated environment and stress factors are responsible for the decreased immunological responsiveness but the mechanisms are presently unclear. On review, one factor appears to be perceived anxiety. The high rate of hypoergy in Antarctica, where medical care is limited, may have health implications. These groups provide an excellent analogue for immunological investigations in longer term space flight.

  18. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI), will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag, and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types, and application rates.

  19. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  20. Winter fuels report, week ending December 16, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-22

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local Governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s 1, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6--10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.