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Sample records for melanoma cell line

  1. CD133 Is Not Suitable Marker for Isolating Melanoma Stem Cells from D10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi Fomeshi, Motahareh; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Firouzi, Javad; Khosravani, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cutaneous melanoma is the most hazardous malignancy of skin cancer with a high mortality rate. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for malignancy in most of cancers including melanoma. The aim of this study is to compare two common methods for melanoma stem cell enriching; isolating based on the CD133 cell surface marker and spheroid cell culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, melanoma stem cells were enriched by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the CD133 protein expression and spheroid culture of D10 melanoma cell line,. To determine stemness features, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN, OCT4-A and -B genes as well as colony and spheroid formation assays were utilized in unsorted CD133+, CD133- and spheroid cells. Significant differences of the two experimental groups were compared using student’s t tests and a two-tailed value of P<0.05 was statistically considered as a significant threshold. Results Our results demonstrated that spheroid cells had more colony and spheroid forming ability, rather than CD133+ cells and the other groups. Moreover, melanospheres expressed higher mRNA expression level of ABCG2, c-MYC, NESTIN and OCT4-A com- pared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Although CD133+ derived melanoma cells represented stemness fea- tures, our findings demonstrated that spheroid culture could be more effective meth- od to enrich melanoma stem cells. PMID:27054115

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  3. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  4. The YUMM lines: a series of congenic mouse melanoma cell lines with defined genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Meeth, Katrina; Wang, Jake Xiao; Micevic, Goran; Damsky, William; Bosenberg, Marcus W

    2016-09-01

    The remarkable success of immune therapies emphasizes the need for immune-competent cancer models. Elegant genetically engineered mouse models of a variety of cancers have been established, but their effective use is limited by cost and difficulties in rapidly generating experimental data. Some mouse cancer cell lines are transplantable to immunocompetent host mice and have been utilized extensively to study cancer immunology. Here, we describe the Yale University Mouse Melanoma (YUMM) lines, a comprehensive system of mouse melanoma cell lines that are syngeneic to C57BL/6, have well-defined human-relevant driver mutations, and are genomically stable. This will be a useful tool for the study of tumor immunology and genotype-specific cancer biology.

  5. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18) expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. Methods A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. Results We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Conclusion Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration. PMID:23039186

  6. MILI, a PIWI family protein, inhibits melanoma cell migration through methylation of LINE1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxing; Jiang, Chen; Fu, Bingyuan; Zhu, Ruilou; Diao, Fan; Xu, Na; Chen, Zhong; Tao, Weiwei; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-02-20

    MILI, a member of the PIWI/AGO gene family, has been well documented to maintain genome integrity by transposon silencing in animal germ cells. It has been reported to be selectively expressed in precancerous stem cells (pCSCs), tumor cell lines and various malignancies. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here, we found that MILI is expressed in the melanoma cell line B16 but not in the highly metastatic mouse melanoma model B16BL6. Interestingly, the knockdown of MILI in B16 could activate MAGEA expression and increase the cell migration ability, whereas the overexpression of MILI in B16BL6 could inhibit MAGEA expression and decrease the cell migration ability. Further investigations showed that MILI can methylate LINE1, which is crucial for MAGEA expression and melanoma cell migration. Our results provide a novel function of MILI in melanoma metastasis and tumor progression.

  7. Biflorin induces cytotoxicity by DNA interaction in genetically different human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Ana Carolina Lima; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; da Silva Souza, Luciana Gregório; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is a public health problem and the second leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been notably increasing, resulting in high aggressiveness and poor survival rates. Taking into account the antitumor activity of biflorin, a substance isolated from Capraria biflora L. roots that is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, this study aimed to demonstrate the action of biflorin against three established human melanoma cell lines that recapitulate the molecular landscape of the disease in terms of genetic alterations and mutations, such as the TP53, NRAS and BRAF genes. The results presented here indicate that biflorin reduces the viability of melanoma cell lines by DNA interactions. Biflorin causes single and double DNA strand breaks, consequently inhibiting cell cycle progression, replication and DNA repair and promoting apoptosis. Our data suggest that biflorin could be considered as a future therapeutic option for managing melanoma.

  8. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Seyhan; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Hocaoglu, Helin; Mutlu, Duygu; Gunes, Gursel; Aksu, Salih; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells. PMID:28293423

  9. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Martine J.; Magner, J. Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R.; Dubovy, Sander R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Methods Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Results Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. Conclusions All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines. PMID:28018010

  10. The YUMM lines: a series of congenic mouse melanoma cell lines with defined genetic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Meeth, Katrina; Wang, Jake; Micevic, Goran; Damsky, William; Bosenberg, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The remarkable success of immune therapies emphasizes the need for immune competent cancer models. Elegant genetically engineered mouse models of a variety of cancers have been established, but their effective use is limited by cost and difficulties in rapidly generating experimental data. Some mouse cancer cell lines are transplantable to immunocompetent host mice and have been utilized extensively to study cancer immunology. Here we describe a comprehensive system of mouse melanoma cell lines that are syngeneic to C57Bl/6J, have well-defined human-relevant driver mutations, and are genomically stable. These will be a useful tool for the study of tumor immunology and genotype-specific cancer biology. PMID:27287723

  11. Differences in lipid characteristics of autologous human melanoma cell lines with distinct biological properties.

    PubMed

    Le Bivic, A; Sari, H; Reynier, M; Lebec, S; Bardin, F

    1987-12-01

    Significant differences in lipid composition were found when six established human melanoma cell lines were compared. A pair of cell lines was initiated from a superficial spreading melanoma and the lymph node of the same patient; four others were also autologous, three of which originated from the same nodular melanoma and the other from its metastasis. Cell lines varied in pigmentation level and ability to grow in nude mice. Cell lines contained similar amounts of total cholesterol, glycerides, and phospholipids but different amounts of free cholesterol and cholesterol esters. In particular, the molar ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid was increased in highly tumorigenic cell lines. No changes in phospholipid profiles were noted among cell lines, except an increase in sphingomyelin with a concomitant decrease in phosphatidylcholine in one cell line compared to the profiles of its counterpart cell line. The saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratios in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were similar in all cell lines, but the monounsaturated-to-polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in phosphatidylcholine was increased in highly tumorigenic cell lines. A significant variation in the latter ratio in phosphatidylethanolamine was also observed in the pair of autologous cell lines. These changes were unrelated to a depletion in linoleic acid in culture medium. Results obtained by fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were consistent with the differences in lipid composition between two autologous cell lines. The present results indicate that two lipid characteristics were significantly changed in highly tumorigenic cell lines as compared to cell lines with low tumorigenicity, but no correlation was found between either pigmentation level or origin (primary or metastatic) and lipid composition.

  12. NMR metabolic fingerprints of murine melanocyte and melanoma cell lines: application to biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão de; Jacomasso, Thiago; Riter, Daniel Suss; Barison, Andersson; Iacomini, Marcello; Winnischofer, Sheila Maria Brochado; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2017-02-15

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and efforts to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasia are largely based on the use of cell lines. Metabolomics is currently undergoing great advancements towards its use to screening for disease biomarkers. Although NMR metabolomics includes both 1D and 2D methodologies, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding heteronuclear 2D NMR assignments of the metabolome from eukaryotic cell lines. The present study applied NMR-based metabolomics strategies to characterize aqueous and lipid extracts from murine melanocytes and melanoma cell lines with distinct tumorigenic potential, successfully obtaining fingerprints of the metabolites from the extracts of the cell lines by means of 2D NMR HSQC correlation maps. Relative amounts of the identified metabolites were compared between the 4 cell lines. Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data was able not only to differentiate the melanocyte cell line from the tumorigenic ones but also distinguish among the 3 tumorigenic cell lines. We also investigated the effects of mitogenic agents, and found that they can markedly influence the metabolome of the melanocyte cell line, resembling the pattern of most proliferative cell lines.

  13. NMR metabolic fingerprints of murine melanocyte and melanoma cell lines: application to biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão de; Jacomasso, Thiago; Riter, Daniel Suss; Barison, Andersson; Iacomini, Marcello; Winnischofer, Sheila Maria Brochado; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and efforts to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasia are largely based on the use of cell lines. Metabolomics is currently undergoing great advancements towards its use to screening for disease biomarkers. Although NMR metabolomics includes both 1D and 2D methodologies, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding heteronuclear 2D NMR assignments of the metabolome from eukaryotic cell lines. The present study applied NMR-based metabolomics strategies to characterize aqueous and lipid extracts from murine melanocytes and melanoma cell lines with distinct tumorigenic potential, successfully obtaining fingerprints of the metabolites from the extracts of the cell lines by means of 2D NMR HSQC correlation maps. Relative amounts of the identified metabolites were compared between the 4 cell lines. Multivariate analysis of 1H NMR data was able not only to differentiate the melanocyte cell line from the tumorigenic ones but also distinguish among the 3 tumorigenic cell lines. We also investigated the effects of mitogenic agents, and found that they can markedly influence the metabolome of the melanocyte cell line, resembling the pattern of most proliferative cell lines. PMID:28198377

  14. Identification of MET and SRC Activation in Melanoma Cell Lines Showing Primary Resistance to PLX403212

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Elisabetta; Vallacchi, Viviana; Frigerio, Simona; Deho, Paola; Mondellini, Piera; Perego, Paola; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Testi, Maria Adele; Rivoltini, Licia; Bongarzone, Italia; Rodolfo, Monica

    2011-01-01

    PLX4032/vemurafenib is a first-in-class small-molecule BRAFV600E inhibitor with clinical activity in patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, drug resistance develops in treated patients, and strategies to overcome primary and acquired resistance are required. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in primary resistance to PLX4032, we investigated its effects on cell proliferation and signaling in a panel of 27 genetically characterized patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Cell sensitivity to PLX4032 was dependent on BRAFV600E and independent from other gene alterations that commonly occur in melanoma such as PTEN loss, BRAF, and MITF gene amplification. Two cell lines lacking sensitivity to PLX4032 and harboring a different set of genetic alterations were studied as models of primary resistance. Treatment with the MEK inhibitor UO126 but not with PLX4032 inhibited cell growth and ERK activation. Resistance to PLX4032 was maintained after CRAF down-regulation by siRNA indicating alternative activation of MEK-ERK signaling. Genetic characterization by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of phosphotyrosine signaling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed the activation of MET and SRC signaling, associated with the amplification of MET and of CTNNB1 and CCND1 genes, respectively. The combination of PLX4032 with drugs or siRNA targeting MET was effective in inhibiting cell growth and reducing cell invasion and migration in melanoma cells with MET amplification; similar effects were observed after targeting SRC in the other cell line, indicating a role for MET and SRC signaling in primary resistance to PLX4032. Our results support the development of classification of melanoma in molecular subtypes for more effective therapies. PMID:22241959

  15. 6-Bromoindirubin-3′oxime (BIO) decreases proliferation and migration of canine melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Esther; Flanagan, Brandi; de Sá Rodrigues, Lucas Campos; Piskun, Caroline; Stein, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor in dogs and is associated with a poor outcome. Novel, targeted agents are necessary to improve survival. In this study, 6-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO), a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor with reported specificity for glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inhibition, was evaluated in vitro in three canine melanoma cell lines (CML-10C2, UCDK9M2, and UCDK9M3) for β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, Axin2 gene and protein expression levels, cell proliferation, chemotoxicity, migration and invasion assays. BIO treatment of canine malignant melanoma cell lines at 5 µM for 72 h enhanced β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity, suggesting GSK-3β inhibition, and reduced cell proliferation and migration. There were no significant effects on invasion, chemotoxicity, or apoptosis. The results suggest that serine/ threonine kinases may be viable therapeutic targets for the treatment of canine malignant melanoma. PMID:25130776

  16. Establishment and characterization of an oral mucosal melanoma cell line (MEMO) derived from a longstanding primary oral melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Silvia V; Bologna, Sheyla B; Hsieh, Ricardo; Sangueza, Martin; Fernandes, Juliana D; Nico, Marcello M S

    2013-04-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma is rare. Its incidence peaks between 41 and 60 years of age; male/female ratio is 2:1. Preferred oral sites include hard palate and maxillary gingiva. Risk factors have not been clearly identified, but pigmented lesions may be present before the diagnosis of oral melanoma. We report an unusual case of oral mucosal melanoma of long-standing duration on hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge in a male patient. Histopathologic features confirmed the diagnosis of invasive melanoma with a prominent in situ component. A cell lineage derived from the tumor was established and characterized, with phenotypic markers of melanocytes.

  17. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dana, N.; Javanmard, Sh. Haghjooy; Rafiee, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10–450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  18. Characterization of a new human melanoma cell line with CD133 expression.

    PubMed

    Gil-Benso, Rosario; Monteagudo, Carlos; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Callaghan, Robert C; Pinto, Sandra; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; San-Miguel, Teresa; Cigudosa, Juan C; López-Ginés, Concha

    2012-06-01

    A novel human malignant melanoma cell line, designated MEL-RC08, was established from a pericranial metastasis of a malignant melanoma of the skin. The cell line has been subcultured for more than 150 passages and is tumorigenic in nude mice. Growth kinetics, cytogenetics, flow cytometry, and molecular techniques for analysis of the genes implicated in cell cycle control; mutations in BRAF, NRAS, C-KiT, RB, and TP53 genes; and amplification of MDM2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 have been studied. Cytogenetically, the tumor and the cell line showed a hypertriploid karyotype with many clonal numeric and structural abnormalities. DNA flow cytometry showed an aneuploid peak with a DNA index value of 1.5. Mutations in TP53 and BRAF genes were demonstrated in both tumor and cell line. Furthermore, stem cell marker CD133 expression was detected in most cells, together with other stem cell markers, suggesting the presence of cells with tumor-initiating potential in this cell line.

  19. Biochemical mechanism of Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester (CAPE) selective toxicity towards melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kudugunti, Shashi K.; Vad, Nikhil M.; Whiteside, Amanda J.; Naik, Bhakti U.; Yusuf, Mohd. A.; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S.; Moridani, Majid Y.

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the in-vitro biochemical mechanism of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) toxicity and eight hydroxycinnamic/caffeic acid derivatives in-vitro, using tyrosinase enzyme as a molecular target in human SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells. Enzymatic reaction models using tyrosinase/O2 and HRP/H2O2 were used to delineate the role of one- and two-electron oxidation. Ascorbic acid (AA), NADH and GSH depletion were used as markers of quinone formation and oxidative stress in CAPE induced toxicity in melanoma cells. Ethylenediamine, an o-quinone trap, prevented the formation of o-quinone and oxidations of AA and NADH mediated by tyrosinase bioactivation of CAPE. The IC50 of CAPE towards SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 15μM. Dicoumarol, a diaphorase inhibitor, and 1-bromoheptane, a GSH depleting agent, increased CAPE’s toxicity towards SK-MEL-28 cells indicating quinone formation played an important role in CAPE induced cell toxicity. Cyclosporin-A and trifluoperazine, inhibitors of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), prevented CAPE toxicity towards melanoma cells. We further investigated the role of tyrosinase in CAPE toxicity in the presence of a shRNA plasmid, targeting tyrosinase mRNA. Results from tyrosinase shRNA experiments showed that CAPE led to negligible anti-proliferative effect, apoptotic cell death and ROS formation in shRNA plasmid treated cells. Furthermore, it was also found that CAPE selectively caused escalation in the ROS formation and intracellular GSH (ICG) depletion in melanocytic human SK-MEL-28 cells which express functional tyrosinase. In contrast, CAPE did not lead to ROS formation and ICG depletion in amelanotic C32 melanoma cells, which do not express functional tyrosinase. These findings suggest that tyrosinase plays a major role in CAPE’s selective toxicity towards melanocytic melanoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms of CAPE toxicity in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells

  20. Effective intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC in primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro-Stone, Marila; McNulty, John J; Sproul, Christopher D; Chastain, Paul D; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene; Zhou, Yingchun; Carson, Craig; Rao, Shangbang; Mitchell, David L; Simpson, Dennis A; Thomas, Nancy E; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential functional attenuation or inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint during melanoma development. Proliferating cultures of skin melanocytes, fibroblasts, and melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing fluences of UVC and intra-S checkpoint responses were quantified. Melanocytes displayed stereotypic intra-S checkpoint responses to UVC qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent to those previously demonstrated in skin fibroblasts. In comparison with fibroblasts, primary melanocytes displayed reduced UVC-induced inhibition of DNA strand growth and enhanced degradation of p21Waf1 after UVC, suggestive of enhanced bypass of UVC-induced DNA photoproducts. All nine melanoma cell lines examined, including those with activating mutations in BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, also displayed proficiency in activation of the intra-S checkpoint in response to UVC irradiation. The results indicate that bypass of oncogene-induced senescence during melanoma development was not associated with inactivation of the intra-S checkpoint response to UVC-induced DNA replication stress.

  1. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  2. Hypoxia-induced tetraploidisation of a diploid human melanoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, E. K.; Johnsen, N. M.; Lyng, H.

    1996-01-01

    Many human tumours are hyperdiploid, particularly in advanced stages of growth. The purpose of the present work was to investigate whether exposure to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation might induce hyperploidisation of diploid human tumour cells in vitro. The investigation was performed by using the diploid melanoma cell line BEX-c (median chromosome number, 46; DNA index, 1.10 +/- 0.04) as test line and the hyperdiploid melanoma cell line SAX-c (median chromosome number, 61; DNA index, 1.42 +/- 0.03) as control line. Cell cultures kept in glass dishes in air-tight steel chambers were exposed to hypoxia (O2 concentrations < 10 p.p.m. or < 100 p.p.m.) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. DNA content was measured by flow cytometry. Metaphase spreads banded with trypsin-Versene-Giemsa were examined to determine the number of chromosomes per cell. An electronic particle counter was used to measure cell volume. The expression of p53 and pRb was studied by Western blot analysis. Transient exposure to hypoxia was found to induce a doubling of the number of chromosomes in BEX-c but not in SAX-c. The fraction of the BEX-c metaphase spreads with 92 chromosomes was approximately 10% at 18 h after reoxygenation, decreased to approximately 2% at 7 days after reoxygenation and then increased gradually with time. The whole cell population became tetraploid within 25 weeks. BEX-c and SAX-c behaved differently during the 24 h hypoxia exposure. Cell volume and fraction of cells in G2 + M increased with time in BEX-c but remained essentially unchanged in SAX-c. On the other hand, the expression of p53 and pRb was similar for the two lines; hypoxia induced increased expression of p53 and hypophosphorylation of pRb. Images Figure 5 PMID:8763866

  3. DNA methylation and histone acetylation regulate the expression of MGMT and chemosensitivity to temozolomide in malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yang, Ming; Xu, Xi-Feng; Feng, Shou-Xin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive, highly lethal dermatological malignancy. Chemoresistance and rapid metastasis limit the curative effect of multimodal therapies like surgery or chemotherapy. The suicide enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) removes adducts from the O6-position of guanine to repair DNA damage. High MGMT expression is associated with resistance to therapy in melanoma. However, it is unknown if MGMT is regulated by DNA methylation or histone acetylation in melanoma. We examined the effects of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A alone or in combination on MGMT expression and promoter methylation and histone acetylation in A375, MV3, and M14 melanoma cells. This study demonstrates that MGMT expression, CpG island methylation, and histone acetylation vary between melanoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A led to reexpression of MGMT, indicating that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are associated with silencing of MGMT in melanoma. This study provides information on the role of epigenetic modifications in malignant melanoma that may enable the development of new strategies for treating malignant melanoma.

  4. S100 protein expression in human melanoma cells: Comparison of levels of expression among different cell lines and individual cells in different phases of the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.; O'Hanlon, D.; Dunn, R. ); Petsche, D.; Baumal, R. ); Kwong, P.C.; Stead, R. ); Liao, S.K. Biotherapeutics, Inc., Franklin, TN )

    1990-03-01

    The synthesis of S100 protein in cultured human melanoma cells was examined using metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine, immunoprecipitation with anti-S100 protein antiserum, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Six of seven cell lines derived from melanomas synthesized relatively large amounts of S100 protein, whereas three cell lines derived from normal melanocytes synthesized lesser amounts. Synthesis of S100 protein was not detected in 10 human cell lines of non-neuroectodermal origin. Analysis of poly(A{sup +}) RNA form one melanoma cell line by Northern blot hybridization with a probe specific for the {beta} subunit of rat S100 protein revealed a single mRNA species of 1.0 kb coding for the human protein. Flow cytometric analysis of individual cells of two melanoma cell lines and the rat glioma cell line C6 indicated that G0/G1 cells were heterogeneous with respect to S100 protein expression, while almost all the cells in S+G2+M expressed S100 protein. These results suggest that expression of S100 protein in G0/G1 could be a prerequisite for progression of the cells through the cell cycle.

  5. Efficacy of five human melanocytic cell lines in experimental rabbit choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed

    López-Velasco, Rosario; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Saornil-Alvarez, María A; Ordóñez, José L; Blanco, Gonzalo; Rábano, Guillermo; Fernández, Nieves; Almaraz, Ana

    2005-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the ability of five uveal melanocytic cell lines to produce primary and metastatic uveal melanomas in immunosuppressed rabbits and to determine whether animal survival was improved by antibiotic administration. One hundred albino rabbit eyes, five groups of 20, were implanted in the suprachoroidal space with four melanoma cell lines (MKT-BR, OCM-1, 92-1 and SP 6.5) and one melanocytic line (UW-1). Rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A (CsA) at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day, decreased to 10 mg/kg/day after the fourth week. Prophylactic penicillin G, 10 to 2 x 10 IU, was administered intramuscularly at 5-day intervals. Animals were followed for 12 weeks and the ophthalmoscopic findings, weight and general well-being were recorded weekly. Autopsies were performed to study the eyes, liver and lungs under light microscopy. The mean global survival time in the groups was 43+/-4 days. Ophthalmoscopic intraocular tumours developed in 37% of the MKT-BR group, 50% of the OCM-1 group, 100% of the 92-1 group, 23% of the UW-1 group and 75% of the SP 6.5 group; histologically, tumours appeared in 36.8%, 45%, 100%, 58.8% and 100%, respectively. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were associated with the most aggressive local behaviour. Lung metastases developed in the OCM-1 group (5%), 92-1 group (61.1%), UW-1 group (7.1%) and SP 6.5 group (42.1%), but were not present in the MKT-BR group. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were the most efficient in local and metastatic tumour production. Prophylactic antibiotic administration did not improve animal survival.

  6. Varying Effects of EGF, HGF and TGFβ on Formation of Invadopodia and Invasiveness of Melanoma Cell Lines of Different Origin

    PubMed Central

    Makowiecka, A.; Simiczyjew, A.; Nowak, D.; Mazur, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of melanoma malignancy mechanisms is essential for patient survival, because melanoma is responsible for ca. 75% of deaths related to skin cancers. Enhanced formation of invadopodia and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation are two important drivers of cell invasion, and actin dynamics facilitate protrusive activity by providing a driving force to push through the ECM. We focused on the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on melanoma cell invasiveness, since they are observed in the melanoma microenvironment. All three factors stimulated invasion of A375 and WM1341D cells derived from primary tumor sites. In contrast, only EGF and HGF stimulated invasion of WM9 and Hs294T cells isolated from lymph node metastasis. Enhanced formation of invadopodia and ECM degradation underlie the increased amount of invasive cells after stimulation with the tested agents. Generally, a rise in invasive potential was accompanied by a decrease in actin polymerization state (F:G ratio). The F:G ratio remained unchanged or was even increased in cell lines from a metastasis treated with TGFβ. Our findings indicate that the effects of stimulation with EGF, HGF and TGFβ on melanoma cell invasiveness could depend on melanoma cell progression stage. PMID:28076931

  7. Aluminium foil as a single-use substrate for MALDI-MS fingerprinting of different melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, A; Zhu, Y; Qiao, L; Cortés Salazar, F; Pick, H; Girault, H H

    2016-05-23

    Herein, we present the intact cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the fingerprinting of human melanoma cancer cell lines grown on aluminium foil. To perform the MALDI-MS assay, melanoma cells were cultured on a flat and thin foil, which was directly transferred to the target plate of MALDI-MS for analysis. The influence of a wide range of cell fixation protocols (i.e. formalin-based and alcohol-based methods) and MALDI matrices on the obtained characteristic spectra was investigated. For the optimization of the MALDI-MS protocol, the MS fingerprints of the melanoma WM-239 cell line with and without an overexpressed enhanced green fluorescent protein were employed. The fingerprints obtained from WM-239 cells grown on aluminium foil were compared with the intact cell MALDI-MS of the cell pellet and presented higher sensitivity in a high m/z range. The optimized protocol was subsequently applied to characterise melanoma cell lines derived from different cancer stages and allowed identification of unique MS signals that could be used for differentiation between the studied cell lines (i.e. molecular weight equal to 10.0 kDa and 26.1 kDa).

  8. MicroRNA-155 targets the SKI gene in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Levati, Lauretta; Pagani, Elena; Romani, Sveva; Castiglia, Daniele; Piccinni, Eugenia; Covaciu, Claudia; Caporaso, Patrizia; Bondanza, Sergio; Antonetti, Francesca R; Bonmassar, Enzo; Martelli, Fabio; Alvino, Ester; D'Atri, Stefania

    2011-06-01

    The SKI protein is a transcriptional coregulator over-expressed in melanoma. Experimentally induced down-regulation of SKI inhibits melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively modulate gene expression and have been implicated in oncogenesis. We previously showed that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is down-regulated in melanoma cells as compared with normal melanocytes and that its ectopic expression impairs proliferation and induces apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether miR-155 could mediate melanoma growth inhibition via SKI gene silencing. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-155 interacted with SKI 3'UTR and impaired gene expression. Transfection of melanoma cells with miR-155 reduced SKI levels, while inhibition of endogenous miR-155 up-regulated SKI expression. Specifically designed small interfering RNAs reduced SKI expression and inhibited proliferation. However, melanoma cells over-expressing a 3'UTR-deleted SKI were still susceptible to the antiproliferative effect of miR-155. Our data demonstrate for the first time that SKI is a target of miR-155 in melanoma. However, impairment of SKI expression is not the leading mechanism involved in the growth-suppressive effect of miR-155 found in this malignancy.

  9. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of adenosine receptors in the human malignant melanoma A375 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Cattabriga, Elena; Iannotta, Valeria; Ulouglu, Canan; Leung, Edward; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2001-01-01

    The present work characterizes, from a pharmacological and biochemical point of view, adenosine receptors in the human malignant melanoma A375 cell line. Adenosine receptors were detected by RT – PCR experiments. A1 receptors were characterized using [3H]-DPCPX binding with a KD of 1.9±0.2 nM and Bmax of 23±7 fmol mg−1 of protein. A2A receptors were studied with [3H]-SCH 58261 binding and revealed a KD of 5.1±0.2 nM and a Bmax of 220±7 fmol mg−1 of protein. A3 receptors were studied with the new A3 adenosine receptor antagonist [3H]-MRE 3008F20, the only A3 selective radioligand currently available. Saturation experiments revealed a single high affinity binding site with KD of 3.3±0.7 nM and Bmax of 291±50 fmol mg−1 of protein. The pharmacological profile of radioligand binding on A375 cells was established using typical adenosine ligands which displayed a rank order of potency typical of the different adenosine receptor subtype. Thermodynamic data indicated that radioligand binding to adenosine receptor subtypes in A375 cells was entropy- and enthalpy-driven. In functional assays the high affinity A2A agonists HE-NECA, CGS 21680 and A2A – A2B agonist NECA were able to increase cyclic AMP accumulation in A375 cells whereas A3 agonists Cl-IB-MECA, IB-MECA and NECA were able to stimulate Ca2+ mobilization. In conclusion, all these data indicate, for the first time, that adenosine receptors with a pharmacological and biochemical profile typical of the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptor subtype are present on A375 melanoma cell line. PMID:11704641

  10. c-RET Molecule in Malignant Melanoma from Oncogenic RET-Carrying Transgenic Mice and Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kozue; Iida, Machiko; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Kato, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and its incidence worldwide has been increasing at a greater rate than that of any other cancer. We previously reported that constitutively activated RFP-RET-carrying transgenic mice (RET-mice) spontaneously develop malignant melanoma. In this study, we showed that expression levels of intrinsic c-Ret, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf) and Gdnf receptor alpha 1 (Gfra1) transcripts in malignant melanomas from RET-transgenic mice were significantly upregulated compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors. These results suggest that not only introduced oncogenic RET but also intrinsic c-Ret/Gdnf are involved in murine melanomagenesis in RET-mice. We then showed that c-RET and GDNF transcript expression levels in human malignant melanoma cell lines (HM3KO and MNT-1) were higher than those in primary cultured normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM), while GFRa1 transcript expression levels were comparable among NHEM, HM3KO and MNT-1. We next showed c-RET and GFRa1 protein expression in HM3KO cells and GDNF-mediated increased levels of their phosphorylated c-RET tyrosine kinase and signal transduction molecules (ERK and AKT) sited potentially downstream of c-RET. Taken together with the finding of augmented proliferation of HM3KO cells after GDNF stimulation, our results suggest that GDNF-mediated c-RET kinase activation is associated with the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. PMID:20422010

  11. Tanespimycin and tipifarnib exhibit synergism in inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines from later stages of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bentke, Anna; Małecki, Jędrzej; Ostrowska, Barbara; Krzykowska-Petitjean, Katarzyna; Laidler, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Many anticancer strategies rely on efficient induction of apoptosis. The need for development of drug combinations with a strong pro-apoptotic activity is of particular interest in melanoma resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic regimes. We studied the pro-apoptotic properties of combination of tanespimycin+tipifarnib in five melanoma cell lines representing various stages of tumor progression. Our results show that in cells derived from vertical- and metastatic-phase the combination of tested drugs is strongly cytotoxic and efficient in inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and enhanced fragmentation of DNA.

  12. The effect of blue light exposure and use of intraocular lenses on human uveal melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jean-Claude A; Gordon, Keith D; McCauley, Cristin S; de Souza Filho, João Pessoa; Burnier, Miguel N

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the effect of blue light on inducing melanocytic malignant transformation. We chose to investigate the effect of blue light (475 nm wavelength) on the proliferation rates of uveal melanoma cells. In addition, we tested two different intraocular lenses to determine the possible effects of ultraviolet absorbing and blue light filtering intraocular lenses on the changes in proliferation. Four human uveal melanoma cell lines (92.1, MKT-BR, OCM-1, SP6.5) were exposed to blue light with and without the presence of ultraviolet absorbing and blue light filtering intraocular lenses. Cells covered by aluminum foil were used as a control. The proliferation rate of the cells compared with the control was then assessed using the Sulforhodamine-B proliferation assay. Cells exposed to blue light showed a statistically significant (P<0.05) increase in proliferation. Those exposed to blue light through a standard ultraviolet absorbing intraocular lens showed a smaller increase in proliferation, whereas those exposed with a blue light filtering intraocular lens showed no increase in proliferation than the control in all four cell lines. The exposure of cells to blue light led to an increase in proliferation in all cell lines compared with the control. The use of blue light filtering intraocular lenses abolished these increases in proliferation in the four cell lines. These results indicate that blue light filtering intraocular lenses may have a protective effect on the proliferation rates of uveal melanoma cells exposed to blue light.

  13. Radiation Changes the Metabolic Profiling of Melanoma Cell Line B16

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yating; Liang, Wei; Zheng, Qinghui; Huang, Xianing; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be an effective way to kill cancer cells using ionizing radiation, but some tumors are resistant to radiation therapy and the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. It is therefore necessary to establish an appropriate working model to study and monitor radiation-mediated cancer therapy. In response to cellular stress, the metabolome is the integrated profiling of changes in all metabolites in cells, which can be used to investigate radiation tolerance mechanisms and identify targets for cancer radiation sensibilization. In this study, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance for untargeted metabolic profiling in radiation-tolerant mouse melanoma cell line B16, we comprehensively investigated changes in metabolites and metabolic network in B16 cells in response to radiation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis indicated the difference in cellular metabolites between the untreated cells and X-ray radiated cells. In radiated cells, the content of alanine, glutamate, glycine and choline was increased, while the content of leucine, lactate, creatine and creatine phosphate was decreased. Enrichment analysis of metabolic pathway showed that the changes in metabolites were related to multiple metabolic pathways including the metabolism of glycine, arginine, taurine, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis. Taken together, with cellular metabolome study followed by bioinformatic analysis to profile specific metabolic pathways in response to radiation, we deepened our understanding of radiation-resistant mechanisms and radiation sensibilization in cancer, which may further provide a theoretical and practical basis for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:27631970

  14. Effects of antimetabolites on adenovirus replication in sensitive and resistant human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Musk, P; Stowers, A; Parsons, P G

    1990-02-15

    Methotrexate (MTX), 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) inhibited the replication of adenovirus (viral capacity) more in drug-sensitive than in resistant human melanoma cell lines. By comparison, inhibition of cellular DNA and RNA synthesis after short treatment periods (less than 48 hr) was not a good predictor of cellular sensitivity. MTX, an inhibitor of de novo nucleotide synthesis, was most effective when added to cells just before infection with virus and inhibited viral capacity at doses 10-1000-fold lower than those required to affect cell survival. The MTX-sensitive cell lines, members of a DNA repair deficient group sensitive also to killing by methylating agents (the Mer- phenotype), were not deficient in dihydrofolate reductase but exhibited DNA fragmentation after treatment with MTX for 48 hr. 6-TG and ara-C, inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine salvage, were most inhibitory to viral capacity when added greater than 36 hr before virus infection and were less effective than MTX (doses 5-7-fold and 4-24-fold higher than for cell survival respectively). No correlation was found between MTX sensitivity and sensitivity to 6-TG or ara-C. These results indicate that (i) inhibition of viral capacity is a more comprehensive test of antimetabolite cytotoxicity than inhibition of cellular DNA or RNA synthesis; (ii) the viral capacity assay correctly predicts cellular sensitivity to MTX, 6-TG and ara-C and therefore has potential for application to primary cultures of human tumours; and (iii) MTX-sensitive cell lines and adenovirus replication rely heavily on de novo nucleotide synthesis, which in Mer- cells appears to be linked to a DNA repair defect as yet undefined.

  15. The Pan-Aurora Kinase Inhibitor, PHA-739358, Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration in Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lifang; Meyskens, Frank L

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of metastatic melanoma has long been a challenge due to its resistance to traditional chemotherapeutics leading to the search for alternative strategies. Aurora kinases are key mitotic regulators that are frequently overexpressed in various cancers including melanoma, making them ideal targets for anticancer therapeutics. Several Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed and tested pre-clinically and clinically. PHA-739358 is currently the most advanced clinical compound; however its antitumor effect has not been tested in melanoma. In this study, the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of PHA-739358 were investigated in melanoma cell lines. The results demonstrated that PHA-739358 produces a time and dose dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of cell migration. Downregulation of MMP-2 via inhibition of NFκB signaling pathway may contribute to PHA-739358-induced migration inhibition. Furthermore, PHA-739358 enhanced temozolomide-induced caspase activation. This study provides a promising new strategy for the treatment of advanced melanoma. PMID:23344158

  16. The Human Antibody Fragment DIATHIS1 Specific for CEACAM1 Enhances Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Melanoma Cell Lines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Maria L.; Soriani, Alessandra; Ricci, Biancamaria; Dominici, Sabrina; Moricoli, Diego; Ascione, Alessandro; Santoni, Angela; Magnani, Mauro; Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that de novo expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is strongly associated with reduced disease-free survival of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. Previously published investigations report that homophilic interactions between CEACAM1 expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and tumors inhibit the NK cell-mediated killing independently of major histocompatibility complex class I recognition. This biological property can be physiologically relevant in metastatic melanoma because of the increased CEACAM1 expression observed on NK cells from some patients. Moreover, this inhibitory mechanism in many cases might hinder the efficacy of immunotherapeutic treatments of CEACAM1+ malignancies because of tumor evasion by activated effector cells. In the present study, we designed an in vitro experimental model showing that the human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) DIATHIS1 specific for CEACAM1 is able to enhance the lytic machinery of NK cells against CEACAM1+ melanoma cells. The coincubation of the scFv DIATHIS1 with CEACAM1+ melanoma cells and NK-92 cell line significantly increases the cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, pretreatment of melanoma cells with scFv DIATHIS1 promotes the activation and the degranulation capacity of in vitro–expanded NK cells from healthy donors. It is interesting to note that the melanoma cell line MelC and the primary melanoma cells STA that respond better to DIATHIS1 treatment, express higher relative levels of CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S splice variants isoforms compared with Mel501 cells that are less responsive to DIATHIS1-induced NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that the fully human antibody fragment DIATHIS1 originated by biopanning approach from a phage antibody library may represent a relevant biotechnological platform to design and develop completely human antimelanoma therapeutics of biological origin. PMID

  17. Photosensitized rose Bengal-induced phototoxicity on human melanoma cell line under natural sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, Ajeet K; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Dwivedi, Ashish; Amar, Saroj K; Goyal, Shruti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari N; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2016-03-01

    Rose Bengal (RB) is an anionic water-soluble xanthene dye, which used for many years to assess eye cornea and conjunctiva damage. RB showed strong absorption maxima (λmax) under visible light followed by UV-B and UV-A. RB under sunlight exposure showed a time-dependent photodegradation. Our results show that photosensitized RB generates (1)O2 via Type-II photodynamic pathway and induced DNA damage under sunlight/UV-R exposure. 2'dGuO degradation, micronuclei formation, and single- and double-strand breakage were the outcome of photogenotoxicity caused by RB. Quenching studies with NaN3 advocate the involvement of (1)O2 in RB photogenotoxicity. RB induced linoleic acid photoperoxidation, which was parallel to (1)O2-mediated DNA damage. Oxidative stress in A375 cell line (human melanoma cell line) was detected through DCF-DA assay. Photosensitized RB decreased maximum cellular viability under sunlight followed by UV-B and UV-A exposures. Apoptosis was detected as a pattern of cell death through the increased of caspase-3 activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and PS translocation through inner to outer plasma membrane. Increased cytosolic levels of Bax also advocate the apoptotic cell death. We propose a p53-mediated apoptosis via increased expression of Bax gene and protein. Thus, the exact mechanism behind RB phototoxicity was the involvement of (1)O2, which induced oxidative stress-mediated DNA and membrane damage, finally apoptotic cell death under natural sunlight exposure. The study suggests that after the use of RB, sunlight exposure may avoid to prevent from its harmful effects.

  18. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study

  19. Design, synthesis, and antiproliferative activity of 3,4-diarylpyrazole-1-carboxamide derivatives against melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Choi, Hong Seok; Cho, Hae-Guk; Hong, Jun Hee; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Synthesis of a new series of 3,4-diarylpyrazole-1-carboxamide derivatives is described. Their antiproliferative activity against A375P human melanoma cell line was tested and the effect of substituents on the diarylpyrazole scaffold was investigated. The biological results indicated that five synthesized compounds (Ig, Ii, IIc, IIg, and IIh) exhibited similar activity to Sorafenib. In addition, three compounds (IIa, IIb, and IIi) were more potent than Sorafenib. Among all of these derivatives, compound IIa which has dimethylamino and phenolic moieties showed the most potent antiproliferative activity against A375P human melanoma cell line. Virtual screening was carried out through docking of the most potent compound IIa into the domain of V600E-b-Raf and the binding mode was studied.

  20. Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D2 Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Nadkarni, Sharmin; Brown, Geoffrey; Kutner, Andrzej; Żmijewski, Michał A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a lipid soluble steroid hormone with pleiotropic biological properties, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. As to these desirable anticancer actions, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamins D and analogs have been reported to inhibit the proliferation and to induce differentiation of a wide variety of cancer cell types, including human malignant melanoma. However, there is a need for novel and more efficacious vitamin D analogs, and how best to design such is still an open issue. A series of double point modified (DPM) analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25(OH)2D2) induced differentiation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) positive A375 and VDR negative SK-MEL 188b human malignant melanoma cell lines. Surprisingly, the dose of 1,25(OH)2D2 required to inhibit the proliferation of the A375 melanoma cell line by was several fold lower than that required in the case of 1,25(OH)2D3. To evaluate the impact of the modification in the side chain (additional 22-hydroxyl) and in the A-ring (5,6-trans modification), the regular side-chain of vitamin D2 or D3 was retained in the structure of our analogs. As expected, 5,6-trans modification was advantageous to enhancing the anti-proliferative activity of analogs, but not as a single point modification (SPM). Very unexpectedly, the additional 22-hydroxyl in the side-chain reduced significantly the anti-proliferative activity of both the natural and 5,6-trans series analogs. Finally, an induction of pigmentation in melanoma SK-MEL 188b cells was observed to sensitized cells to the effect of vitamin D analogs. PMID:26760999

  1. Lauroside B, a megastigmane glycoside from Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) leaves, induces apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Panza, Elisabetta; Tersigni, Mariaroberta; Iorizzi, Maria; Zollo, Franco; De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Napolitano, Maria; Castello, Giuseppe; Ialenti, Armando; Ianaro, Angela

    2011-02-25

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor that frequently resists chemotherapy, so the search for new agents for its treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the antiproliferative propensity against human melanoma cell lines of lauroside B (1), a megastigmane glycoside isolated from Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) leaves, was investigated. This compound suppressed the proliferation of three human melanoma cell lines, namely, A375, WM115, and SK-Mel-28. The 1-induced inhibition of human melanoma cell proliferation was due to the induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by FACS analysis with annexin V/PI staining and confirmed by activation of caspase-3 and by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Growing evidence implicates NF-κB as an important contributor to metastasis and increased chemoresistance of melanoma. Thus, it was hypothesized that 1-induced apoptosis could be associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. The results showed that exposure of human melanoma cells to 1 inhibited IκB-α degradation and constitutive NF-κB DNA-binding activity as well as the expression, regulated by NF-κB, of two antiapoptotic genes, XIAP and c-FLIP. Induction of apoptosis by 1 in human aggressive melanoma cell lines has a potential high biological value.

  2. Pericentric characterization of human chromosome 7 in a melanoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fetni, R.; Lemieux, N.; Richer, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic analyses of an established melanoma cell line show structural abnormalities involving mainly chromosome 7. Molecular cytogenetic examination of the different abnormalities (i(7q), i(7p), t(7;12)) was used to pinpoint the site of the break and to analyse the possible mechanisms by which isochromosomes 7 could be formed. Human chromosome 7 has been shown to contain two distinct alpha satellite arrays: D7Z1 and D7Z2 which are separated by 1Mb. We confirm the order to be short-arm- D7Z2 - D7Z1 - long arm. Both probes were then used to characterize two different types of isochromosomes 7 (one of the long arms and one of the short arms) and a translocation (7;12). Isochromosome 7q showed a single D7Z1 signal and loss of D7Z2. The unique centromeric structure of i(7q), with only the D7Z1 signal, suggests that a breakpoint occurred within D7Z1. Isochromosome 7p showed two distinct D7Z1 and D7Z2 hybridization signals. The distance observed between the two signals suggests that the breakpoint is in the proximal part of the long arms. This chromosome might be considered as a dicentric isochromosome 7p. Translocation (7;12) showed the two arrays of chromosome 7 {alpha} satellite DNA. The three derived chromosomes appeared to result from independent rearrangements. This observation shows that a variety of breaks may occur in the juxtacentromeric region of a given chromosome. It also shows that the functional centromere of chromosome 7 does not need the presence of D7Z2, since only D7Z1 was conserved in all cases, suggesting the importance of this sequence for the centromeric function.

  3. Cytogenetic characterization of complex karyotypes in seven established melanoma cell lines by multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization and DAPI banding.

    PubMed

    Schulten, Hans Jürgen; Gunawan, Bastian; Otto, Friedrich; Hassmann, René; Hallermann, Christian; Noebel, Albrecht; Füzesi, László

    2002-03-01

    We report the use of multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) to resolve chromosomal aberrations in seven established melanoma cell lines with hypotriploid to hypertetraploid complex karyotypes. By simultaneous identification of all human chromosomes in single FISH experiments using a set of 52 directly labeled, whole chromosome painting probes, cryptic chromosomal translocations and the origin of unclear chromosomal material in structural rearranged and marker chromosomes could be identified, refining the tumor karyotypes in all seven cell lines. The number of structural aberrations in each cell line assigned with combined M-FISH and DAPI banding analysis ranged from 15 to 45. Altogether, 275 breakpoints could be assigned to defined chromosomal regions or bands. The chromosome arms 1p, 6q, 7p, 9p, and 11q which are known to be nonrandomly associated with melanoma tumorigenesis, were frequently involved in chromosomal breaks and/or copy number changes. This study also demonstrated the practical usefulness of combining M-FISH with conventional cytogenetic banding techniques for the characterization of complex tumor karyotypes with massive genomic alterations.

  4. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Pawel T.; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2011-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells. PMID:22363217

  5. Sarcophine-diol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent, inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis in mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Pawel T; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ tumor cells.

  6. Hypoxia-regulated gene expression explains differences between melanoma cell line-derived xenografts and patient-derived xenografts.

    PubMed

    Bhadury, Joydeep; Einarsdottir, Berglind O; Podraza, Agnieszka; Bagge, Roger Olofsson; Stierner, Ulrika; Ny, Lars; Dávila López, Marcela; Nilsson, Jonas A

    2016-04-26

    Cell line-derived xenografts (CDXs) are an integral part of drug efficacy testing during development of new pharmaceuticals against cancer but their accuracy in predicting clinical responses in patients have been debated. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are thought to be more useful for predictive biomarker identification for targeted therapies, including in metastatic melanoma, due to their similarities to human disease. Here, tumor biopsies from fifteen patients and ten widely-used melanoma cell lines were transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate PDXs and CDXs, respectively. Gene expression profiles generated from the tumors of these PDXs and CDXs clustered into distinct groups, despite similar mutational signatures. Hypoxia-induced gene signatures and overexpression of the hypoxia-regulated miRNA hsa-miR-210 characterized CDXs. Inhibition of hsa-miR-210 with decoys had little phenotypic effect in vitro but reduced sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition in vivo, suggesting down-regulation of this miRNA could result in development of resistance to MEK inhibitors.

  7. Hypoxia-regulated gene expression explains differences between melanoma cell line-derived xenografts and patient-derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Bhadury, Joydeep; Einarsdottir, Berglind O.; Podraza, Agnieszka; Bagge, Roger Olofsson; Stierner, Ulrika; Ny, Lars; López, Marcela Dávila; Nilsson, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell line-derived xenografts (CDXs) are an integral part of drug efficacy testing during development of new pharmaceuticals against cancer but their accuracy in predicting clinical responses in patients have been debated. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are thought to be more useful for predictive biomarker identification for targeted therapies, including in metastatic melanoma, due to their similarities to human disease. Here, tumor biopsies from fifteen patients and ten widely-used melanoma cell lines were transplanted into immunocompromised mice to generate PDXs and CDXs, respectively. Gene expression profiles generated from the tumors of these PDXs and CDXs clustered into distinct groups, despite similar mutational signatures. Hypoxia-induced gene signatures and overexpression of the hypoxia-regulated miRNA hsa-miR-210 characterized CDXs. Inhibition of hsa-miR-210 with decoys had little phenotypic effect in vitro but reduced sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition in vivo, suggesting down-regulation of this miRNA could result in development of resistance to MEK inhibitors. PMID:27009863

  8. Biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in a melanoma cell line and its metabolization by peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Melissa M; Coimbra, Janine B; Clara, Renan O; Dörr, Felipe A; Moreno, Ana Carolina R; Chagas, Jair R; Tufik, Sérgio; Pinto, Ernani; Catalani, Luiz H; Campa, Ana

    2014-04-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is essential for many physiological processes, and its metabolism changes in some diseases such as infection and cancer. The most studied aspects of TRP metabolism are the kynurenine and serotonin pathways. A minor metabolic route, tryptamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) biosynthesis, has received far less attention, probably because of the very low amounts of these compounds detected only in some tissues, which has led them to be collectively considered as trace amines. In a previous study, we showed a metabolic interrelationship for TRP in melanoma cell lines. Here, we identified DMT and N,N-dimethyl-N-formyl-kynuramine (DMFK) in the supernatant of cultured SK-Mel-147 cells. Furthermore, when we added DMT to the cell culture, we found hydroxy-DMT (OH-DMT) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in the cell supernatant at 24 h. We found that SK-Mel-147 cells expressed mRNA for myeloperoxidase (MPO) and also had peroxidase activity. We further found that DMT oxidation was catalyzed by peroxidases. DMT oxidation by horseradish peroxidase, H2O2 and MPO from PMA-activated neutrophils produced DMFK, N,N-dimethyl-kynuramine (DMK) and OH-DMT. Oxidation of DMT by peroxidases apparently uses the common peroxidase cycle involving the native enzyme, compound I and compound II. In conclusion, this study describes a possible alternative metabolic pathway for DMT involving peroxidases that has not previously been described in humans and identifies DMT and metabolites in a melanoma cell line. The extension of these findings to other cell types and the biological effects of DMT and its metabolites on cell proliferation and function are key questions for future studies.

  9. [Molecular networks and mechanisms of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulated by miRNAs in the malignant melanoma cell line].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wang; Yongjun, Li; Nan, Ding; Junyun, Wang; Qiong, Yang; Yaran, Yang; Yanming, Li; Xiangdong, Fang; Hua, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant cutaneous cancer of high metastasis and lethal rates. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the embryonic developmental process that is often activated during tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we integrated of mRNA and miRNA transcriptome sequencing data of melanocyte and melanoma cell lines to identify genes involved in the process of tumor EMT in the first place, and uncovered 11 miRNAs including miR-130a-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-125a-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-195-5p, miR-345-5p, miR-509-3-5p, miR-374a-5p, miR-509-5p, miR-148a-3p and miR-330-3p, negatively related with EMT genes using the Mirsystem software. Bioinformatics analysis with target genes of these miRNAs revealed two networks closely related with cellular development and cell-to-cell interactions, as well as multiple signaling pathways participating in EMT. Validation of the 11 miRNAs with molecular biology experiments demonstrated that four miRNAs regulated oncogenes in melanomas, including miR-195-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-509-5p, and miR-509-3-5p. Our study integrates two kinds of omics data to screen for EMT-related miRNAs, providing a new research idea in the precision genomics of cancer research.

  10. Genome-wide methylation sequencing of paired primary and metastatic cell lines identifies common DNA methylation changes and a role for EBF3 as a candidate epigenetic driver of melanoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Stockwell, Peter A; Ahn, Antonio; Rodger, Euan J; Leichter, Anna L; Eccles, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are increasingly implicated in metastasis, whereas very few genetic mutations have been identified as authentic drivers of cancer metastasis. Yet, to date, few studies have identified metastasis-related epigenetic drivers, in part because a framework for identifying driver epigenetic changes in metastasis has not been established. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS), we mapped genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in three cutaneous primary and metastatic melanoma cell line pairs to identify metastasis-related epigenetic drivers. Globally, metastatic melanoma cell lines were hypomethylated compared to the matched primary melanoma cell lines. Using whole genome RRBS we identified 75 shared (10 hyper- and 65 hypomethylated) differentially methylated fragments (DMFs), which were associated with 68 genes showing significant methylation differences. One gene, Early B Cell Factor 3 (EBF3), exhibited promoter hypermethylation in metastatic cell lines, and was validated with bisulfite sequencing and in two publicly available independent melanoma cohorts (n = 40 and 458 melanomas, respectively). We found that hypermethylation of the EBF3 promoter was associated with increased EBF3 mRNA levels in metastatic melanomas and subsequent inhibition of DNA methylation reduced EBF3 expression. RNAi-mediated knockdown of EBF3 mRNA levels decreased proliferation, migration and invasion in primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Overall, we have identified numerous epigenetic changes characterising metastatic melanoma cell lines, including EBF3-induced aggressive phenotypic behaviour with elevated EBF3 expression in metastatic melanoma, suggesting that EBF3 promoter hypermethylation may be a candidate epigenetic driver of metastasis. PMID:28030832

  11. Detection of cell surface and intracellular antigens by human monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid cell lines derived from lymphocytes of patients with malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    This study represents an initial attempt to analyze the humoral immune reactions of patients with malignant melanoma by hybridoma methodology. Using lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes, peripheral blood and tumor infiltrates, 158 fusions were performed with SKO-007 (human myeloma line), LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2), GM 4672 (human lymphoblastoid lines), or NS-1 (mouse myeloma line). Fusion of lymph node lymphocytes with NS-1 resulted in a 3-4 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2, and a 10 times higher frequency than fusion with SKO-007 or GM 4672. In the case of peripheral blood lymphocytes, fusion with NS-1 gave greater than 25 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2 or SKO-007. Production of human mu, gamma, or alpha heavy chains was detected in 50-80% of wells containing growing clones, and the levels of immunoglobulin ranged from 0.3 micrograms to 40 micrograms/ml. NS-1-derived clones could be easily subcultured, while LICR-2 and SKO-007 clones grew more slowly on subculturing. In this study, Ig secretion appeared to be a more stable property of LICR-2- derived clones than NS-1-derived clones. A panel of 20 human cancer cell lines was used to screen 771 Ig-secreting cultures for antibody to cell surface or intracellular antigens. Reactivity with cell surface antigens was found infrequently (6 cultures), whereas reactivity with intracellular antigens was more common (27 cultures). A new cell surface antigen with properties of a glycolipid was defined with an IgM monoclonal antibody secreted by a tetraploid cell derived from a fusion of LICR-2 with lymphocytes from the axillary lymph node of a patient with melanoma. The hybrid cell line has been subcloned four times and secretes 5 micrograms IgM/ml. The antigen detected by this IgM antibody was found on 5 of 23 melanoma cell lines and 12 of 30 epithelial cancer cell lines. No reactions were found with 11 cultures derived from normal cells. Stable cell lines secreting human

  12. The role of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in melanoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like switching: evidences from patients-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Daniela; Migliano, Emilia; Muscardin, Luca; Silipo, Vitaliano; Catricalà, Caterina; Picardo, Mauro; Bellei, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Deregulations or mutations of WNT/β-catenin signaling have been associated to both tumour formation and progression. However, contradictory results concerning the role of β-catenin in human melanoma address an open question on its oncogenic nature and prognostic value in this tumour. Changes in WNT signaling pathways have been linked to phenotype switching of melanoma cells between a highly proliferative/non-invasive and a slow proliferative/metastatic condition. We used a novel panel of cell lines isolated from melanoma specimens, at initial passages, to investigate phenotype differences related to the levels and activity of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. This in vitro cell system revealed a marked heterogeneity that comprises, in some cases, two distinct tumour-derived subpopulations of cells presenting a different activation level and cellular distribution of β-catenin. In cells derived from the same tumor, we demonstrated that the prevalence of LEF1 (high β-catenin expressing cells) or TCF4 (low β-catenin expressing cells) as β-catenin partner for DNA binding, is associated to the expression of two distinct profiles of WNT-responsive genes. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing relative low level of β-catenin and an invasive markers signature were associated to the TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory pathway and to the chemotherapy resistance, suggesting that the co-existence of melanoma subpopulations with distinct biological properties could influence the impact of chemo- and immunotherapy. PMID:27175588

  13. PRKX, TTBK2 and RSK4 expression causes Sunitinib resistance in kidney carcinoma- and melanoma-cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bender, Claus; Ullrich, Axel

    2012-07-15

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents constitutes a major problem in the treatment of cancer. Over the past years, multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitors such as Gleevec, Sunitinib and Sorafenib are gaining wider acceptance for cancer treatment. These drugs show anti-tumor activity in vitro and in patients. Extended usage of these drugs in therapy commonly results in disease progression due to formation of resistance caused by rearrangements and accumulation of mutations in the unstable cancer cell genome. However, the underlying drug-specific mechanisms for the development of resistance remain elusive. Hence, a detailed understanding of the molecular genetic events involved in this processes is pivotal to counteract are not directly targeted by Sunitinib (unpublished data). Therefore, development of specific or multi-targeted inhibitors for these kinases for combinatorial therapy with e.g., an IL-8 neutralizing antibody might circumvent or substantially delay Sunitinib resistance formation and enhance survival prognosis. PRKX, TTBK2 and RSK4 expression. The specific reduction of these genes employing siRNA was sufficient to sensitize the kidney- and melanoma-cell lines against Sunitinib. In line with the elevated expression of PRKX, TTBK2 or RSK4, this sensitization effect was strikingly higher in the Sunitinib resistant cell lines, suggesting an expression-based mechanism of these genes to trigger Sunitinib resistance. Hence, we propose that PRKX, TTBK2 and RSK4 are potential resistance markers in Sunitinib therapy and might therefore represent targets for the development of novel strategies to overcome resistance.

  14. Loss of CDKN2A expression is a frequent event in primary invasive melanoma and correlates with sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 in melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Young, Richard J; Waldeck, Kelly; Martin, Claire; Foo, Jung H; Cameron, Donald P; Kirby, Laura; Do, Hongdo; Mitchell, Catherine; Cullinane, Carleen; Liu, Wendy; Fox, Stephen B; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Hayward, Nicholas K; Jene, Nicholas; Dobrovic, Alexander; Pearson, Richard B; Christensen, James G; Randolph, Sophia; McArthur, Grant A; Sheppard, Karen E

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the potential for the p16-cyclin D-CDK4/6-retinoblastoma protein pathway to be exploited as a therapeutic target in melanoma. In a cohort of 143 patients with primary invasive melanoma, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect gene copy number variations (CNVs) in CDK4, CCND1, and CDKN2A and immunohistochemistry to determine protein expression. CNVs were common in melanoma, with gain of CDK4 or CCND1 in 37 and 18% of cases, respectively, and hemizygous or homozygous loss of CDKN2A in 56%. Three-quarters of all patients demonstrated a CNV in at least one of the three genes. The combination of CCND1 gain with either a gain of CDK4 and/or loss of CDKN2A was associated with poorer melanoma-specific survival. In 47 melanoma cell lines homozygous loss, methylation or mutation of CDKN2A gene or loss of protein (p16(INK) (4A) ) predicted sensitivity to the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991, while RB1 loss predicted resistance.

  15. Parthenolide enhances dacarbazine activity against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Koprowska, Kamila; Hartman, Mariusz L; Sztiller-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Czyz, Malgorzata E

    2013-09-01

    Dacarbazine induces a clinical response only in 15% of melanoma patients. New treatment strategies may involve combinations of drugs with different modes of action to target the tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to determine whether the combined treatment of heterogeneous melanoma cell populations in vitro with the alkylating agent dacarbazine and the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor parthenolide could be more effective than either drug alone. A panel of melanoma cell lines, including highly heterogeneous populations derived from surgical specimens, was treated with dacarbazine and parthenolide. The effect of drugs on the viable cell number was examined using an acid phosphatase activity assay, and the combination effect was determined by median-effect analysis. Cell death and cell-cycle arrest were assessed by flow cytometry. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR and changes in the protein levels were evaluated by western blotting. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The self-renewing capacity was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Dacarbazine was less effective in heterogeneous melanoma populations than in the A375 cell line. Parthenolide and dacarbazine synergistically reduced the viable cell numbers. Both drugs induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Importantly, parthenolide abrogated the baseline and dacarbazine-induced vascular endothelial growth factor secretion from melanoma cells in heterogeneous populations, whereas interleukin-8 secretion was not significantly affected by either drug. Parthenolide eradicated melanoma cells with self-renewing capacity also in cultures simultaneously treated with dacarbazine. The combination of parthenolide and dacarbazine might be considered as a new therapeutic modality against metastatic melanoma.

  16. Relationships among cell survival, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity, and reactivation of methylated adenovirus 5 and herpes simplex virus type 1 in human melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, K.; Parsons, P.G.; Cerny, T.; Margison, G.P. )

    1989-09-01

    O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase) activity and host cell reactivation (HCR) of 5-(3-methyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC)-methylated viruses were compared in human melanoma cell lines that were sensitive or resistant to killing by the antitumor DNA-methylating agent MTIC. Enhanced HCR of adenovirus 5 (defined as the Mer+ phenotype) generally showed a semiquantitative correlation with the natural or induced resistance of the host cells to the toxic effects of MTIC and to the level of ATase activity. However, one MTIC-resistant cell line was found (MM170) which had a low level of ATase and intermediate HCR of adenovirus. The HCR of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was enhanced in the Mer+ cells that had natural resistance to MTIC compared with Mer- cells. On the other hand, HCR of HSV-1 in Mer+ cells with induced resistance to MTIC was similar to that in Mer- cells. Neither adenovirus 5 nor HSV-1 infection induced ATase activity in Mer- cells. This indicates that resistance to the toxic effects of methylating agents is not invariably associated with high levels of ATase activity in human melanoma cells. Furthermore, while induction of the Mer+ phenotype from Mer- cells was usually accompanied by the recovery of ATase activity, induced Mer+ cells had less proficient repair than natural Mer+ cells, as judged quantitatively by slightly lower cellular resistance and qualitatively by deficient HCR response for HSV-1. These results suggest that the Mer- and induced Mer+ cells lack an ATase-independent DNA repair mechanism. No differences in MTIC-induced DNA repair synthesis or strand breaks were found between the Mer-, natural Mer+, and induced Mer+ phenotypes. However, UV-induced DNA repair synthesis was higher in the natural Mer+ than in the Mer- or induced Mer+ cells, both of which had increased cellular sensitivity to the antimetabolites methotrexate and hydroxyurea.

  17. ERBB3 is required for metastasis formation of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, S; Preziosi, M; Rothberg, P G; Zeitouni, N; Corson, N; Xu, L

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is curable when it is at an early phase but is lethal once it becomes metastatic. The recent development of BRAFV600E inhibitors (BIs) showed great promise in treating metastatic melanoma, but resistance developed quickly in the treated patients, and these inhibitors are not effective on melanomas that express wild-type BRAF. Alternative therapeutic strategies for metastatic melanoma are urgently needed. Here we report that ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, is required for the formation of lung metastasis from both the BI-sensitive melanoma cell line, MA-2, and the BI-resistant melanoma cell line, 451Lu-R. Further analyses revealed that ERBB3 does not affect the initial seeding of melanoma cells in lung but is required for their further development into overt metastases, indicating that ERBB3 might be essential for the survival of melanoma cells after they reach the lung. Consistent with this, the ERBB3 ligand, NRG1, is highly expressed in mouse lungs and induces ERBB3-depdnent phosphorylation of AKT in both MA-2 and 451Lu-R cells in vitro. These findings suggest that ERBB3 may serve as a target for treating metastatic melanomas that are resistant to BIs. In support of this, administration of the pan-ERBB inhibitor, canertinib, significantly suppresses the metastasis formation of BI-resistant melanoma cell lines. PMID:25000258

  18. Differentiation-inducing activity of lupeol, a lupane-type triterpene from Chinese dandelion root (Hokouei-kon), on a mouse melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hata, K; Ishikawa, K; Hori, K; Konishi, T

    2000-08-01

    We examined the differentiation-inducing effects of extracts of 49 wild plants, 25 types of seaweed and 26 mushrooms in Akita on the human leukemia cell line HL60 and a B16 mouse melanoma-derived sub-clone with high differentiation capability (B16 2F2). Differentiation inducers of HL60 cells such as retinoic acid, showed no effects on the differentiation of B16 2F2 cells. Furthermore, chemical compounds known to be inducers of B16 cells, did not induce differentiation of HL60 cells. Screening tests showed that the differentiation of HL60 cells was induced by extracts of 28 wild plants, 10 types of seaweed and 2 mushrooms, and melanogenesis of B16 2F2 cells was increased by extracts of 21 wild plants, 8 types of seaweed and 7 mushrooms. All of the alcoholic extracts of plants belonging to the subfamily Cichorioideae of the family Compositae caused cell differentiation of the melanoma cell line. The extracts of Chinese dandelion root, also inhibited cell growth and induced melanogenesis of B16 2F2 cells. We isolated the active compound from ethanol extracts of the crude drug. Chemical and physical data for the active compound were identical with those for lupeol, a lupane-type triterpene.

  19. Silencing of CerS6 increases the invasion and glycolysis of melanoma WM35, WM451 and SK28 cell lines via increased GLUT1-induced downregulation of WNT5A.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Ke; Wang, Qi; Chen, Jia; Liu, Rui; Wang, Shaohua; Zhou, Jianda; Xie, Huiqing

    2016-05-01

    Ceramide synthases (CerSs) have been shown to regulate numerous aspects of cancer development. CerS6 has been suggested to be involved in cancer etiology. However, little is known concerning the exact effect of CerS6 on the malignant behavior of melanoma, including glycolysis, proliferation and invasion. In the present study, we found that the expression of CerS6 was low in the melanoma cell lines, including WM35, WM451 and SK-28, and the expression level was related to the malignanct behavior of the melanoma cell lines. We constructed overexpression and silencing models of CerS6 in three melanoma cell lines and found that silencing of CerS6 promoted the ability of proliferation and invasion in the melanoma cell lines. Additionally, downregulation of CerS6 upregulated the activity of glycolysis-related enzyme, and enhanced the expression of glycolysis-related genes, including GLUT1 and MCT1. Furthermore, we identified the genes whose expression levels were changed after silencing of CerS6 by gene microarray. The expression of glycolysis-related gene SLC2A1 (also known as GLUT1) was found to be upregulated, while notably WNT5A was downregulated. The altered expression of GLUT1 and WNT5A was verified by qPCR and western blotting. Furthermore, silencing of GLUT1 in the melanoma cells resulted in the increased expression of WNT5A and the decreased ability of invasion and proliferation in the melanoma cells. Collectively, silencing of CerS6 induced the increased expression of GLUT1, which downregulated the expression of WNT5A and enhanced the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells. Thus, CerS6 may provide a novel therapeutic target for melanoma treatment.

  20. Cancer/testis antigens can be immunological targets in clonogenic CD133+ melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Quirk, Juliet; Browning, Judy; Svobodová, Suzanne; John, Thomas; Sluka, Pavel; Dunbar, P Rod; Corbeil, Denis; Cebon, Jonathan; Davis, Ian D

    2009-10-01

    "Cancer stem cells" that resist conventional treatments may be a cause of therapeutic failure in melanoma. We report a subpopulation of clonogenic melanoma cells that are characterized by high prominin-1/CD133 expression in melanoma and melanoma cell lines. These cells have enhanced clonogenicity and self-renewal in vitro, and serve as a limited in vitro model for melanoma stem cells. In some cases clonogenic CD133(+) melanoma cells show increased expression of some cancer/testis (CT) antigens. The expression of NY-ESO-1 in an HLA-A2 expressing cell line allowed CD133(+) clonogenic melanoma cells to be targeted for killing in vitro by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Our in vitro findings raise the hypothesis that if melanoma stem cells express CT antigens in vivo that immune targeting of these antigens may be a viable clinical strategy for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma.

  1. Inhibition of B16 melanoma growth and metastasis in C57BL mice by vaccination with a syngeneic endothelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiura, Kenta; Nishishita, Toshihide; Nakaoka, Takashi; Yamashita, Naohide; Yamashita, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Background Key role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis based on accumulating evidence and recent progress of immunotherapy have led us to investigate vaccine therapy targeting tumor angiogenesis. Methods C57BL/6J mice were vaccinated with a syngeneic endothelial cell line Tpit/E by subcutaneous injection once a week. Prior to ninth vaccination, the mice were challenged with B16/F10 melanoma cells by subcutaneous inoculation on the back for the tumor growth model or by tail venous injection for the lung metastasis model. Development of subcutaneous tumor and lung metastasis was monitored by computed tomography scanning, which enabled accurate evaluation with the minimized sacrifice of mice. Results Vaccination with Tpit/E cells inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and appearance of lung metastasis compared to control. Survival period was elongated in the Tpit/E vaccination in both of the two models. We also obtained hybridomas secreting specific antibodies to Tpit/E cells from a mouse vaccinated with the cells, indicating that specific immune response to the syngeneic endothelial cells was elicited. Conclusion These results suggest that vaccination with an autologous endothelial cell line may be effective against melanoma. PMID:19183492

  2. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  3. Comparative analysis of BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT mutation status between tumor tissues and autologous tumor cell-lines of stage III/IV melanoma.

    PubMed

    Knol, Anne-Chantal; Pandolfino, Marie-Christine; Vallée, Audrey; Nguyen, Frédérique; Lella, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Dréno, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence of the genotypic heterogeneity of melanoma. We analysed BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT alterations in tissue samples from 63 stage III/IV melanoma patients and autologous cell-lines, using either allele-specific or quantitative PCR. The expression of BRAF V600E protein was also investigated using an anti-BRAF antibody in the same tissue samples. 81% of FFPE samples and tumor cell-lines harboured a genetic alteration in either BRAF (54%) or NRAS (27%) oncogenes. There was a strong concordance (100%) between tissue samples and tumor cell-lines. The BRAF V600E mutant-specific antibody showed high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) for detecting the presence of a BRAF V600E mutation. The correlation was of 98% between PCR and immunohistochemistry results for BRAF mutation. These results suggest that BRAF and NRAS mutation status of tumor cells is not affected by culture conditions.

  4. In vitro anticancer activity of Betulinic acid and derivatives thereof on equine melanoma cell lines from grey horses and in vivo safety assessment of the compound NVX-207 in two horses.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, G; Vanchangiri, K; Mueller, Th; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V; Paschke, R

    2016-02-25

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, and its derivatives are promising compounds for cancer treatment in humans. Melanoma is not only a problem for humans but also for grey horses as they have a high potential of developing melanoma lesions coupled to the mutation causing their phenotype. Current chemotherapeutic treatment carries the risk of adverse health effects for the horse owner or the treating veterinarian by exposure to antineoplastic compounds. Most treatments have low prospects for systemic tumor regression. Thus, a new therapy is needed. In this in vitro study, Betulinic acid and its two derivatives B10 and NVX-207, both with an improved water solubility compared to Betulinic acid, were tested on two equine melanoma cell lines (MelDuWi and MellJess/HoMelZh) and human melanoma (A375) cell line. We could demonstrate that all three compounds especially NVX-207 show high cytotoxicity on both equine melanoma cell lines. The treatment with these compounds lead to externalization of phosphatidylserines on the cell membrane (AnnexinV-staining), DNA-fragmentation (cell cycle analysis) and activation of initiator and effector caspases (Caspase assays). Our results indicate that the apoptosis is induced in the equine melanoma cells by all three compounds. Furthermore, we succeed in encapsulating the most active compound NVX-207 in 2-Hydroxyprolyl-β-cyclodextrine without a loss of its activity. This formulation can be used as a promising antitumor agent for treating grey horse melanoma. In a first tolerability evaluation in vivo the formulation was administered every one week for 19 consecutive weeks and well tolerated in two adult melanoma affected horses.

  5. The induction of apoptosis in human melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cell lines using an essential oil extract from the conifer Tetraclinis articulata.

    PubMed

    Buhagiar, J A; Podesta, M T; Wilson, A P; Micallef, M J; Ali, S

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic effect of conifer Tetraclinis articulata essential oil (TAEO) on a number of human cancer cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at various concentrations and time exposures. The cytotoxic effect showed the hallmarks of apoptosis confirmed by a variety of techniques including flow cytometry, an apoptosis- specific marker combined to fluorescent staining and DNA laddering. All cell lines tested were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion and within a contact time of less than eight hours for the higher concentrations. Melanoma, breast and ovarian cancer cells gave IC50s of around 80 micrograms/ml whilst the IC50s on peripheral blood lymphocytes was almost double this value. We conclude that the essential oil contains components that are effective at inducing apoptosis. The advantages of using a mixture of monoterpenes (C10) as present in an EO over a single component, are discussed.

  6. PHA665752 inhibits the HGF-stimulated migration and invasion of cells by blocking PI3K/AKT pathway in human cell line uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; He, C; Liu, L; Ma, N; Chen, X; Zheng, D; Qiu, G H

    2017-03-03

    HGF/c-MET is frequently associated with tumor metastasis in many cancers, including uveal melanoma (UM). PHA665752, a selective c-MET inhibitor, exhibits anticancer activity through inhibiting cell motility in some cancers. In this study, we investigated the effects of PHA665752 on UM cell lines M17 and SP6.5. Our data show that HGF stimulated the motility of UM cells, and induced the activation of both c-MET and PI3K/AKT, but not ERK1/2. Moreover, consistent with the amount of c-MET within the nucleus, PHA665752 significantly inhibited HGF-promoted cell motility and suppressed the phosphorylation of c-MET and PI3K/AKT, but not ERK1/2 induced by HGF. Additionally, the effects of PHA665752 on both the inhibition of HGF-induced cell motility and the suppression of active AKT are similar to those of PI3K inhibitor LY294002. In xenograft models, PHA665752 significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice and similarly suppressed the phosphorylation of c-MET and PI3K/AKT. Our current findings, combined with previous results, demonstrate that PHA665752 inhibits HGF-induced motility via the inhibition of PI3K/AKT. This study suggests that targeting HGF/c-MET could be a promising therapeutic strategy for UM by preventing cell motility.

  7. Expression of Cell-Surface Marker ABCB5 Causes Characteristic Modifications of Glucose, Amino Acid and Phospholipid Metabolism in the G3361 Melanoma-Initiating Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Norbert W.; Banerjee, Pallavi; Wilson, Brian J.; Ma, Jie; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Frank, Markus H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a pilot study aimed at determining the effects of expression of ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5), a previously described marker for melanoma-initiating cells, on cellular metabolism. Metabolic profiles for two groups of human G3361 melanoma cells were compared, i.e. wildtype melanoma cells with intact ABCB5 expression (ABCB5-WT) and corresponding melanoma cell variants with inhibited ABCB5 expression, through shRNA-mediated gene knockdown (ABCB5-KD). A comprehensive metabolomic analysis was performed by using proton and phosphorus NMR spectroscopy of cell extracts to examine water-soluble metabolites and lipids. Parametric and non-parametric statistical analysis of absolute and relative metabolite levels yielded significant differences for compounds involved in glucose, amino acid and phospholipid (PL) metabolism. By contrast, energy metabolism was virtually unaffected by ABCB5 expression. The sum of water-soluble metabolites per total protein was 17% higher in ABCB5-WT vs. ABCB5-KD G3361 variants, but no difference was found for the sum of PLs. Enhanced abundance was particularly pronounced for lactate (+ 23%) and alanine (+ 26%), suggesting an increase in glycolysis and potentially glutaminolysis. Increases in PL degradation products, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (+ 85 and 123%, respectively), and redistributions within the PL pool suggested enhanced membrane PL turnover as a consequence of ABCB5 expression. The possibility of glycolysis modulation by an ABCB5-dependent IL1β-mediated mechanism was supported by functional studies employing monoclonal antibody (mAb)-dependent ABCB5 protein inhibition in wildtype G3361 melanoma cells. Our metabolomic results suggest that the underlying biochemical pathways may offer targets for melanoma therapy, potentially in combination with other treatment forms. PMID:27560924

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Ability and Cytotoxicity on Two Melanoma Cell Lines of a Benzylamide Derivative of Maslinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Dehelean, Cristina Adriana; Muntean, Delia; Csuk, René

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from olives that has been systematically reported to exert several therapeutic effects, such as antitumoral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Recently, new derivatives of maslinic acid have been obtained and expanded the spectrum of biological activities and improved the existing ones. The present study was meant to perform the in vitro assessment of the (i) cytotoxic effects of a benzylamide derivative of maslinic acid (“EM2”) (benzyl (2α, 3β) 2,3-diacetoxy-olean-12-en-28-amide) on B164A5 murine melanoma and A375 human malignant melanoma cell lines and the (ii) antimicrobial activity of the compound on several bacterial strains, respectively. We obtained a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of EM2 that was particularly relevant to the murine cell line. As on the antibacterial activity, EM2 was tested on 10 bacterial strains Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one fungus Candida albicans. A significant antimicrobial effect was recorded for Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:28050335

  9. PLX4032 Mediated Melanoma Associated Antigen Potentiation in Patient Derived Primary Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    George, Andrea L.; Suriano, Robert; Rajoria, Shilpi; Osso, Maria C.; Tuli, Neha; Hanly, Elyse; Geliebter, Jan; Arnold, Angelo N.; Wallack, Marc; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    Over expression of various immunogenic melanoma associated antigens (MAAs) has been exploited in the development of immunotherapeutic melanoma vaccines. Expression of MAAs such as MART-1 and gp100 is modulated by the MAPK signaling pathway, which is often deregulated in melanoma. The protein BRAF, a member of the MAPK pathway, is mutated in over 60% of melanomas providing an opportunity for the identification and approval by the FDA of a small molecule MAPK signaling inhibitor PLX4032 that functions to inactivate mutant BRAFV600E. To this end, we characterized five patient derived primary melanoma cell lines with respect to treatment with PLX4032. Cells were treated with 5μM PLX4032 and harvested. Western blotting analysis, RT-PCR and in vitro transwell migration and invasion assays were utilized to determine treatment effects. PLX4032 treatment modulated phosphorylation of signaling proteins belonging to the MAPK pathway including BRAF, MEK, and ERK and abrogated cell phenotypic characteristics such as migration and invasion. Most significantly, PLX4032 led to an up regulation of many MAA proteins in three of the four BRAF mutated cell lines, as determined at the protein and RNA level. Interestingly, MAGE-A1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced upon PLX4032 treatment in two of the primary lines. Taken together, our findings suggest that the BRAFV600E inhibitor PLX4032 has therapeutic potential over and above its known target and in combination with specific melanoma targeting vaccine strategies may have further clinical utility. PMID:26640592

  10. Different metastasis patterns of a human melanoma cell line in nude mice and rats: Influence of microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kjonniksen, I.; Hoifodt, H.K.; Pihl, A.; Fodstad, O. )

    1991-07-17

    The metastatic capacity of intravenously injected human FEMX-I melanoma cells in athymic nude mice and rats was compared. Young rats given 1 {times} 10(6) ascites tumor cells all died of lung tumors with a life span of 50 {plus minus} 10 days (mean{plus minus} SD). In contrast, in accordance with previous findings, only extrapulmonary metastases developed in mice. This host-dependent difference in metastasis pattern permitted studies on the role of factors that may influence the organ specificity of metastases. The tissue distribution of 125I-labeled FEMX-I cells did not differ in the two nude species during the first 12 hours after cell injection. The plating efficiency of FEMX-I cells in soft agar was increased by the addition of conditioned medium prepared from rat lungs, resulting also in a significant increase in colony size. In contrast, conditioned medium prepared from mouse lungs reduced the clonogenic capacity of the FEMX-I cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conditioned media prepared from rat and mouse liver, kidney, and spleen tissues either inhibited or had no effect on colony formation. The results suggest that the unexpected differential metastatic patterns observed in vivo may reflect differences in the presence of growth-modulating paracrine factors in the host lungs.

  11. Assessment of the inhibitory effects of different radiation qualities or chemotherapeutic agents on a human melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra M; Petrović, Ivan M; Korićanac, Lela B; Valastro, Lucia M; Privitera, Giuseppe; Cuttone, Giacomo

    2008-12-01

    The correlation between time dependent viabilities, after applying two radiation qualities and two alkylating agents on HTB140 melanoma cells, has been studied. Irradiations were performed with gamma-rays and 62 MeV protons, close to the Bragg peak maximum, delivering doses of 8-24 Gy. Treatments with fotemustine (FM) and dacarbazine (DTIC) were carried out with concentrations of 0.05-2mM. High radio-resistance of HTB140 cells revealed by a clonogenic assay was confirmed by microtetrasolium and sulforhodamine B, through the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2), being 0.961-0.956 for gamma-rays and 0.931-0.887 for protons. A better efficiency of protons was illustrated by relative biological effectiveness at 2 Gy (RBE), ranging from 1.69 to 1.89. A kinetic study of concentration dependent cytotoxicity indicated that the best effect of the drugs, estimated as the concentration that produces 50% of growth inhibition (IC(50)), was obtained at 48 h, having values of 76 microM for DTIC and 145 microM for FM. The cytostatic ability of the drugs pointed out that the presence of DTIC at 24h, compared to FM, was insufficient to produce an effect. Protons and FM demonstrated their pro apoptotic capacity. Cross-resistance between treatments applied to the HTB140 cells was observed, protons being the most efficient, while DTIC, FM and gamma-rays demonstrated a lower level of cell inactivation.

  12. Combining a BCL2 inhibitor with the retinoid derivative fenretinide targets melanoma cells including melanoma initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Reuland, Steven N; Lu, Yan; Luo, Yuchun; Lambert, Karoline; Fujita, Mayumi; Robinson, William A; Robinson, Steven E; Norris, David A; Shellman, Yiqun G

    2015-03-01

    Investigations from multiple laboratories support the existence of melanoma initiating cells (MICs) that potentially contribute to melanoma's drug resistance. ABT-737, a small molecule BCL-2/BCL-XL/BCL-W inhibitor, is promising in cancer treatments, but not very effective against melanoma, with the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1 as the main contributor to resistance. The synthetic retinoid fenretinide N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) has shown promise for treating breast cancers. Here, we tested whether the combination of ABT-737 with 4-HPR is effective in killing both the bulk of melanoma cells and MICs. The combination synergistically decreased cell viability and caused cell death in multiple melanoma cells lines (carrying either BRAF or NRAS mutations) but not in normal melanocytes. The combination increased the NOXA expression and caspase-dependent MCL-1 degradation. Knocking down NOXA protected cells from combination-induced apoptosis, implicating the role of NOXA in the drug synergy. The combination treatment also disrupted primary spheres (a functional assay for MICs) and decreased the percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase (high) cells (a marker of MICs) in melanoma cell lines. Moreover, the combination inhibited the self-renewal capacity of MICs, measured by secondary sphere-forming assays. In vivo, the combination inhibited tumor growth. Thus, this combination is a promising treatment strategy for melanoma, regardless of mutation status of BRAF or NRAS.

  13. Molecular mechanism underlying differential apoptosis between human melanoma cell lines UACC903 and UACC903(+6) revealed by mitochondria-focused cDNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Wu, Jun; Nguyen, Anhthu; Wang, Bi-Dar; He, Ping; Laurent, Georges St; Rennert, Owen M; Su, Yan A

    2008-08-01

    Human malignant melanoma cell line UACC903 is resistant to apoptosis while chromosome 6-mediated suppressed cell line UACC903(+6) is sensitive. Here, we describe identification of differential molecular pathways underlying this difference. Using our recently developed mitochondria-focused cDNA microarrays, we identified 154 differentially expressed genes including proapoptotic (BAK1 [6p21.3], BCAP31, BNIP1, CASP3, CASP6, FAS, FDX1, FDXR, TNFSF10 and VDAC1) and antiapoptotic (BCL2L1, CLN3 and MCL1) genes. Expression of these pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was higher in UACC903(+6) than in UACC903 before UV treatment and was altered after UV treatment. qRT-PCR and Western blots validated microarray results. Our bioinformatic analysis mapped these genes to differential molecular pathways that predict resistance and sensitivity of UACC903 and UACC903(+6) to apoptosis respectively. The pathways were functionally confirmed by the FAS ligand-induced cell death and by siRNA knockdown of BAK1 protein. These results demonstrated the differential molecular pathways underlying survival and apoptosis of UACC903 and UACC903(+6) cell lines.

  14. Induction of exportin-5 expression during melanoma development supports the cellular behavior of human malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Corinna Anna; Linck, Lisa; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Meister, Gunter; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression via microRNAs is known to promote the development of many types of cancer. In melanoma, miRNAs are globally up-regulated, and alterations of miRNA-processing enzymes have already been identified. However, mis-regulation of miRNA transport has not been analyzed in melanoma yet. We hypothesized that alterations in miRNA transport disrupt miRNA processing. Therefore, we investigated whether the pre-miRNA transporter Exportin-5 (XPO5) was involved in altered miRNA maturation and functional consequences in melanoma. We found that XPO5 is significantly over-expressed in melanoma compared with melanocytes. We showed enhanced XPO5 mRNA stability in melanoma cell lines which likely contributes to up-regulated XPO5 protein expression. In addition, we identified MEK signaling as a regulator of XPO5 expression in melanoma. Knockdown of XPO5 expression in melanoma cells led to decreased mature miRNA levels and drastic functional changes. Our data revealed that aberrant XPO5 expression is important for the maturation of miRNAs and the malignant behavior of melanoma cells. We suggest that the high abundance of XPO5 in melanoma leads to enhanced survival, proliferation and metastasis and thereby supports the aggressiveness of melanoma. PMID:27556702

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor renders BRAF mutant human melanoma cell lines resistant to PLX4032 by downregulating the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and BIM.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Leona; Gong, Jia-Nan; Lee, Erinna F; Kueh, Andrew J; Behren, Andreas; Tai, Lin; Lessene, Guillaume; Huang, David C S; Fairlie, Walter D; Strasser, Andreas; Herold, Marco J

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of melanomas harbour the activating BRAF(V600E) mutation that renders these cells dependent on MAPK signalling for their survival. Although the highly specific and clinically approved BRAF(V600E) kinase inhibitor, PLX4032, induces apoptosis of melanoma cells bearing this mutation, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reveal that PLX4032-induced apoptosis depends on the induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA with a minor contribution of its relative BIM. Apoptosis could be significantly augmented when PLX4032 was combined with an inhibitor of the pro-survival protein BCL-XL, whereas neutralization of the pro-survival family member BCL-2 caused no additional cell death. Although the initial response to PLX4032 in melanoma patients is very potent, resistance to the drug eventually develops and relapse occurs. Several factors can cause melanoma cells to develop resistance to PLX4032; one of them is the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase cMET on melanoma cells by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), provided by the tumour microenvironment or the cancer cells themselves. We found that HGF mediates resistance of cMET-expressing BRAF mutant melanoma cells to PLX4032-induced apoptosis through downregulation of PUMA and BIM rather than by increasing the expression of pro-survival BCL-2-like proteins. These results suggest that resistance to PLX4032 may be overcome by specifically increasing the levels of PUMA and BIM in melanoma cells through alternative signalling cascades or by blocking pro-survival BCL-2 family members with suitable BH3 mimetic compounds.

  16. DNA damage protecting and free radical scavenging properties of mycosporine-2-glycine from the Dead Sea cyanobacterium in A375 human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cheewinthamrongrod, Vipaporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Palaga, Tanapat; Takabe, Teruhiro; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon

    2016-11-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of natural sunscreen compounds that possess highly photoprotective properties. The most commonly found MAAs in marine organisms is shinorine, porphyra-334, and mycosporine-glycine. However, the halophilic species accumulate mycosporine-2-glycine (M2G) as the major MAA. In this study, we have investigated the protective effect of M2G against oxidative stress. In vitro radical scavenging activity revealed that M2G exhibited a significant inhibition with scavenging concentration (SC) 50 value of 22±1.4μM. In vivo analysis using the human melanoma A375 and a control cell line (NHSF) showed that M2G at low concentration (i.e. micromolar range) protected the cells against the oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced cell death. Comet assay to assess total DNA strand breaks demonstrated that M2G was not genotoxic and protected against the DNA damage by H2O2 treatment at the same level as ascorbic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence demonstrating potential protective role of the natural sunscreen compound M2G against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in human cell lines. The potent antioxidant activity combined with DNA protection ability of M2G may support its endorsement as a potential natural sunscreen with antioxidant property. These findings provide important clues for possible use of M2G in pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.

  17. Interferon-β gene transfer induces a strong cytotoxic bystander effect on melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Úrsula A; Gil-Cardeza, María L; Villaverde, Marcela S; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E; Glikin, Gerardo C

    2015-05-01

    A local gene therapy scheme for the delivery of type I interferons could be an alternative for the treatment of melanoma. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of interferon-β (IFNβ) gene lipofection on tumor cell lines derived from three human cutaneous and four canine mucosal melanomas. The cytotoxicity of human IFNβ gene lipofection resulted higher or equivalent to that of the corresponding addition of the recombinant protein (rhIFNβ) to human cells. IFNβ gene lipofection was not cytotoxic for only one canine melanoma cell line. When cultured as monolayers, three human and three canine IFNβ-lipofected melanoma cell lines displayed a remarkable bystander effect. As spheroids, the same six cell lines were sensitive to IFNβ gene transfer, two displaying a significant multicell resistance phenotype. The effects of conditioned IFNβ-lipofected canine melanoma cell culture media suggested the release of at least one soluble thermolabile cytotoxic factor that could not be detected in human melanoma cells. By using a secretion signal-free truncated human IFNβ, we showed that its intracellular expression was enough to induce cytotoxicity in two human melanoma cell lines. The lower cytoplasmatic levels of reactive oxygen species detected after intracellular IFNβ expression could be related to the resistance displayed by one human melanoma cell line. As IFNβ gene transfer was effective against most of the assayed melanomas in a way not limited by relatively low lipofection efficiencies, the clinical potential of this approach is strongly supported.

  18. Dose and time dependent apoptotic response in a human melanoma cell line exposed to accelerated boron ions at four different LET.

    PubMed

    Meijer, A E; Jernberg, A R-M; Heiden, T; Stenerlöw, B; Persson, L M; Tilly, N; Lind, B K; Edgren, M R

    2005-04-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare the influence of linear energy transfer (LET), dose and time on the induction of apoptosis in a human melanoma cell line exposed to accelerated light boron ((10)B) ions and photons. Cells were exposed in vitro to doses up to 6 Gy accelerated boron ions (40, 80, 125 and 160 eV nm(-1)) and up to 12 Gy photons (0.2 eV nm(-1)). The induction of apoptosis was measured up to 9 days after irradiation using morphological characterization of apoptotic cells and bodies. In parallel, measurements of cell-cycle distribution, monitored by DNA flow cytometry, and cell survival based on the clonogenic cell survival assay, were performed. In addition, the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were studied. Accelerated boron ions induced a significant increase in apoptosis as compared with photons at all time points studied. At 1-5 h the percentage of radiation-induced apoptotic cells increased with both dose and LET. At the later time points (24-216 h) the apoptotic response was more complex and did not increase in a strictly LET-dependent manner. The early premitotic apoptotic cells disappeared at 24 h following exposure to the highest LET (160 eV nm(-1)). A postmitotic apoptotic response was seen after release of the dose-, time- and LET-dependent G2/M accumulations. The loss of clonogenic ability was dose- and LET-dependent and the fraction of un-rejoined DSB increased with increasing LET. Despite the LET-dependent clonogenic cell killing, it was not possible to measure quantitatively a LET-dependent apoptotic response. This was due to the different time course of appearance and disappearance of apoptotic cells.

  19. [Melanoma immunotherapy: dendritic cell vaccines].

    PubMed

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Núñez, César; Aguilar, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    This is a narrative review that shows accessible information to the scientific community about melanoma and immunotherapy. Dendritic cells have the ability to participate in innate and adaptive immunity, but are not unfamiliar to the immune evasion of tumors. Knowing the biology and role has led to generate in vitro several prospects of autologous cell vaccines against diverse types of cancer in humans and animal models. However, given the low efficiency they have shown, we must implement strategies to enhance their natural capacity either through the coexpression of key molecules to activate or reactivate the immune system, in combination with biosimilars or chemotherapeutic drugs. The action of natural products as alternative or adjuvant immunostimulant should not be ruled out. All types of immunotherapy should measure the impact of myeloid suppressor cells, which can attack the immune system and help tumor progression, respectively. This can reduce the activity of cellular vaccines and/or their combinations, that could be the difference between success or not of the immunotherapy. Although for melanoma there exist biosimilars approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), not all have the expected success. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate other strategies including cellular vaccines loaded with tumor antigenic peptides expressed exclusively or antigens from tumor extracts and their respective adjuvants.

  20. Overexpression of Hsp27 in a human melanoma cell line: regulation of E-cadherin, MUC18/MCAM, and plasminogen activator (PA) system

    PubMed Central

    Aldrian, Silke; Kindas-Mügge, Ingela; Trautinger, Franz; Fröhlich, Ilse; Gsur, Andrea; Herbacek, Irene; Berger, Walter; Micksche, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hsp27 is considered a potential marker for cell differentiation in diverse tissues. Several aspects linked to the differentiation process and to the transition from high to low metastatic potential were analyzed in melanoma cells transfected with Hsp27. E-cadherin plays a central role in cell differentiation, migration, and normal development. Loss of expression or function of E-cadherin has been documented in a variety of human malignancies. We observed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) as well as immunofluorescence (IF) analysis a pronounced expression of E-cadherin in Hsp27-transfected A375 melanoma cells compared with control melanoma cells. The expression of the adhesion molecule MUC18/MCAM correlates directly with the metastatic potential of melanoma cells. In contrast to wild-type and neotransfected melanoma cells, in Hsp27-transfected cells the expression of MUC18/MCAM could not be detected by FACS and IF analysis. The plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a central role in mediating extracellular proteolysis and also in nonproteolytic events such as cell adhesion, migration, and transmembrane signaling. Hsp27 transfectants revealed elevated messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the urokinase-type PA (uPA) and its inhibitor, PA inhibitor type 1, which might indicate a neutralization effect of the proteolytic activity of uPA. Control cells failed to express both these molecules. The influence of Hsp27 expression on uPA activity and the involvement of E-cadherin could be demonstrated by use of anti–E-cadherin–blocking antibody. Our data provide evidence for an inhibitory-regulatory role of Hsp27 in tumor progression as found in our system. PMID:14984058

  1. The IL-6/sIL-6R treatment of a malignant melanoma cell line enhances susceptibility to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wagley, Yadav; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Seo, Han Geuk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kang, Keon Wook; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Oh, Jae-Wook . E-mail: ohjw@mail.chosun.ac.kr

    2007-03-23

    Melanoma is an intractable tumor that has shown very impressive and promising response to local administration of high dose recombinant TNF-{alpha} in combination with IFN-{gamma} in clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TNF-{alpha}-resistant B16/F10.9 melanoma cells. A low dose of TNF-{alpha} or IL-6/sIL-6R had minimal affect on the cell growth. However, the highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6 (IL6RIL6), covalently linked by a flexible peptide, sensitized TNF-{alpha}-resistant F10.9 melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Stimulation of the cells with IL6RIL6 plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in both the activation of caspase-3 and the reduction of bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that IL6RIL6-upregulated TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 expression, suggesting an increase in TNF-{alpha} responsiveness by IL6RIL6 resulting from the induction of TNF receptors. Moreover, exposure of F10.9 cells to neutralizing antibody to TNF-R55 significantly inhibited IL6RIL6/TNF-{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the IL6/sIL6R/gp130 system, which sensitizes TNF-{alpha}-resistant melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, may provide a new target for immunotherapy.

  2. Targeting glutamine transport to suppress melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Beaumont, Kimberley A; Otte, Nicholas J; Font, Josep; Bailey, Charles G; van Geldermalsen, Michelle; Sharp, Danae M; Tiffen, Jessamy C; Ryan, Renae M; Jormakka, Mika; Haass, Nikolas K; Rasko, John E J; Holst, Jeff

    2014-09-01

    Amino acids, especially leucine and glutamine, are important for tumor cell growth, survival and metabolism. A range of different transporters deliver each specific amino acid into cells, some of which are increased in cancer. These amino acids consequently activate the mTORC1 pathway and drive cell cycle progression. The leucine transporter LAT1/4F2hc heterodimer assembles as part of a large complex with the glutamine transporter ASCT2 to transport amino acids. In this study, we show that the expression of LAT1 and ASCT2 is significantly increased in human melanoma samples and is present in both BRAF(WT) (C8161 and WM852) and BRAF(V600E) mutant (1205Lu and 451Lu) melanoma cell lines. While inhibition of LAT1 by BCH did not suppress melanoma cell growth, the ASCT2 inhibitor BenSer significantly reduced both leucine and glutamine transport in melanoma cells, leading to inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were significantly reduced in the presence of BenSer in melanoma cells in 2D and 3D cell culture. This included reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators CDK1 and UBE2C. The importance of ASCT2 expression in melanoma was confirmed by shRNA knockdown, which inhibited glutamine uptake, mTORC1 signaling and cell proliferation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ASCT2-mediated glutamine transport is a potential therapeutic target for both BRAF(WT) and BRAF(V600E) melanoma.

  3. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  4. FRIZZLED7 Is Required for Tumor Inititation and Metastatic Growth of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Shweta; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Metastases are thought to arise from cancer stem cells and their tumor initiating abilities are required for the establishment of metastases. Nevertheless, in metastatic melanoma, the nature of cancer stem cells is under debate and their contribution to metastasis formation remains unknown. Using an experimental metastasis model, we discovered that high levels of the WNT receptor, FZD7, correlated with enhanced metastatic potentials of melanoma cell lines. Knocking down of FZD7 in a panel of four melanoma cell lines led to a significant reduction in lung metastases in animal models, arguing that FZD7 plays a causal role during metastasis formation. Notably, limiting dilution analyses revealed that FZD7 is essential for the tumor initiation of melanoma cells and FZD7 knockdown impeded the early expansion of metastatic melanoma cells shortly after seeding, in accordance with the view that tumor initiating ability of cancer cells is required for metastasis formation. FZD7 activated JNK in melanoma cell lines in vitro and the expression of a dominant negative JNK suppressed metastasis formation in vivo, suggesting that FZD7 may promote metastatic growth of melanoma cells via activation of JNK. Taken together, our findings uncovered a signaling pathway that regulates the tumor initiation of melanoma cells and contributes to metastasis formation in melanoma. PMID:26808375

  5. Stem cell media culture of melanoma results in the induction of a nonrepresentative neural expression profile.

    PubMed

    Anaka, Matthew; Freyer, Claudia; Gedye, Craig; Caballero, Otavia; Davis, Ian D; Behren, Andreas; Cebon, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    The ability of cell lines to accurately represent cancer is a major concern in preclinical research. Culture of glioma cells as neurospheres in stem cell media (SCM) has been shown to better represent the genotype and phenotype of primary glioblastoma in comparison to serum cell lines. Despite the use of neurosphere-like models of many malignancies, there has been no robust analysis of whether other cancers benefit from a more representative phenotype and genotype when cultured in SCM. We analyzed the growth properties, transcriptional profile, and genotype of melanoma cells grown de novo in SCM, as while melanocytes share a common precursor with neural cells, melanoma frequently demonstrates divergent behavior in cancer stem cell assays. SCM culture of melanoma cells induced a neural lineage gene expression profile that was not representative of matched patient tissue samples and which could be induced in serum cell lines by switching them into SCM. There was no enrichment for expression of putative melanoma stem cell markers, but the SCM expression profile did overlap significantly with that of SCM cultures of glioma, suggesting that the observed phenotype is media-specific rather than melanoma-specific. Xenografts derived from either culture condition provided the best representation of melanoma in situ. Finally, SCM culture of melanoma did not prevent ongoing acquisition of DNA copy number abnormalities. In conclusion, SCM culture of melanoma does not provide a better representation of the phenotype or genotype of metastatic melanoma, and the resulting neural bias could potentially confound therapeutic target identification.

  6. New dibutyltin(IV) ladders: Syntheses, structures and, optimization and evaluation of cytotoxic potential employing A375 (melanoma) and HCT116 (colon carcinoma) cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Dutta, Dhrubajyoti; Duthie, Andrew; Guchhait, Nikhil; Rocha, Bruno G M; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Manna, Sunil K

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of seven new dibutyltin(IV) compounds of 2-{(E)-4-hydroxy-3-[(E)-4-(aryl)iminomethyl]phenyldiazenyl}benzoic acids (L(n)HH'; n=2-8) with general formula {[Bu2Sn(L(n)H)]2O}2 (1-7) are reported. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and by UV-Visible, fluorescence, IR, (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopies. Solid state structures of dibutyltin(IV) compounds 1-3, 6 and 7 were accomplished from single crystal X-ray crystallography which reveal the common ladder-type structure with two endo- and two exo-Sn atoms. The redox properties of L(n)HH' (n=2-4, 7 and 8) and their diorganotin(IV) compounds 1-3, 6 and 7 were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry. In general, the dibutyltin(IV) derivatives exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxic potency towards A375 (melanoma) and HCT116 (colon carcinoma) cell lines as determined by several experiments, like Live and Dead assay, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), cleavage of caspases and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase), and DNA fragmentation. Dibutyltin(IV) compounds increase cell death without cytolysis and decreases membrane fluidity, without interfering with p53. Among the dibutyltin(IV) compounds, compound 6 was found to be the most potent, with an IC50 value of 78nM. A mechanism of action for tumor cell death is proposed.

  7. In vitro anticancer evaluation of 5-fluorouracil lipid nanoparticles using B16F10 melanoma cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Vikram S.; Gude, Rajiv P.; Murthy, Rayasa S. Ramachandra

    2013-05-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the formulation and in vitro anticancer activities of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prepared using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and cetyl palmitate (CP) by hot homogenization method. The lipids were selected based on the partition coefficient of 5-FU in lipids. The lipid nanoparticles were optimized for process and formulation parameters. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized for their zeta potential, morphology, release kinetics, and anticancer activity. Higher entrapments were achieved using a combination of emulsifiers. The zeta potential of the optimized CP and GMS SLN formulation were -8.26 and -9.35 mV, respectively. Both the optimized formulations were spherical. The in vitro release studies of SLNs of both the lipid carriers followed Peppas-Korsenmeyer equation when carried out at pH 3.5 and 7.4. The chemosensitivity assay carried out in B16F10 cell lines revealed that CP SLNs had better cytotoxicity than 5-FU solution and GMS SLNs at 48 h of incubation. Subtoxic concentration of 5-FU-loaded CP SLNs (0.12 μg/mL) possessed comparable antimigrational activity, colony inhibition activity, and cytopathic as that of 5-FU solution effects. The results indicated that encapsulating 5-FU in CP would be a promising delivery system for delivering 5-FU.

  8. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dar, Altaf A; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W; Miller, James R; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-05-31

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression.

  9. BPTF transduces MITF-driven prosurvival signals in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Altaf A.; Majid, Shahana; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Phan, Binh; Ursu, Sarah; Nosrati, Mehdi; De Semir, David; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Miller, James R.; Debs, Robert; Cleaver, James E.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a critical and complex role in melanocyte transformation. Although several downstream targets of MITF action have been identified, the precise mechanisms by which MITF promotes melanocytic tumor progression are incompletely understood. Recent studies identified an oncogenic role for the bromodomain plant homeodomain finger transcription factor (BPTF) gene in melanoma progression, in part through activation of BCL2, a canonical target of MITF signaling. Analysis of the BPTF promoter identified a putative MITF-binding site, suggesting that MITF may regulate BPTF expression. Overexpression of MITF resulted in up-regulation of BPTF in a panel of melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. shRNA-mediated down-regulation of MITF in melanoma cells was accompanied by down-regulation of BPTF and BPTF-regulated genes (including BCL2) and resulted in reduced proliferative capacity of melanoma cells. The suppression of cell growth mediated by MITF silencing was rescued by overexpression of BPTF cDNA. Binding of MITF to the BPTF promoter was demonstrated using ChIP analysis. MITF overexpression resulted in direct transcriptional activation of BPTF, as evidenced by increased luciferase activity driven by the BPTF promoter. These results indicate that BPTF transduces key prosurvival signals driven by MITF, further supporting its important role in promoting melanoma cell survival and progression. PMID:27185926

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy.

  12. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Melanoma KidsHealth > For Teens > Melanoma Print A A A ... to the moles on your skin. What Is Melanoma? Melanoma is a type of cancer that begins ...

  13. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  14. Metallic copper nanoparticles induce apoptosis in a human skin melanoma A-375 cell line.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2017-03-10

    In two earlier communications (Chatterjee et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 085103, Chatterjee et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 135101), we reported the development of a simple and unique method of synthesizing highly stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) with high antibacterial activity. Here we report on the cytotoxic potency of the NPs against cancer cells. The value of the IC50 dose of the Cu NPs against human skin cancer cell A-375 was found to be 1.71 μg ml(-1) only, which was much less than values reported so far, and this concentration had no cytotoxic effect on normal white blood cells. The NPs caused (i) lowering of cell membrane rigidity, (ii) DNA degradation, (iii) chromosomal condensation, (iv) cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, (v) depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and (vi) apoptosis of cells. Cellular apoptosis occurred in the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway. This study revealed that our Cu NPs had high anticancer properties by killing tumor cells through the apoptotic pathway. Since this particle has high antibacterial activity, our Cu NPs might be developed in future as a dual action drug-anticancer as well as antibacterial.

  15. Metallic copper nanoparticles induce apoptosis in a human skin melanoma A-375 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2017-03-01

    In two earlier communications (Chatterjee et al 2012 Nanotechnology 23 085103, Chatterjee et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 135101), we reported the development of a simple and unique method of synthesizing highly stable metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) with high antibacterial activity. Here we report on the cytotoxic potency of the NPs against cancer cells. The value of the IC50 dose of the Cu NPs against human skin cancer cell A-375 was found to be 1.71 μg ml‑1 only, which was much less than values reported so far, and this concentration had no cytotoxic effect on normal white blood cells. The NPs caused (i) lowering of cell membrane rigidity, (ii) DNA degradation, (iii) chromosomal condensation, (iv) cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, (v) depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and (vi) apoptosis of cells. Cellular apoptosis occurred in the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway. This study revealed that our Cu NPs had high anticancer properties by killing tumor cells through the apoptotic pathway. Since this particle has high antibacterial activity, our Cu NPs might be developed in future as a dual action drug—anticancer as well as antibacterial.

  16. Inhibition of L-tyrosine-induced micronuclei production by phenylthiourea in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Poma, A; Bianchini, S; Miranda, M

    1999-12-13

    It was previously found that L-tyrosine oxidation product(s) are cytotoxic, genotoxic and increase the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels in human melanoma cells. In this work, the micronucleus assay has been performed on human melanotic and amelanotic melanoma cell lines (Carl-1 MEL and AMEL) in the presence of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 mM L-tyrosine concentrations to investigate if melanin synthesis intermediate(s) increase micronuclei production. L-Tyrosine oxidation product(s) increased the frequency of micronuclei in melanoma cells; 0.1 mM phenylthiourea (PTU), an inhibitor of L-tyrosine oxidation by tyrosinase, lowered the micronucleus production to the control levels. The culture of melanoma cells with high L-tyrosine in the culture medium resulted in a positive response to an ELISA-based apoptotic test. For comparison the effect of L-tyrosine on micronuclei production in human amelanotic melanoma cells was also investigated; the micronucleus production in the presence of 1 mM L-tyrosine in the culture medium was lower than that found with melanotic melanoma cells of the same cell line. The data suggest that melanin synthesis intermediates arising from L-tyrosine oxidation may cause micronuclei production in Carl-1 human melanoma cells; the addition of PTU in the presence of L-tyrosine decreased the frequency of micronuclei to about the control values thus the inhibition of melanogenesis may have some clinical implication in melanotic melanoma.

  17. Bioactive Constituents of Zanthoxylum rhetsa Bark and Its Cytotoxic Potential against B16-F10 Melanoma Cancer and Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (HDF) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Ramesh Kumar; Ahmad, Syahida; Abas, Faridah; Safinar Ismail, Intan; Rukayadi, Yaya; Tayyab Akhtar, Muhammad; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-05-24

    Zanthoxylum rhetsa is an aromatic tree, known vernacularly as "Indian Prickly Ash". It has been predominantly used by Indian tribes for the treatment of many infirmities like diabetes, inflammation, rheumatism, toothache and diarrhea. In this study, we identified major volatile constituents present in different solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark using GC-MS analysis and isolated two tetrahydrofuran lignans (yangambin and kobusin), a berberine alkaloid (columbamine) and a triterpenoid (lupeol) from the bioactive chloroform fraction. The solvent fractions and purified compounds were tested for their cytotoxic potential against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cells, using the MTT assay. All the solvent fractions and purified compounds were found to be non-cytotoxic to HDF cells. However, the chloroform fraction and kobusin exhibited cytotoxic effect against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The presence of bioactive lignans and alkaloids were suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxic property of Z. rhetsa bark against B16-F10 cells.

  18. Cell Surface CD74-MIF Interactions Drive Melanoma Survival in Response to Interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Tanese, Keiji; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Yuling; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma is believed to be a highly immunogenic tumor and recent developments in immunotherapies are promising. IFN-γ produced by immune cells has a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance; however, it has also been reported to be pro-tumorigenic. In the current study, we found that IFN-γ enhances the expression of CD74, which interacts with its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and thereby activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in melanoma, promoting tumor survival. IFN-γ increased phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and upregulated total cell surface expression of CD74 in human melanoma cell lines tested. CD74 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, the expression of CD74 on tumor cells correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels in melanoma patient samples. In our analysis of melanoma cell lines, all produced MIF constitutively. Blockade of CD74-MIF interaction reduced AKT phosphorylation and expression of pro-tumorigenic molecules, including IL-6, IL-8, and BCL-2. Inhibition of CD74-MIF interaction significantly suppressed tumor growth in the presence of IFN-γ in our xenograft mouse model. Thus, we conclude that IFN-γ promotes melanoma cell survival by regulating CD74-MIF signaling, suggesting that targeting the CD74-MIF interaction under IFN-γ-stimulatory conditions would be an effective therapeutic approach for melanoma.

  19. Thrombospondin modulates melanoma--platelet interactions and melanoma tumour cell growth in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Boukerche, H.; Berthier-Vergnes, O.; Tabone, E.; Bailly, M.; Doré, J. F.; McGregor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of thrombospondin (TSP) as a possible ligand playing a key role in human M3Da. melanoma cell interaction with platelets and in tumour growth. TSP is secreted (80 +/- 6 ng TSP 10(-6) cells) and bound to the surface of M3Da. cells via receptors different from CD36, as shown by biosynthetic labelling and immunofluorescence studies. The levels of TSP binding to M3Da. cells evaluated by binding studies, using an anti-TSP monoclonal antibody (MAb) (LYP8), shows 367,000 +/- 58,000 (mean +/- s.d.) LYP8 binding sites per cell with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 67 nM. TSP binding to M3Da. cells shows 400,000 +/- 50,000 TSP binding sites per cell with a Kd of 10 nM. The capacity of anti-TSP MAb (LYP8) to inhibit M3Da.-platelet interactions was followed on an aggregometer and evaluated by electron microscopy studies. The biological role of TSP binding to M3Da. cells was investigated by implanting subcutaneously the M3Da. cell line in nude mice and following the size and time of in vivo tumour growth. Reducing the availability or the functional level of TSP by using an anti-TSP MAb (LYP8) resulted in a significant decrease in platelet aggregates interacting with M3Da. melanoma cells. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, purified alpha nu beta 3 was shown to bind TSP. Moreover, LYP8-coated M3Da. cells showed a reduced capacity to form tumours in vivo. M3Da. cells were observed to attach and spread on human platelet TSP-coated plastic wells. This attachment by M3Da. cells was inhibited in a similar way by LYP8 and an anti-alpha nu beta 3 MAb (LYP18). The results obtained in this study show that TSP secreted and bound to the surface of a human melanoma cell line (M3Da.) acts as a link between aggregated platelets and the M3Da. cell surface. Moreover, these results shows that TSP can modulate tumour growth in vivo. Reagents such as MAbs directed against TSP and peptides derived from TSP could not only be used as a new therapeutic

  20. Muc1 promotes migration and lung metastasis of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Lan, Hongwen; Li, Jun; Su, Yushu; Xu, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Early stages of melanoma can be successfully treated by surgical resection of the tumor, but there is still no effective treatment once it is progressed to metastatic phases. Although growing family of both melanoma metastasis promoting and metastasis suppressor genes have been reported be related to metastasis, the molecular mechanisms governing melanoma metastatic cascade are still not completely understood. Therefore, defining the molecules that govern melanoma metastasis may aid the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for combating melanoma. In the present study, we found that muc1 is involved in the metastasis of melanoma cells and demonstrated that muc1 disruption impairs melanoma cells migration and metastasis. The requirement of muc1 in the migration of melanoma cells was further confirmed by gene silencing in vitro. In corresponding to this result, over-expression of muc1 significantly promoted the migratory of melanoma cells. Moreover, down-regulation of muc1 expression strikingly inhibits melanoma cellular metastasis in vivo. Finally, we found that muc1 promotes melanoma migration through the protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. To conclude, our findings suggest a novel mechanism underlying the metastasis of melanoma cells which might serve as a new intervention target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26609470

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the achille's heel of melanoma cells resistant to Braf-mutant inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    André, Fanny; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Scalbert, Camille; Garçon, Guillaume; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Balayssac, Stéphane; Rocchi, Stephane; Savina, Ariel; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib/PLX4032, a selective inhibitor of mutant BRAFV600E, constitutes a paradigm shift in melanoma therapy. Unfortunately, acquired resistance, which unavoidably occurs, represents one major limitation to clinical responses. Recent studies have highlighted that vemurafenib activated oxidative metabolism in BRAFV600E melanomas expressing PGC1α. However, the oxidative state of melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We established representative in vitro and in vivo models of human melanoma resistant to vemurafenib including primary specimens derived from melanoma patients. Firstly, our study reveals that vemurafenib increased mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines regardless the expression of PGC1α. Secondly, melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to vemurafenib displayed intrinsically high rates of mitochondrial respiration associated with elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of vemurafenib. Thirdly, the elevated ROS level rendered vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells prone to cell death induced by pro-oxidants including the clinical trial drug, elesclomol. Based on these observations, we propose that the mitochondrial oxidative signature of resistant melanoma constitutes a novel opportunity to overcome resistance to BRAF inhibition. PMID:24161908

  2. Thymoquinone suppresses metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Israr; Muneer, Kashiff M.; Tamimi, Iman A.; Chang, Michelle E.; Ata, Muhammad O.; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2013-07-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. The NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome is constitutively assembled and activated in human melanoma cells. We have examined the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone), a major ingredient of black seed obtained from the plant Nigella sativa on metastatic human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) melanoma cell lines. We have assessed whether thymoquinone inhibits metastasis of melanoma cells by targeting NLRP3 subunit of inflammasomes. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we found that thymoquinone inhibited the migration of both human and mouse melanoma cells. The inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on metastasis was also observed in vivo in B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The inhibition of migration of melanoma cells by thymoquinone was accompanied by a decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by thymoquinone resulted in inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with thymoquinone also inhibited NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by thymoquinone resulted in partial inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, thymoquinone exerts its inhibitory effect on migration of human and mouse melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, our results indicate that thymoquinone can be a potential immunotherapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for melanoma, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration of melanoma cells. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of metastasis in vivo. • Thymoquinone causes inhibition of migration by activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  3. Adaptive response of human melanoma cells to methylglyoxal injury.

    PubMed

    Amicarelli, F; Bucciarelli, T; Poma, A; Aimola, P; Di Ilio, C; Ragnelli, A M; Miranda, M

    1998-03-01

    The effects of methylglyoxal on the growth of a line of human melanoma cells are investigated. Methylglyoxal inhibits cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and causes an increase in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalase 1 and glyoxalase 2 specific activities. The cellular response to increasing concentrations of methylglyoxal in the culture medium is also studied by measuring L-lactate production, reduced-oxidized glutathione levels and apoptotic cell death. Methylglyoxal seems to promote a change of cell population phenotypic repertoire toward a more monomorphic phenotype. In conclusion, methylglyoxal seems to induce an enzymatic cellular response that lowers methylglyoxal levels and selects the most resistant cells.

  4. Mast cells promote melanoma colonization of lungs.

    PubMed

    Öhrvik, Helena; Grujic, Mirjana; Waern, Ida; Gustafson, Ann-Marie; Ernst, Nancy; Roers, Axel; Hartmann, Karin; Pejler, Gunnar

    2016-10-18

    Mast cells have been implicated in malignant processes, mainly through clinical correlative studies and by experiments performed using animals lacking mast cells due to defective c-kit signaling. However, mast cell-deficient mouse models based on c-kit defects have recently been questioned for their relevance. Here we addressed the effect of mast cells in a tumor setting by using transgenic Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice, in which the deficiency of mast cells is independent of c-kit defects. Melanoma cells (B16.F10) were administered either subcutaneously or intravenously into Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice or Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ littermate controls, followed by the assessment of formed tumors. In the subcutaneous model, mast cells were abundant in the tumor stroma of control mice but were absent in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice. However, the absence of mast cells did not affect tumor size. In contrast, after intravenous administration of B16.F10 cells, melanoma colonization of the lungs was markedly reduced in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals. Decreased melanoma colonization of the lungs in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ animals was accompanied by increased inflammatory cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting that mast cells suppress inflammation in this setting. Further, qPCR analysis revealed significant alterations in the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in lungs of Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. control Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals, suggesting an impact of mast cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, this study reveals that mast cells promote melanoma colonization of the lung.

  5. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5− bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ sub-populations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5− progeny, whereas ABCB5− tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5− cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

  6. MiR-769 promoted cell proliferation in human melanoma by suppressing GSK3B expression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hai-Jiang; Lu, Xiao-He; Yang, Sha-Sha; Weng, Chen-Yin; Zhang, E-Keng; Chen, Fang-Chao

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs with post-transcriptional regulatory function, playing crucial roles in cancer development and progression of human melanoma. Previous studies have indicated that miR-769 was implicated in diverse biological processes. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-769 in human melanoma has not been intensively investigated. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-769 and its target genes in human melanoma. We found that miR-769 expression was strongly increased in human melanoma cells and clinical tissues compared with their corresponding controls. Overexpression of miR-769 promoted cell proliferation in human melanoma cell line A375, whereas miR-769-in reverses the function. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 Beta (GSK3B), a potential target gene of miR-769, and was validated by luciferase assay. Further studies revealed that miR-769 regulated cell proliferation of human melanoma by directly suppressing GSK3B expression and the knockdown of GSK3B expression reversed the effect of miR-769-in on human melanoma cell proliferation. In summary, our data demonstrated that miR-769 might act as a tumor promoter by targeting GSK3B during development of human melanoma.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopy (IR, multinuclear NMR, ESI-MS), diffraction, density functional study and in vitro antiproliferative activity of pyrazole-beta-diketone dihalotin(IV) compounds on 5 melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Claudio; Caruso, Francesco; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Villa, Raffaella; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Phillips, Christine; Tanski, Joseph; Rossi, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Novel 4-acylpyrazolon-5-ato-dihalotin(IV) complexes, [Q2SnX2], (X = F, Cl, Br or I); HQ = HQ(CHPh2) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2,2-diphenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one), HQ(Bn) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2-phenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one) or HQ(CF3,py) (4-(2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazol-5-one) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR, electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)), analytical and structural methods (X-ray and density functional theory). 119Sn chemical shifts depend on the nature of the halides bonded to tin. Isomer conversion, detected in solution by NMR spectroscopy, is related to the acyl moiety bulkiness while the cis(Cl)-cis(acyl)-trans(pyrazolonato) scheme is found in the solid state. The in vitro antiproliferative tests of three derivatives on three human melanoma cell lines (JR8, SK-MEL-5, MEL501) and two melanoma cell clones (2/21 and 2/60) show dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation in all cell lines. The activity correlates with the nature of the substituent on position 1 of pyrazole, decreasing in the order pyridyl>Ph>methyl. The activity for (Q(CF3,py))2SnCl2 on the SK-MEL-5 cell line is IC50 = 50 microM.

  8. Notch3 signaling-mediated melanoma-endothelial crosstalk regulates melanoma stem-like cell homeostasis and niche morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Yang, Moon Hee; Schnegg, Caroline I; Hwang, Soonyean; Ryu, Byungwoo; Alani, Rhoda M

    2017-02-06

    Melanoma is among the most virulent cancers, owing to its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to current therapies. The treatment failure is largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly subpopulations possessing stem cell-like properties, ie, melanoma stem-like cells (MSLCs). Evidence indicates that the MSLC phenotype is malleable and may be acquired by non-MSLCs through phenotypic switching upon appropriate stimuli, the so-called 'dynamic stemness'. Since the phenotypic characteristics and functional integrity of MSLCs depend on their vascular niche, using a two-dimensional (2D) melanoma-endothelium co-culture model, where the MSLC niche is recapitulated in vitro, we identified Notch3 signaling pathway as a micro-environmental cue governing MSLC phenotypic plasticity via pathway-specific gene expression arrays. Accordingly, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Notch3 knockdown (KD) in melanoma cell lines exhibiting high levels of endogenous Notch3 led to retarded/abolished tumorigenicity in vivo through both depleting MSLC fractions, evinced by MSLC marker downregulation (eg, CD133 and CD271); and impeding the MSLC niche, corroborated by the attenuated tumor angiogenesis as well as vasculogenic mimicry. In contrast, Notch3 KD affected neither tumor growth nor MSLC subsets in a melanoma cell line with relatively low endogenous Notch3 expression. Thus, Notch3 signaling may facilitate MSLC plasticity and niche morphogenesis in a cell context-dependent manner. Our findings illustrate Notch3 as a molecular switch driving melanoma heterogeneity, and provide the biological rationale for Notch inhibition as a promising therapeutic option.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 6 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.1.

  9. Resistance to BRAF inhibitors induces glutamine dependency in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Baenke, Franziska; Chaneton, Barbara; Smith, Matthew; Van Den Broek, Niels; Hogan, Kate; Tang, Haoran; Viros, Amaya; Martin, Matthew; Galbraith, Laura; Girotti, Maria R.; Dhomen, Nathalie; Gottlieb, Eyal; Marais, Richard

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitors can extend progression-free and overall survival in melanoma patients whose tumors harbor mutations in BRAF. However, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these drugs. Here we show that BRAF mutant melanoma cells that have developed acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors display increased oxidative metabolism and increased dependency on mitochondria for survival. Intriguingly, the increased oxidative metabolism is associated with a switch from glucose to glutamine metabolism and an increased dependence on glutamine over glucose for proliferation. We show that the resistant cells are more sensitive to mitochondrial poisons and to inhibitors of glutaminolysis, suggesting that targeting specific metabolic pathways may offer exciting therapeutic opportunities to treat resistant tumors, or to delay emergence of resistance in the first-line setting. PMID:26365896

  10. Ginseng-berry-mediated gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity effects on human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kang, Hyun Mi; Abbai, Ragavendran; Seo, Kwang Hoon; Wang, Dandan; Soshnikova, Veronika; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the design of environmentally affable and biocompatible nanoparticles among scientists to find novel and safe biomaterials. Panax ginseng Meyer berries have unique phytochemical profile and exhibit beneficial pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antiaging, and antioxidant properties. A comprehensive study of the biologically active compounds in ginseng berry extract (GBE) and the ability of ginseng berry (GB) as novel material for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GBAuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (GBAgNPs) was conducted. In addition, the effects of GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs on skin cell lines for further potential biological applications are highlighted. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs were synthesized using aqueous GBE as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for their size, morphology, and crystallinity. The nanoparticles were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity activities and for morphological changes in human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines. The phytochemicals contained in GBE effectively reduced and capped gold and silver ions to form GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs. The optimal synthesis conditions (ie, temperature and v/v % of GBE) and kinetics were investigated. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds present in GBE were suggested to be responsible for stabilization and functionalization of nanoparticles. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs showed increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals compared to GBE. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase, while GBAgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, GBAuNPs were nontoxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma cell lines, and GBAgNPs showed cytotoxic effect on murine melanoma cell lines. The current results evidently suggest that GBAgNPs can act as potential

  11. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M.; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma. PMID:27461002

  12. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Marzagalli, Monica; Moretti, Roberta M; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Casati, Lavinia; Comitato, Raffaella; Gravina, Giovanni L; Festuccia, Claudio; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-07-27

    Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375. δ-TT exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on both cell lines, involving the intrinsic apoptosis pathway; importantly, this compound did not affect the viability of normal human melanocytes. In melanoma cells, δ-TT exerted its antitumor effect through activation of the PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP, IRE1α and caspase-4 ER stress-related branches. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of the ER stress, counteracted the cytotoxic activity of δ-TT. In vivo experiments performed in nude mice bearing A375 xenografts evidenced that δ-TT reduces tumor volume and tumor mass; importantly, tumor progression was significantly delayed by δ-TT treatment. In conclusion, δ-TT exerts a proapoptotic activity on melanoma cells, through activation of the ER stress-related pathways. δ-TT might represent an effective option for novel chemopreventive/therapeutic strategies for melanoma.

  13. Thymoquinone suppresses metastasis of melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Israr; Muneer, Kashiff M; Tamimi, Iman A; Chang, Michelle E; Ata, Muhammad O; Yusuf, Nabiha

    2013-07-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. The NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome is constitutively assembled and activated in human melanoma cells. We have examined the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1,4-quinone), a major ingredient of black seed obtained from the plant Nigella sativa on metastatic human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) melanoma cell lines. We have assessed whether thymoquinone inhibits metastasis of melanoma cells by targeting NLRP3 subunit of inflammasomes. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we found that thymoquinone inhibited the migration of both human and mouse melanoma cells. The inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on metastasis was also observed in vivo in B16F10 mouse melanoma model. The inhibition of migration of melanoma cells by thymoquinone was accompanied by a decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by thymoquinone resulted in inhibition of IL-1β and IL-18. Treatment of mouse melanoma cells with thymoquinone also inhibited NF-κB activity. Furthermore, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by thymoquinone resulted in partial inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, thymoquinone exerts its inhibitory effect on migration of human and mouse melanoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, our results indicate that thymoquinone can be a potential immunotherapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for melanoma, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic melanoma.

  14. Interleukin-32α induces migration of human melanoma cells through downregulation of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Han; Houh, Younkyung; Kim, Tae Sung; Gil, Minchan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Seonghan; Kim, Daejin; Hur, Dae Young; Yang, Yoolhee; Bang, Sa Ik; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32α, the shortest isoform of proinflammatory cytokine IL-32, is associated with various inflammatory diseases and cancers. However, its involvement in human melanoma is not understood. To determine the effect of IL-32α in melanoma, IL-32α levels were examined in human melanoma cell lines that exhibit different migratory abilities. IL-32α levels were higher in human melanoma cell lines with more migratory ability. An IL-32α-overexpressing G361 human melanoma cell line was generated to investigate the effect of IL-32α on melanoma migration. IL-32α-overexpressing G361 cells (G361-IL-32α) exhibit an increased migratory ability compared to vector control cells (G361-vector). To identify factors involved in IL-32α-induced migration, we compared expression of E-cadherin in G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells. We observed decreased levels of E-cadherin in G361-IL-32α cells, resulting in F-actin polymerization. To further investigate signaling pathways related to IL-32α-induced migration, we treated G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells with PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor. Inhibition of Erk1/2 by PD98059 restored E-cadherin expression and decreased IL-32α-induced migration. In addition, cell invasiveness of G361-IL-32α cells was tested using an in vivo lung metastasis model. As results, lung metastasis was significantly increased by IL-32α overexpression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-32α induced human melanoma migration via Erk1/2 activation, which repressed E-cadherin expression. Our findings suggest that IL-32α is a novel regulator of migration in melanoma. PMID:27589563

  15. Interleukin-32α induces migration of human melanoma cells through downregulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyun; Kim, Kyung Eun; Cheon, Soyoung; Song, Ju Han; Houh, Younkyung; Kim, Tae Sung; Gil, Minchan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Seonghan; Kim, Daejin; Hur, Dae Young; Yang, Yoolhee; Bang, Sa Ik; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Daeho

    2016-10-04

    Interleukin (IL)-32α, the shortest isoform of proinflammatory cytokine IL-32, is associated with various inflammatory diseases and cancers. However, its involvement in human melanoma is not understood. To determine the effect of IL-32α in melanoma, IL-32α levels were examined in human melanoma cell lines that exhibit different migratory abilities. IL-32α levels were higher in human melanoma cell lines with more migratory ability. An IL-32α-overexpressing G361 human melanoma cell line was generated to investigate the effect of IL-32α on melanoma migration. IL-32α-overexpressing G361 cells (G361-IL-32α) exhibit an increased migratory ability compared to vector control cells (G361-vector). To identify factors involved in IL-32α-induced migration, we compared expression of E-cadherin in G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells. We observed decreased levels of E-cadherin in G361-IL-32α cells, resulting in F-actin polymerization. To further investigate signaling pathways related to IL-32α-induced migration, we treated G361-vector and G361-IL-32α cells with PD98059, a selective MEK inhibitor. Inhibition of Erk1/2 by PD98059 restored E-cadherin expression and decreased IL-32α-induced migration. In addition, cell invasiveness of G361-IL-32α cells was tested using an in vivo lung metastasis model. As results, lung metastasis was significantly increased by IL-32α overexpression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-32α induced human melanoma migration via Erk1/2 activation, which repressed E-cadherin expression. Our findings suggest that IL-32α is a novel regulator of migration in melanoma.

  16. Chromomycin A2 induces autophagy in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Larissa Alves; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Sousa, Thiciana da Silva; Freitas, Hozana Patrícia S; Rocha, Danilo Damasceno; Wilke, Diego Veras; Martín, Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Deusdênia Loiola Pessoa, Otília; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2014-12-04

    The present study highlights the biological effects of chromomycin A2 toward metastatic melanoma cells in culture. Besides chromomycin A2, chromomycin A3 and demethylchromomycin A2 were also identified from the extract derived from Streptomyces sp., recovered from Paracuru Beach, located in the northeast region of Brazil. The cytotoxic activity of chromomycin A2 was evaluated across a panel of human tumor cell lines, which found IC50 values in the nM-range for exposures of 48 and 72 h. MALME-3M, a metastatic melanoma cell line, showed the highest sensitivity to chromomycin A2 after 48h incubation, and was chosen as a model to investigate this potent cytotoxic effect. Treatment with chromomycin A2 at 30 nM reduced cell proliferation, but had no significant effect upon cell viability. Additionally, chromomycin A2 induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, with consequent reduction of S and G2/M and unbalanced expression of cyclins. Chromomycin A2 treated cells depicted several cellular fragments resembling autophagosomes and increased expression of proteins LC3-A and LC3-B. Moreover, exposure to chromomycin A2 also induced the appearance of acidic vacuolar organelles in treated cells. These features combined are suggestive of the induction of autophagy promoted by chromomycin A2, a feature not previously described for chromomycins.

  17. Chromomycin A2 Induces Autophagy in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Larissa Alves; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Sousa, Thiciana da Silva; Freitas, Hozana Patrícia S.; Rocha, Danilo Damasceno; Wilke, Diego Veras; Martín, Jesús; Reyes, Fernando; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2014-01-01

    The present study highlights the biological effects of chromomycin A2 toward metastatic melanoma cells in culture. Besides chromomycin A2, chromomycin A3 and demethylchromomycin A2 were also identified from the extract derived from Streptomyces sp., recovered from Paracuru Beach, located in the northeast region of Brazil. The cytotoxic activity of chromomycin A2 was evaluated across a panel of human tumor cell lines, which found IC50 values in the nM-range for exposures of 48 and 72 h. MALME-3M, a metastatic melanoma cell line, showed the highest sensitivity to chromomycin A2 after 48h incubation, and was chosen as a model to investigate this potent cytotoxic effect. Treatment with chromomycin A2 at 30 nM reduced cell proliferation, but had no significant effect upon cell viability. Additionally, chromomycin A2 induced accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, with consequent reduction of S and G2/M and unbalanced expression of cyclins. Chromomycin A2 treated cells depicted several cellular fragments resembling autophagosomes and increased expression of proteins LC3-A and LC3-B. Moreover, exposure to chromomycin A2 also induced the appearance of acidic vacuolar organelles in treated cells. These features combined are suggestive of the induction of autophagy promoted by chromomycin A2, a feature not previously described for chromomycins. PMID:25486109

  18. Effects of several polyhydroxylated flavonoids on the growth of B16F10 melanoma and Melan-a melanocyte cell lines: influence of the sequential oxidation state of the flavonoid skeleton.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Yàñez, J; Vicente, V; Alcaraz, M; Benavente-García, O; Castillo, J; Lorente, J; Lozano, J A

    2003-02-01

    The response of B16F10 melanoma and Melan-a melanocyte cell lines to treatment with five polyhydroxylated flavonoids and gallic acid, after 24 and 72 h of exposure, was determined, and the relationship between any antiproliferative effects observed and the chemical structure is discussed. After 24 h, none of the studied compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity in the B16F10 cell line, whereas compounds with an adjacent trihydroxylated substitution pattern did affect the viability of the Melan-a cell line. After 72 h of exposure, myricetin, baicalein and gallic acid significantly inhibited both B16F10 and Melan-a cell cultures, whereas luteolin and quercetin had only a moderate effect. Eriodictyol only had an effect on Melan-a cell viability, which was reduced slightly. These results suggest that the presence of a C2-C3 double bond and three adjacent hydroxyl groups in the flavonoid A- or B-rings confers greater antiproliferative activity to the flavonoid.

  19. ONCOGENIC BRAF(V600E) PROMOTES STROMAL CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION VIA INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN-1 IN MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Jahan S.; Liu, Shujuan; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G.; Whittington, Mayra; Wardell, Seth; Liu, Chengwen; Zhang, Minying; Cooper, Zachary A.; Frederick, Dennie T.; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Min; Joseph, Richard W.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth; Radvanyi, Laszlo G.; Davis, Richard E.; Davies, Michael A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Hwu, Patrick; Lizée, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we assessed the specific role of BRAF(V600E) signaling in modulating the expression of immune regulatory genes in melanoma, in addition to analyzing downstream induction of immune suppression by primary human melanoma tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Experimental Design Primary human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines were transduced to express WT or V600E forms of BRAF, followed by gene expression analysis. The BRAF(V600E) inhibitor vemurafenib was used to confirm targets in BRAF(V600E)-positive melanoma cell lines and in tumors from melanoma patients undergoing inhibitor treatment. TAF lines generated from melanoma patient biopsies were tested for their ability to inhibit the function of tumor antigen-specific T-cells, prior to and following treatment with BRAF(V600E)-upregulated immune modulators. Transcriptional analysis of treated TAFs was conducted to identify potential mediators of T-cell suppression. Results Expression of BRAF(V600E) induced transcription of IL-1α and IL-1β in melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, vemurafenib reduced the expression of IL-1 protein in melanoma cell lines and most notably in human tumor biopsies from 11 of 12 melanoma patients undergoing inhibitor treatment. Treatment of melanoma-patient-derived TAFs with IL-1α/β significantly enhanced their ability to suppress the proliferation and function of melanoma-specific cytotoxic T cells, and this inhibition was partially attributable to upregulation by IL-1 of COX-2 and the PD-1 ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in TAFs. Conclusions This study reveals a novel mechanism of immune suppression sensitive to BRAF(V600E) inhibition, and suggests that clinical blockade of IL-1 may benefit patients with BRAF wild-type tumors and potentially synergize with immunotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22850568

  20. Overexpression of Annexin II Receptor-Induced Autophagy Protects Against Apoptosis in Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuelu; Song, Hongyuan; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Yongzhe; Tang, Hailin; Qi, Zhongtian; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in adults and still lacks effective systemic therapies. Annexin A2 receptor (AXIIR), a receptor for Annexin II, was demonstrated to play an important role in multiple cells, but its role in uveal melanoma cells remains exclusive. Herein, the authors reported that overexpression of AXIIR was able to reduce cell viability and activate apoptosis apparently in the Mum2C uveal melanoma cell line. Meanwhile, overexpression of AXIIR could induce autophagy and increase autophagy flux. After autophagy was inhibited by chloroquine, enhanced apoptosis and cytotoxicity could be detected. In summary, these data highlighted the crucial role of AXIIR in reducing Mum2C cell viability through inducing apoptosis, while autophagy played a protective role in this process. Interference of this gene may be a promising method for uveal melanoma therapy and combination with specific inhibitor of autophagy may serve as a supplementary.

  1. Coordinate Autophagy and mTOR Pathway Inhibition Enhances Cell Death in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaoqi; White, Eileen P.; Mehnert, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway promotes melanoma tumor growth and survival while suppressing autophagy, a catabolic process through which cells collect and recycle cellular components to sustain energy homeostasis in starvation. Conversely, inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in particular the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus (CCI-779), induce autophagy, which can promote tumor survival and thus, these agents potentially limit their own efficacy. We hypothesized that inhibition of autophagy in combination with mTOR inhibition would block this tumor survival mechanism and hence improve the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in melanoma. Here we found that melanoma cell lines of multiple genotypes exhibit high basal levels of autophagy. Knockdown of expression of the essential autophagy gene product ATG7 resulted in cell death, indicating that survival of melanoma cells is autophagy-dependent. We also found that the lysosomotropic agent and autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) synergizes with CCI-779 and led to melanoma cell death via apoptosis. Combination treatment with CCI-779 and HCQ suppressed melanoma growth and induced cell death both in 3-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures and in tumor xenografts. These data suggest that coordinate inhibition of the mTOR and autophagy pathways promotes apoptosis and could be a new therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23383069

  2. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma.

  3. Folate-conjugated immunoglobulin targets melanoma tumor cells for NK cell effector functions.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Cassandra C; McMichael, Elizabeth L; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena C; Abrams, Zachary B; Lee, Robert J; Carson, William E

    2016-08-01

    The folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed on the vascular side of cancerous cells including those of the breast, ovaries, testes, and cervix. We hypothesized that a folate-conjugated immunoglobulin (F-IgG) would bind to the FR that is overexpressed on melanoma tumor cells to target these cells for lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Folate receptor expression was confirmed in the Mel-39 (human melanoma) cell line by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis using KB (human oral epithelial) and F01 (human melanoma) as a positive and a negative control, respectively. FR-positive and FR-negative cell lines were treated with F-IgG or control immunoglobulin G in the presence or absence of cytokines to determine NK cell ability to lyse FR-positive cell lines. NK cell activation was significantly upregulated and lysis of Mel 39 tumor cells increased following treatment with F-IgG compared with control immunoglobulin G at all effector : target (E : T) ratios (P<0.01). This trend further increased by NK cell stimulation with the activating cytokine interleukin-12. NK cell production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) was also significantly increased in response to costimulation with interleukin-12 stimulation and F-IgG-coated Mel 39 target cells compared with controls (P<0.01). In contrast, F-IgG did not bind to the FR-negative cell line F01 and had no significant effect on NK cell lysis or cytokine production. This research indicates the potential use of F-IgG for its ability to induce an immune response from NK cells against FR-positive melanoma tumor cells, which can be further increased by the addition of cytokines.

  4. Uveal melanoma cells utilize a novel route for transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Onken, Michael D; Li, Jinmei; Cooper, John A

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma arises in the eye, and it spreads to distant organs in almost half of patients, leading to a fatal outcome. To metastasize, uveal melanoma cells must transmigrate into and out of the microvasculature, crossing the monolayer of endothelial cells that separates the vessel lumen from surrounding tissues. We investigated how human uveal melanoma cells cross the endothelial cell monolayer, using a cultured cell system with primary human endothelial cell monolayers on hydrogel substrates. We found that uveal melanoma cells transmigrate by a novel and unexpected mechanism. Uveal melanoma cells intercalate into the endothelial cell monolayer and flatten out, assuming a shape and geometry similar to those of endothelial cells in the monolayer. After an extended period of time in the intercalated state, the uveal melanoma cells round up and migrate underneath the monolayer. VCAM is present on endothelial cells, and anti-VCAM antibodies slowed the process of intercalation. Depletion of BAP1, a known suppressor of metastasis in patients, increased the amount of transmigration of uveal melanoma cells in transwell assays; but BAP1 depletion did not affect the rate of intercalation, based on movies of living cells. Our results reveal a novel route of transendothelial migration for uveal melanoma cells, and they provide insight into the mechanism by which loss of BAP1 promotes metastasis.

  5. Isolation and molecular characterization of circulating melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Mitra, Devarati; Sullivan, Ryan J; Wittner, Ben S; Kimura, Anya M; Pan, Shiwei; Hoang, Mai P; Brannigan, Brian W; Lawrence, Donald P; Flaherty, Keith T; Sequist, Lecia V; McMahon, Martin; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Stott, Shannon L; Ting, David T; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Toner, Mehmet; Fisher, David E; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-05-08

    Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  6. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells.

  7. MITF is a critical regulator of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Nico; Löffek, Stefanie; Horn, Susanne; Ennen, Marie; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zhao, Fang; Breitenbuecher, Frank; Davidson, Irwin; Singer, Bernhard B; Schadendorf, Dirk; Goding, Colin R; Helfrich, Iris

    2015-11-01

    The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion, and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression.

  8. Molecular biology of normal melanocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bandarchi, Bizhan; Jabbari, Cyrus Aleksandre; Vedadi, Ali; Navab, Roya

    2013-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans and is responsible for 60-80% of deaths from skin cancers. The 5-year survival of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma is about 14%. Its incidence has been increasing in the white population over the past two decades. The mechanisms leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanocytic lesions are poorly understood. In developing malignant melanoma, there is a complex interaction of environmental and endogenous (genetic) factors, including: dysregulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell-to-cell interactions. The understanding of genetic alterations in signalling pathways of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma and their interactions may lead to therapeutics modalities, including targeted therapies, particularly in advanced melanomas that have high mortality rates and are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our knowledge regarding the molecular biology of malignant melanoma has been expanding. Even though several genes involved in melanocyte development may also be associated with melanoma cell development, it is still unclear how a normal melanocyte becomes a melanoma cell. This article reviews the molecular events and recent findings associated with malignant melanoma.

  9. Radiation survival of murine and human melanoma cells utilizing two assay systems: monolayer and soft agar.

    PubMed Central

    Yohem, K. H.; Slymen, D. J.; Bregman, M. D.; Meyskens, F. L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation response of murine and human melanoma cells assayed in bilayer soft agar and monolayer was examined. Cells from the murine melanoma Cloudman S91 CCL 53.1 cell line and three human melanoma cell strains (C8146C, C8161, and R83-4) developed in our laboratory were irradiated by single dose X-rays and plated either in agar or on plastic. D0 values were the same within 95% confidence intervals for cells from the human melanoma cell strains C8146C, C8161, and R83-4 but were dissimilar for the murine cell line CCL 53.1 Dq values were different for all cells studied. The shape of the survival curve for all four melanomas was not identical for cells assayed in soft agar versus cells grown on plastic. This would indicate that apparent radiosensitivity was influenced by the method of assay although there were no apparent consistent differences between the curves generated by monolayer or bilayer soft agar assays. PMID:3348949

  10. Activities of multiple cancer-related pathways are associated with BRAF mutation and predict the resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dingxie; Liu, Xuan; Xing, Mingzhao

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle in the targeted therapy of melanoma using BRAF/MEK inhibitors. This study was to identify BRAF V600E-associated oncogenic pathways that predict resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. We took in silico approaches to analyze the activities of 24 cancer-related pathways in melanoma cells and identify those whose activation was associated with BRAF V600E and used the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to predict the resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. We then experimentally confirmed the in silico findings. In a microarray gene expression dataset of 63 melanoma cell lines, we found that activation of multiple oncogenic pathways preferentially occurred in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells. This finding was reproduced in 5 additional independent melanoma datasets. Further analysis of 46 melanoma cell lines that harbored BRAF mutation showed that 7 pathways, including TNFα, EGFR, IFNα, hypoxia, IFNγ, STAT3, and MYC, were significantly differently expressed in AZD6244-resistant compared with responsive melanoma cells. A SVM classifier built on this 7-pathway activation pattern correctly predicted the response of 10 BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines to the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 in our experiments. We experimentally showed that TNFα, EGFR, IFNα, and IFNγ pathway activities were also upregulated in melanoma cell A375 compared with its sub-line DRO, while DRO was much more sensitive to AZD6244 than A375. In conclusion, we have identified specific oncogenic pathways preferentially activated in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells and a pathway pattern that predicts resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, providing novel clinical implications for melanoma therapy. PMID:24200969

  11. MITF and PAX3 Play Distinct Roles in Melanoma Cell Migration; Outline of a "Genetic Switch" Theory Involving MITF and PAX3 in Proliferative and Invasive Phenotypes of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Michael R; He, Shujie; Ahn, Antonio; Slobbe, Lynn J; Jeffs, Aaron R; Yoon, Han-Seung; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-09-11

    Melanoma is a very aggressive neoplasm with a propensity to undergo progression and invasion early in its evolution. The molecular pathways underpinning invasion in melanoma are now just beginning to be elucidated, but a clear understanding of the transition from non-invasive to invasive melanoma cells remains elusive. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), is thought to be a central player in melanoma biology, and it controls many aspects of the phenotypic expression of the melanocytic lineage. However, recently the paired box transcription factor PAX3 was shown to transcriptionally activate POU3F2/BRN2, leading to direct repression of MITF expression. Here we present a theory to explain melanoma phenotype switching and discuss the predictions that this theory makes. One prediction is that independent and opposing roles for MITF and PAX3 in melanoma would be expected, and we present empirical evidence supporting this: in melanoma tissues PAX3 expression occurs independently of MITF, and PAX3 does not play a key role in melanoma cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of PAX3 inhibits cell migration in a group of "lower MITF" melanoma cell lines, while knockdown of MITF promotes cell migration in a complementary "higher MITF" group of melanoma cell lines. Moreover, the morphological effects of knocking down PAX3 versus MITF in melanoma cells were found to differ. While these data support the notion of independent roles for MITF and PAX3, additional experiments are required to provide robust examination of the proposed genetic switch theory. Only upon clear delineation of the mechanisms associated with progression and invasion of melanoma cells will successful treatments for invasive melanoma be developed.

  12. Decline in arylsulfatase B leads to increased invasiveness of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Terai, Kaoru; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2017-01-17

    Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) is reduced in several malignancies, but levels in melanoma have not been investigated previously. Experiments were performed in melanoma cell lines to determine ARSB activity and impact on melanoma invasiveness. ARSB activity was reduced ~50% in melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Silencing ARSB significantly increased the mRNA expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan(CSPG)4 and pro-matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2, known mediators of melanoma progression. Also, invasiveness and MMP activity increased when ARSB was reduced, and recombinant ARSB inhibited invasiveness and MMP activity. Since the only known function of ARSB is to remove 4-sulfate groups from the N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate residue at the non-reducing end of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) or dermatan sulfate, experiments were performed to determine the transcriptional mechanisms by which expression of CSPG4 and MMP2 increased. Promoter activation of CSPG4 was mediated by reduced binding of galectin-3 to C4S when ARSB activity declined. In contrast, increased pro-MMP2 expression was mediated by increased binding of the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 to C4S. Increased phospho-ERK1,2 resulted from SHP2 inhibition. Combined effects of increased C4S, CSPG4, and MMP2 increased the invasiveness of the melanoma cells, and therapy with recombinant ARSB may inhibit melanoma progression.

  13. The efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S J; Ovadje, P; Mousa, M; Hamm, C; Pandey, S

    2011-01-01

    Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25-29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

  14. Balloon cell melanoma: a case report with polarized and non-polarized dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Maher, James; Cameron, Alan; Wallace, Sharon; Acosta-Rojas, Rafael; Weedon, David; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Balloon cell melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype, with only one previous case with dermatoscopy published. It is often non-pigmented, leading to diagnostic difficulty, and there is a tendency for lesions to be thick at diagnosis. We report a case of balloon cell melanoma on the forearm of a 61-year-old man with both polarized and non-polarized dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. It presented as a firm pale nodule with focal eccentric pigmentation. The clinical images evoke a differential diagnosis of dermatofibroma, dermal nevus, Spitz nevus and basal cell carcinoma as well as melanoma. This melanoma was partially pigmented due to a small, pigmented superficial spreading component on the edge of the non-pigmented balloon cell nodule, prompting further evaluation. In retrospect there was the clue to malignancy of polarizing-specific white lines (chrysalis structures) and polymorphous vessels, including a pattern of dot vessels. The reticular lines exclude basal cell carcinoma, polarizing-specific white lines are inconsistent with the diagnosis of dermal nevus and their eccentric location is inconsistent with both Spitz nevus and dermatofibroma. Excision biopsy was performed, revealing a superficial spreading melanoma with two distinct invasive components, one of atypical non-mature epithelioid cells and the other an amelanotic nodular component, comprising more than 50% of the lesion, characterized by markedly distended epithelioid melanocytes showing pseudo-xanthomatous cytoplasmic balloon cell morphology. A diagnosis of balloon cell melanoma, Breslow thickness 1.9 mm, mitotic rate 3 per square millimeter was rendered. Wide local excision was performed, as was sentinel lymph node biopsy, which was negative. PMID:24520518

  15. AIRE polymorphism, melanoma antigen-specific T cell immunity, and susceptibility to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Conteduca, Giuseppina; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Negrini, Simone; Tardito, Samuele; Ferrera, Francesca; Salis, Annalisa; Millo, Enrico; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Barra, Giusi; Damonte, Gianluca; Indiveri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) from two strains of C57BL/6 mice bearing either T or C allelic variant of the rs1800522 AIRE SNP. Moreover, the extent of apoptosis induced by mTECs in MAGEB2-specific T cells and the susceptibility to in vivo melanoma B16F10 cell challenge were compared in the two mouse strains. The C allelic variant, protective in humans against melanoma, induced lower AIRE and MAGEB2 expression in C57BL/6 mouse mTECs than the T allele. Moreover, mTECs expressing the C allelic variant induced lower extent of apoptosis in MAGEB2-specific syngeneic T cells than mTECs bearing the T allelic variant (p < 0.05). Vaccination against MAGEB2 induced higher frequency of MAGEB2-specific CTL and exerted higher protective effect against melanoma development in mice bearing the CC AIRE genotype than in those bearing the TT one (p < 0.05). These findings show that allelic variants of one AIRE SNP may differentially shape the MA-specific T cell repertoire potentially influencing susceptibility to melanoma. PMID:27563821

  16. Redirected lysis of human melanoma cells by a MCSP/CD3-bispecific BiTE antibody that engages patient-derived T cells.

    PubMed

    Torisu-Itakura, Hitoe; Schoellhammer, Hans F; Sim, Myung-Shin; Irie, Reiko F; Hausmann, Susanne; Raum, Tobias; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Morton, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP; also called HMW-MAA, CSPG4, NG2, MSK16, MCSPG, MEL-CSPG, or gp240) is a well characterized melanoma cell-surface antigen. In this study, a new bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody that binds to MCSP and human CD3 (MCSP-BiTE) was tested for its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cell lines. When unstimulated peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors were cocultured with melanoma cells at effector:target ratios of 1:1, 1:5, or 1:10, and treated with MCSP-BiTE antibody at doses of 10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL, all MCSP-expressing melanoma cell lines (n=23) were lysed in a dose-dependent and effector:target ratio-dependent manner, whereas there was no cytotoxic activity against MCSP-negative melanoma cell lines (n=2). To investigate whether T cells from melanoma patients could act as effector cells, we cocultured unstimulated PBMCs with allogeneic melanoma cells from 13 patients (4 stage I/II, 3 stage III, and 6 stage IV) or with autologous melanoma cells from 2 patients (stage IV). Although cytotoxic activity varied, all 15 PBMC samples mediated significant redirected lysis by the BiTE antibody. When PBMC or CD8 T cells were prestimulated by anti-CD3 antibody OKT-3 and interleukin-2, the MCSP-BiTE concentrations needed for melanoma cell lysis decreased up to 1000-fold. As MCSP is expressed on most human melanomas, immunotherapy with MCSP/CD3-bispecific antibodies merits clinical investigation.

  17. Effect of UVC, UVB, UVA and a solar simulator on the survival of mouse melanoma cell lines differing in melanin content

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, H.Z.; Hill, G.J.; Cieszka, K.; Azure, M.

    1994-12-31

    These studies were designed to determine the survival of cells that vary in constitutive pigment levels after exposure to different UV wave lengths. The lamps employed emitted UVC (near monochromatic 254 nm), UVB (Philips TL01-88.7% of UV output is UVB), UVA (Philips HPW125-89% of output is at 365 nm) and Westinghouse FS20 (broad band UVB and UVA). Dish lids were used to cut off UVC in the UVB and FS20 experiments and 0.25 inch plate glass was used to cut off UVB in the UVA experiments. UVC photons interact with putative intracellular photosensitizers which in turn convert O{sub 2} to active oxygen species which damage DNA to produce strand breaks, cross links and base damage. UVB acts by both mechanisms. The two cell lines studied were Cloudman S91/I3 (3.6 pg melanin/cell) and the closely related S91/amel (1.2 pg melanin/cell). Attached cells were covered with Ca{sup ++} and Mg{sup ++} free PBS and irradiated in the cold. Colonies were scored after 2 weeks. The two cell lines exhibit similar survival kinetics after UVC. S91/IE is more sensitive to killing by either UVB (TL01) or UVA. However, S91/amel cells are more sensitive to killing by UVB plus UVA (FS20). It is clear that UV of different qualities can interact to produce effects that would not be predicted based on responses to monochromatic wave lengths.

  18. c-Abl and Arg are activated in human primary melanomas, promote melanoma cell invasion via distinct pathways, and drive metastatic progression.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, S S; Fiore, L S; Sims, J T; Friend, J W; Srinivasan, D; Thacker, M A; Cibull, M L; Wang, C; Novak, M; Kaetzel, D M; Plattner, R

    2012-04-05

    Despite 35 years of clinical trials, there is little improvement in 1-year survival rates for patients with metastatic melanoma, and the disease is essentially untreatable if not cured surgically. The paucity of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective for treating metastatic melanoma indicates a dire need to develop new therapies. Here, we found a previously unrecognized role for c-Abl and Arg in melanoma progression. We demonstrate that the kinase activities of c-Abl and Arg are elevated in primary melanomas (60%), in a subset of benign nevi (33%) and in some human melanoma cell lines. Using siRNA and pharmacological approaches, we show that c-Abl/Arg activation is functionally relevant because it is requiredfor melanoma cell proliferation, survival and invasion. Significantly, we identify the mechanism by which activated c-Abl promotes melanoma invasion by showing that it transcriptionally upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and using rescue approaches we demonstrate that c-Abl promotes invasion through a STAT3 → MMP-1 pathway. Additionally, we show that c-Abl and Arg are not merely redundant, as active Arg drives invasion in a STAT3-independent manner, and upregulates MMP-3 and MT1-MMP, in addition to MMP-1. Most importantly, c-Abl and Arg not only promote in vitro processes important for melanoma progression, but also promote metastasis in vivo, as inhibition of c-Abl/Arg kinase activity with the c-Abl/Arg inhibitor, nilotinib, dramatically inhibits metastasis in a mouse model. Taken together, these data identify c-Abl and Arg as critical, novel, drug targets in metastatic melanoma, and indicate that nilotinib may be useful in preventing metastasis in patients with melanomas harboring active c-Abl and Arg.

  19. Nuclear Nonhistone Proteins in Murine Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, Muriel A.; Mcguire, Joseph S.; Shansky, Janet E.; Boshes, Roger A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear nonhistone proteins (NHP's) have been implicated as regulatory agents involved in controlling genetic expression. Utilizing murine melanoma cells, we describe a method for isolating and fractionating NHP's which greatly increases the yield of these proteins as well as the level of resolution required for detecting small differences in particular NHP's. Mouse melanoma cells were grown in medium labeled with [3H]leucine. Following 48 hr of incubation, the cells were harvested and nuclei isolated. The NHP's were extracted from the nuclei in a series of steps which yielded four major fractions: NHP1, NHP2, NHP3, NHP4. This method solubilized 80-90% of the protein from the nuclear homogenate. The NHP fractions were then separated on DEAE-cellulose columns in a series of salt steps increasing in concentration from 0.05 to 0.50 M NaCl, followed by steps of 2 M NaCl and 4 and 7 M guanidine-hydrochloride. The 40 NHP fractions eluted from these columns were further separated on polyacrylamide-SDS gels and ranged in molecular weight from 9000 to 110,000 daltons. Differences were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of each of these 40 fractions. The high resolution of these fractionation procedures greatly enhances the possibility of observing small changes in proteins which may play a role in gene regulation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 5 PMID:997593

  20. Internalization and intracellular trafficking of poly(propylene imine) glycodendrimers with maltose shell in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Filimon, A; Sima, L E; Appelhans, D; Voit, B; Negroiu, G

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma by means of the formulation of active principles with dendrimeric nanoparticles is an area of great current interest. The identification and understanding of molecular mechanisms which ensure the integration of particular dendrimeric nanostructures in tumor cellular environment can provide valuable guidance in their coupling strategies with antitumor or diagnostic agents. Two structurally distinct maltose-shell modified 5th generation (G5) poly(propylene imine) (PPI) glycodendrimers fluorescently labeled, (a) with open maltose shell, cationic charged G5-PPI-OS and (b) with dense maltose shell and nearly neutral G5-PPI-DS, were tested in relation with several melanoma cell lines. We found that three melanoma cell lines internalize G5-PPI-DS structure more efficiently than non tumoral HEK297T cells. Furthermore, the internalization pathways of G5-PPI-OS and G5-PPI-DS are characteristic for each tumor cell phenotype and include more than one mechanism. As a general trend, large amounts of both G5-PPI-OS and G5-PPI-DS are internalized on cholesterol-dependent pathway in MJS primary melanoma cells and on non conventional pathways in SK28 metastatic melanoma cells. G5-PPI-OS, temporarily retained at plasma membrane in both cell lines, is internalized slower in metastatic than in primary phenotype. Unlike G5-PPI-OS, G5-PPI-DS is immediately endocytosed in both cell lines. The unconventional internalization pathway and trafficking, exclusively used by G5-PPI-DS in metastatic cells, is described at molecular level. The decay kinetics of fluorescent labeled G5-PPI-OS and G5-PPI-DS is distinct in the two cellular phenotypes. Both cationic and neutral maltose G5-PPI glycodendrimeric structures represent molecules based on which designing of new formulations for therapy or/and diagnosis of melanoma can be further developed.

  1. miR-17 regulates melanoma cell motility by inhibiting the translation of ETV1.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ronit; Greenberg, Eyal; Nemlich, Yael; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2015-08-07

    Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy with a high metastatic potential. microRNA-17 (miR-17) is a member of the oncogenic miR-17/92 cluster. Here we study the effect of miR-17 on melanoma cell motility. Over expression of the mature or pri-microRNA form of miR-17 in WM-266-4 and 624mel melanoma lines enhances cell motility, evident in both wound healing and transwell migration assays. TargetScan algorithm predicts the PEA3-subfamily member ETV1 as a direct target of miR-17. Indeed, a 3-4-fold decrease of ETV1 protein levels are observed following miR-17 transfection into the various melanoma lines, with no significant change in ETV1 mRNA expression. Dual luciferase experiments demonstrate direct binding of miR-17 to the 3'-untranslated region of ETV1, confirmed by abolishing point mutations in the putative binding site. These combined results suggest regulation of ETV1 by miR-17 by a direct translational repression. Further, in both melanoma cell lines ETV1 knockdown by selective siRNA successfully pheno-copies the facilitated cell migration, while overexpression of ETV1 inhibits cell motility and migration. Altered ETV1 expression does not affect melanoma net-proliferation. In conclusion, we show a new role for miR-17 in melanoma, facilitating cell motility, by targeting the translation of ETV1 protein, which may support the development of metastasis.

  2. Knockdown of lecithin retinol acyltransferase increases all-trans retinoic acid levels and restores retinoid sensitivity in malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Czaja, Katharina; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Rühl, Ralph; Skazik, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Marquardt, Yvonne; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M

    2014-11-01

    Retinoids such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) influence cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis and may play decisive roles in tumor development and progression. An essential retinoid-metabolizing enzyme known as lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is expressed in melanoma cells but not in melanocytes catalysing the esterification of all-trans retinol (ATRol). In this study, we show that a stable LRAT knockdown (KD) in the human melanoma cell line SkMel23 leads to significantly increased levels of the substrate ATRol and biologically active ATRA. LRAT KD restored cellular sensitivity to retinoids analysed in cell culture assays and melanoma 3D skin models. Furthermore, ATRA-induced gene regulatory mechanisms drive depletion of added ATRol in LRAT KD cells. PCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation of retinoid-regulated genes such as CYP26A1 and STRA6 in LRAT KD cells, suggesting their possible involvement in mediating retinoid resistance in melanoma cells. In conclusion, LRAT seems to be important for melanoma progression. We propose that reduction in ATRol levels in melanoma cells by LRAT leads to a disturbance in cellular retinoid level. Balanced LRAT expression and activity may provide protection against melanoma development and progression. Pharmacological inhibition of LRAT activity could be a promising strategy for overcoming retinoid insensitivity in human melanoma cells.

  3. Ophiobolin A Induces Autophagy and Activates the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodolfo, Carlo; Rocco, Mariapina; Cattaneo, Lucia; Tartaglia, Maria; Sassi, Mauro; Aducci, Patrizia; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Ophiobolin A, a fungal toxin from Bipolaris species known to affect different cellular processes in plants, has recently been shown to have anti-cancer activity in mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Ophiobolin A on human melanoma A375 and CHL-1 cell lines. This cellular model was chosen because of the incidence of melanoma malignant tumor on human population and its resistance to chemical treatments. Ophyobolin A strongly reduced cell viability of melanoma cells by affecting mitochondrial functionality. The toxin induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial network fragmentation, leading to autophagy induction and ultimately resulting in cell death by activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Finally, a comparative proteomic investigation on A375 cells allowed to identify several Ophiobolin A down-regulated proteins, which are involved in fundamental processes for cell homeostasis and viability. PMID:27936075

  4. New Sesquiterpene Lactone Dimer, Uvedafolin, Extracted from Eight Yacon Leaf Varieties (Smallanthus sonchifolius): Cytotoxicity in HeLa, HL-60, and Murine B16-F10 Melanoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Yurika; Hayashi, Kana; Otsuka, Moe; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Senoo, Tatsuya; Ishii, Tomohiko; Sakane, Genta; Sugiura, Makoto; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-12-23

    Uvedafolin, 1, a new sesquiterpene lactone dimer, was isolated from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius with five related compounds, 2-6, and their cytotoxicity was assessed against three tumor cell lines (HeLa, HL-60, B16-F10 melanoma). The stereostructure of 1 was newly elucidated by ESI-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Dimers 1 and 2 had the most effective IC50 values, 0.2-1.9 μM, against the three tumor cell lines when compared with monomers 3-6 (IC50 values 0.7-9.9 μM) and etoposide (IC50 values 0.8-114 μM). The ester linkages of two sets of monomers, uvedalin, 5, and sonchifolin, 6, for 1, and enhydrin, 4, and sonchifolin, 6, for 2, as well as the acetyl group at the C-9 position, were essential for the high cytotoxicity. Dimers 1 and 2 would have potential as anticancer agents.

  5. Metapristone (RU486 derivative) inhibits cell proliferation and migration as melanoma metastatic chemopreventive agent.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Chen, Jiahang; Liu, Weiqun; Wang, Jichuang; Liu, Jian; Jia, Lee

    2017-04-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and metastasis are the two well-known manifestations of melanoma. We hypothesized that metapristone, a potential cancer metastatic chemopreventive agent derived from mifepristone (RU486), had a dual function to fight cancer. In the present study, our findings clearly demonstrated that metapristone had modest cytostatic effect in melanoma cells. Metapristone inhibited cell viability and induced both early and late apoptosis in B16F10 and A375 cells in a time- and concentrate-dependent manner. Metapristone-treatment caused the cell arrest at the G0/G1 stage, and the inhibition of colony formation in B16F10 cells. Western blot analysis further revealed that metapristone treatment elicited a decline of Akt and ERK phosphorylation and Bcl-2, and facilitated expression of total P53 and Bax in A375 cells. In addition, cell migration and invasion were significantly suppressed by metapristone through down-regulating the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin and vimentin, whereas up-regulating E-cadherin expression. Notably, metapristone exhibited anti-metastatic activity in melanoma B16F10 cells in vivo. Our results reveal metapristone, having the dual function of anti-proliferation and anti-migration for melanoma cell lines, may be a useful chemopreventive agent to reduce the risk of melanoma cancer metastasis.

  6. Glucose transporter isoform 1 expression enhances metastasis of malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Andreas; Lang, Sven Arke; Wild, Peter Johannes; Gantner, Susanne; Mahli, Abdo; Spanier, Gerrit; Berneburg, Mark; Müller, Martina; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT1; SLC2A1) is a key rate-limiting factor in the transport of glucose into cancer cells. Enhanced GLUT1 expression and accelerated glycolysis have been found to promote aggressive growth in a range of tumor entities. However, it was unknown whether GLUT1 directly impacts metastasis. Here, we aimed at analyzing the expression and function of GLUT1 in malignant melanoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of 78 primary human melanomas on a tissue micro array showed that GLUT1 expression significantly correlated with the mitotic activity and a poor survival. To determine the functional role of GLUT1 in melanoma, we stably suppressed GLUT1 in the murine melanoma cell line B16 with shRNA. GLUT1 suppressed melanoma cells revealed significantly reduced proliferation, apoptosis resistance, migratory activity and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression. In a syngeneic murine model of hepatic metastasis, GLUT1-suppressed cells formed significantly less metastases and showed increased apoptosis compared to metastases formed by control cells. Treatment of four different human melanoma cell lines with a pharmacological GLUT1 inhibitor caused a dose-dependent reduction of proliferation, apoptosis resistance, migratory activity and MMP2 expression. Analysis of MAPK signal pathways showed that GLUT1 inhibition significantly decreased JNK activation, which regulates a wide range of targets in the metastatic cascade. In summary, our study provides functional evidence that enhanced GLUT1 expression in melanoma cells favors their metastatic behavior. These findings specify GLUT1 as an attractive therapeutic target and prognostic marker for this highly aggressive tumor. PMID:26293674

  7. Anti-melanoma activity of the 9.2.27PE immunotoxin in dacarbazine resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Oystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    We have earlier shown that the 9.2.27 Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) immunotoxin (IT) efficiently kills melanoma cells through inhibition of protein synthesis followed by some morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis, a different cell killing mechanism than the one caused by Dacarbazine (DTIC), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat malignant melanoma. To examine whether induced DTIC resistance also is a determining factor for the effectiveness of 9.2.27PE IT, we developed a DTIC resistant subline, FEMX-200DR, from the DTIC sensitive cell line FEMX. The cell variants were treated with 9.2.27PE, an IT binding to the high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen (HMW-MAA) expressed on most malignant melanoma cells. The IT was equally effective in killing the FEMX-200DR and the FEMX cells, and the cell death was primarily caused by inhibition of protein synthesis. The DNA repair enzyme and apoptotic marker PARP, a substrate of caspase-3, was inactivated, although we observed only a minor activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, intracellular proteases involved in apoptosis. In addition to being DTIC resistant, the FEMX-200DR cells were also more resistant to apoptosis than the parent cells as a 3 times higher concentration of the apoptotic inducer Staurosporine was needed to obtain IC50. Furthermore, in early passage malignant melanoma cell lines established from lymph node metastases, the 9.2.27PE caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent decrease in cell viability independent of their DTIC sensitivity. These findings show that the 9.2.27PE IT efficiently can cause cell death in malignant melanoma cells independent of their level of resistance to apoptosis and DTIC.

  8. Calpain-3 Impairs Cell Proliferation and Stimulates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Cell Death in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Daniele; Del Bello, Barbara; Allavena, Giulia; Corti, Alessandro; Signorini, Cinzia; Maellaro, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Calpain-3 is an intracellular cysteine protease, belonging to Calpain superfamily and predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. In human melanoma cell lines and biopsies, we previously identified two novel splicing variants (hMp78 and hMp84) of Calpain-3 gene (CAPN3), which have a significant lower expression in vertical growth phase melanomas and, even lower, in metastases, compared to benign nevi. In the present study, in order to investigate the pathophysiological role played by the longer Calpain-3 variant, hMp84, in melanoma cells, we over-expressed it in A375 and HT-144 cells. In A375 cells, the enforced expression of hMp84 induces p53 stabilization, and modulates the expression of a few p53- and oxidative stress-related genes. Consistently, hMp84 increases the intracellular production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), which lead to oxidative modification of phospholipids (formation of F2-isoprostanes) and DNA damage. Such events culminate in an adverse cell fate, as indicated by the decrease of cell proliferation and by cell death. To a different extent, either the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the p53 inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, recover cell viability and decrease ROS formation. Similarly to A375 cells, hMp84 over-expression causes inhibition of cell proliferation, cell death, and increase of both ROS levels and F2-isoprostanes also in HT-144 cells. However, in these cells no p53 accumulation occurs. In both cell lines, no significant change of cell proliferation and cell damage is observed in cells over-expressing the mutant hMp84C42S devoid of its enzymatic activity, suggesting that the catalytic activity of hMp84 is required for its detrimental effects. Since a more aggressive phenotype is expected to benefit from down-regulation of mechanisms impairing cell growth and survival, we envisage that Calpain-3 down-regulation can be regarded as a novel mechanism contributing to melanoma progression. PMID:25658320

  9. Melanoma cells produce multiple laminin isoforms and strongly migrate on α5 laminin(s) via several integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yuko; Hansson, Johan; Sasaki, Takako; Rousselle, Patricia; Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    Melanoma cells express and interact with laminins (LMs) and other basement membrane components during invasion and metastasis. In the present study we have investigated the production and migration-promoting activity of laminin isoforms in melanoma. Immunohistochemistry of melanoma specimens and immunoprecipitation/western blotting of melanoma cell lines indicated expression of laminin-111/121, laminin-211, laminin-411/421, and laminin-511/521. Laminin-332 was not detected. In functional assays, laminin-111, laminin-332, and laminin-511, but not laminin-211 and laminin-411, strongly promoted haptotactic cell migration either constitutively or following stimulation with insulin-like growth factors. Both placenta and recombinant laminin-511 preparations were highly active, and the isolated recombinant IVa domain of LMα5 also promoted cell migration. Function-blocking antibodies in cell migration assays revealed α6β1 integrin as the major receptor for laminin-111, and both α3β1 and α6β1 integrins for laminin-332 and laminin-511. In contrast, isolated LMα5 IVa domain-promoted melanoma cell migration was largely mediated via αVβ3 integrin and inhibited by RGD peptides. Given the ubiquitous expression of α5 laminins in melanoma cells and in melanoma-target tissues/anatomical structures, as well as the strong migration-promoting activity of these laminin isoforms, the α5 laminins emerge as putative primary extracellular matrix mediators of melanoma invasion and metastasis via α3β1 and other integrin receptors.

  10. A novel compound which sensitizes BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib in a TRIM16-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Selina K.; Carter, Daniel R.; Kim, Patrick; Tan, Owen; Arndt, Greg M.; Zhang, Xu Dong; Baell, Jonathan; Noll, Benjamin D.; Wang, Shudong; Kumar, Naresh; McArthur, Grant A.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for better therapeutic options for advanced melanoma patients, particularly those without the BRAFV600E/K mutation. In melanoma cells, loss of TRIM16 expression is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, while the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, induces melanoma cell growth arrest in a TRIM16-dependent manner. Here we identify a novel small molecule compound which sensitized BRAF wild-type melanoma cells to vemurafenib. High throughput, cell-based, chemical library screening identified a compound (C012) which significantly reduced melanoma cell viability, with limited toxicity for normal human fibroblasts. When combined with the BRAFV600E/K inhibitor, vemurafenib, C012 synergistically increased vemurafenib potency in 5 BRAFWT and 4 out of 5 BRAFV600E human melanoma cell lines (Combination Index: CI < 1), and, dramatically reduced colony forming ability. In addition, this drug combination was significantly anti-tumorigenic in vivo in a melanoma xenograft mouse model. The combination of vemurafenib and C012 markedly increased expression of TRIM16 protein, and knockdown of TRIM16 significantly reduced the growth inhibitory effects of the vemurafenib and C012 combination. These findings suggest that the combination of C012 and vemurafenib may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of melanoma, and, that reactivation of TRIM16 may be an effective strategy for patients with this disease. PMID:27447557

  11. Tumor-promoting effects of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Polini, Beatrice; Montagnani, Valentina; Podestà, Adriano; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Romanini, Antonella; Stecca, Barbara; Nieri, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The role of endocannabinoid system in melanoma development and progression is actually not fully understood. This study was aimed at clarifying whether cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptor may function as tumor-promoting or -suppressing signal in human cutaneous melanoma. CB1 receptor expression was measured in human melanoma cell lines by real-time PCR. A genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in selected melanoma cells was carried out by using three different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Performance of target gene silencing was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of CB1 receptor silencing on cell growth, clonogenicity, migration capability, cell cycle progression, and activation of mitogenic signals was tested. Lentiviral shRNAs vectors targeting different regions of the human CB1 gene led to a significant reduction in CB1 receptor mRNA and a near complete loss of CB1 receptor protein, compared to control vector (LV-c). The number of viable cells, the colony-forming ability and cell migration were significantly reduced in cells transduced with CB1 lentiviral shRNAs compared to LV-c. Cell cycle analyses showed arrest at G1/S phase. p-Akt and p-ERK expression were decreased in transduced versus control cells. Findings of this study suggest that CB1 receptor might function as tumor-promoting signal in human cutaneous melanoma.

  12. Enrichment of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) using negative selection from patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Powrnima; Jacobs, Barbara; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Moore, Lee R.; Elson, Paul; Triozzi, Pierre L.; Borden, Ernest; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in the treatment of metastatic cancers of epithelial origins viz., breast, colorectal and prostate. These tumors express Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) on their cell surface which is used as an antigen for immunoaffinity capture. However, EpCAM capture technologies are of limited utility for non-epithelial cancers such as melanoma. We report a method to enrich Circulating Melanoma Cells (CMCs) that does not presuppose malignant cell characteristics. CMCs were enriched by centrifugation of blood samples from healthy (N = 10) and patient (N = 11) donors, followed by RBC lysis and immunomagnetic depletion of CD45-positive leukocytes in a specialized magnetic separator. CMCs were identified by immunocytochemistry using Melan-A or S100B as melanoma markers and enumerated using automated microscopy image analyses. Separation was optimized for maximum sensitivity and recovery of CMCs. Our results indicate large number of CMCs in Stage IV melanoma patients. Analysis of survival suggested a trend toward decreased survival with increased number of CMCs. Moreover, melanoma-associated miRs were found to be higher in CMC-enriched fractions in two patients when compared with the unseparated samples, validating this method as applicable for molecular analyses. Negative selection is a promising approach for isolation of CMCs and other EpCAM -negative CTCs, and is amenable to molecular analysis of CMCs. Further studies are required to validate its efficacy at capturing specific circulating cells for genomic analysis, and xenograft studies. PMID:24811334

  13. Enrichment of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) using negative selection from patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Powrnima; Jacobs, Barbara; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Moore, Lee R; Elson, Paul; Triozzi, Pierre L; Borden, Ernest; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-05-15

    Circulating tumor cells have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in the treatment of metastatic cancers of epithelial origins viz., breast, colorectal and prostate. These tumors express Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) on their cell surface which is used as an antigen for immunoaffinity capture. However, EpCAM capture technologies are of limited utility for non-epithelial cancers such as melanoma. We report a method to enrich Circulating Melanoma Cells (CMCs) that does not presuppose malignant cell characteristics. CMCs were enriched by centrifugation of blood samples from healthy (N = 10) and patient (N = 11) donors, followed by RBC lysis and immunomagnetic depletion of CD45-positive leukocytes in a specialized magnetic separator. CMCs were identified by immunocytochemistry using Melan-A or S100B as melanoma markers and enumerated using automated microscopy image analyses. Separation was optimized for maximum sensitivity and recovery of CMCs. Our results indicate large number of CMCs in Stage IV melanoma patients. Analysis of survival suggested a trend toward decreased survival with increased number of CMCs. Moreover, melanoma-associated miRs were found to be higher in CMC-enriched fractions in two patients when compared with the unseparated samples, validating this method as applicable for molecular analyses. Negative selection is a promising approach for isolation of CMCs and other EpCAM -negative CTCs, and is amenable to molecular analysis of CMCs. Further studies are required to validate its efficacy at capturing specific circulating cells for genomic analysis, and xenograft studies.

  14. MicroRNA-193b Represses Cell Proliferation and Regulates Cyclin D1 in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Paré, Geneviève C.; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G.W.; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by ≥50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3′untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development. PMID:20304954

  15. HSPB1 deficiency sensitizes melanoma cells to hyperthermia induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He-Xiao; Yang, Yang; Guo, Hao; Hou, Dian-Dong; Zheng, Song; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Cai, Yun-Fei; Huo, Wei; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia has shown clinical potency as a single agent or as adjuvant to other therapies in cancer treatment. However, thermotolerance induced by thermosensitive genes such as the heat shock proteins can limit the efficacy of hyperthermic treatment. In the present study, we identified HSPB1 (HSP27) is hyperthermically inducible or endogenously highly expressed in both murine and human melanoma cell lines. We used a siRNA strategy to reduce HSPB1 levels and showed increased intolerance to hyperthermia via reduced cell viability and/or proliferation of cells. In the investigation of underlying mechanisms, we found knock down of HSPB1 further increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in hyperthermic treated melanoma cells when compared with either single agent alone, and both agents leaded to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 or G2/M phases. We concluded that hyperthermia combined with silencing of HSPB1 enhanced cell death and resulted in failure to thrive in melanoma cell lines, implying the potential clinical utility of hyperthermia in combination with HSPB1 inhibition in cancer treatment. PMID:27626679

  16. Melanoma cells inhibit natural killer cell function by modulating the expression of activating receptors and cytolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Gabriella; Manzini, Claudia; Rivara, Silvia; Vitale, Massimo; Cantoni, Claudia; Petretto, Andrea; Balsamo, Mirna; Conte, Romana; Benelli, Roberto; Minghelli, Simona; Solari, Nicola; Gualco, Marina; Queirolo, Paola; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2012-03-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in tumor immune surveillance. However, adoptive immunotherapy protocols using NK cells have shown limited clinical efficacy to date, possibly due to tumor escape mechanisms that inhibit NK cell function. In this study, we analyzed the effect of coculturing melanoma cells and NK cells on their phenotype and function. We found that melanoma cells inhibited the expression of major NK receptors that trigger their immune function, including NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D, with consequent impairment of NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity against various melanoma cell lines. This inhibitory effect was primarily mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Together, our findings suggest that immunosuppressive barriers erected by tumors greatly hamper the antitumor activity of human NK cells, thereby favoring tumor outgrowth and progression.

  17. Adenovirus-Mediated FKHRL1/TM Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E.; McNally, Lacey R.; Nitz, Jonathan; McMasters, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melanoma exhibits variable resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We evaluated the potential of adenovirus expressing forkhead human transcription factor like 1 triple mutant (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ. Four melanoma cell lines were treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ, alone or in combination. Apoptosis was assessed by activation and inhibition of caspase pathway, nuclei fragmentation, and annexin V staining. The potential therapeutic efficacy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ was also assessed in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. Combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ resulted in greater cell killing (<20% cell viability) compared with single therapy and controls (p<0.05). Combination indices of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ therapy indicated significant (p<0.05) synergistic killing effect. Greater apoptosis induction was found in cells treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ than with Ad-FKHRL1/TM or TMZ-treated cells alone. Treatment with TMZ enhanced adenovirus transgene expression in a cell type-dependent manner. In an in vivo model, combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ results in greater tumor growth reduction in comparison with single treatments. We suggest that Ad-FKHRL1/TM is a promising vector to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ, and that a combination of both approaches would be effective in the clinical setting. PMID:25238278

  18. In vitro melanoma cell growth after preenucleation radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneally, C.Z.; Farber, M.G.; Smith, M.E.; Devineni, R.

    1988-02-01

    The in vitro efficacy of 20 Gy (2000 rad) of external beam irradiation delivered to patients with choroidal melanomas prior to enucleation was investigated in 11 patients whose tumors were grown in cell culture. Phase-contrast microscopy was used to compare growth patterns between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. Cell types were determined by histologic stains, and electron microscopy identified intracytoplasmic melanin. Irradiated melanomas did not grow and did not attach to culture flasks, thus demonstrating that preenucleation irradiation alters the in vitro growth of melanoma cells.

  19. Melanoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... flat or raised, large or small, light or dark, and can appear anywhere on our bodies. Sometimes, ... can still get melanoma even if they're dark skinned, young, and have no family history. Even ...

  20. Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafal; Zegarska, Barbara; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Statins are considered potential candidate agents for melanoma chemoprevention. Statin-induced mevalonate pathway inhibition leads to reduction of cholesterol synthesis and also to decreased cellular levels of non-steroidal isoprenoids, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate. This results in the impairment of protein prenylation which affects carcinogenesis. Aim To analyze anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity of rosuvastatin against melanoma cells. Material and methods Melanoma cell lines (A375 and WM1552C) and normal fibroblasts (BJ) were used as the primary research material. Cells were treated with rosuvastatin at concentrations ranging from 0.01 µM to 10 µM. Cell viability was analyzed with the use of an MTT assay. Expression of proliferation marker Ki67 was assessed on the basis of immunofluorescence staining. Results Rosuvastatin reduced A375 and BJ cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 72 h incubation, the IC50, half maximal inhibitory concentration, was 2.3 µM for melanoma cells and 7.4 µM for normal fibroblasts. In turn, rosuvastatin exhibited relatively lower activity against WM1552C cells. A significant reduction of Ki67 expression was also noted for BJ fibroblasts after prolonged incubation with the tested drug. Conclusions The results indicate that the anti-melanoma properties of rosuvastatin are highly dependent on the tumor cell line assessed. However, the concentrations required to decrease melanoma cell viability in vitro exceed the plasma concentrations reached in patients treated with rosuvastatin at well-tolerated doses. What is more disturbing, reduction of proliferation and viability observed in BJ fibroblasts indicated that rosuvastatin at high doses may be toxic for normal cells. PMID:27605895

  1. Identification of a Cell Surface Protein, p97, in Human Melanomas and Certain Other Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodbury, Richard G.; Brown, Joseph P.; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Hellstrom, Ingegerd; Hellstrom, Karl Erik

    1980-04-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL 28, and their spleen cells were fused with mouse NS-1 myeloma cells. Hybrid cells were tested in an indirect 125I-labeled protein A assay for production of antibodies that bound to surface antigens of SK-MEL 28 melanoma cells but not to autologous skin fibroblasts. One hybridoma, designated 4.1, had the required specificity. It was cloned and grown in mice as an ascites tumor. The monoclonal IgG1 antibody produced by the hybridoma was purified from the ascites fluid and labeled with 125I. The labeled antibody bound, at significant levels, to approximately 90% of the melanomas tested and to approximately 55% of other tumor cells, but not to three B-lymphoblastoid cell lines or to cultivated fibroblasts from 15 donors. Immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis were used to detect the target antigen in 125I-labeled cell membranes of both cultivated cells and tumor biopsy samples. A protein with a molecular weight of 97,000 was identified. This protein, designated p97, was present in both cultured cells and biopsy material from melanomas and certain other tumors, but it was not detected in eight different samples of normal adult epithelial or mesenchymal tissues obtained from five donors.

  2. Targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in combination with dacarbazine or TRAIL in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Engesæter, Birgit O; Sathermugathevan, Menaka; Hellenes, Tina; Engebråten, Olav; Holm, Ruth; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M

    2011-07-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor with an exceptional ability to develop resistance and no curative therapy is available for patients with distant metastatic disease. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family has been related to therapy resistance in cancer. We examined the importance of the IAPs in the resistance to the commonly used chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine (DTIC) and the apoptosis inducer TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) in malignant melanoma. The data presented show that the expression of IAPs is universal, concomitant and generally high in melanoma cell lines and in patient samples. Depleting IAP expression by siRNA tended to reduce cell viability, with XIAP reduction being the most efficient in all four cell lines examined (FEMX-1, LOX, SKMEL-28 and WM115). The combined treatment of XIAP siRNA and DTIC showed a weak improvement in two of four cell lines, while all four cell lines showed enhanced sensitivity towards TRAIL (AdhCMV-TRAIL) after XIAP depletion. In addition, cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and survivin down-regulation sensitized to TRAIL treatment in several of the cell lines. Cells exposed to TRAIL and XIAP siRNA showed increased DNA-fragmentation and cleavage of Bid, procaspase-8, -9, -7 and -3 and PARP, and change in the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, indicating an enhanced level of apoptosis. Furthermore, the combined treatment reduced the ability of melanoma cells to engraft and form tumors in mice, actualizing the combination for future therapy of malignant melanoma.

  3. Boron uptake in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells and boron biodistribution study in mice bearing B16F10 melanoma for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo Rogério Pinto; Arruda-Neto, João Dias Toledo; Camillo, Maria Aparecida Pires; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo Souza; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-08-01

    Information on (10)B distribution in normal tissues is crucial to any further development of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo boron biodistribution in B16F10 murine melanoma and normal tissues as a model for human melanoma treatment by a simple and rapid colorimetric method, which was validated by HR-ICP-MS. The B16F10 melanoma cell line showed higher melanin content than human melanocytes, demonstrating a greater potential for boronophenylalanine uptake. The melanocytes showed a moderate viability decrease in the first few minutes after BNCT application, stabilizing after 75 min, whereas the B16F10 melanoma showed the greatest intracellular boron concentration at 150 min after application, indicating a different boron uptake of melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Moreover, at this time, the increase in boron uptake in melanoma cells was approximately 1.6 times higher than that in normal melanocytes. The (10)B concentration in the blood of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma increased until 90 min after BNCT application and then decreased after 120 min, and remained low until the 240th minute. On the other hand, the (10)B concentration in tumors was increased from 90 min and maximal at 150 min after application, thus confirming the in vitro results. Therefore, the present in vitro and in vivo study of (10)B uptake in normal and tumor cells revealed important data that could enable BNCT to be possibly used as a treatment for melanoma, a chemoresistant cancer associated with high mortality.

  4. NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Shuya; Arakawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Ayaka; Shigeeda, Wataru; Yasuhira, Shinji; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Akasaka, Toshihide; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression. PMID:27045471

  5. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K.; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892

  6. Cryptotanshinone induces melanoma cancer cells apoptosis via ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and impairs cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tinghong; Zhu, Shirui; Zhu, Yongxia; Feng, Qiang; He, Bing; Xiong, Yiong; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yiwen; Yu, Luoting; Yang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer because it is highly frequency of drug resistance and can spread earlier and more quickly than other skin cancers. The objective of this research was to investigate the anticancer effects of cryptotanshinone on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that cryptotanshinone could inhibit cell proliferation in human melanoma cell lines A2058, A375, and A875 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, flow cytometry assay showed that cryptotanshinone inhibited the proliferation of human melanoma cell line A375 by blocking cell cycle progression in G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, western blot analysis indicated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with upregulation of cleaved caspases-3 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax while downregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Meanwhile, cryptotanshinone could decrease the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, cryptotanshinone also blocked A375 cell migration and invasion in vitro which was associated with the downregulation with MMP-9. Taken together, these results suggested that cryptotanshinone might be a potential drug in human melanoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis via ROS-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and blocking cell migration and invasion.

  7. Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gershenwald, J E

    2001-01-01

    The presentations at the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2001 meeting reported or updated the results of phase I, II, and III randomized trials and also reported important meta-analyses and retrospective studies impacting on the management of patients with melanoma. In the treatment of early stage melanoma, the prognostic significance of pathologic status of sentinel lymph nodes was affirmed. With respect to regional nodal involvement (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage III), investigators presented the interim results of the United Kingdom randomized low-dose interferon (IFN) trial, and up-to-date meta-analyses of several IFN trials including a pooled analysis of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials evaluating interferon in the adjuvant setting. In the advanced disease setting (AJCC stage IV), several studies elucidated the pros and cons of biochemotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma, with an emphasis on seeking to improve response in the central nervous system and durability of response in general. Thought provoking was new data regarding the potential for lovastatin to act as a chemopreventive agent for melanoma. Translational studies were presented, one supporting the importance of HLA-typing in developing targeted vaccine therapy. Finally, the results of a novel experimental melanoma vaccine were presented using autologous tumor-derived heat-shock protein peptide complex-96 (HSPPC-96).

  8. Transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI) is an anti-adhesive protein regulating the invasive growth of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Pirjo; Lammi, Johanna; Soikkeli, Johanna; Saksela, Olli; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Hölttä, Erkki

    2012-04-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy characterized by high invasive/metastatic potential, with no efficient therapy after metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive/metastatic tendency is therefore important. Our genome-wide gene expression analyses revealed that human melanoma cell lines WM793 and especially WM239 (vertical growth phase and metastatic cells, respectively) overexpress the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein transforming growth factor β induced (TGFBI). In adhesion assays, recombinant TGFBI was strongly anti-adhesive for both melanoma cells and skin fibroblasts. TGFBI further impaired the adhesion of melanoma cells to the adhesive ECM proteins fibronectin, collagen-I, and laminin, known to interact with it. Unexpectedly, WM239 cells migrated/invaded more effectively in three-dimensional collagen-I and Matrigel cultures after knockdown of TGFBI by shRNA expression. However, in the physiological subcutaneous microenvironment in nude mice, after TGFBI knockdown, these cells showed markedly impaired tumor growth and invasive capability; the initially formed small tumors later underwent myxoid degeneration and completely regressed. By contrast, the expanding control tumors showed intense TGFBI staining at the tumor edges, co-localizing with the fibrillar fibronectin/tenascin-C/periostin structures that characteristically surround melanoma cells at invasion fronts. Furthermore, TGFBI was found in similar fibrillar structures in clinical human melanoma metastases as well, co-localizing with fibronectin. These data imply an important role for TGFBI in the ECM deposition and invasive growth of melanoma cells, rendering TGFBI a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

  9. Extracellular acidity strengthens mesenchymal stem cells to promote melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Peppicelli, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Toti, Alessandra; Laurenzana, Anna; Fibbi, Gabriella; Calorini, Lido

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) participate to tumor stroma development and several evidence suggests that they play a role in facilitating cancer progression. Because melanoma often shows extracellular pH low enough to influence host cell as tumor cell behavior, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether acidity affects cross talk between MSC and melanoma cells to disclose new liaisons promoting melanoma progression, and to offer new therapeutic opportunities. We found that MSC grown in a low pH medium (LpH-MSC) stimulate melanoma xenografts more than MSC grown in a standard pH medium. LpH-MSC express a higher level of TGFβ that is instrumental of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype induction in melanoma cells. LpH-MSC profile also shows a switching to an oxidative phosphorylation metabolism that was accompanied by a forced glycolytic pathway of melanoma cells grown in LpH-MSC-conditioned medium. Metformin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory chain was able to reconvert oxidative metabolism and abrogate TGFβ expression in LpH-MSC. In addition, esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor activated in acidosis, blocked TGFβ expression in LpH-MSC through the downregulation of IkB. Both agents, metformin and esomeprazole, inhibited EMT profile in melanoma cells grown in LpH-MSC medium, and reduced glycolytic markers. Thus, acidosis of tumor microenvironment potentiates the pro-tumoral activity of MSC and orchestrates for a new potential symbiosis, which could be target to limit melanoma progression. PMID:26496168

  10. Melanoma stem cells: not rare, but well done.

    PubMed

    Girouard, Sasha D; Murphy, George F

    2011-05-01

    Since the identification of self-renewing cells in the hematopoietic system, stem cells have transformed the study of medicine. Cancer biologists have identified stem-like cells in multiple malignancies, including those of solid organs. This has led to the development of a stem cell theory of cancer, which purports that a subpopulation of self-renewing tumor cells is responsible for tumorigenesis. This contrasts with the stochastic model of tumor development, which advances that all tumor cells are capable of tumor formation. Within the field of melanoma, the identity and existence of cancer stem cells has been the subject of recent debate. Much of the controversy may be traced to differences in interpretations and definitions related to the cancer stem cell theory, and the use of dissimilar methodologies to study melanoma cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells may exist in melanoma, although their frequency may vary and they may be capable of phenotypic plasticity. Importantly, these primitive melanoma cells are not only capable of self-renewal and differentiation plasticity, but also may confer virulence via immune evasion and multidrug resistance, and potentially via vasculogenic mimicry and transition to migratory and metastasizing derivatives. Therapeutic targeting of melanoma stem cells and the pathways that endow them with virulence hold promise for the design of more effective strategies for amelioration and eradication of this most lethal form of skin cancer.

  11. Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4) Is Highly Expressed in Human Melanoma Tissues and May Function to Restrict Normal Differentiation of Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Yuval; Wu, Hong; Patel, Shayan; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Katz, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma tissues and cell lines are heterogeneous, and include cells with invasive, proliferative, stem cell-like, and differentiated properties. Such heterogeneity likely contributes to the aggressiveness of the disease and resistance to therapy. One model suggests that heterogeneity arises from rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) that produce distinct cancer cell lineages. Another model suggests that heterogeneity arises through reversible cellular plasticity, or phenotype-switching. Recent work indicates that phenotype-switching may include the ability of cancer cells to dedifferentiate to a stem cell-like state. We set out to investigate the phenotype-switching capabilities of melanoma cells, and used unbiased methods to identify genes that may control such switching. We developed a system to reversibly synchronize melanoma cells between 2D-monolayer and 3D-stem cell-like growth states. Melanoma cells maintained in the stem cell-like state showed a striking upregulation of a gene set related to development and neural stem cell biology, which included SRY-box 2 (SOX2) and Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4). A gene set related to cancer cell motility and invasiveness was concomitantly downregulated. Intense and pervasive ID4 protein expression was detected in human melanoma tissue samples, suggesting disease relevance for this protein. SiRNA knockdown of ID4 inhibited switching from monolayer to 3D-stem cell-like growth, and instead promoted switching to a highly differentiated, neuronal-like morphology. We suggest that ID4 is upregulated in melanoma as part of a stem cell-like program that facilitates further adaptive plasticity. ID4 may contribute to disease by preventing stem cell-like melanoma cells from progressing to a normal differentiated state. This interpretation is guided by the known role of ID4 as a differentiation inhibitor during normal development. The melanoma stem cell-like state may be protected by factors such as ID4, thereby potentially identifying a

  12. Etoposide-Bevacizumab a new strategy against human melanoma cells expressing stem-like traits

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Maura; Bianchini, Francesca; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Becatti, Matteo; Giannoni, Elisa; Chiarugi, Paola; Calorini, Lido

    2016-01-01

    Tumors contain a sub-population of self-renewing and expanding cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Putative CSCs were isolated from human melanoma cells of a different aggressiveness, Hs294T and A375 cell lines, grown under hypoxia using “sphere-forming assay”, CD133 surface expression and migration ability. We found that a cell sub-population enriched for P1 sphere-initiating ability and CD133 expression also express larger amount of VEGF-R2. Etoposide does not influence phenotype of this sub-population of melanoma cells, while a combined treatment with Etoposide and Bevacizumab significantly abolished P1 sphere-forming ability, an effect associated with apoptosis of this subset of cells. Hypoxic melanoma cells sorted for VEGF-R2/CD133 positivity also undergo apoptosis when exposed to Etoposide and Bevacizumab. When Etoposide and Bevacizumab-treated hypoxic cells were injected intravenously into immunodeficient mice revealed a reduced capacity to induce lung colonies, which also appear with a longer latency period. Hence, our study indicates that a combined exposure to Etoposide and Bevacizumab targets melanoma cells endowed with stem-like properties and might be considered a novel approach to treat cancer-initiating cells. PMID:27303923

  13. Dual Processing of FAT1 Cadherin Protein by Human Melanoma Cells Generates Distinct Protein Products*

    PubMed Central

    Sadeqzadeh, Elham; de Bock, Charles E.; Zhang, Xu Dong; Shipman, Kristy L.; Scott, Naomi M.; Song, Chaojun; Yeadon, Trina; Oliveira, Camila S.; Jin, Boquan; Hersey, Peter; Boyd, Andrew W.; Burns, Gordon F.; Thorne, Rick F.

    2011-01-01

    The giant cadherin FAT1 is one of four vertebrate orthologues of the Drosophila tumor suppressor fat. It engages in several functions, including cell polarity and migration, and in Hippo signaling during development. Homozygous deletions in oral cancer suggest that FAT1 may play a tumor suppressor role, although overexpression of FAT1 has been reported in some other cancers. Here we show using Northern blotting that human melanoma cell lines variably but universally express FAT1 and less commonly FAT2, FAT3, and FAT4. Both normal melanocytes and keratinocytes also express comparable FAT1 mRNA relative to melanoma cells. Analysis of the protein processing of FAT1 in keratinocytes revealed that, like Drosophila FAT, human FAT1 is cleaved into a non-covalent heterodimer before achieving cell surface expression. The use of inhibitors also established that such cleavage requires the proprotein convertase furin. However, in melanoma cells, the non-cleaved proform of FAT1 is also expressed at the cell surface together with the furin-cleaved heterodimer. Moreover, furin-independent processing generates a potentially functional proteolytic product in melanoma cells, a persistent 65-kDa membrane-bound cytoplasmic fragment no longer in association with the extracellular fragment. In vitro localization studies of FAT1 showed that melanoma cells display high levels of cytosolic FAT1 protein, whereas keratinocytes, despite comparable FAT1 expression levels, exhibited mainly cell-cell junctional staining. Such differences in protein distribution appear to reconcile with the different protein products generated by dual FAT1 processing. We suggest that the uncleaved FAT1 could promote altered signaling, and the novel products of alternate processing provide a dominant negative function in melanoma. PMID:21680732

  14. Upregulated MicroRNA-25 Mediates the Migration of Melanoma Cells by Targeting DKK3 through the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jia; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Ruilian; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jiawen; Zhang, Dingwei

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that microRNA-25 (miR-25) regulates carcinogenesis and the progression of various cancers, but the role of miR-25 in melanoma remains unclear. We observed that miR-25 was significantly upregulated in melanoma cell lines and tissue samples. Downregulation of miR-25 markedly suppressed invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro; however, overexpression of miR-25 markedly increased melanoma cell invasion and proliferation. Moreover, we observed Dickkopf-related protein 3 (DKK3) as a direct target of miR-25 in vitro. Upregulation of DKK3 partially attenuated the oncogenic effect of miR-25 on melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of miR-25 in melanoma cells induced β-catenin accumulation in nuclear and inhibited TCF4 (T cell factor 4) activity, as well as the expression of c-Myc and Cyclin D1. In a nude xenograft model, miR-25 upregulation significantly increased A375 melanoma growth. In summary, miR-25 is upregulated in melanoma and promotes melanoma cell proliferation and invasion, partially by targeting DKK3. These results were indicated that miR-25 may serve as a potential target for the treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:27801786

  15. Upregulated MicroRNA-25 Mediates the Migration of Melanoma Cells by Targeting DKK3 through the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jia; Zhang, Yanfei; Li, Ruilian; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jiawen; Zhang, Dingwei

    2016-10-27

    Previous research indicates that microRNA-25 (miR-25) regulates carcinogenesis and the progression of various cancers, but the role of miR-25 in melanoma remains unclear. We observed that miR-25 was significantly upregulated in melanoma cell lines and tissue samples. Downregulation of miR-25 markedly suppressed invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro; however, overexpression of miR-25 markedly increased melanoma cell invasion and proliferation. Moreover, we observed Dickkopf-related protein 3 (DKK3) as a direct target of miR-25 in vitro. Upregulation of DKK3 partially attenuated the oncogenic effect of miR-25 on melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of miR-25 in melanoma cells induced β-catenin accumulation in nuclear and inhibited TCF4 (T cell factor 4) activity, as well as the expression of c-Myc and Cyclin D1. In a nude xenograft model, miR-25 upregulation significantly increased A375 melanoma growth. In summary, miR-25 is upregulated in melanoma and promotes melanoma cell proliferation and invasion, partially by targeting DKK3. These results were indicated that miR-25 may serve as a potential target for the treatment of melanoma in the future.

  16. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Manel B.; Montenegro, María F.; Sánchez-del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  17. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F; Menter, David G; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels, and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1-specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy.

  18. Photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine-folic acid conjugate adsorbed on single walled carbon nanotubes on melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbodu, Racheal O.; Ndhundhuma, Ivy; Karsten, Aletta; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-01

    This work reports on the photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine linked to folic acid represented as ZnMAPc-FA, which was further immobilized onto single walled carbon nanotube represented as ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT on melanoma A375 cell line, the effect of SWCNT-FA (without ZnMAPc) was also examined. All the compounds were non-toxic to the melanoma A375 cell line in the absence of light. Upon irradiation of the melanoma A375 cell line with a 676 nm diode laser at a power density of 98 mW/cm2 at 5 J/cm2 about 60% and 63% cell death was observed in the presence of ZnMAPc-FA and ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT respectively. SWCNT-FA had no significant photodynamic therapy or photothermal effect to the cell, only 23% of cell death was observed after irradiation.

  19. A Subset of Nuclear Receptors are Uniquely Expressed in Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kenneth Edward; Carstens, Ryan; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is recognized as the most common intraocular malignancy and the second most common form of melanoma. Nearly 50% of UM patients develop untreatable and fatal metastases. The 48-member nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily represents a therapeutically targetable group of transcription factors known for their regulation of key cancer pathways in numerous tumor types. Here, we profiled the expression of the 48 human NRs by qRT-PCR across a melanoma cell line panel including 5 UM lines, 9 cutaneous melanoma (CM) lines, and normal primary melanocytes. NR expression patterns identified a few key features. First, in agreement with our past studies identifying RXRg as a CM-specific marker, we found that UM cells also exhibit high levels of RXRg expression, making it a universal biomarker for melanoma tumors. Second, we found that LXRb is highly expressed in both UM and CM lines, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic target in a UM metastatic setting as it has been in CM models. Third, we found that RARg, PPARd, EAR2, RXRa, and TRa expressions could subdivide UM from CM. Previous studies of UM cancers identified key mutations in three genes: GNAQ, GNA11, and BRAF. We found unique NR expression profiles associated with each of these UM mutations. We then performed NR-to-NR and NR-to-genome expression correlation analyses to find potential NR-driven transcriptional programs activated in UM and CM. Specifically, RXRg controlled gene networks were identified that may drive melanoma-specific signaling and metabolism. ERRa was identified as a UM-defining NR and genes correlated with its expression confirm the role of ERRa in metabolic control. Given the plethora of available NR agonists, antagonists, and selective receptor modulators, pharmacologic manipulation of these NRs and their transcriptional outputs may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of key UM pathways and how we can leverage them for better therapeutic alternatives. PMID:26217306

  20. Melanoma cells undergo aggressive coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model that is repressed by anti-CD44.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Deborah; Lusche, Daniel F; Voss, Edward; Kuhl, Spencer; Buchele, Emma C; Klemme, Michael R; Russell, Kanoe B; Ambrose, Joseph; Soll, Benjamin A; Bossler, Aaron; Milhem, Mohammed; Goldman, Charles; Soll, David R

    2017-01-01

    Using unique computer-assisted 3D reconstruction software, it was previously demonstrated that tumorigenic cell lines derived from breast tumors, when seeded in a 3D Matrigel model, grew as clonal aggregates which, after approximately 100 hours, underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells, eventually forming a highly structured large spheroid. Non-tumorigenic cells did not undergo coalescence. Because histological sections of melanomas forming in patients suggest that melanoma cells migrate and coalesce to form tumors, we tested whether they also underwent coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model. Melanoma cells exiting fragments of three independent melanomas or from secondary cultures derived from them, and cells from the melanoma line HTB-66, all underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells in the 3D model. Normal melanocytes did not. However, coalescence of melanoma cells differed from that of breast-derived tumorigenic cell lines in that they 1) coalesced immediately, 2) underwent coalescence as individual cells as well as aggregates, 3) underwent coalescence far faster and 4) ultimately formed long, flat, fenestrated aggregates that were extremely dynamic. A screen of 51 purified monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting cell surface-associated molecules revealed that two mAbs, anti-beta 1 integrin/(CD29) and anti-CD44, blocked melanoma cell coalescence. They also blocked coalescence of tumorigenic cells derived from a breast tumor. These results add weight to the commonality of coalescence as a characteristic of tumorigenic cells, as well as the usefulness of the 3D Matrigel model and software for both investigating the mechanisms regulating tumorigenesis and screening for potential anti-tumorigenesis mAbs.

  1. Melanoma cells undergo aggressive coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model that is repressed by anti-CD44

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Edward; Kuhl, Spencer; Buchele, Emma C.; Klemme, Michael R.; Russell, Kanoe B.; Ambrose, Joseph; Soll, Benjamin A.; Bossler, Aaron; Milhem, Mohammed; Goldman, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Using unique computer-assisted 3D reconstruction software, it was previously demonstrated that tumorigenic cell lines derived from breast tumors, when seeded in a 3D Matrigel model, grew as clonal aggregates which, after approximately 100 hours, underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells, eventually forming a highly structured large spheroid. Non-tumorigenic cells did not undergo coalescence. Because histological sections of melanomas forming in patients suggest that melanoma cells migrate and coalesce to form tumors, we tested whether they also underwent coalescence in a 3D Matrigel model. Melanoma cells exiting fragments of three independent melanomas or from secondary cultures derived from them, and cells from the melanoma line HTB-66, all underwent coalescence mediated by specialized cells in the 3D model. Normal melanocytes did not. However, coalescence of melanoma cells differed from that of breast-derived tumorigenic cell lines in that they 1) coalesced immediately, 2) underwent coalescence as individual cells as well as aggregates, 3) underwent coalescence far faster and 4) ultimately formed long, flat, fenestrated aggregates that were extremely dynamic. A screen of 51 purified monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting cell surface-associated molecules revealed that two mAbs, anti-beta 1 integrin/(CD29) and anti-CD44, blocked melanoma cell coalescence. They also blocked coalescence of tumorigenic cells derived from a breast tumor. These results add weight to the commonality of coalescence as a characteristic of tumorigenic cells, as well as the usefulness of the 3D Matrigel model and software for both investigating the mechanisms regulating tumorigenesis and screening for potential anti-tumorigenesis mAbs. PMID:28264026

  2. Stem cell properties in cell cultures from different stage of melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Cristina; Giudice, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Longo, Caterina; Veratti, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Benassi, Luisa; Vaschieri, Cristina; Azzoni, Paola; De Pol, Anto; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Pollio, Annamaria; Ponti, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an extremely heterogenous human cancer. The most aggressive melanoma may contain deregulated cells with undifferentiated/stem cell-like phenotype. A critical mechanism by which melanoma cells enhance their invasive capacity is the dissolution of the intercellular adhesion and the acquisition of mesenchymal features as a part of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of a stem cell-like population in human melanomas by means of melanocytic cell culture analysis obtained from distinct histotypes of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma. Patients with advanced melanoma >2 cm in diameter and/or >300 mm surface were enrolled. The melanoma cells were isolated from skin biopsies of lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. The colony forming unit assay and alkaline phosphatase stain were evaluated. Cells were subsequently cultured and maintained in different media to evaluate their ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed to evaluate antigenic markers CD90, CD73, CD105, CD146, CD20, CD166, and Nestin. This study confirms that melanoma can include heterogenous cell populations with the ability both to self-renew and to a give rise to differentiated progeny. Melanoma cells displayed intratumoral heterogeneity and dynamic antigen phenotypes. Histologically, transitions from normal skin to melanoma were associated with a gradual increase in the expression of CD146, CD20, CD133, Nestin, and CD73. These molecular profiles could be further analyzed and, in the future, used for the development of novel biomolecular targeted-therapy approaches.

  3. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  4. First-line treatment of metastatic melanoma: role of nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Force, Jeremy; Salama, April KS

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the median overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients was less than 1 year and long-term survivors were rare. Recent advances in therapies have dramatically shifted this landscape with increased survival rates and the real possibility that long-term disease control is achievable. Advances in immune modulators, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 based treatments, have been an integral part of this success. In this article, we review previous and recent therapeutic developments for metastatic melanoma patients. We discuss advances in immunotherapy while focusing on the use of nivolumab alone and in combination with other agents, including ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. One major goal in melanoma research is to optimize combination strategies allowing for more patients to experience benefit while minimizing toxicity. A better understanding of the optimal sequencing, combinations, and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance may provide evidence for rational clinical trial designs of novel immunotherapy strategies in melanoma and other cancer subtypes. PMID:28243579

  5. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma.

  6. HLA-G expression in melanoma: A way for tumor cells to escape from immunosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Pascale; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Khalil-Daher, Iman; Moreau, Philippe; Riteau, Beatrice; Le Gal, Frederique Anne; Avril, Marie Francoise; Dausset, Jean; Guillet, Jean Gerard; Carosella, Edgardo D.

    1998-01-01

    Considering the well established role of nonclassical HLA-G class I molecules in inhibiting natural killer (NK) cell function, the consequence of abnormal HLA-G expression in malignant cells should be the escape of tumors from immunosurveillance. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed HLA-G expression and NK sensitivity in human malignant melanoma cells. Our analysis of three melanoma cell lines and ex vivo biopsy demonstrated that (i) IGR and M74 human melanoma cell lines exhibit a high level of HLA-G transcription with differential HLA-G isoform transcription and protein expression patterns, (ii) a higher level of HLA-G transcription ex vivo is detected in a skin melanoma metastasis biopsy compared with a healthy skin fragment from the same individual, and (iii) HLA-G protein isoforms other than membrane-bound HLA-G1 protect IGR from NK lysis. It thus appears of critical importance to consider the specific role of HLA-G expression in tumors in the design of future cancer immunotherapies. PMID:9539768

  7. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  8. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and invasion in A2058 melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, C.M.; Murphy, K.A.; Akintobi, A.; White, L.A. . E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu

    2006-02-01

    There has been a 34% increase in melanoma related mortality in the United States from 1973 to 1992. Although few successful treatments for malignant melanoma exist, it is known that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors contribute to the initiation and progression of melanoma. Excessive UV exposure is considered the main etiological factor in melanoma initiation, however, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to environmental carcinogens contribute to melanoma. We propose that exposure to environmental chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway contribute to melanoma progression, specifically through stimulation of the expression and activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Therefore, we investigated the effect of AhR activation on normal human melanocytes and several melanoma cell lines. The data presented here demonstrate that normal melanocytes and melanoma cells express the AhR and Arnt and are responsive to activation by TCDD. Furthermore, activation of this pathway in transformed melanoma cells (A2058) results in increased expression and activity of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as increased invasion using in vitro invasion assays. Furthermore, TCDD-induced expression of the MMP-1 promoter in melanoma cells appears to require different elements than those required in untransformed cells, indicating that this pathway may have multiple mechanisms for activation of MMP expression.

  9. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  10. Fasting boosts sensitivity of human skin melanoma to cisplatin-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Fernanda; Corazzari, Marco; Pereira, Gustavo; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Smaili, Soraya

    2017-03-25

    Melanoma is one of leading cause of tumor death worldwide. Anti-cancer strategy includes combination of different chemo-therapeutic agents as well as radiation; however these treatments have limited efficacy and induce significant toxic effects on healthy cells. One of most promising novel therapeutic approach to cancer therapy is the combination of anti-cancer drugs with calorie restriction. Here we investigated the effect Cisplatin (CDDP), one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors, in association with fasting in wild type and mutated BRAF(V600E) melanoma cell lines. Here we show that nutrient deprivation can consistently enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cell death induction by CDDP, also of those malignancies particularly resistant to any treatment, such as oncogenic BRAF melanomas. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combined therapy induced cell death is characterized by ROS accumulation and ATF4 in the absence of ER-stress. In addition, we show that autophagy is not involved in the enhanced sensitivity of melanoma cells to combined CDDP/EBSS-induced apoptosis. While, the exposure to 2-DG further enhanced the apoptotic rate observed in SK Mel 28 cells upon treatment with both CDDP and EBSS.

  11. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  12. Acute and Long-Term Effects of Hyperthermia in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mónica Pereira; Cavalheiro, José Roberto Tinoco; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hyperthermia uses exogenous heat induction as a cancer therapy. This work addresses the acute and long-term effects of hyperthermia in the highly metastatic melanoma cell line B16-F10. Materials and Methods Melanoma cells were submitted to one heat treatment, 45°C for 30 min, and thereafter were kept at 37°C for an additional period of 14 days. Cultures maintained at 37°C were used as control. Cultures were assessed for the heat shock reaction. Results Immediately after the heat shock, cells began a process of fast degradation, and, in the first 24 h, cultures showed decreased viability, alterations in cell morphology and F-actin cytoskeleton organization, significant reduction in the number of adherent cells, most of them in a process of late apoptosis, and an altered gene expression profile. A follow-up of two weeks after heat exposure showed that viability and number of adherent cells remained very low, with a high percentage of early apoptotic cells. Still, heat-treated cultures maintained a low but relatively constant population of cells in S and G2/M phases for a long period after heat exposure, evidencing the presence of metabolically active cells. Conclusion The melanoma cell line B16-F10 is susceptible to one hyperthermia treatment at 45°C, with significant induced acute and long-term effects. However, a low but apparently stable percentage of metabolically active cells survived long after heat exposure. PMID:22532856

  13. Melanoma Cell Adhesion and Migration Is Modulated by the Uronyl 2-O Sulfotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Nikolovska, Katerina; Spillmann, Dorothe; Haier, Jörg; Ladányi, Andrea; Stock, Christian; Seidler, Daniela G.

    2017-01-01

    Although the vast majority of melanomas are characterized by a high metastatic potential, if detected early, melanoma can have a good prognostic outcome. However, once metastasised, the prognosis is bleak. We showed previously that uronyl-2-O sulfotransferase (Ust) and 2-O sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) are involved in cell migration. To demonstrate an impact of 2-O sulfation in metastasis we knocked-down Ust in mouse melanoma cells. This significantly reduced the amount of Ust protein and enzyme activity. Furthermore, in vitro cell motility and adhesion were significantly reduced correlating with the decrease of cellular Ust protein. Single cell migration of B16VshUst(16) cells showed a decreased cell movement phenotype. The adhesion of B16V cells to fibronectin depended on α5β1 but not αvβ3 integrin. Inhibition of glycosaminoglycan sulfation or blocking fibroblast growth factor receptor (FgfR) reduced α5 integrin in B16V cell lines. Interestingly, FgfR1 expression and activation was reduced in Ust knock-down cells. In vivo, pulmonary metastasis of B16VshUst cells was prevented due to a reduction of α5 integrin. As a proof of concept UST knock-down in human melanoma cells also showed a reduction in ITGa5 and adhesion. This is the first study showing that Ust, and consequently 2-O sulfation of the low affinity receptor for FgfR CS/DS, reduces Itga5 and leads to an impaired adhesion and migration of melanoma cells. PMID:28107390

  14. Induction of arginosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression affects the antiproliferative activity of arginine deiminase (ADI) in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Manca, Antonella; Sini, Maria Cristina; Izzo, Francesco; Ascierto, Paolo A; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Botti, Gerardo; Gentilcore, Giusy; Capone, Marilena; Mozzillo, Nicola; Rozzo, Carla; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has been used in the treatment of tumours sensitive to arginine deprivation, such as malignant melanoma (MM) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Endogenous production of arginine is mainly dependent on activity of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzymes. We evaluated the effect of ADI treatment on OTC and ASS expression in a series of melanoma cell lines. Twenty-five primary melanoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts as controls underwent cell proliferation assays and Western blot analyses in the presence or absence of ADI. Tissue sections from primary MMs (N = 20) and HCCs (N = 20) were investigated by immunohistochemistry for ASS expression. Overall, 21/25 (84%) MM cell lines presented a cell growth inhibition by ADI treatment; none of them presented constitutive detectable levels of the ASS protein. However, 7/21 (33%) ADI-sensitive melanoma cell lines presented markedly increased expression levels of the ASS protein following ADI treatment, with a significantly higher IC50 median value. Growth was not inhibited and the IC50 was not reached among the remaining 4/25 (16%) MM cell lines; all of them showed constitutive ASS expression. The OTC protein was found expressed in all melanoma cell lines before and after the ADI treatment. Lack of ASS immunostaining was observed in all analyzed in vivo specimens. Our findings suggest that response to ADI treatment in melanoma is significantly correlated with the ability of cells to express ASS either constitutively at basal level (inducing drug resistance) or after the treatment (reducing sensitivity to ADI).

  15. Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Piskounova, Elena; Agathocleous, Michalis; Murphy, Malea M.; Hu, Zeping; Huddlestun, Sara E.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancer cells commonly enter the blood and disseminate systemically but are highly inefficient at forming distant metastases for poorly understood reasons. We studied human melanomas that differed in their metastasis histories in patients and in their capacity to metastasize in NSG mice. All melanomas had high frequencies of cells that formed subcutaneous tumours, but much lower percentages of cells that formed tumours after intravenous or intrasplenic transplantation, particularly among inefficient metastasizers. Melanoma cells in the blood and visceral organs experienced oxidative stress not observed in established subcutaneous tumours. Successfully metastasizing melanomas underwent reversible metabolic changes during metastasis that increased their capacity to withstand oxidative stress, including increased dependence upon NADPH-generating enzymes in the folate pathway. Anti-oxidants promoted distant metastasis in NSG mice. Folate pathway inhibition using low-dose methotrexate, ALDH1L2 knockdown, or MTHFD1 knockdown inhibited distant metastasis without significantly affecting the growth of subcutaneous tumors in the same mice. Oxidative stress thus limits distant metastasis by melanoma cells in vivo. PMID:26466563

  16. HLA class I downregulation is associated with enhanced NK-cell killing of melanoma cells with acquired drug resistance to BRAF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sottile, Rosa; Pangigadde, Pradeepa N; Tan, Thomas; Anichini, Andrea; Sabbatino, Francesco; Trecroci, Francesca; Favoino, Elvira; Orgiano, Laura; Roberts, James; Ferrone, Soldano; Kärre, Klas; Colucci, Francesco; Carbone, Ennio

    2016-02-01

    The frequent development of drug resistance to targeted therapies in cancer patients has stimulated interest in strategies counteracting resistance. Combining immunotherapies with targeted therapies is one such strategy. In this context, we asked whether human NK cells can target melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to selective inhibitors targeting activating mutants of the B-Raf kinase (BRAF inhibitors, BRAFi). We generated drug-resistant cell variants in vitro from human BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines MEL-HO, COLO-38, SK-MEL-37, 1520 and from primary melanoma cells freshly isolated from two patients. All drug-resistant cell variants remained susceptible to lysis by IL-2-activated NK cells; and two BRAFi-resistant lines (BRAFi-R) became significantly more susceptible to NK-cell lysis than their parental lines. This was associated with significant HLA class I antigen downregulation and PD-L1 upregulation on the drug-resistant lines. Although blocking HLA class I enhanced the extent of lysis of both BRAFi-R and parental cells to NK-cell-mediated lysis, antibody-mediated inhibition of PD1-PD-L1 interactions had no detectable effect. HLA class I antigen expression on BRAFi-R melanoma variants thus appears to play a major role in their susceptibility to NK-cell cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NK-cell-based immunotherapy may be a viable approach to treat melanoma patients with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors.

  17. Honokiol inhibits melanoma stem cells by targeting notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Venugopal, Anand; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Umar, Shahid; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M V

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Here, we determined the effects of honokiol (HNK), a biphenolic natural compound on melanoma cells and stemness. HNK significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, viability, clonogenicity and induced autophagy. In addition, HNK significantly inhibited melanosphere formation in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses also demonstrated reduction in stem cell markers CD271, CD166, Jarid1b, and ABCB5. We next examined the effect of HNK on Notch signaling, a pathway involved in stem cell self-renewal. Four different Notch receptors exist in cells, which when cleaved by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Converting Enzyme (TACE) and γ-secretase protein complex, results in the release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in HNK treated cells there is a significant reduction in the expression of cleaved Notch-2. In addition, there was a reduction in the expression of downstream target proteins, Hes-1 and cyclin D1. Moreover, HNK treatment suppressed the expression of TACE and γ-secretase complex proteins in melanoma cells. To confirm that suppression of Notch-2 activation is critical for HNK activity, we overexpressed NICD1, NICD2, and performed HNK treatment. NICD2, but not NICD1, partially restored the expression of Hes-1 and cyclin D1, and increased melanosphere formation. Taken together, these data suggest that HNK is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cells, in part, through the targeting of melanoma stem cells by suppressing Notch-2 signaling.

  18. Fibroblast cell interactions with human melanoma cells affect tumor cell growth as a function of tumor progression.

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, I; Theodorescu, D; Man, S; Herlyn, M; Jambrosic, J; Kerbel, R S

    1991-01-01

    It is known from a variety of experimental systems that the ability of tumor cells to grow locally and metastasize can be affected by the presence of adjacent normal tissues and cells, particularly mesenchymally derived stromal cells such as fibroblasts. However, the comparative influence of such normal cell-tumor cell interactions on tumor behavior has not been thoroughly investigated from the perspective of different stages of tumor progression. To address this question we assessed the influence of normal dermal fibroblasts on the growth of human melanoma cells obtained from different stages of tumor progression. We found that the in vitro growth of most (4 out of 5) melanoma cell lines derived from early-stage radial growth phase or vertical growth phase metastatically incompetent primary lesions is repressed by coculture with normal dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that negative homeostatic growth controls are still operative on melanoma cells from early stages of disease. On the other hand, 9 out of 11 melanoma cell lines derived from advanced metastatically competent vertical growth phase primary lesions, or from distant metastases, were found to be consistently stimulated to grow in the presence of dermal fibroblasts. Evidence was obtained to show that this discriminatory fibroblastic influence is mediated by soluble inhibitory and stimulatory growth factor(s). Taken together, these results indicate that fibroblast-derived signals can have antithetical growth effects on metastatic versus metastatically incompetent tumor subpopulations. This resultant conversion in responsiveness to host tissue environmental factors may confer upon small numbers of metastatically competent cells a growth advantage, allowing them to escape local growth constraints both in the primary tumor site and at distant ectopic tissue sites. PMID:2068080

  19. Melanomas and Dysplastic Nevi Differ in Epidermal CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dyduch, Grzegorz; Tyrak, Katarzyna Ewa; Glajcar, Anna; Szpor, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7.00/mm2 for invasive melanomas, 2.94 for in situ melanomas, and 13.35 for dysplastic nevi. The differences between dysplastic nevi and melanoma in situ as well as between dysplastic nevi and invasive melanoma were significant. There was no correlation in number of positively stained cells between epidermis and dermis. We did not observe any intraepidermal DC-LAMP+ cells neither in melanoma in situ nor in invasive melanoma as well as any intraepidermal DC-SIGN+ cells in dysplastic nevi. Conclusion. It was shown that the number of dendritic cells differs between dysplastic nevi, in situ melanomas, and invasive melanomas. This could eventually suggest their participation in the development of melanoma. PMID:28331853

  20. Melanoma Proteoglycan Modifies Gene Expression to Stimulate Tumor Cell Motility, Growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Price, Matthew A.; Li, GuiYuan; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Salgia, Ravi; Jagedeeswaran, Ramasamy; Carlson, Jennifer H.; Ferrone, Soldano; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is a plasma membrane-associated proteoglycan that facilitates the growth, motility and invasion of tumor cells. MCSP expression in melanoma cells enhances integrin function and constitutive activation of Erk 1,2. The current studies were performed to determine the mechanism by which MCSP expression promotes tumor growth and motility. The results demonstrate that MCSP expression in radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) or metastatic cell lines causes sustained activation of Erk 1,2, enhanced growth and motility which all require the cytoplasmic domain of the MCSP core protein. MCSP expression in an RGP cell line also promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) based on changes in cell morphology and the expression of several EMT markers. Finally MCSP enhances the expression of c-Met and HGF, and inhibiting c-Met expression or activation limits the increased growth and motility of multiple melanoma cell lines. The studies collectively demonstrate an importance for MCSP in promoting progression by an epigenetic mechanism and they indicate that MCSP could be targeted to delay or inhibit tumor progression in patients. PMID:19738072

  1. Upregulation of miR-124 by physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside inhibits proliferation and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via repressing RLIP76.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Han, Yantao; Xu, Luo

    2016-12-01

    Melanoma is the most malignant type of skin cancer. In recent years, mounting studies have evidenced the involvement of miRNAs in melanoma. One of these miRNAs, miR-124 has been found aberrantly downregulated in a variety of human malignancies. In this study, our results showed that the expression of miR-124 was significantly lower in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines and miR-124 functioned as a tumor suppressor in melanoma. Moreover, our findings showed that miR-124 exerted anti-tumor effect by directly targeting RLIP76, a stress-inducible non-ABC transporter that plays a crucial role in the development of melanoma. Furthermore, our study also showed that physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside, a natural compound from medicinal plant, could inhibit the proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells by targeting miR-124/RLIP76 signaling.

  2. HLA class I downregulation is associated with enhanced NK‐cell killing of melanoma cells with acquired drug resistance to BRAF inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sottile, Rosa; Pangigadde, Pradeepa N.; Tan, Thomas; Anichini, Andrea; Sabbatino, Francesco; Trecroci, Francesca; Favoino, Elvira; Orgiano, Laura; Roberts, James; Ferrone, Soldano; Kärre, Klas; Colucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The frequent development of drug resistance to targeted therapies in cancer patients has stimulated interest in strategies counteracting resistance. Combining immunotherapies with targeted therapies is one such strategy. In this context, we asked whether human NK cells can target melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to selective inhibitors targeting activating mutants of the B‐Raf kinase (BRAF inhibitors, BRAFi). We generated drug‐resistant cell variants in vitro from human BRAF‐mutant melanoma cell lines MEL‐HO, COLO‐38, SK‐MEL‐37, 1520 and from primary melanoma cells freshly isolated from two patients. All drug‐resistant cell variants remained susceptible to lysis by IL‐2‐activated NK cells; and two BRAFi‐resistant lines (BRAFi‐R) became significantly more susceptible to NK‐cell lysis than their parental lines. This was associated with significant HLA class I antigen downregulation and PD‐L1 upregulation on the drug‐resistant lines. Although blocking HLA class I enhanced the extent of lysis of both BRAFi‐R and parental cells to NK‐cell‐mediated lysis, antibody‐mediated inhibition of PD1–PD‐L1 interactions had no detectable effect. HLA class I antigen expression on BRAFi‐R melanoma variants thus appears to play a major role in their susceptibility to NK‐cell cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NK‐cell‐based immunotherapy may be a viable approach to treat melanoma patients with acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. PMID:26564811

  3. Cell-type dependent response of melanoma cells to aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Radovic, J; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Timotijevic, G; Popadic, S; Ramic, Z; Trajkovic, V; Miljkovic, D; Stosic-Grujicic, S; Mijatovic, S

    2012-09-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of melanoma cells such as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), redox status, and activity of signaling pathways involved in proliferation, differentiation and cell death define the response of the cells to the diverse treatments. In this context we compared the effectiveness of herbal antaquinone aloe emodin (AE) against mouse B16 melanoma and human A375, different in initial activity of ERK1/2, constitutive iNOS expression and basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both cell lines are sensitive to AE treatment. However, while the agent induces differentiation of B16 cells toward melanocytes, in A375 cells promoted massive apoptosis. Differentiation of B16 cells, characterized by enhanced melanin production and tyrosinase activity, was mediated by H(2)O(2) production synchronized with rapid p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of cyclins D1 and D3. Caspase mediated apoptosis triggered in A375 cells was accompanied with Bcl-2 but not iNOS down-regulation. In addition, opposite regulation of Akt-ERK1/2 axis in AE treated B16 and A375 cells correlated with different outcome of the treatment. However, AE in a dose-dependent manner rescued both B16 and A375 cells from doxorubicin- or paclitaxel-induced killing. These data indicate that caution is warranted when AE is administrated to the patients with conventional chemotherapy.

  4. Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Mary J C; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Seftor, Richard E B; Chao, Jun-Tzu; Chien, Du-Shieng; Chu, Yi-Wen

    2016-03-01

    In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled "Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry" by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal's distinction of a "citation classic" (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phenotype and poor clinical outcome. The tumor cells capable of VM share the commonality of a stem cell-like, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since its introduction as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Of special significance is the lack of effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors on tumor cell VM, suggesting a selective resistance by this phenotype to conventional therapy. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, extracellular matrix, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways--each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. This review highlights seminal findings pertinent to VM, including the effects of a novel, small molecular compound, CVM-1118, currently under clinical development to target VM, and illuminates important molecular pathways involved in the suppression of this plastic, aggressive phenotype, using melanoma as a model.

  5. Targeting histone deacetylase 6 mediates a dual anti-melanoma effect: Enhanced antitumor immunity and impaired cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Villaroel, P.; Lee, C.; Cheng, F.; Knox, T.; Woods, D.M.; Barrios, K.; Powers, J.; Sahakian, E.; Wang, H.W.; Canales, J.; Marante, D.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Bergman, J.; Seto, E.; Kozikowski, A.; Pinilla-Ibarz, J.; Sarnaik, A.; Celis, E.; Weber, J.; Sotomayor, E.M.; Villagra, A.

    2015-01-01

    The median survival for metastatic melanoma is in the realm of 8–16 months and there are few therapies that offer significant improvement in overall survival. One of the recent advances in cancer treatment focuses on epigenetic modifiers to alter the survivability and immunogenicity of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that pan-HDAC inhibitors induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changes in the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Here we interrogated specific HDACs which may be responsible for this effect. We found that both genetic abrogation and pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC6 decreases in vitro proliferation and induces G1 arrest of melanoma cell lines without inducing apoptosis. Moreover, targeting this molecule led to an important upregulation in the expression of tumor associated antigens and MHC class I, suggesting a potential improvement in the immunogenicity of these cells. Of note, this anti-melanoma activity was operative regardless of mutational status of the cells. These effects translated into a pronounced delay of in vivo melanoma tumor growth which was, at least in part, dependent on intact immunity as evidenced by the restoration of tumor growth after CD4+ and CD8+ depletion. Given our findings, we provide the initial rationale for the further development of selective HDAC6 inhibitors as potential therapeutic anti-melanoma agents. PMID:25957812

  6. Inhibition of Src family kinases with dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Ralf; Mesa, Tania; Vultur, Adina; Lee, Frank; Jove, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Src family kinases (SFK) are involved in regulating a multitude of biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival, depending on the cellular context. Therefore, although SFKs are currently being investigated as potential targets for treatment strategies in various cancers, the biological responses to inhibition of SFK signaling in any given tumor type are not predictable. Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor with potent antiproliferative activity against hematologic malignancies harboring activated BCR-ABL. In this study, we show that dasatinib blocks migration and invasion of human melanoma cells without affecting proliferation and survival. Moreover, dasatinib completely inhibits SFK kinase activity at low nanomolar concentrations in all eight human melanoma cell lines investigated. In addition, two known downstream targets of SFKs, focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), are inhibited with similar concentrations and kinetics. Consistent with inhibition of these signaling pathways and invasion, dasatinib down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9. We also provide evidence that dasatinib directly inhibits kinase activity of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed and/or overactive in many solid tumors, including melanoma. Thus, SFKs and downstream signaling are implicated as having key roles in migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

  7. LncRNA GAS5 is a critical regulator of metastasis phenotype of melanoma cells and inhibits tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Yang, Huixin; Xiao, Yanbin; Tang, Xiaoxia; Li, Yuqian; Han, Qiaoqiao; Fu, Junping; Yang, Yuye; Zhu, Yuechun

    2016-01-01

    The present study intended to demonstrate the effects of long noncoding RNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) on the migration and invasion of melanoma cells. We first detected the expression of GAS5 among four kinds of melanoma cell lines, followed by constructing GAS5-knocked down and overexpressed stable cells. Next, we evaluated the effects of GAS5 on cell migration and invasion using wound healing and gelatin zymography assays. Finally, melanoma cells with different GAS5 expression were injected into nude mice, and the tumor volumes were recorded and tumor tissues were analyzed after sacrificing the mice. This study systematically examined the function of GAS5 in mediating melanoma metastasis and revealed that GAS5 plays an anticancer role in melanoma via regulating gelatinase A and B, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27445498

  8. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela; Pontis, Silvia; Basit, Abdul; Bach, Anders; Ganesan, Anand; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphingolipid signaling in melanoma. We found that AC expression is markedly elevated in normal human melanocytes and proliferative melanoma cell lines, compared with other skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) and non-melanoma cancer cells. High AC expression was also observed in biopsies from human subjects with Stage II melanoma. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the subcellular localization of AC differs between melanocytes (where it is found in both cytosol and nucleus) and melanoma cells (where it is primarily localized to cytosol). In addition to having high AC levels, melanoma cells generate lower amounts of ceramides than normal melanocytes do. This down-regulation in ceramide production appears to result from suppression of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. To test whether AC might contribute to melanoma cell proliferation, we blocked AC activity using a new potent (IC50 = 12 nm) and stable inhibitor. AC inhibition increased cellular ceramide levels, decreased sphingosine 1-phosphate levels, and acted synergistically with several, albeit not all, antitumoral agents. The results suggest that AC-controlled sphingolipid metabolism may play an important role in the control of melanoma proliferation. PMID:26553872

  9. Raman spectroscopy detects melanoma and the tissue surrounding melanoma using tissue-engineered melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Yorucu, Ceyla; Lau, Katherine; Mittar, Shweta; Green, Nicola H.; Raza, Ahtasham; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasion of melanoma cells from the primary tumor involves interaction with adjacent tissues and extracellular matrix. The extent of this interaction is not fully understood. In this study Raman spectroscopy was applied to cryo-sections of established 3D models of melanoma in human skin. Principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between the tumor and normal tissue and between the peri-tumor area and the normal skin. Two human melanoma cells lines A375SM and C8161 were investigated and compared in 3D melanoma models. Changes were found in protein conformations and tryptophan configurations across the entire melanoma samples, in tyrosine orientation and in more fluid lipid packing only in tumor dense areas, and in increased glycogen content in the peri-tumor areas of melanoma. Raman spectroscopy revealed changes around the perimeter of a melanoma tumor as well as detecting differences between the tumor and the normal tissue. PMID:27158185

  10. St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) photomedicine: hypericin-photodynamic therapy induces metastatic melanoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Kleemann, Britta; Loos, Benjamin; Scriba, Thomas J; Lang, Dirk; Davids, Lester M

    2014-01-01

    Hypericin, an extract from St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), is a promising photosensitizer in the context of clinical photodynamic therapy due to its excellent photosensitizing properties and tumoritropic characteristics. Hypericin-PDT induced cytotoxicity elicits tumor cell death by various mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy-related cell death. However, limited reports on the efficacy of this photomedicine for the treatment of melanoma have been published. Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor due to its metastasizing potential and resistance to conventional cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of melanoma cells to hypericin-PDT in an in vitro tissue culture model. Hypericin was taken up by all melanoma cells and partially co-localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and melanosomes, but not the nucleus. Light activation of hypericin induced a rapid, extensive modification of the tubular mitochondrial network into a beaded appearance, loss of structural details of the endoplasmic reticulum and concomitant loss of hypericin co-localization. Surprisingly the opposite was found for lysosomal-related organelles, suggesting that the melanoma cells may be using these intracellular organelles for hypericin-PDT resistance. In line with this speculation we found an increase in cellular granularity, suggesting an increase in pigmentation levels in response to hypericin-PDT. Pigmentation in melanoma is related to a melanocyte-specific organelle, the melanosome, which has recently been implicated in drug trapping, chemotherapy and hypericin-PDT resistance. However, hypericin-PDT was effective in killing both unpigmented (A375 and 501mel) and pigmented (UCT Mel-1) melanoma cells by specific mechanisms involving the externalization of phosphatidylserines, cell shrinkage and loss of cell membrane integrity. In addition, this treatment resulted in extrinsic (A375) and intrinsic (UCT

  11. St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) Photomedicine: Hypericin-Photodynamic Therapy Induces Metastatic Melanoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Britta; Loos, Benjamin; Scriba, Thomas J.; Lang, Dirk; Davids, Lester M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypericin, an extract from St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), is a promising photosensitizer in the context of clinical photodynamic therapy due to its excellent photosensitizing properties and tumoritropic characteristics. Hypericin-PDT induced cytotoxicity elicits tumor cell death by various mechanisms including apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy-related cell death. However, limited reports on the efficacy of this photomedicine for the treatment of melanoma have been published. Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor due to its metastasizing potential and resistance to conventional cancer therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of melanoma cells to hypericin-PDT in an in vitro tissue culture model. Hypericin was taken up by all melanoma cells and partially co-localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes and melanosomes, but not the nucleus. Light activation of hypericin induced a rapid, extensive modification of the tubular mitochondrial network into a beaded appearance, loss of structural details of the endoplasmic reticulum and concomitant loss of hypericin co-localization. Surprisingly the opposite was found for lysosomal-related organelles, suggesting that the melanoma cells may be using these intracellular organelles for hypericin-PDT resistance. In line with this speculation we found an increase in cellular granularity, suggesting an increase in pigmentation levels in response to hypericin-PDT. Pigmentation in melanoma is related to a melanocyte-specific organelle, the melanosome, which has recently been implicated in drug trapping, chemotherapy and hypericin-PDT resistance. However, hypericin-PDT was effective in killing both unpigmented (A375 and 501mel) and pigmented (UCT Mel-1) melanoma cells by specific mechanisms involving the externalization of phosphatidylserines, cell shrinkage and loss of cell membrane integrity. In addition, this treatment resulted in extrinsic (A375) and intrinsic (UCT

  12. Natural Killer Cell Recognition of Melanoma: New Clues for a More Effective Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, Raquel; Duran, Esther; Solana, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells participate in the early immune response against melanoma and also contribute to the development of an adequate adaptive immune response by their crosstalk with dendritic cells and cytokine secretion. Melanoma resistance to conventional therapies together with its high immunogenicity justifies the development of novel therapies aimed to stimulate effective immune responses against melanoma. However, melanoma cells frequently escape to CD8 T cell recognition by the down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. In this scenario, NK cells emerge as potential candidates for melanoma immunotherapy due to their capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma cells expressing low levels of MHC class I molecules. In addition, the possibility to combine immune checkpoint blockade with other NK cell potentiating strategies (e.g., cytokine induction of activating receptors) has opened new perspectives in the potential use of adoptive NK cell-based immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:26779186

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidai; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Song; Li, Guo; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma, one of the most common types of skin cancer, has a high mortality rate, mainly due to a high propensity for tumor metastasis. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a potential predictor for metastasis. Label-free imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo provides rich information on tumor progress. Here we present photoacoustic microscopy of single melanoma cells in living animals. We used a fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope to image the microvasculature in mouse ears. The imaging system has sub-cellular spatial resolution and works in reflection mode. A fast-scanning mirror allows the system to acquire fast volumetric images over a large field of view. A 500-kHz pulsed laser was used to image blood and CTCs. Single circulating melanoma cells were imaged in both capillaries and trunk vessels in living animals. These high-resolution images may be used in early detection of CTCs with potentially high sensitivity. In addition, this technique enables in vivo study of tumor cell extravasation from a primary tumor, which addresses an urgent pre-clinical need.

  14. B16 and cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells susceptibility to apoptosis after dacarbazine treatment.

    PubMed

    Olszewska-Słonina, Dorota M; Styczyńisk, Jan; Drewa, Tomasz A; Olszewski, Krzysztof J; Czajkowski, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    Considering the necessity of an individual choice of cytostatic drugs for patients with cancer disease and tumor cells' resistance to these compounds, their ability to induction of apoptosis should be investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dacarbazine (DTIC) on morphology and kinetics of proliferation of B16 and Cloudman S91 cells. It is important to determine the kind of death induced by the DTIC and the effect of a specific concentration. The evaluation of apoptosis and necrosis in these two mouse melanoma cell lines in vitro was performed. Induction of apoptosis was estimated in annexin V binding assay by flow cytometry. DNA content and cell cycle phases were determined by propidium iodide staining. DTIC induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis and necrosis in both cell lines. DTIC caused cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phase of both cell lines which showed hypertetraploidy. The highest induction of apoptosis was observed in DTIC concentration of 200 microg/mL for B16 cells (11%) and 100 microg/mL for apoptosis Cloudman S91 cells (22.2%). Higher doses of DTIC caused intensification of necrotic process. The B16 melanoma cells are more sensitive to DTIC than the Cloudman S91 cells, however more intensive apoptotic process was detected in Cloudman S91 cells already at lower concentration of DTIC.

  15. ETM study of electroporation influence on cell morphology in human malignant melanoma and human primary gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Skolucka, Nina; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Saczko, Jolanta; Chwilkowska, Agnieszka; Choromanska, Anna; Kotulska, Malgorzata; Kaminska, Iwona; Kulbacka, Julita

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate electroporation (EP) influence on malignant and normal cells. Methods Two cell lines including human malignant melanoma (Me-45) and normal human gingival fibroblast (HGFs) were used. EP parameters were the following: 250, 1 000, 1 750, 2 500 V/cm; 50 µs by 5 impulses for every case. The viability of cells after EP was estimated by MTT assay. The ultrastructural analysis was observed by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss EM 900). Results In the current study we observed the intracellular effect following EP on Me-45 and HGF cells. At the conditions applied, we did not observe any significant damage of mitochondrial activity in both cell lines treated by EP. Conversely, we showed that EP in some conditions can stimulate cells to proliferation. Some changes induced by EP were only visible in electron microscopy. In fibroblast cells we observed significant changes in lower parameters of EP (250 and 1 000 V/cm). After applying higher electric field intensities (2 500 V/cm) we detected many vacuoles, myelin-like bodies and swallowed endoplasmic reticulum. In melanoma cells such strong pathological modifications after EP were not observed, in comparison with control cells. The ultrastructure of both treated cell lines was changed according to the applied parameters of EP. Conclusions We can claim that EP conditions are cell line dependent. In terms of the intracellular morphology, human fibroblasts are more sensitive to electric field as compared with melanoma cells. Optimal conditions should be determined for each cell line. Summarizing our study, we can conclude that EP is not an invasive method for human normal and malignant cells. This technique can be safely applied in chemotherapy for delivering drugs into tumor cells. PMID:23569735

  16. Expression of basement membrane antigens in spindle cell melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prieto, V G; Woodruff, J M

    1998-07-01

    Spindle cell melanoma (SCM) is an uncommon form of melanoma that may be confused histologically with other tumors, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Tumors with neural differentiation and melanocytic nevi may both show basement membrane immunohistochemically and at the ultrastructural level. However, most ultrastructural studies of melanoma have failed to demonstrate well formed basement membrane around tumor cells. The presence of basement membrane has been used by some authors as evidence favoring MPNST, as opposed to SCM. To evaluate this distinction immunohistochemically, 22 primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas having a spindle cell component (SCM) were studied using monoclonal antibodies against laminin and Type IV collagen. S100 protein and HMB45 antigen expression were also studied. All but one of the SCM were reactive for S100 protein in at least 25% of the cells. Thirteen of 20 tumors (65%) were focally reactive with HMB45. Laminin was expressed in 42% of the tumors (only membranous pattern in 3; cytoplasmic and membranous in 5). Seventeen tumors (77%) expressed type IV collagen (only membranous pattern in 7; cytoplasmic and membranous pattern in 10). Laminin and type IV collagen, known components of basement membrane, are often found in SCM. Therefore, their detection cannot be used to distinguish SCM from MPNST.

  17. Human melanoma cells express FGFR/Src/Rho signaling that entails an adhesion-independent caveolin-1 membrane association.

    PubMed

    Fecchi, Katia; Travaglione, Sara; Spadaro, Francesca; Quattrini, Adriano; Parolini, Isabella; Piccaro, Giovanni; Raggi, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia; Felicetti, Federica; Carè, Alessandra; Fiorentini, Carla; Sargiacomo, Massimo

    2012-03-15

    Caveolae have been indicated as a center of cytoskeleton regulation for Src kinase/Rho GTPase signaling. In addition, Src recruitment on intact cortical actin cytoskeleton appears to be required for bFGF/FGFR signal activation. Recently, we established a relationship between caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression and cell migration in human malignant melanoma, constitutively activated by a bFGF autoregulatory loop. This work intends to investigate whether caveolae's asset, through bFGF/FGFR/c-Src/Rho signaling, could be related to melanoma cell anchorage. Accordingly, we revealed the existence of a FGFR/Src kinase pathway in Cav-1 enriched detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of Me665/1 metastatic melanoma cells, as confirmed by FGFR silencing. Moreover, we determined the expression and phosphorylation levels of Cav-1/Src/Erk signal pathway as a function of FGFR activation and cell density. A sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation was employed to monitor Cav-1 membrane association and buoyancy in Me665/1 cells treated for actin fragmentation or for altered phosphorylation signals. As a result, melanoma cells show remarkable resistance to Cav-1 disassembly, together with persisting cell signal activity, being Src and Cav-1 crucial modulators of Rho GTPases. In conclusion, our study primarily highlights, in a metastatic melanoma cell line expressing caveolin, the circumstances whereby caveola structural and functional endurance enables the FGFR/Src/Rho GTPases pathway to keep on cell progression.

  18. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Medic, Sandra; Rizos, Helen; Ziman, Mel

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. {yields} Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. {yields} Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. {yields} PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. {yields} Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

  19. Photoacoustic detection of metastatic melanoma cells in the human circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Weight, Ryan M; Viator, John A; Dale, Paul S; Caldwell, Charles W; Lisle, Allison E

    2006-10-15

    Detection of disseminating tumor cells among patients suffering from various types and stages of cancer can function as an early warning system, alerting the physician of the metastatic spread or recurrence of the disease. Early detection of such cells can result in preventative treatment of the disease, while late stage detection can serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. The prognostic value of exposing disseminating tumor cells poses an urgent need for an efficient, accurate screening method for metastatic cells. We propose a system for the detection of metastatic circulating tumor cells based on the thermoelastic properties of melanoma. The method employs photoacoustic excitation coupled with a detection system capable of determining the presence of disseminating cells within the circulatory system in vitro. Detection trials consisting of tissue phantoms and a human melanoma cell line resulted in a detection threshold of the order of ten individual cells, thus validating the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism. Results imply the potential to assay simple blood draws, from healthy and metastatic patients, for the presence of cancerous melanoma providing an unprecedented method for routine cancer screening.

  20. Photoacoustic detection of metastatic melanoma cells in the human circulatory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weight, Ryan M.; Viator, John A.; Dale, Paul S.; Caldwell, Charles W.; Lisle, Allison E.

    2006-10-01

    Detection of disseminating tumor cells among patients suffering from various types and stages of cancer can function as an early warning system, alerting the physician of the metastatic spread or recurrence of the disease. Early detection of such cells can result in preventative treatment of the disease, while late stage detection can serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. The prognostic value of exposing disseminating tumor cells poses an urgent need for an efficient, accurate screening method for metastatic cells. We propose a system for the detection of metastatic circulating tumor cells based on the thermoelastic properties of melanoma. The method employs photoacoustic excitation coupled with a detection system capable of determining the presence of disseminating cells within the circulatory system in vitro. Detection trials consisting of tissue phantoms and a human melanoma cell line resulted in a detection threshold of the order of ten individual cells, thus validating the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism. Results imply the potential to assay simple blood draws, from healthy and metastatic patients, for the presence of cancerous melanoma providing an unprecedented method for routine cancer screening.

  1. Downregulation of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-2 induces the autophagy of melanoma cells via AMPK/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Ou, Rongying; Zhang, Xueqi; Cai, Jianfeng; Shao, Xiaohong; Lv, Mingfen; Qiu, Wei; Xuan, Xuan; Liu, Jingjing; Li, Zhiming; Xu, Yunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and causes 50,000 deaths annually worldwide. The roles of proline-dependent process and autophagy have both been reported in studies on melanoma. In the present study, we focused on the effect of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-2 (PYCR2) on inducing autophagy process in melanoma. The expression of PYCR2 was regulated by an RNAi technique, and the cell proliferation of A375 cell line was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test; the effect of PYCR2 on the apoptosis process and AMPK/mTOR pathway was evaluated by flow cytometry assay and Western blot. It was found that silence of PYCR2 resulted in the decrease of proliferative ability and activation of AMPK/mTOR-induced autophagy of A375 cells. PYCR2 silencing also activated AMPK/mTOR pathway in another melanoma cell line, CHL-1. However, the overexpression of PYCR2 seemed to make no difference to the cell viability and targeted pathway. Our results offered a preliminary illustration on the mechanism of the PYCR2-dependent autophagy and showed that PYCR2 was a potential therapeutic target of melanoma.

  2. Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan as a new target antigen for CD4+ T cells in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Erfurt, Cornelia; Müller, Esther; Emmerling, Sonja; Klotz, Claudia; Hertl, Michael; Schuler, Gerold; Schultz, Erwin S

    2009-05-15

    Melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) (also known as high molecular weight-melanoma-associated antigen) represents an interesting target antigen for cancer immunotherapy which is expressed on human melanomas and other tumors such as breast carcinomas, gliomas, neuroblastomas and acute leukemias. MCSP seems to play an important functional role in melanoma as it is involved in tumor cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In this study, we isolated CD4(+) T helper cells from the blood of a healthy donor, recognizing a peptide from the MCSP core protein presented by HLA-DBR1*1101 molecules. T cell reactivity against the identified peptide could be detected in the blood of healthy donors and melanoma patients. MCSP specific T cells from the blood of a patient could be readily expanded by repeated peptide stimulation and recognized MCSP and HLA-DR expressing tumor cells. Our findings suggest that vaccination against MCSP helper T cell epitopes might be a promising approach to fight melanoma.

  3. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vachtenheim, Jiri; Ondrusova, Lubica; Borovansky, Jan

    2010-02-12

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for melanocyte development, maintenance of the melanocyte-specific transcription, and survival of melanoma cells. MITF positively regulates expression of more than 25 genes in pigment cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that expression of several MITF downstream targets requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, which contains one of the two catalytic subunits, Brm or Brg1. Here we show that the expression of MITF itself critically requires active SWI/SNF. In several Brm/Brg1-expressing melanoma cell lines, knockdown of Brg1 severely compromised MITF expression with a concomitant dowregulation of MITF targets and decreased cell proliferation. Although Brm was able to substitute for Brg1 in maintaining MITF expression and melanoma cell proliferation, sequential knockdown of both Brm and Brg1 in 501mel cells abolished proliferation. In Brg1-null SK-MEL-5 melanoma cells, depletion of Brm alone was sufficient to abrogate MITF expression and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of Brg1 or Brm to the promoter of MITF. Together these results demonstrate the essential role of SWI/SNF for expression of MITF and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a promissing target in melanoma therapy.

  4. Irradiation affects cellular properties and Eph receptor expression in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Doreen; Pietzsch, Jens

    2012-01-01

    X-ray irradiation influences metastatic properties of tumor cells and, moreover, metastasis and cellular motility can be modified by members of the Eph receptor/ephrin family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We hypothesized that irradiation-induced changes in cellular properties relevant for metastasis in melanoma cells could be mediated by Eph receptor/ephrin signaling. In this pilot study, we analyzed one pre-metastatic (Mel-Juso) and three metastatic human melanoma (Mel-Juso-L3, A375, and A2058) cells lines and predominantly found anti-metastatic effects of X-ray irradiation with impaired cell growth, clonal growth and motility. Additionally, we observed an irradiation-induced increase in adhesion paralleled by a decrease in migration in Mel-Juso and Mel-Juso-L3 cells and, in part, also in A375 cells. We further demonstrate a decrease of EphA2 both in expression and activity at 7 d after irradiation paralleled by an upregulation of EphA3. Analyzing downstream signaling after irradiation, we detected decreased Src kinase phosphorylation, but unchanged focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, indicating, in part, irradiation-induced downregulation of signaling via the EphA2-Src-FAK axis in melanoma cells. However, to which extent this finding contributes to the modification of metastasis-relevant cellular properties remains to be elucidated. PMID:22568947

  5. Restoration of E-cadherin sensitizes human melanoma cells for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Loitsch, Stefan; Thaçi, Diamant; Müller, Jutta; Guschel, Maike; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August

    2006-10-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is considered to be important in the development and maintenance of organ tissue. The spatial association between melanocytes and keratinocytes within human epidermis is achieved by homophilic interaction of E-cadherin molecules located on adjacent cells. In contrast, downregulation of E-cadherin expression in melanoma cells is considered as a key event in metastasis. Besides the adhesive properties, E-cadherin serves as a signal receptor linking to the cadherin-catenin signaling complex. As cadherins act as negative regulators of beta-catenin, a contribution to tumor formation seems likely. In the present study, it was tested whether ectopic expression of E-cadherin triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines (G-361, JPC-298, SK-Mel-13). It was found that restoration of E-cadherin caused sensitization against drug-induced apoptosis. Particularly, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c was increased in response to staurosporine. Moreover, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 was elevated. Similarly, DNA fragmentation, serving as a marker for advanced apoptosis, was amplified in cells transduced with E-cadherin. Interestingly, transduction with an E-cadherin construct lacking the extracellular domain showed no modified apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings suggest therapeutic strategies that enable expression of E-cadherin in order to sensitize human melanoma cells towards apoptosis.

  6. Induced melanin reduces mutations and cell killing in mouse melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Hill, H Z

    1997-03-01

    When melanin absorbs light energy, it can produce potentially damaging active oxygen species. There is little doubt that constitutive pigment in dark-skinned individuals is photoprotective against skin cancer, but induced pigment-as in tanning-may not be. The first step in cancer induction is mutation in DNA. The most suitable systems for evaluating the role of melanin are those in which pigment can be varied and mutations can be measured. Several cell lines from Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma can be induced to form large quantities of melanin pigment after treatment with a number of different agents enabling comparison of mutant yields in the same cells differing principally in pigment concentration. In these studies, melanin was induced with synthetic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and with isobutyl methyl xanthine in the cell line S91/mel. The former inducer produced about 50% more pigment than the latter. Survival and mutation induction at the Na+/K(+)-ATPase locus were studied using ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), a standard mutagen and five UV lamps emitting near monochromatic and polychromatic UV light in the three wave-length ranges of UV. There was greater protection against killing and mutation induction in the more heavily pigmented cells after exposure to EMS and after irradiation with monochromatic UVC and UVB. There was significant protection against killing by polychromatic UVB + UVA (FS20), but the small degree of protection against mutation was not significant. No significant change in killing and mutation using the same protocol was seen in S91/amel, a related cell line that does not respond to these inducers. No mutants were produced by either monochromatic or polychromatic UVA at doses that killed 50% of the cells. Our results show that induced pigment-shown earlier to be eumelanin (K. A. Cieszka et al., Exp. Dermatol. 4, 192-198, 1995)-is photo- and chemoprotective, but it is less effective in protection against mutagenesis by polychromatic

  7. Vaccination with a human high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen mimotope induces a humoral response inhibiting melanoma cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan; Hafner, Christine; Allwardt, Dorothee; Jasinska, Joanna; Ferrone, Soldano; Zielinski, Christoph C; Scheiner, Otto; Wiedermann, Ursula; Pehamberger, Hubert; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2005-01-15

    Peptide mimics of a conformational epitope that is recognized by a mAb with antitumor activity are promising candidates for formulations of anticancer vaccines. These mimotope vaccines are able to induce a polyclonal Ab response focused to the determinant of the mAb. Such attempts at cancer immunotherapy are of special interest for malignant melanoma that is highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we describe for the first time the design and immunogenicity of a vaccine containing a mimotope of the human high m.w. melanoma-associated Ag (HMW-MAA) and the biological potential of the induced Abs. Mimotopes were selected from a pVIII-9mer phage display peptide library with the anti-HMW-MAA mAb 225.28S. The mimotope vaccine was then generated by coupling the most suitable candidate mimotope to tetanus toxoid as an immunogenic carrier. Immunization of rabbits with this vaccine induced a specific humoral immune response directed toward the epitope recognized by the mAb 225.28S on the native HMW-MAA. The induced Abs inhibited the in vitro growth of the melanoma cell line 518A2 up to 62%. In addition, the Abs mediated 26% lysis of 518A2 cells in Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Our results indicate a possible application of this mimotope vaccine as a novel immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  8. Involvement of the mRNA binding protein CRD-BP in the regulation of metastatic melanoma cell proliferation and invasion by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Craig, Evisabel A; Weber, Jonathan D; Spiegelman, Vladimir S

    2012-12-15

    We have previously shown that the mRNA binding protein CRD-BP is overexpressed in human melanomas, where it promotes cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. The present study investigates the role of hypoxia, a common characteristic of the tumor microenvironment, in the regulation of CRD-BP expression and melanoma cell responses. We found that hypoxia increases CRD-BP levels in metastatic melanoma cell lines but not in melanocytes or primary melanoma cells. Hypoxic stimulation transcriptionally regulates CRD-BP by facilitating the acetylation of histones within the CRD-BP gene and by modulating the extent of HIF1α binding to the CRD-BP promoter. Hypoxia significantly enhances the proliferative and invasive potential of metastatic melanoma cells but not that of normal or primary melanoma cells. Furthermore, inhibition of CRD-BP impairs the ability of metastatic cells to proliferate and invade in response to hypoxia. These findings identify CRD-BP as a novel effector of hypoxic responses that is relevant for the selection of metastatic cells. This work also describes a previously unknown role for CRD-BP in the regulation of melanoma cell invasion and highlights the importance of the hypoxic microenvironment in determining cell fate.

  9. Inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells by α-mangostin

    SciTech Connect

    Beninati, Simone; Oliverio, Serafina; Cordella, Martina; Rossi, Stefania; Senatore, Cinzia; Liguori, Immacolata; Lentini, Alessandro; Piredda, Lucia; Tabolacci, Claudio

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the anticancer potential of a new emerging molecule, α-mangostin (α-M). • We provide first evidences on the effects of α-M on transglutaminase activity. • We deeply examined the antimetastatic effects of α-M through many in vitro assays. • Proteomic analysis revealed that α-M promotes a reorganization at cellular level. - Abstract: In this study, we have evaluated the potential antineoplastic effects of α-mangostin (α-M), the most representative xanthone in Garcinia mangostana pericarp, on melanoma cell lines. This xanthone markedly inhibits the proliferation of high-metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells. Furthermore, by deeply analyzing which steps in the metastatic process are influenced by xanthone it was observed that α-M strongly interferes with homotypic aggregation, adhesion, plasticity and invasion ability of B16-F10 cells, probably by the observed reduction of metalloproteinase-9 activity. The antiproliferative and antimetastatic properties of α-M have been established in human SK-MEL-28 and A375 melanoma cells. In order to identify pathways potentially involved in the antineoplastic properties of α-M, a comparative mass spectrometry proteomic approach was employed. These findings may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of α-M on melanoma.

  10. In vitro and in vivo study of melanoma tumor cell invasion and metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    In order to better understand and associate in vitro tumor cell invasion through basement membranes with in vivo tumor metastasis in syngeneic animal models, and the subsequent modulation of these processes, the following studies have been undertaken. Malignant murine melanoma cell lines designated B16F1 and B16F10, syngeneic to the C57BL6 mouse, a melanotic variant of the Cloudman S-91 melanoma cell line (denoted Mel-11a) with the syngeneic host being the DBA/2J mouse, and a malignant human melanoma line referenced as A375P (parental) and A375M (metastatic) were used for this dissertation project. Tumor cells were labeled with either /sup 14/C-thymidine or /sup 125/I-deoxyuridine using previously established protocols. Radiolabeled tumor cells were introduced into the Membrane Invasion Culture System (MICS) in vitro, a system developed in the lab, and concomitantly into the lateral tail vein by injection or intracutaneously into the appropriate syngeneic host in the presence or absence of such biological response modifying agents as (NIe/sup 4/, D-Phe/sup 7/)-MSH, and ..cap alpha..-MSH. In concert with these studies, the development of a control cell line, comprised of neural crest-derived melanocytes, and the study of their subsequent invasiveness in vitro were pursued. These studies demonstrate the ability of the MICS in vitro invasion assay to discriminate between tumor cells with differing metastatic propensities and could possibly be used in future studies to predict the effectiveness of biological response modifying agents in vivo.

  11. Autocrine secretion of 15d-PGJ2 mediates simvastatin-induced apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wasinger, Christine; Künzl, Martin; Minichsdorfer, Christoph; Höller, Christoph; Zellner, Maria; Hohenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite new therapeutic approaches, metastatic melanomas still have a poor prognosis. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions. We have recently shown that simvastatin triggers an apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells by the synthesis of an autocrine factor. Experimental Approach The current in vitro study was performed in human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, 518a2) and primary human melanocytes and melanoma cells. The secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells was analysed with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. The signalling pathways involved were analysed at the protein and mRNA level using pharmacological approaches and siRNA technology. Key Results Simvastatin was shown to activate a stress cascade, leading to the synthesis of 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), in a p38- and COX-2-dependent manner. Significant concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 were reached in the medium of melanoma cells, which were sufficient to activate caspase 8 and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Inhibition of lipocalin-type PGD synthase, a key enzyme for 15d-PGJ2 synthesis, abolished the apoptotic effect of simvastatin. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 was shown to bind to the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which was up-regulated and predominantly detected in the secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells. Knockdown of FABP5 abolished simvastatin-induced activation of PPAR-γ and amplified the apoptotic response. Conclusions and Implications We characterized simvastatin-induced activation of the 15d-PGJ2/FABP5 signalling cascades, which triggered an apoptotic burst in melanoma cells but did not affect primary human melanocytes. These data support the rationale for the pharmacological targeting of 15d-PGJ2 in metastatic melanoma. PMID:25091578

  12. HTB140 melanoma cells under proton irradiation and/or alkylating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korićanac, L.; Petrović, I.; Privitera, G.; Cuttone, G.; Ristić-Fira, A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemoresistance is a major problem in the treatment of malignant melanoma. The mainstay of treatment for melanoma is the DNA-alkylating agent dacarbazine (DTIC). Fotemustine (FM), a member of the chloroethylnitrosourea group of alkylating agents, has also demonstrated significant antitumor effects in malignant melanoma. However, the intrinsic and acquired resistance of melanoma limits the clinical application of these drugs. Melanomas are also extremely radioresistant. With the objective of enhancing growth inhibition of melanoma cells, combined treatments of FM or DTIC with proton irradiation have been investigated. These effects were studied on HTB140 melanoma cell viability and proliferation. Cells exposed to treatment with FM and protons have shown inhibition of cell growth and significant reduction of proliferation capacity compared to single irradiation or drug treatment. Treatment with DTIC and protons has shown improved growth inhibition compared to appropriate single drug treatment, while the effects of single proton irradiation have been the most pronounced.

  13. Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Mary J.C.; Seftor, Elisabeth A.; Seftor, Richard E.B.; Chao, Jun-Tzu; Chien, Du-Shieng; Chu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled “Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry” by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal's distinction of a “citation classic” (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phenotype and poor clinical outcome. The tumor cells capable of VM share the commonality of a stem cell-like, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since its introduction as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Of special significance is the lack of effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors on tumor cell VM, suggesting a selective resistance by this phenotype to conventional therapy. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, extracellular matrix, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways -- each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. This review highlights seminal findings pertinent to VM, including the effects of a novel, small molecular compound, CVM-1118, currently under clinical development to target VM, and illuminates important molecular pathways involved in the suppression of this plastic, aggressive phenotype, using melanoma as a model. PMID:26808163

  14. Human melanoma cells derived from lymphatic metastases use integrin alpha v beta 3 to adhere to lymph node vitronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Nip, J; Shibata, H; Loskutoff, D J; Cheresh, D A; Brodt, P

    1992-01-01

    Human melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer and the regional lymph nodes are generally the first site of metastasis. Adhesion to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes was therefore studied using two human melanoma models established from lymph node metastases, namely, MeWo cell lines of diverse metastatic potentials and a highly metastatic cell line of recent origin designated MIM/8. We found a good correlation between the metastatic potentials of the melanoma cells as measured in nude mice and their ability to adhere to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes. When adhesion to immobilized extracellular matrix proteins was measured, a significant increase in adhesion, which correlated with increased metastasis, was seen mainly on vitronectin and to a lesser extent on fibronectin. The adhesion to vitronectin and to the frozen sections were specifically blocked by an RGD-containing peptide, mAb 661 to vitronectin and mAb LM609 to integrin alpha v beta 3. FACS analysis revealed a significant and specific increase in cell surface expression of alpha v beta 3 on the metastatic cells as compared to the parent line. Together these results suggest that the adhesion of melanoma cells to lymph node vitronectin via the alpha v beta 3 receptor plays a role in the process of lymphatic dissemination. Images PMID:1383272

  15. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  16. Subcutaneous Adipocytes Promote Melanoma Cell Growth by Activating the Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt. PMID:25228694

  17. Biomarker utility of circulating tumor cells in metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Leila; Lorigan, Paul; Zhou, Cong; Lancashire, Matthew; Booth, Jessica; Cummings, Jeff; Califano, Raffaele; Clack, Glen; Hughes, Andrew; Dive, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide. Advances in targeted agents and immunotherapy have improved outcomes in metastatic disease, but biomarkers are required to optimize treatment. We determined the prevalence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and explored their utility as prognostic and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. A total of 101 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma were recruited prospectively. CTC number was determined using the CellSearch platform and melanoma kits in samples taken at baseline and serially during treatment. CTC numbers ranged between 0 and 36 per 7.5 ml blood; 26% of patients had ≥ 2 CTCs. Baseline CTC number was prognostic for median overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (2.6 vs. 7.2 months (P<0.011) for patients with ≥ 2 CTCs vs. <2 CTCs, respectively). In multivariate analysis, CTC number was an independent prognostic biomarker of OS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.403, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.303-4.430, P=0.005). Patients receiving treatment in whom CTC number remained ≥ 2 CTCs during treatment had shorter median OS than those who maintained <2 CTCs (7 vs. 10 months, HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.81, log-rank test P=0.015). In conclusion, CTC number in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients is prognostic for OS with a cutoff of 2 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood. CTC number measured before and throughout treatment provided additional prognostic information. Larger studies are warranted to confirm CTC biomarker utility in melanoma patients.

  18. The Induction of Apoptosis in A375 Malignant Melanoma Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens

    PubMed Central

    van der Walt, Nicola B.; Zakeri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa and is commonly known as the “cancer bush.” This plant has traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, although it is best known for its claims of activity against “internal” cancers. Here we report on its effect on melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an extract of S. frutescens could induce apoptosis in the A375 melanoma cell line and to outline the basic mechanism of action. S. frutescens extract induced apoptosis in A375 cells as evidenced by morphological features of apoptosis, phosphatidylserine exposure, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Studies in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor allude to caspase-independent cell death, which appeared to be mediated by the apoptosis inducing factor. Taken together, the results of this study show that S. frutescens extract is effective in inducing apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells and indicates that further in vivo mechanistic studies may be warranted. PMID:27656236

  19. The Induction of Apoptosis in A375 Malignant Melanoma Cells by Sutherlandia frutescens.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, Nicola B; Zakeri, Zahra; Cronjé, Marianne J

    2016-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant indigenous to Southern Africa and is commonly known as the "cancer bush." This plant has traditionally been used for the treatment of various ailments, although it is best known for its claims of activity against "internal" cancers. Here we report on its effect on melanoma cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an extract of S. frutescens could induce apoptosis in the A375 melanoma cell line and to outline the basic mechanism of action. S. frutescens extract induced apoptosis in A375 cells as evidenced by morphological features of apoptosis, phosphatidylserine exposure, nuclear condensation, caspase activation, and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Studies in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor allude to caspase-independent cell death, which appeared to be mediated by the apoptosis inducing factor. Taken together, the results of this study show that S. frutescens extract is effective in inducing apoptosis in malignant melanoma cells and indicates that further in vivo mechanistic studies may be warranted.

  20. Metastatic potential of cloned murine melanoma cells transfected with activated c-Ha-ras.

    PubMed

    Price, J E; Aukerman, S L; Ananthaswamy, H N; McIntyre, B W; Schackert, G; Schackert, H K; Fidler, I J

    1989-08-01

    We sought to determine whether the transfection of tumorigenic but not metastatic cells with the activated c-Ha-ras oncogene was invariably associated with acquisition of the metastatic phenotype. Three clonally derived lines of the K-1735 murine melanoma, characterized as nonmetastatic or poorly metastatic, were transfected with plasmids containing the 6.6-kilobase BamHI fragment of the mutant human c-Ha-ras gene and the neo gene, that confers resistance to neomycin (pSV2neoEJ). Cells transfected with pSV2neo, a plasmid containing the neo gene, served as controls for the procedure of Polybrene-mediated transfection. All cell lines were injected into syngeneic C3H/HeN and into athymic mice, and the results were compared with those produced by highly metastatic K-1735 M-2 cells. Although the pSV2neoEJ-transfected cells produced more rapidly growing s.c. tumors than the control cell lines did, the incidence of spontaneous metastasis was not increased. Following i.v. inoculation, the c-Ha-ras transfectants were retained in lung vasculature in greater proportions than pSV2neo counterpart transfectants were. The c-Ha-ras transfectants also produced significantly more lung tumor colonies, which grew faster than the few lung tumor colonies in mice given injections of control melanoma cells. We concluded that transfection of the activated c-Ha-ras oncogene into nonmetastatic K-1735 melanoma cells leads to accelerated tumor growth in vivo and can confer the ability to form lung colonies after i.v. injection but not the ability to metastasize from a primary s.c. tumor.

  1. The role of the cancer stem cell marker CD271 in DNA damage response and drug resistance of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Redmer, T; Walz, I; Klinger, B; Khouja, S; Welte, Y; Schäfer, R; Regenbrecht, C

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that stemness and acquired resistance to targeted inhibitors or chemotherapeutics are mechanistically linked. Here we observed high cell surface and total levels of nerve growth factor receptor/CD271, a marker of melanoma-initiating cells, in sub-populations of chemoresistant cell lines. CD271 expression was increased in drug-sensitive cells but not resistant cells in response to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics etoposide, fotemustine and cisplatin. Comparative analysis of melanoma cells engineered to stably express CD271 or a targeting short hairpin RNA by expression profiling provided numerous genes regulated in a CD271-dependent manner. In-depth analysis of CD271-responsive genes uncovered the association of CD271 with regulation of DNA repair components. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis revealed enrichment of CD271-responsive genes in drug-resistant cells, among them DNA repair components. Moreover, our comparative screen identified the fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13) as a target of CD271, highly expressed in chemoresistant cells. Further we show that levels of CD271 determine drug response. Knock-down of CD271 in fotemustine-resistant cells decreased expression of FGF13 and at least partly restored sensitivity to fotemustine. Together, we demonstrate that expression of CD271 is responsible for genes associated with DNA repair and drug response. Further, we identified 110 CD271-responsive genes predominantly expressed in melanoma metastases, among them were NEK2, TOP2A and RAD51AP1 as potential drivers of melanoma metastasis. In addition, we provide mechanistic insight in the regulation of CD271 in response to drugs. We found that CD271 is potentially regulated by p53 and in turn is needed for a proper p53-dependent response to DNA-damaging drugs. In summary, we provide for the first time insight in a CD271-associated signaling network connecting CD271 with DNA repair, drug response and metastasis. PMID

  2. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  3. Dimethylfumarate inhibits melanoma cell proliferation via p21 and p53 induction and bcl-2 and cyclin B1 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Kaluzki, Irina; Hrgovic, Igor; Hailemariam-Jahn, Tsige; Doll, Monika; Kleemann, Johannes; Valesky, Eva Maria; Kippenberger, Stefan; Kaufmann, Roland; Zoeller, Nadja; Meissner, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that dimethylfumarate (DMF), known as a highly potent anti-psoriatic agent, might have anti-tumorigenic properties in melanoma. It has recently been demonstrated that DMF inhibits melanoma proliferation by apoptosis and cell cycle inhibition and therefore inhibits melanoma metastasis. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms remain to be evaluated. To elucidate the effects of DMF on melanoma cell lines (A375, SK-Mel), we first performed cytotoxicity assays. No significant lactatedehydogenase (LDH) release could be found. In further analysis, we showed that DMF suppresses melanoma cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. To examine whether these effects are conveyed by apoptotic mechanisms, we studied the amount of apoptotic nucleosomes and caspase 3/7 activity using ELISA analysis. Significant apoptosis was induced by DMF in both cell lines, and this could be paralleled with bcl-2 downregulation and PARP-1 cleavage. We also performed cell cycle analysis and found that DMF induced concentration-dependent arrests of G0/G1 as well as G2/M. To examine the underlying mechanisms of cell cycle arrest, we analyzed the expression profiles of important cell cycle regulator proteins such as p53, p21, cyclins A, B1, and D1, and CDKs 3, 4, and 6. Interestingly, DMF induced p53 and p21 yet inhibited cyclin B1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Other cell cycle regulators were not influenced by DMF. The knockdown of DMF induced p53 via siRNA led to significantly reduced apoptosis but had no influence on cell cycle arrest. We examined the adhesion of melanoma cells on lymphendothelial cells during DMF treatment and found a significant reduction in interaction. These data provide evidence that DMF inhibits melanoma proliferation by reinduction of important cell cycle inhibitors leading to a concentration-dependent G0/G1 or G2/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis via downregulation of bcl-2 and induction of p53 and PARP-1

  4. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Misu, Masayasu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kawai, Norikazu; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  5. Acacia honey and chrysin reduce proliferation of melanoma cells through alterations in cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Elena; Cicconi, Rosella; Mattei, Maurizio; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Canini, Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Honey has long been used in medicine for different purposes. Only recently, however, its antioxidant property and preventive effects against different diseases, such as cancer, have been highlighted. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavone commonly found in acacia honey. It has previously been shown to be an anti-tumor agent. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative role of honey or chrysin on human (A375) and murine (B16-F1) melanoma cell lines. The results of the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the trypan blue exclusion test showed that both the tested compounds were able to induce an antiproliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cytotoxicity induced by honey or chrysin was mediated by G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and induction of hyperploid progression. Our results suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of honey are due mainly to the presence of chrysin. Chrysin may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Further investigation is needed to validate the contribution of chrysin in tumor therapy in vivo.

  6. Aloe-emodin exerts a potent anticancer and immunomodulatory activity on BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tabolacci, Claudio; Cordella, Martina; Turcano, Lorenzo; Rossi, Stefania; Lentini, Alessandro; Mariotti, Sabrina; Nisini, Roberto; Sette, Giovanni; Eramo, Adriana; Piredda, Lucia; De Maria, Ruggero; Facchiano, Francesco; Beninati, Simone

    2015-09-05

    Aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antineoplastic effect of aloe-emodin (AE), a natural hydroxyanthraquinone compound, both in metastatic human melanoma cell lines and in primary stem-like cells (melanospheres). Treatment with AE caused reduction of cell proliferation and induction of SK-MEL-28 and A375 cells differentiation, characterized by a marked increase of transamidating activity of transglutaminase whose expression remained unmodified. In vitro antimetastatic property of AE was evaluated by adhesion and Boyden chamber invasion assays. The effect of AE on melanoma cytokines/chemokines production was determined by a multiplex assay: interestingly AE showed an immunomodulatory activity through GM-CSF and IFN-γ production. We report also that AE significantly reduced the proliferation, stemness and invasive potential of melanospheres. Moreover, AE treatment significantly enhanced dabrafenib (a BRAF inhibitor) antiproliferative activity in BRAF mutant cell lines. Our results confirm that AE possesses remarkable antineoplastic properties against melanoma cells, indicating this anthraquinone as a promising agent for differentiation therapy of cancer, or as adjuvant in chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Further, its mechanisms of action support a potential efficacy of AE treatment to counteract resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells to target therapy.

  7. Differential expression of TYRP1 in adult human retinal pigment epithelium and uveal melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    QIU, CHUN; LI, PENG; BI, JIANJUN; WU, QING; LU, LINNA; QIAN, GUANXIANG; JIA, RENBING; JIA, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most frequently occurring primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Tyrosinase (TYR) is a copper-containing enzyme and a type I membrane protein that is involved in the generation of melanin, the main pigment in vertebrates. TYR-related protein 1 (TYRP1) is regarded to have a crucial role in the immunotherapy of melanoma. As biomarkers, the TYR-related proteins, TYRP1 and TYRP2, exhibit specific expression in melanocytes, while also contributing to melanin synthesis within melanosomes. In the present study, the differential expression of TYRP1 was investigated at the mRNA, protein and morphological levels in four human UM cell lines (SP6.5, OM431, OCM1 and OCM290) and the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line, using polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. It was found that SP6.5 cells expressed the highest level of TYRP1, in comparison to SP6.5 OCM1 and OM431 cells, which produced less TYRP1, and OCM290 cells, which produced almost no TYRP1. No TYRP1 protein expression was identified in the RPE cell line. These findings indicate the potential use of TYRP1 in the development of therapy for UM. PMID:27073483

  8. Melanoma Cells Homing to the Brain: An In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, A.; Vasco, C.; Girgenti, V.; Fugnanesi, V.; Calatozzolo, C.; Canazza, A.; Salmaggi, A.; Rivoltini, L.; Morbin, M.; Ciusani, E.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an in vitro contact through-feet blood brain barrier (BBB) model built using type IV collagen, rat astrocytes, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cocultured through Transwell porous polycarbonate membrane. The contact between astrocytes and HUVECs was demonstrated by electron microscopy: astrocytes endfeet pass through the 8.0 μm pores inducing HUVECs to assume a cerebral phenotype. Using this model we evaluated transmigration of melanoma cells from two different patients (M1 and M2) selected among seven melanoma primary cultures. M2 cells showed a statistically significant higher capability to pass across the in vitro BBB model, compared to M1. Expression of adhesion molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry: a statistically significant increased expression of MCAM, αvβ3, and CD49b was detected in M1. PCR array data showed that M2 had a higher expression of several matrix metalloproteinase proteins (MMPs) compared to M1. Specifically, data suggest that MMP2 and MMP9 could be directly involved in BBB permeability and that brain invasion by melanoma cells could be related to the overexpression of many MMPs. Future studies will be necessary to deepen the mechanisms of central nervous system invasion. PMID:25692137

  9. Studies on glycoproteins produced by wild type and wheat germ agglutinin-resistant B16 mouse melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two variants of B16 mouse melanoma cells have been selected in serum-free medium for their resistance to toxic levels of wheat germ agglutinin isolation 1 (WGA). Chromosome analysis and characteristic melanin production showed that the variants are derived from the parent mouse melanoma cell lines. However, the two variants were less tumorigenic in mice compared to the parent B16 mouse melanoma cells. The variants showed a marked decrease in cell agglutination with WGA. Cell agglutination with recin and peanut lectin was not different between the three cell lines, but the two variants showed a slight increase in agglutination with concanavalin A. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin to the two variant cells was reduced compared to that of the parent cell. Glycoproteins secreted or shed by the three lines were isolated after growth in serum-free medium in the presence of (/sup 3/He)glucosamine and bovine serum albumin (1%). These metabolically labeled products were fractionated on the basis of their interaction with WGA-Sepharose (2 mg/ml). The WGA-Sepharose affinity chromatographic data suggested a decrease in WGA-binding glycoprotein(s) secreted to the medium by the two variants. The WGA-bound glycoproteins from the two variants upon SDS-PAGE revealed three bands of approximate molecular weights, 92,000, 56,000, and 42,000, none of which were present in the parent cell line (50,000 molecular weight).

  10. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed.

  11. Experimental coexpression of vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments in human melanoma cells augments motility.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Y. W.; Seftor, E. A.; Romer, L. H.; Hendrix, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Intermediate filaments have been used as cell-type-specific markers in differentiation and pathology; however, recent reports have demonstrated the coexpression of vimentin (a mesenchymal marker) and keratins (epithelial markers) in numerous neoplasms, including melanoma, which has been linked to metastatic disease. To test the hypothesis that coexpression of vimentin and keratins by melanoma cells contributes to a more migratory and invasive phenotype, we co-transfected a vimentin-positive human melanoma cell line, A375P (of low invasive ability), with cDNAs for keratins 8 and 18. The resultant stable transfectants expressed vimentin- and keratin-positive intermediate filaments showed a two- to threefold increase in their invasion of basement membrane matrix and migration through gelatin in vitro. These findings were further corroborated by video cinematography. During attachment and spreading on fibronectin, the transfectants containing vimentin and keratins 8 and 18 demonstrated an increase in focal adhesions that stained positive for beta 1 integrin and phosphotyrosine, along with enhanced membrane ruffling and actin stress fiber formation. From these data, we postulate that coexpression of vimentin and keratins results in increased cytoskeletal interactions at focal contacts within extracellular matrices involving integrin cell signaling events, which contributes to a more migratory behavior. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8546227

  12. MicroRNA 211 Functions as a Metabolic Switch in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazar, Joseph; Qi, Feng; Lee, Bongyong; Marchica, John; Govindarajan, Subramaniam; Shelley, John; Li, Jian-Liang; Ray, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA 211 (miR-211) negatively regulates genes that drive invasion of metastatic melanoma. Compared to normal human melanocytes, miR-211 expression is significantly reduced or absent in nonpigmented melanoma cells and lost during human melanoma progression. To investigate the molecular mechanism of its tumor suppressor function, miR-211 was ectopically expressed in nonpigmented melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of miR-211 reduced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) protein levels and decreased cell growth during hypoxia. HIF-1α protein loss was correlated with the downregulation of a miR-211 target gene, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). We present evidence that resumption of miR-211-mediated downregulation of PDK4 in melanoma cells causes inhibition of invasion by nonpigmented melanomas via HIF-1α protein destabilization. Thus, the tumor suppressor miR-211 acts as a metabolic switch, and its loss is expected to promote cancer hallmarks in human melanomas. Melanoma, one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, kills nearly 10,000 people in the United States per year. We had previously shown that a small noncoding RNA, termed miR-211, suppresses invasion and the growth of aggressive melanoma cells. The results presented here support the hypothesis that miR-211 loss in melanoma cells causes abnormal regulation of energy metabolism, which in turn allows cancer cells to survive under low oxygen concentrations—a condition that generally kills normal cells. These findings highlight a novel mechanism of melanoma formation: miR-211 is a molecular switch that is turned off in melanoma cells, raising the hope that in the future we might be able to turn the switch back on, thus providing a better treatment option for melanoma. PMID:26787841

  13. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  14. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.G. ); Hoover, R.N. )

    1989-10-20

    Squamous cell skin cancer, though common, remains largely unreported and unstudied, with little known about its incidence and time trends. The authors have used a unique resource--a continuous population-based registry of cases of squamous cell skin cancer within a single prepaid health plant--to describe basic epidemiologic features of this malignancy and compare it with the more widely studied melanoma. Both malignancies are considerably more common in this population than they expected based on previous reports from the general population. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the incidence of squamous cell skin cancer increased 2.6 times in men and 3.1 times in women, while incidence of melanoma rose 3.5-fold and 4.6-fold in men and women, respectively. Skin cancers of both types involving the head and neck or the extremities increased essentially in parallel over these 27 years. Melanomas of the trunk, however, appeared to increase at a faster rate in both sexes. These observations are consistent with the impression that the rising incidence of both malignancies may be attributable to increased voluntary exposure to the sun over an extended period.

  15. Epigenetic impacts of ascorbate on human metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Sascha; Sinnberg, Tobias W; Berger, Alexander; Noor, Seema; Levesque, Mitchell Paul; Böcker, Alexander; Niessner, Heike; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael; Garbe, Claus; Busch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing evidence has emerged demonstrating that high-dose ascorbate bears cytotoxic effects on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, making ascorbate a pro-oxidative drug that catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production in tissues instead of acting as a radical scavenger. This anticancer effect of ascorbate is hypoxia-inducible factor-1α- and O2-dependent. However, whether the intracellular mechanisms governing this effect are modulated by epigenetic phenomena remains unknown. We treated human melanoma cells with physiological (200 μM) or pharmacological (8 mM) ascorbate for 1 h to record the impact on DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-activity, histone deacetylases (HDACs), and microRNA (miRNA) expression after 12 h. The results were analyzed with the MIRUMIR online tool that estimates the power of miRNA to serve as potential biomarkers to predict survival of cancer patients. FACS cell-cycle analyses showed that 8 mM ascorbate shifted BLM melanoma cells toward the sub-G1 fraction starting at 12 h after an initial primary G2/M arrest, indicative for secondary apoptosis induction. In pharmacological doses, ascorbate inhibited the DNMT activity in nuclear extracts of MeWo and BLM melanoma cells, but did not inhibit human HDAC enzymes of classes I, II, and IV. The expression of 151 miRNAs was altered 12 h after ascorbate treatment of BLM cells in physiological or pharmacological doses. Pharmacological doses up-regulated 32 miRNAs (≥4-fold) mainly involved in tumor suppression and drug resistance in our preliminary miRNA screening array. The most prominently up-regulated miRNAs correlated with a significantly increased overall survival of breast cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients of the MIRUMIR database with high expression of the respective miRNA. Our results suggest a possible epigenetic signature of pharmacological doses of ascorbate in human melanoma cells and support further pre-clinical and possibly even clinical evaluation of

  16. IGFBP‐3 inhibits Wnt signaling in metastatic melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zingariello, Maria; Sancillo, Laura; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Polinari, Dorina; Martella, Marianna; Rosa Alba, Rana; Londei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In previous works, we have shown that insulin‐like growth factor‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3), a tissue and circulating protein able to bind to IGFs, decreases drastically in the blood serum of patients with diffuse metastatic melanoma. In agreement with the clinical data, recombinant IGFBP‐3 was found to inhibit the motility and invasiveness of cultured metastatic melanoma cells and to prevent growth of grafted melanomas in mice. The present work was aimed at identifying the signal transduction pathways underlying the anti‐tumoral effects of IGFBP‐3. We show that the anti‐tumoral effect of IGFBP‐3 is due to inhibition of the Wnt pathway and depends upon the presence of CD44, a receptor protein known to modulate Wnt signaling. Once it has entered the cell, IGFBP‐3 binds the Wnt signalosome interacting specifically with its component GSK‐3β. As a consequence, the β‐catenin destruction complex dissociates from the LRP6 Wnt receptor and GSK‐3β is activated through dephosphorylation, becoming free to target cytoplasmic β‐catenin which is degraded by the proteasomal pathway. Altogether, the results suggest that IGFBP‐3 is a novel and effective inhibitor of Wnt signaling. As IGFBP‐3 is a physiological protein which has no detectable toxic effects either on cultured cells or live mice, it might qualify as an interesting new therapeutic agent in melanoma, and potentially many other cancers with a hyperactive Wnt signaling. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27377812

  17. Gene expression analysis of terminal differentiation of human melanoma cells highlights global reductions in cell cycle-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Kim Mai; Kim, Gyoungmi; Kim, Dong-Joon; Yang, Suk-Jin; Park, Seong-min; Yeom, Young-Il; Fisher, Paul B; Kang, Dongchul

    2009-03-15

    Defects in differentiation are frequently observed in cancer cells. By appropriate treatment specific tumor cell types can be induced to terminally differentiate. Metastatic HO-1 human melanoma cells treated with IFN-beta plus mezerein (MEZ) undergo irreversible growth arrest and terminal differentiation followed by apoptosis. In order to define the molecular changes associated with this process, changes in gene expression were analyzed by cDNA microarray hybridization and by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCRs of representative 44 genes. The expression of 210 genes was changed more than two-fold at either 8 or 24 h post-treatment (166 up and 44 down). Major biological processes associated with the up-regulated genes were response to endogenous/exogenous stimuli (38%), cell proliferation (13%), cell death (16%) and development (30%). Approximately 34% of the down-regulated genes were associated with cell cycle, 9% in DNA replication and 11% in chromosome organization, respectively. Suppression of cell cycle associated genes appeared to directly correlate with growth arrest observed in the terminal differentiation process. Expression of Calpain 3 (CAPN3) variant 6 was suppressed by the combined treatment and maintained high in various melanoma cell lines. However, over-expression of the CAPN3 did not significantly affect growth kinetics and cell viability, suggesting that up-regulation of CAPN3 alone may not be a causative, but an associated change with melanoma development. This analysis provides further insights into the spectrum of up-regulated and the first detailed investigation of down-regulated gene changes associated with and potentially causative of induction of loss of proliferative capacity and terminal differentiation in human melanoma cells.

  18. Inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation by resveratrol is correlated with upregulation of quinone reductase 2 and p53

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh Tzechen; Wang Zhirong; Hamby, Carl V.; Wu, Joseph M. . E-mail: Joseph_Wu@nymc.edu

    2005-08-19

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a grape-derived polyphenol under intensive study for its potential in cancer prevention. In the case of cultured human melanoma cells, no one to our knowledge has investigated whether resveratrol exerts similar anti-proliferative activities in cells with different metastatic potential. Therefore, we examined the effects of this polyphenol on the growth of weakly metastatic Line IV clone 3 and on autologous, highly metastatic Line IV clone 1 cultured melanoma cells. Comparable inhibition of growth and colony formation resulted from treatment by resveratrol in both cell lines. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that resveratrol-treated clone 1 cells had a dose-dependent increase in S phase and a concomitant reduction in the G{sub 1} phase. No detectable change in cell cycle phase distribution was found in similarly treated clone 3 cells. Western blots demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, without a commensurate change in p21 and several other cell cycle regulatory proteins in both cell types. Chromatography of Line IV clone 3 and clone 1 cell extracts on resveratrol affinity columns revealed that the basal expression of dihydronicotinamide riboside quinone reductase 2 (NQO2) was higher in Line IV clone 1 than clone 3 cells. Levels of NQO2 but not its structural analog NQO1 were dose-dependently increased by resveratrol in both cell lines. We propose that induction of NQO2 may relate to the observed increased expression of p53 that, in turn, contributes to the observed suppression of cell growth in both melanoma cell lines.

  19. Rb-Raf-1 interaction disruptor RRD-251 induces apoptosis in metastatic melanoma cells and synergizes with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Davis, Rebecca; Alamanda, Vignesh; Pireddu, Roberta; Pernazza, Daniel; Sebti, Said; Lawrence, Nicholas; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2010-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with very low response rate against conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as dacarbazine (DTIC). Inhibitor of Rb-Raf-1 interaction RRD-251 was tested against the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-5, and SK-MEL-2. RRD-251 was found to be a potent inhibitor of melanoma cell proliferation, irrespective of V600E B-Raf mutation status of the cell lines. In a SK-MEL-28 xenograft experiment, RRD-251 exerted a significant suppression of tumor growth compared with vehicle (P = 0.003). Similar to in vitro effects, tumors from RRD-251-treated animals showed decreased Rb-Raf-1 interaction in vivo. Growth suppressive effects of RRD-251 were associated with induction of apoptosis as well as a G(1) arrest, with an accompanying decrease in S-phase cells. RRD-251 inhibited Rb phosphorylation and downregulated E2F1 protein levels in these cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that RRD-251 caused downregulation of cell-cycle regulatory genes thymidylate synthase (TS) and cdc6 as well as the antiapoptotic gene Mcl-1. Combinatorial treatment of RRD-251 and DTIC resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis in DTIC resistant cell lines SK-MEL-28 and SK-MEL-5, as revealed by increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. Because aberrant Rb/E2F pathway is associated with melanoma progression and resistance to apoptosis, these results suggest that the Rb-Raf-1 inhibitor could be an effective agent for melanoma treatment, either alone or in combination with DTIC.

  20. RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.

    PubMed

    Pathria, Gaurav; Garg, Bhavuk; Wagner, Christine; Garg, Kanika; Gschaider, Melanie; Jalili, Ahmad; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

  1. Expression of transcripts for two interleukin 8 receptors in human phagocytes, lymphocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, B; Barella, L; Mattei, S; Schumacher, C; Boulay, F; Colombo, M P; Baggiolini, M

    1993-01-01

    Two cDNAs coding for distinct interleukin 8 (IL-8) receptors, IL-8R1 [Murphy and Tiffany (1991) Science 253, 1280-1283] and IL-8R2 [Holmes, Lee, Kuang, Rice and Wood (1991) Science 253, 1278-1280] have been reported, and biochemical studies on human neutrophils have revealed two proteins (p70 and p44) that bind IL-8 with high affinity [Moser, Schumacher, von Tscharner, Clark-Lewis and Baggiolini (1991), J. Biol. Chem. 266, 10666-10671]. We have cloned the cDNA coding for IL-8R1 from a library of differentiated HL-60 cells. Transfection of this cDNA into Jurkat cells resulted in the expression of high-affinity binding for IL-8 and two related cytokines, GRO alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 (Kd 0.5-1.0 nM). Northern-blot analysis with the IL-8R1 cDNA as probe revealed abundant expression of transcripts of different size in human neutrophils and low-level expression of a single RNA species in HL-60 cells differentiated with dimethyl sulphoxide and retinoic acid. Because of the extensive nucleotide sequence similarity of the cDNAs for IL-8R1 and IL-8R2, the reverse-transcription PCR method was used for analysis of RNA expression in myeloid and lymphoid cells, 19 cell lines established from human primary melanomas or metastases, two melanocyte and one fibroblast cell lines. IL-8R1 mRNA transcripts were expressed at high levels in neutrophils, and to a lesser extent in blood monocytes and the myeloid cell lines, HL-60 and AML 193, but were not found in THP-1 cells, lymphocytes and Jurkat cells. IL-8R2 mRNA transcripts, by contrast, were found in all blood cells and related cell lines, as well as in all melanoma, melanocyte and fibroblast cell lines tested. As for IL-8R1, IL-8R2 mRNA expression was highest in neutrophils. These results suggest that IL-8R1 and IL-8R2 may both be involved in neutrophil activation by IL-8 and related cytokines, and presumably correspond to p70 and p44, the receptors that were identified biochemically. Possible IL-8 functions on

  2. Context-dependent roles of mutant B-Raf signaling in melanoma and colorectal carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hao, Honglin; Muniz-Medina, Vanessa M; Mehta, Heena; Thomas, Nancy E; Khazak, Vladimir; Der, Channing J; Shields, Janiel M

    2007-08-01

    Mutational activation of Ras and a key downstream effector of Ras, the B-Raf serine/threonine kinase, has been observed in melanomas and colorectal carcinomas. These observations suggest that inhibition of B-Raf activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK cascade may be an effective approach for the treatment of RAS and B-RAF mutation-positive melanomas and colon carcinomas. Although recent studies with interfering RNA (RNAi) and pharmacologic inhibitors support a critical role for B-Raf signaling in melanoma growth, whether mutant B-Raf has an equivalent role in promoting colorectal carcinoma growth has not been determined. In the present study, we used both RNAi and pharmacologic approaches to further assess the role of B-Raf activation in the growth of human melanomas and additionally determined if a similar role for mutant B-Raf is seen for colorectal carcinoma cell lines. We observed that RNAi suppression of mutant B-Raf(V600E) expression strongly suppressed the anchorage-dependent growth of B-RAF mutation-positive melanoma, but not colorectal carcinoma, cells. However, the anchorage-independent and tumorigenic growth of B-RAF mutation-positive colorectal carcinomas was dependent on mutant B-Raf function. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of MEK and Raf was highly effective at inhibiting the growth of B-RAF mutation-positive melanomas and colorectal carcinoma cells, whereas inhibitors of other protein kinases activated by Ras (AKT, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK) were less effective. Our observations suggest that Raf and MEK inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of B-RAF mutation-positive colorectal carcinomas as well as melanomas.

  3. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein translation sensitizes melanoma cells to arsenic trioxide cytotoxicity via a reactive oxygen species dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, Benjamin D.; Doudican, Nicole; Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Current standard chemotherapeutic regimens for malignant melanoma are unsatisfactory. Although in vitro studies of arsenic trioxide (ATO) have demonstrated promise against melanoma, recent phase II clinical trials have failed to show any significant clinical benefit when used as a single agent. To enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma, we sought to identify compounds that potentiate the cytotoxic effects of ATO in melanoma cells. Through a screen of 2000 marketed drugs and naturally occurring compounds, a variety of antibiotic inhibitors of mitochondrial protein translation were identified. Methods The mechanism of action for the most effective agent identified, thiostrepton, was examined in a panel of melanoma cells. Effects of combinatorial ATO and thiostrepton treatment on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, mitochondrial protein content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. Results Thiostrepton (1μM) sensitized 3 out of 5 melanoma cell lines to ATO-mediated growth inhibition. Treatment with thiostrepton resulted in reduced levels of the mitochondrial-encoded protein cytochrome oxidase I (COX1). Exposure to thiostrepton in combination with ATO resulted in increased levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cellular ROS. The growth inhibitory and pro-apototic effects of addition of the ATO/thiostrepton combination were reversed by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Conculsions Our data suggest that thiostrepton enhances the cytotoxic effects of ATO through a ROS-dependent mechanism. Co-administration of oxidative stress-inducing drugs such as thiostrepton in order to enhance the efficacy of ATO in the treatment of melanoma warrants further investigation. PMID:18297286

  4. Experimental models of uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Paula L; Caissie, Amanda L; Burnier, Miguel N

    2004-06-01

    Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been directed toward developing suitable experimental models for the study of uveal melanoma. Animal models of uveal melanoma have undergone many improvements, leading to the development of experimental systems that better represent the disease in human beings. A major advance has come from the use of human uveal melanoma cell lines capable of inducing tumour growth and metastatic disease in immunodeficient hosts. Knowledge gained from the use of experimental models will ultimately be translated into better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with uveal melanoma. In this review the authors describe the current state-of-the-art designs of experimental models of uveal melanoma, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of the available models. Novel findings from a rabbit model of uveal melanoma are also presented.

  5. Differential effects of selenite and selenate on human melanocytes, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Laura; Drukala, Justyna; Wolnicka-Glubisz, Agnieszka; Björnstedt, Mikael; Korohoda, Wlodzimierz

    2005-04-01

    Among the substances that attracted the attention of oncologists in recent years are selenium-containing compounds, both inorganic and organic. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between selenium intake and cancer incidence. In the experiments reported here, we compared the effects of 2 inorganic selenium-containing salts that differed in the level of selenium oxidation, selenite IV and selenate VI. We tested the effects of these 2 compounds on cell survival and growth, cell cycle processing, cell morphology, cytoskeleton, and lipid peroxidation in 3 human skin cell types: normal keratinocytes, melanocytes, and human melanoma cell line HTB140. The different effects of selenite and selenate on the viability, growth, and morphology of normal cells and tumor cells are reported and provide a base for future research and treatment of some neoplastic diseases. The attention is paid to cell apoptosis induced by selenite and not by selenate, and the effects of tested substances on thioredoxin reductase system are postulated.

  6. Fluorescent Antibody Studies in Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sera from 57 patients with malignant melanoma and 39 control patients were tested by immunofluorescence techniques against 6 melanoma cell lines. Thirty-two per cent of tests with sera from melanoma patients showed fluorescence with these cell lines whereas only 17% of tests with control sera were positive. Reactions occurred in 21% of tests with sera from patients with primary melanoma compared with 40% with secondary melanomata and 54% with “cured” melanomata. The cell lines varied in antigenicity but this did not correlate with either pigmentation or length of time in culture. The cell lines which were most reactive with sera from melanoma patients were also most reactive with control sera. PMID:4205845

  7. AM251 induces apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in A375 human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Romanini, Antonella; Pellegrino, Mario; Adinolfi, Barbara; Podestà, Adriano; Costa, Barbara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Martini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Nieri, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Human cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant type of cancer. AM251 is a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist with off-target antitumor activity against pancreatic and colon cancer cells. The current study aimed to characterize the in-vitro antimelanoma activity of AM251. The BRAF V600E mutant melanoma cell line, A375, was used as an in-vitro model system. Characterization tools included a cell viability assay, nuclear morphology assessment, gene expression, western blot, flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD double staining, cell cycle analyses, and measurements of changes in intracellular cAMP and calcium concentrations. AM251 exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against A375 human melanoma cells with potency comparable with that observed for cisplatin without significant changes in the human dermal fibroblasts viability. AM251, at a concentration that approximates the IC50, downregulated genes encoding antiapoptotic proteins (BCL2 and survivin) and increased transcription levels of proapoptotic BAX, induced alteration of Annexin V reactivity, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation in the cell nuclei, and G2/M phase arrest.AM251 also induced a 40% increase in the basal cAMP levels, but it did not affect intracellular calcium concentrations. The involvement of GPR55, TRPA1, and COX-2 in the AM251 mechanism of action was excluded. The combination of AM251 with celecoxib produced a synergistic antitumor activity, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains to be elucidated. This study provides the first evidence of a proapoptotic effect and G2/M cell cycle arrest of AM251 on A375 cells. This compound may be a potential prototype for the development of promising diarylpyrazole derivatives to be evaluated in human cutaneous melanoma.

  8. Cell line provenance.

    PubMed

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  9. Directed Dedifferentiation Using Partial Reprogramming Induces Invasive Phenotype in Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Nathalie; Novak, Daniel; Weina, Kasia; Bernhardt, Mathias; Reith, Maike; Larribere, Lionel; Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Umansky, Viktor; Utikal, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The combination of cancer-focused studies and research related to nuclear reprogramming has gained increasing importance since both processes-reprogramming towards pluripotency and malignant transformation-share essential features. Studies have revealed that incomplete reprogramming of somatic cells leads to malignant transformation indicating that epigenetic regulation associated with iPSC generation can drive cancer development [J Mol Cell Biol 2011;341-350; Cell 2012;151:1617-1632; Cell 2014;156:663-677]. However, so far it is unclear whether incomplete reprogramming also affects cancer cells and their function. In the context of melanoma, dedifferentiation correlates to therapy resistance in mouse studies and has been documented in melanoma patients [Nature 2012;490:412-416; Clin Cancer Res 2014;20:2498-2499]. Therefore, we sought to investigate directed dedifferentiation using incomplete reprogramming of melanoma cells. Using a murine model we investigated the effects of partial reprogramming on the cellular plasticity of melanoma cells. We demonstrate for the first time that induced partial reprogramming results in a reversible phenotype switch in melanoma cells. Partially reprogrammed cells at day 12 after transgene induction display elevated invasive potential in vitro and increased lung colonization in vivo. Additionally, using global gene expression analysis of partially reprogrammed cells, we identified SNAI3 as a novel invasion-related marker in human melanoma. SNAI3 expression correlates with tumor thickness in primary melanomas and thus, may be of prognostic value. In summary, we show that investigating intermediate states during the process of reprogramming melanoma cells can reveal novel insights into the pathogenesis of melanoma progression. We propose that deeper analysis of partially reprogrammed melanoma cells may contribute to identification of yet unknown signaling pathways that can drive melanoma progression.

  10. Vascular channels formed by subpopulations of PECAM1+ melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dunleavey, James M.; Xiao, Lin; Thompson, Joshua; Kim, Mi Mi; Shields, Janiel M.; Shelton, Sarah E.; Irvin, David M.; Brings, Victoria E.; Ollila, David; Brekken, Rolf A.; Dayton, Paul A.; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Dudley, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the vasculature remains a promising approach for treating solid tumors; however, the mechanisms of tumor neovascularization are diverse and complex. Here we uncover a new subpopulation of melanoma cells that express the vascular cell adhesion molecule PECAM1, but not VEGFR-2, and participate in a PECAM1-dependent form of vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Clonally-derived PECAM1+ tumor cells coalesce to form PECAM1-dependent networks in vitro and they generate well-perfused, VEGF-independent channels in mice. The neural crest specifier AP-2α is diminished in PECAM1+ melanoma cells and is a transcriptional repressor of PECAM1. Reintroduction of AP-2α into PECAM1+ tumor cells represses PECAM1 and abolishes tube-forming ability whereas AP-2α knockdown in PECAM1− tumor cells up-regulates PECAM1 expression and promotes tube formation. Thus, VM-competent subpopulations, rather than all cells within a tumor, may instigate VM, supplant host-derived endothelium, and form PECAM1-dependent conduits that are not diminished by neutralizing VEGF. PMID:25335460

  11. A Novel Therapy for Melanoma Developed in Mice: Transformation of Melanoma into Dendritic Cells with Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucia; Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Freire, Javier; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Gomez-Roman, Jose Javier; Fernández-Llaca, Hector; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive bacteria and human pathogen widely used in cancer immunotherapy because of its capacity to induce a specific cytotoxic T cell response in tumours. This bacterial pathogen strongly induces innate and specific immunity with the potential to overcome tumour induced tolerance and weak immunogenicity. Here, we propose a Listeria based vaccination for melanoma based in its tropism for these tumour cells and its ability to transform in vitro and in vivo melanoma cells into matured and activated dendritic cells with competent microbicidal and antigen processing abilities. This Listeria based vaccination using low doses of the pathogen caused melanoma regression by apoptosis as well as bacterial clearance. Vaccination efficacy is LLO dependent and implies the reduction of LLO-specific CD4+ T cell responses, strong stimulation of innate pro-inflammatory immune cells and a prevalence of LLO-specific CD8+ T cells involved in tumour regression and Listeria elimination. These results support the use of low doses of pathogenic Listeria as safe melanoma therapeutic vaccines that do not require antibiotics for bacterial removal. PMID:25760947

  12. Galangin induces B16F10 melanoma cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and sustained activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Lan, Yan; Huang, Qilai; Hua, Zichun

    2013-05-01

    Galangin, an active flavonoid present at high concentration in Alpinia officinarum Hance and propolis, shows cytotoxicity towards several cancer cell lines, including melanoma. However, the specific cellular targets of galangin-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma are still unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of galangin in B16F10 melanoma cells and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. Galangin significantly decreased cell viability of B16F10 cells, and also induced cell apoptosis shown by Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining flow cytometric assay. Furthermore, upon galangin treatment, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed by JC-1 staining. Western blotting analysis indicated that galangin activated apoptosis signaling cascades by cleavage of procaspase-9, procaspase-3 and PARP in B16F10 cells. Moreover, galangin significantly induced activation of phosphor-p38 MAPK in a time and dose dependent manner. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, partially attenuated galangin-induced apoptosis in B16F10 cells. Taken together, this work suggests that galangin has the potential to be a promising agent for melanoma treatment and may be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  13. Common glycoproteins expressing polylactosamine-type glycans on matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cells show different glycan profiles.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Yosuke; Kakoi, Naotaka; Yamada, Keita; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-02-07

    Recently, we reported comparative analysis of glycoproteins which express cancer-specific N-glycans on various cancer cells and identified 24 glycoproteins having polylactosamine (polyLacNAc)-type N-glycans that are abundantly present in malignant cells [ Mitsui et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012 , 70 , 718 - 726 ]. In the present study, we applied the technique to comparative studies on common glycoproteins present in the matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Metastatic melanoma cells (WM266-4) contained a large amount of polyLacNAc-type N-glycans in comparison with primary melanoma cells (WM115). To identify the glycoproteins expressing these N-glycans, glycopeptides having polyLacNAc-type N-glycans were captured by a Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-immobilized agarose column. The captured glycopeptides were analyzed by LC/MS after removing N-glycans, and some glycoproteins such as basigin, lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were identified in both WM115 and WM266-4 cells. The expression level of polyLacNAc of CSPG4 in WM266-4 cells was significantly higher than that in WM115 cells. In addition, sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in CSPG4 showed dramatic changes between these cell lines. These data show that characteristic glycans attached to common proteins observed in different stages of cancer cells will be useful markers for determining degree of malignancies of tumor cells.

  14. Curcumin Induces Pro-apoptotic Effects Against Human Melanoma Cells and Modulates The Cellular Response to Immunotherapeutic Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Matthew A.; Bakan, Courtney; Benson, Don M.; Fuchs, James; Young, Gregory; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin has potential as a chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic agent however its interactions with clinically relevant cytokines are poorly characterized. Since cytokine immunotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for malignant melanoma, we hypothesized that curcumin could modulate the cellular responsiveness to interferons and interleukins. As a single agent, curcumin induced a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis of human melanoma cell lines, which was most prominent at doses >10 µM. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that curcumin induced apoptosis and revealed caspase-3 processing, PARP cleavage, reduced Bcl-2 and decreased basal phosphorylated STAT3. Despite its pro-apoptotic effects, curcumin pre-treatment of human melanoma cell lines inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 protein and downstream gene transcription following IFN-α and IFN-γ as determined by immunoblot analysis and Real Time PCR, respectively. Pre-treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors with curcumin also inhibited the ability of IFN-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 to phosphorylate STAT proteins critical for their anti-tumor activity (STAT1 and STAT5, respectively) and their respective downstream gene expression as measured by Real Time PCR. Finally, stimulation of natural killer (NK) cells with curcumin reduced the level of IL-12-induced IFN-γ secretion, and production of granzyme b or IFN-γ upon co-culture with A375 melanoma cells or NK sensitive K562 cells as targets. These data demonstrate that although curcumin can induce apoptosis of melanoma cells, it can also adversely affect the responsiveness of immune effector cells to clinically relevant cytokines that possess anti-tumor properties. PMID:19723881

  15. Genetics of melanoma progression: the rise and fall of cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Dorothy C

    2016-03-01

    There are many links between cell senescence and the genetics of melanoma, meaning both familial susceptibility and somatic-genetic changes in sporadic melanoma. For example, CDKN2A, the best-known melanoma susceptibility gene, encodes two effectors of cell senescence, while other familial melanoma genes are related to telomeres and their maintenance. This article aimed to analyze our current knowledge of the genetic or epigenetic driver changes necessary to generate a cutaneous metastatic melanoma, the commonest order in which these occur, and the relation of these changes to the biology and pathology of melanoma progression. Emphasis is laid on the role of cell senescence and the escape from senescence leading to cellular immortality, the ability to divide indefinitely.

  16. Human Single-Chain Fv Immunoconjugates Targeted to a Melanoma-Associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Mediate Specific Lysis of Human Melanoma Cells by Natural Killer Cells and Complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baiyang; Chen, Yi-Bin; Ayalon, Oran; Bender, Jeffrey; Garen, Alan

    1999-02-01

    Two antimelanoma immunoconjugates containing a human single-chain Fv (scFv) targeting domain conjugated to the Fc effector domain of human IgG1 were synthesized as secreted two-chain molecules in Chinese hamster ovary and Drosophila S2 cells, and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A. The scFv targeting domains originally were isolated as melanoma-specific clones from a scFv fusion-phage library, derived from the antibody repertoire of a vaccinated melanoma patient. The purified immunoconjugates showed similar binding specificity as did the fusion-phage clones. Binding occurred to human melanoma cells but not to human melanocytes or to several other types of normal cells and tumor cells. A 250-kDa melanoma protein was immunoprecipitated by the immunoconjugates and analyzed by mass spectrometry, using two independent procedures. A screen of protein sequence databases showed an exact match of several peptide masses between the immunoprecipitated protein and the core protein of a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, which is expressed on the surface of most human melanoma cells. The Fc effector domain of the immunoconjugates binds natural killer (NK) cells and also the C1q protein that initiates the complement cascade; both NK cells and complement can activate powerful cytolytic responses against the targeted tumor cells. An in vitro cytolysis assay was used to test for an immunoconjugate-dependent specific cytolytic response against cultured human melanoma cells by NK cells and complement. The melanoma cells, but not the human fibroblast cells used as the control, were efficiently lysed by both NK cells and complement in the presence of the immunoconjugates. The in vitro results suggest that the immunoconjugates also could activate a specific cytolytic immune response against melanoma tumors in vivo.

  17. CDKN2A and CDK4 mutation analysis in Italian melanoma-prone families: functional characterization of a novel CDKN2A germ line mutation.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, G; Pasini, B; Frigerio, S; Donghi, R; Rovini, D; Delia, D; Peters, G; Huot, T J; Bianchi-Scarra, G; Lantieri, F; Rodolfo, M; Parmiani, G; Pierotti, M A

    2001-09-14

    Physical interaction between CDKN2A/p16 and CDK4 proteins regulates the cell cycle progression through the G1 phase and dysfunction of these proteins by gene mutation is implicated in genetic predisposition to melanoma. We analysed 15 Italian melanoma families for germ line mutations in the coding region of the CDKN2A gene and exon 2 of the CDK4 gene. One novel disease-associated mutation (P48T), 3 known pathological mutations (R24P, G101W and N71S) and 2 common polymorphisms (A148T and Nt500 G>C) were identified in the CDKN2A gene. In a family harbouring the R24P mutation, an intronic variant (IVS1, +37 G>C) of uncertain significance was detected in a non-carrier melanoma case. The overall incidence of CDKN2A mutations was 33.3%, but this percentage was higher in families with 3 or more melanoma cases (50%) than in those with only 2 affected relatives (25%). Noteworthy, functional analysis established that the novel mutated protein, while being impaired in cell growth and inhibition assays, retains some in vitro binding to CDK4/6. No variant in the p16-binding region of CDK4 was identified in our families. Our results, obtained in a heterogeneous group of families, support the view that inactivating mutations of CDKN2A contribute to melanoma susceptibility more than activating mutations of CDK4 and that other genetic factors must be responsible for melanoma clustering in a high proportion of families. In addition, they indicate the need for a combination of functional assays to determine the pathogenetic nature of new CDKN2A mutations.

  18. Characteristics of malignant melanoma cells in the treatment with fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tsunemoto, H.; Morita, S.; Mori, S. )

    1989-07-01

    The radioresistance of malignant melanoma cells has been explained by the wide shoulder of the dose-cell-survival curve of the cells exposed to photon beams. Fast neutrons, 30 MeV d-Be, were used to treat patients who had malignant melanoma in order to confirm the biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for tumor control. Seventy-two patients suffering from malignant melanoma participated in the clinical trials with fast neutrons between November 1975 and December 1986. Of 72 patients, 45 had melanoma of the skin, 20 had melanoma of the head and neck, and seven had choroidal melanoma. Five-year survival rate of the patients who had previously untreated melanoma of the skin was 61% and for patients who received postoperative irradiation, it was 35.7% whereas no patients who had recurrent tumor survived over 4 years. Of 22 patients who had melanoma of the skin, stage I, local control in four cases was achieved by irradiation alone, whereas local control was achieved in 17 of 18 patients who required salvage surgery after fast-neutron therapy. The results of pathological studies performed with specimens obtained from salvage surgery have shown that melanoma cells growing in intradermal tissue are radioresistant, compared with cells growing in intraepidermal tissue. This might suggest that melanoma cells acquire radioresistance when the connective tissue is involved. Five-year survival rate of the patients who had locally advanced melanoma of the head and neck, previously untreated, was 15.4%. Radiation therapy with accelerated protons was suitable for patients suffering from choroidal melanoma.

  19. Detection and isolation of circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Christine M; Rood, Kyle; Sengupta, Shramik; Gupta, Sagar K; DeSouza, Thiago; Cook, Aaron; Viator, John A

    2011-11-25

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are those cells that have separated from a macroscopic tumor and spread through the blood and lymph systems to seed secondary tumors(1,2,3). CTCs are indicators of metastatic disease and their detection in blood samples may be used to diagnose cancer and monitor a patient's response to therapy. Since CTCs are rare, comprising about one tumor cell among billions of normal blood cells in advanced cancer patients, their detection and enumeration is a difficult task. We exploit the presence of pigment in most melanoma cells to generate photoacoustic, or laser induced ultrasonic waves in a custom flow cytometer for detection of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs)(4,5). This process entails separating a whole blood sample using centrifugation and obtaining the white blood cell layer. If present in whole blood, CMCs will separate with the white blood cells due to similar density. These cells are resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and introduced into the flowmeter. Rather than a continuous flow of the blood cell suspension, we induced two phase flow in order to capture these cells for further study. In two phase flow, two immiscible liquids in a microfluidic system meet at a junction and form alternating slugs of liquid(6,7). PBS suspended white blood cells and air form microliter slugs that are sequentially irradiated with laser light. The addition of a surfactant to the liquid phase allows uniform slug formation and the user can create different sized slugs by altering the flow rates of the two phases. Slugs of air and slugs of PBS with white blood cells contain no light absorbers and hence, do not produce photoacoustic waves. However, slugs of white blood cells that contain even single CMCs absorb laser light and produce high frequency acoustic waves. These slugs that generate photoacoustic waves are sequestered and collected for cytochemical staining for verification of CMCs.

  20. Pentoxifylline Inhibits WNT Signalling in β-Cateninhigh Patient-Derived Melanoma Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Talar, Beata; Gajos-Michniewicz, Anna; Talar, Marcin; Chouaib, Salem; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of melanoma needs to be addressed and combination therapies seem to be necessary to overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance to newly developed immunotherapies and targeted therapies. Although the role of WNT/β-catenin pathway in melanoma was early demonstrated, its contribution to the lack of the melanoma patient response to treatment was only recently recognized. Using patient-derived melanoma cell populations, we investigated the influence of pentoxifylline on melanoma cells with either high or low expression of β-catenin. Findings Our results indicate that pentoxifylline inhibits the activity of the canonical WNT pathway in melanoma cell populations with high basal activity of this signalling. This is supported by lowered overall activity of transcription factors TCF/LEF and reduced nuclear localisation of active β-catenin. Moreover, treatment of β-cateninhigh melanoma cell populations with pentoxifylline induces downregulation of genes that are targets of the WNT/β-catenin pathway including connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M), a melanocyte- and melanoma cell-specific regulator. Conclusions These results suggest that pentoxifylline, a drug approved by the FDA in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, might be tested in a subset of melanoma patients with elevated activity of β-catenin. This pharmaceutical might be tested as an adjuvant drug in combination therapies when the response to immunotherapy is prevented by high activity of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. PMID:27351373

  1. Fisetin inhibits human melanoma cell invasion through promotion of mesenchymal to epithelial transition and by targeting MAPK and NFκB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Sharma, Samriti; Strickland, Leah Ray; Katiyar, Santosh K; Ballestas, Mary E; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of skin cancer-related deaths. BRAF plays an important role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in melanoma with activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF occurring in 60-70% of malignant melanomas. The BRAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is a key regulator of melanoma cell invasion. In addition, activation of NFκB via the MAPK pathway is regulated through MEK-induced activation of IKK. These pathways are potential targets for prevention and treatment of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin, a phytochemical present in fruits and vegetables, on melanoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and delineated the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of multiple human malignant melanoma cell lines with fisetin (5-20 µM) resulted in inhibition of cell invasion. BRAF mutated melanoma cells were more sensitive to fisetin treatment, and this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin inhibited the activation of IKK leading to a reduction in the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of MEK1/2 (PD98059) or of NFκB (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) also reduced melanoma cell invasion. Furthermore, treatment of fisetin promoted mesenchymal to epithelial transition in melanoma cells, which was associated with a decrease in mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and fibronectin) and an increase in epithelial markers (E-cadherin and desmoglein). Employing three dimensional skin equivalents consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded onto a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix, we found that treatment of fisetin reduced the invasive potential of melanoma cells into the dermis and increased the expression of E-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in vimentin. These results indicate that fisetin

  2. Endogenously produced nitric oxide mitigates sensitivity of melanoma cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Luiz C; Anderson, Chase T M; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Trudel, Laura J; Wogan, Gerald N

    2012-12-11

    Melanoma patients experience inferior survival after biochemotherapy when their tumors contain numerous cells expressing the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) and elevated levels of nitrotyrosine, a product derived from NO. Although several lines of evidence suggest that NO promotes tumor growth and increases resistance to chemotherapy, it is unclear how it shapes these outcomes. Here we demonstrate that modulation of NO-mediated S-nitrosation of cellular proteins is strongly associated with the pattern of response to the anticancer agent cisplatin in human melanoma cells in vitro. Cells were shown to express iNOS constitutively, and to generate sustained nanomolar levels of NO intracellularly. Inhibition of NO synthesis or scavenging of NO enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptotic cell death. Additionally, pharmacologic agents disrupting S-nitrosation markedly increased cisplatin toxicity, whereas treatments favoring stabilization of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) decreased its cytotoxic potency. Activity of the proapoptotic enzyme caspase-3 was higher in cells treated with a combination of cisplatin and chemicals that decreased NO/SNOs, whereas lower activity resulted from cisplatin combined with stabilization of SNOs. Constitutive protein S-nitrosation in cells was detected by analysis with biotin switch and reduction/chemiluminescence techniques. Moreover, intracellular NO concentration increased significantly in cells that survived cisplatin treatment, resulting in augmented S-nitrosation of caspase-3 and prolyl-hydroxylase-2, the enzyme responsible for targeting the prosurvival transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α for proteasomal degradation. Because activities of these enzymes are inhibited by S-nitrosation, our data thus indicate that modulation of intrinsic intracellular NO levels substantially affects cisplatin toxicity in melanoma cells. The underlying mechanisms may thus represent potential targets for adjuvant strategies to improve the efficacy

  3. Therapeutic potential of the metabolic modulator phenformin in targeting the stem cell compartment in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Longo, Caterina; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Grisendi, Giulia; Dominici, Massimo; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous and treatment-resistant skin cancer. Tumor resistance and recurrence are due to the persistence in the patient of aggressive cells with stem cell features, the cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidences have shown that CSC display a distinct metabolic profile as compared to tumor bulk population: a promising anti-tumor strategy is therefore to target specific metabolic pathways driving CSC behavior. Biguanides (metformin and phenformin) are anti-diabetic drugs able to perturb cellular metabolism and displaying anti-cancer activity. However, their ability to target the CSC compartment in melanoma is not known. Here we show that phenformin, but not metformin, strongly reduces melanoma cell viability, growth and invasion in both 2D and 3D (spheroids) models. While phenformin decreases melanoma CSC markers expression and the levels of the pro-survival factor MITF, MITF overexpression fails to prevent phenformin effects. Phenformin significantly reduces cell viability in melanoma by targeting both CSC (ALDHhigh) and non-CSC cells and by significantly reducing the number of viable cells in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow-derived spheroids. Consistently, phenformin reduces melanoma cell viability and growth independently from SOX2 levels. Our results show that phenformin is able to affect both CSC and non-CSC melanoma cell viability and growth and suggests its potential use as anti-cancer therapy in melanoma. PMID:28036292

  4. Melanoma cell lysate induces CCR7 expression and in vivo migration to draining lymph nodes of therapeutic human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    González, Fermín E; Ortiz, Carolina; Reyes, Montserrat; Dutzan, Nicolás; Patel, Vyomesh; Pereda, Cristián; Gleisner, Maria A; López, Mercedes N; Gutkind, J Silvio; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    We have previously reported a novel method for the production of tumour-antigen-presenting cells (referred to as TAPCells) that are currently being used in cancer therapy, using an allogeneic melanoma-derived cell lysate (referred to as TRIMEL) as an antigen provider and activation factor. It was recently demonstrated that TAPCell-based immunotherapy induces T-cell-mediated immune responses resulting in improved long-term survival of stage IV melanoma patients. Clinically, dendritic cell (DC) migration from injected sites to lymph nodes is an important requirement for an effective anti-tumour immunization. This mobilization of DCs is mainly driven by the C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), which is up-regulated on mature DCs. Using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, we investigated if TRIMEL was capable of inducing the expression of the CCR7 on TAPCells and enhancing their migration in vitro, as well as their in vivo relocation to lymph nodes in an ectopic xenograft animal model. Our results confirmed that TRIMEL induces a phenotypic maturation and increases the expression of surface CCR7 on melanoma patient-derived DCs, and also on the monocytic/macrophage cell line THP-1. Moreover, in vitro assays showed that TRIMEL-stimulated DCs and THP-1 cells were capable of migrating specifically in the presence of the CCR7 ligand CCL19. Finally, we demonstrated that TAPCells could migrate in vivo from the injection site into the draining lymph nodes. This work contributes to an increased understanding of the biology of DCs produced ex vivo allowing the design of new strategies for effective DC-based vaccines for treating aggressive melanomas.

  5. Cytotoxicity of new duplex drugs linking 3'-C-ethynylcytidine and 5-fluor-2'-deoxyuridine against human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schott, Sarah; Niessner, Heike; Sinnberg, Tobias; Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Ikenberg, Kristian; Villanueva, Jessie; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus; Busch, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially fatal malignancy of the skin and some mucous membranes. As no cure exists for metastatic disease, there is an urgent need for novel drugs. 2'-Deoxy-5-fluorouridylyl-(3'-5')-3'-C-ethynylcytidine [5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd] and 3'-C-ethynylcytidinylyl-(5' → 1-O)-2-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerylyl-(3-O → 5')-2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine [ECyd-lipid-5-FdU] represent cytostatic active duplex drugs, which can be metabolized into various active antimetabolites. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of these heterodinucleoside phosphate analogs, their corresponding monomers ECyd and 5-FdU and combinations thereof on six metastatic melanoma cell lines and six ex vivo patient-derived melanoma cells in comparison to current standard cytostatic agents and the BRAF V600E inhibitor Vemurafenib. In vitro (real-time)-proliferation assays demonstrated that 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd and ECyd-lipid-5-FdU had a high cytotoxic efficacy causing 75% melanoma cell death at concentrations in the nanomolar and micromolar range. Cytotoxicity was conducted by induction of DNA cleavage indicating apoptotic cells. Chicken embryotoxicity demonstrated that the duplex drugs were less toxic than 5-FdU at 0.01 μM. In vivo the duplex drug 5-FdU(3'-5')ECyd was efficacious in the murine LOX IMVI melanoma xenograph model on administration of 11.2 mg/kg/injection every fourth day. Both duplex drugs are promising novel cytostatic agents for the treatment of malignant melanoma meriting clinical evaluation.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Proton Beam Irradiated Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Elas, Martyna; Sowa, Urszula; Swakon, Jan; Cierniak, Agnieszka; Olko, Pawel; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena; Urbanska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam irradiation is a form of advanced radiotherapy providing superior distributions of a low LET radiation dose relative to that of photon therapy for the treatment of cancer. Even though this clinical treatment has been developing for several decades, the proton radiobiology critical to the optimization of proton radiotherapy is far from being understood. Proteomic changes were analyzed in human melanoma cells treated with a sublethal dose (3 Gy) of proton beam irradiation. The results were compared with untreated cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed with mass spectrometry to identify the proteins. At the dose of 3 Gy a minimal slowdown in proliferation rate was seen, as well as some DNA damage. After allowing time for damage repair, the proteomic analysis was performed. In total 17 protein levels were found to significantly (more than 1.5 times) change: 4 downregulated and 13 upregulated. Functionally, they represent four categories: (i) DNA repair and RNA regulation (VCP, MVP, STRAP, FAB-2, Lamine A/C, GAPDH), (ii) cell survival and stress response (STRAP, MCM7, Annexin 7, MVP, Caprin-1, PDCD6, VCP, HSP70), (iii) cell metabolism (TIM, GAPDH, VCP), and (iv) cytoskeleton and motility (Moesin, Actinin 4, FAB-2, Vimentin, Annexin 7, Lamine A/C, Lamine B). A substantial decrease (2.3 x) was seen in the level of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the metastatic properties of melanoma. PMID:24392146

  7. The biphosphinic paladacycle complex induces melanoma cell death through lysosomal-mitochondrial axis modulation and impaired autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gigli, Rafael; Pereira, Gustavo J S; Antunes, Fernanda; Bechara, Alexandre; Garcia, Daniel M; Spindola, Daniel G; Jasiulionis, Mirian G; Caires, Antonio C F; Smaili, Soraya S; Bincoletto, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Recently, palladium complexes have been extensively studied as cyclization of these complexes by cyclometallation reactions increased their stability making them promising antitumor compounds. In this study, we have investigated apoptosis induced by the Biphosphinic Paladacycle Complex (BPC11) and possible cross talk between apoptosis and autophagy in cell line models of metastatic (Tm5) and non-metastatic (4C11-) melanoma. The BPC11-induced cell death in melanoma involved the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis, which is characterized by LMP, CatB activation and increased Bax protein levels following its translocation to mitochondria. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization, followed by membrane potential dissipation and cleavage of caspase-3, also resulted in cell death after 24 h of incubation. We also found that BPC11-mediated LC3II formation and increased p62 protein levels, suggesting blocked autophagy, probably due to LMP. Interestingly, the treatment of Tm5 and 4C11(-) cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of the initial stage of autophagy, potentiated the effects of BPC11. We conclude that BPC11 is an anti-melanoma agent and that autophagy may be acting as a mechanism of melanoma cells resistance. Also, these data highlight the importance of studies involving autophagy and apoptosis during pre-clinical studies of new drugs with anticancer properties.

  8. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  9. Slug Expression during Melanoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Stephanie H.; Greene, Victoria R.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Torres Cabala, Carlos A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or metastatic melanomas. Moreover, Slug expression in melanomas was not associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, the canonical Slug target in EMT. Comparisons of endogenous Slug and E-cadherin expression in cultured normal human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines supported our immunohistochemical findings. Expression of exogenous Slug in melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro, however, suppressed E-cadherin expression, enhanced N-cadherin expression, and stimulated cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, both in tumors and cultured cell lines, there was a clear relationship between expression of Slug and MITF, a transcription factor known to regulate Slug expression during development. Taken together, our findings suggest that Slug expression during melanomagenesis is highest early in the process and that persistent Slug expression is not required for melanoma progression. The precise role of Slug in melanomagenesis remains to be elucidated and may be related to its interactions with other drivers of EMT, such as Snail. PMID:22503751

  10. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  11. Multifunctional bioscaffolds for 3D culture of melanoma cells reveal increased MMP activity and migration with BRAF kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leight, Jennifer L; Tokuda, Emi Y; Jones, Caitlin E; Lin, Austin J; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-04-28

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important for many different types of cancer-related processes, including metastasis. Understanding the functional impact of changes in MMP activity during cancer treatment is an important facet not typically evaluated as part of preclinical research. With MMP activity being a critical component of the metastatic cascade, we designed a 3D hydrogel system to probe whether pharmacological inhibition affected human melanoma cell proteolytic activity; metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant form of skin cancer. The relationship between MMP activity and drug treatment is unknown, and therefore we used an in situ fluorogenic MMP sensor peptide to determine how drug treatment affects melanoma cell MMP activity in three dimensions. We encapsulated melanoma cells from varying stages of progression within PEG-based hydrogels to examine the relationship between drug treatment and MMP activity. From these results, a metastatic melanoma cell line (A375) and two inhibitors that inhibit RAF (PLX4032 and sorafenib) were studied further to determine whether changes in MMP activity led to a functional change in cell behavior. A375 cells exhibited increased MMP activity despite an overall decrease in metabolic activity with PLX4032 treatment. The changes in proteolytic activity correlated with increased cell elongation and increased single-cell migration. In contrast, sorafenib did not alter MMP activity or cell motility, showing that the changes induced by PLX4032 were not a universal response to small-molecule inhibition. Therefore, we argue the importance of studying MMP activity with drug treatment and its possible implications for unwanted side effects.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  13. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla; Goto, Yamafumi; Takata, Minoru; Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn; Zervos, Antonis S.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. {yields} THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. {yields} THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. {yields} THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  14. The beating heart of melanomas: a minor subset of cancer cells sustains tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-04-01

    The recent observation that targeted elimination of a minor subpopulation of melanoma cells can lastingly eradicate the tumor lesion provides strong evidence that an established melanoma lesion is hierarchically organized and maintained by definite subset of cells but not by every random cancer cell. This review discusses the concepts of discrete cancer stem cells and of a cellular hierarchy in melanomas, the rationale for shifting therapies from broad tumor cell cytotoxicity into selective cancer cell elimination strategies and the challenges for future therapeutic concepts.

  15. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W.

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Selenium nanoparticles fabricated in Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide solutions induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zheng, Wenjie; Bai, Yan; Huang, Liang

    2008-11-15

    Selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) is a novel Se species with novel biological activities and low toxicity. In the present study, we demonstrated a simple method for synthesis of size-controlled Nano-Se by adding Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides to the redox system of selenite and ascorbic acid. A panel of four human cancer cell lines was shown to be susceptible to Nano-Se, with IC(50) values ranging from 3.0 to 14.1 microM. Treatment of A375 human melanoma cells with the Nano-Se resulted in dose-dependent cell apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms found that Nano-Se treatment triggered apoptotic cell death in A375 cells with the involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that Nano-Se may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for human cancers, especially melanoma cancer.

  17. MITF drives endolysosomal biogenesis and potentiates Wnt signaling in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ploper, Diego; Taelman, Vincent F.; Robert, Lidia; Perez, Brian S.; Titz, Björn; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Graeber, Thomas G.; von Euw, Erika; Ribas, Antoni; De Robertis, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in development and disease, regulating transcription of target genes and stabilizing many proteins phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). We observed that the MiT family of transcription factors, which includes the melanoma oncogene MITF (micropthalmia-associated transcription factor) and the lysosomal master regulator TFEB, had the highest phylogenetic conservation of three consecutive putative GSK3 phosphorylation sites in animal proteomes. This finding prompted us to examine the relationship between MITF, endolysosomal biogenesis, and Wnt signaling. Here we report that MITF expression levels correlated with the expression of a large subset of lysosomal genes in melanoma cell lines. MITF expression in the tetracycline-inducible C32 melanoma model caused a marked increase in vesicular structures, and increased expression of late endosomal proteins, such as Rab7, LAMP1, and CD63. These late endosomes were not functional lysosomes as they were less active in proteolysis, yet were able to concentrate Axin1, phospho-LRP6, phospho-β-catenin, and GSK3 in the presence of Wnt ligands. This relocalization significantly enhanced Wnt signaling by increasing the number of multivesicular bodies into which the Wnt signalosome/destruction complex becomes localized upon Wnt signaling. We also show that the MITF protein was stabilized by Wnt signaling, through the novel C-terminal GSK3 phosphorylations identified here. MITF stabilization caused an increase in multivesicular body biosynthesis, which in turn increased Wnt signaling, generating a positive-feedback loop that may function during the proliferative stages of melanoma. The results underscore the importance of misregulated endolysosomal biogenesis in Wnt signaling and cancer. PMID:25605940

  18. TRPA1 is functionally expressed in melanoma cells but is not critical for impaired proliferation caused by allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Beatrice; Scholze, Anja; Schaefer, Michael; Hill, Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer occurring in Caucasians with rising incidence. They are remarkably resistant to conventional anti-tumour therapies like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Anti-tumour effects of phytochemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde have been demonstrated in various melanoma models in vitro and in vivo. Considering their high potency as transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1)-activating compounds, we examined the functional expression of TRPA1 channels in different melanoma cell lines as well as in non-malignantly transformed primary melanocytes. The presence of TRPA1 transcripts could be detected in most of the melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, single-cell calcium imaging and patch clamp electrophysiology confirmed the presence of functional TRPA1 channels in those cell lines. Proliferation assays revealed that allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde clearly reduce the proliferation of melanoma cells, but this effect is independent of an activation of TRPA1 channels, making it unlikely that ionic currents through TRPA1 are responsible for the anti-tumour effects of mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde.

  19. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  20. Detection and capture of single circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Christine; Mosley, Jeffrey; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic flowmetry has been used to detect single circulating melanoma cells in vitro. Circulating melanoma cells are those cells that travel in the blood and lymph systems to create secondary tumors and are the hallmark of metastasis. This technique involves taking blood samples from patients, separating the white blood and melanoma cells from whole blood and irradiating them with a pulsed laser in a flowmetry set up. Rapid, visible wavelength laser pulses on the order of 5 ns can induce photoacoustic waves in melanoma cells due to their melanin content, while surrounding white blood cells remain acoustically passive. We have developed a system that identifies rare melanoma cells and captures them in 50 microliter volumes using suction applied near the photoacoustic detection chamber. The 50 microliter sample is then diluted and the experiment is repeated using the new sample until only a melanoma cell remains. We have tested this system on dyed microspheres ranging in size from 300 to 500 microns. Capture of circulating melanoma cells may provide the opportunity to study metastatic cells for basic understanding of the spread of cancer and to optimize patient specific therapies.

  1. β- and γ-Actins in the nucleus of human melanoma A375 cells.

    PubMed

    Migocka-Patrzałek, Marta; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Nowak, Dorota; Mazur, Antonina J; Hofmann, Wilma A; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Actin is a highly conserved protein that is expressed in all eukaryotic cells and has essential functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nuclear actin is involved in transcription by all three RNA polymerases, chromatin remodelling, RNA processing, intranuclear transport, nuclear export and in maintenance of the nuclear architecture. The nuclear actin level and polymerization state are important factors regulating nuclear processes such as transcription. Our study shows that, in contrast to the cytoplasm, the majority of endogenous nuclear actin is unpolymerized in human melanoma A375 cells. Most mammalian cells express the two non-muscle β- and γ-actin isoforms that differ in only four amino acids. Despite their sequence similarity, studies analysing the cytoplasmic functions of these isoforms demonstrated that β- and γ-actins show differences in localization and function. However, little is known about the involvement of the individual actin isoforms in nuclear processes. Here, we used the human melanoma A375 cell line to analyse actin isoforms in regard to their nuclear localization. We show that both β- and γ-non-muscle actin isoforms are present in nuclei of these cells. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that both isoforms co-localize with RNA polymerase II and hnRNP U. However, we observe differences in the ratio of cytoplasmic to nuclear actin distribution between the isoforms. We show that β-actin has a significantly higher nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio than γ-actin.

  2. Chemosensitizing Effect of Saikosaponin B on B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Heyao; Yokoyama, Satoru; Saiki, Ikuo; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy is one of the obstacles for better cancer treatment, and inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, have been recognized to be involved in such chemoresistance. In this study, we aim to identify a new approach for overcoming cancer chemoresistance by using natural compounds. As a result of screening by using Murine B16F10 melanoma cell line constitutively expressing NF-κB luciferase reporter gene, we identified Saikosaponin B2 as an effective inhibitor for etoposide-induced NF-κB activation in B16F10NFkB cells. Saikosaponin B2 sensitized etoposide-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma cells through the induction of apoptosis. Along with apoptosis induction, we observed an induction of γ-H2AX expression, which is a molecular signature for DNA damage, upon the combination treatment of etoposide and Saikosaponin B2. Among Saikosaponin family compounds, we found that Saikosaponin B1, but not Saikosaponin A, sensitized etoposide-induced cytotoxicity implicating the structural requirement of Saikosaponin B for such chemosensitization. By testing the combination of Saikosaponin B1 and B2 with 9 clinical anticancer drugs, Saikosaponin B showed a certain preference in the combination with those tested anticancer drugs. Collectively, we conclude Saikosaponin B can be an attractive adjuvant for enhancing the clinical effect of cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Synergistic Apoptosis-Inducing Effects on A375 Human Melanoma Cells of Natural Borneol and Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Lin; Su, Jianyu; Li, Bing; Chen, Tianfeng; Wong, Yum-Shing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the synergistic effect of NB/Cur on growth and apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cell line by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that NB effectively synergized with Cur to enhance its antiproliferative activity on A375 human melanoma cells by induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage and caspase activation. Further mechanistic studies by Western blotting showed that after treatment of the cells with NB/Cur, up-regulation of the expression level of phosphorylated JNK and down-regulation of the expression level of phosphorylated ERK and Akt contributed to A375 cells apoptosis. Moreover, NB also potentiated Cur to trigger intracellular ROS overproduction and the DNA damage with up-regulation of the expression level of phosphorylated ATM, phosphorylated Brca1 and phosphorylated p53. The results indicate the combinational application potential of NB and Cur in treatments of cancers. PMID:24971451

  4. Melanoma dormancy in a mouse model is linked to GILZ/FOXO3A-dependent quiescence of disseminated stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Touil, Yasmine; Segard, Pascaline; Ostyn, Pauline; Begard, Severine; Aspord, Caroline; El Machhour, Raja; Masselot, Bernadette; Vandomme, Jerome; Flamenco, Pilar; Idziorek, Thierry; Figeac, Martin; Formstecher, Pierre; Quesnel, Bruno; Polakowska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancer relapses following the reactivation of dormant, disseminated tumour cells; however, the cells and factors involved in this reactivation are just beginning to be identified. Using an immunotherapy-based syngeneic model of melanoma dormancy and GFP-labelled dormant cell-derived cell lines, we determined that vaccination against melanoma prevented tumour growth but did not prevent tumour cell dissemination or eliminate all tumour cells. The persistent disseminated melanoma tumour cells were quiescent and asymptomatic for one year. The quiescence/activation of these cells in vitro and the dormancy of melanoma in vivo appeared to be regulated by glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ)-mediated immunosuppression. GILZ expression was low in dormant cell-derived cultures, and re-expression of GILZ inactivated FOXO3A and its downstream target, p21CIP1. The ability of dormancy-competent cells to re-enter the cell cycle increased after a second round of cellular dormancy in vivo in association with shortened tumour dormancy period and faster and more aggressive melanoma relapse. Our data indicate that future cancer treatments should be adjusted according to the stage of disease progression. PMID:27465291

  5. Identification of the hypoxia-inducible factor 2α nuclear interactome in melanoma cells reveals master proteins involved in melanoma development.

    PubMed

    Steunou, Anne-Lise; Ducoux-Petit, Manuelle; Lazar, Ikrame; Monsarrat, Bernard; Erard, Monique; Muller, Catherine; Clottes, Eric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Nieto, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors that play a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF proteins are composed of an α subunit regulated by oxygen pressure (essentially HIF1α or HIF2α) and a constitutively expressed β subunit. These proteins are often overexpressed in cancer cells, and HIF overexpression frequently correlates with poor prognosis, making HIF proteins promising therapeutic targets. HIF proteins are involved in melanoma initiation and progression; however, the specific function of HIF2 in melanoma has not yet been studied comprehensively. Identifying protein complexes is a valuable way to uncover protein function, and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry and label-free quantification is a reliable method for this approach. We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to identify exhaustively the nuclear complexes containing HIF2α in a human melanoma cell line, 501mel. We report, for the first time, a high-throughput analysis of the interactome of an HIF subunit. Seventy proteins were identified that interact with HIF2α, including some well-known HIF partners and some new interactors. The new HIF2α partners microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, SOX10, and AP2α, which are master actors of melanoma development, were confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Their ability to bind to HIF1α was also tested: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and SOX10 were confirmed as HIF1α partners, but the transcription factor AP2α was not. AP2α expression correlates with low invasive capacities. Interestingly, we demonstrated that when HIF2α was overexpressed, only cells expressing large amounts of AP2α exhibited decreased invasive capacities in hypoxia relative to normoxia. The simultaneous presence of both transcription factors therefore reduces cells' invasive properties. Knowledge of the HIF2α interactome is thus a useful resource for investigating

  6. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  7. Eradication of melanomas by targeted elimination of a minor subset of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Kopecky, Caroline; Hombach, Andreas; Zigrino, Paola; Mauch, Cornelia; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-02-08

    Proceeding on the assumption that all cancer cells have equal malignant capacities, current regimens in cancer therapy attempt to eradicate all malignant cells of a tumor lesion. Using in vivo targeting of tumor cell subsets, we demonstrate that selective elimination of a definite, minor tumor cell subpopulation is particularly effective in eradicating established melanoma lesions irrespective of the bulk of cancer cells. Tumor cell subsets were specifically eliminated in a tumor lesion by adoptive transfer of engineered cytotoxic T cells redirected in an antigen-restricted manner via a chimeric antigen receptor. Targeted elimination of less than 2% of the tumor cells that coexpress high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA) (melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, MCSP) and CD20 lastingly eradicated melanoma lesions, whereas targeting of any random 10% tumor cell subset was not effective. Our data challenge the biological therapy and current drug development paradigms in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Phenotyping of Human Melanoma Cells Reveals a Unique Composition of Receptor Targets and a Subpopulation Co-Expressing ErbB4, EPO-R and NGF-R

    PubMed Central

    Krepler, Clemens; Mikula, Mario; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Strommer, Sabine; Stella, Alexander; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Höller, Christoph; Wacheck, Volker; Pehamberger, Hubert; Valent, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human melanomas. We examined the cell surface antigen profile of human skin melanoma cells by multicolor flow cytometry, and compared their phenotype with 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, 607B, Mel-Juso, SK-Mel28). Melanoma cells were defined as CD45−/CD31− cells co-expressing one or more melanoma-related antigens (CD63, CD146, CD166). In most patients, melanoma cells exhibited ErbB3/Her3, CD44/Pgp-1, ICAM-1/CD54 and IGF-1-R/CD221, but did not express CD20, ErbB2/Her2, KIT/CD117, AC133/CD133 or MDR-1/CD243. Melanoma cell lines were found to display a similar phenotype. In most patients, a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells (4–40%) expressed the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and ErbB4 together with PD-1 and NGF-R/CD271. Both the EPO-R+ and EPO-R− subpopulations produced melanoma lesions in NOD/SCID IL-2Rgammanull (NSG) mice in first and secondary recipients. Normal skin melanocytes did not express ErbB4 or EPO-R, but expressed a functional KIT receptor (CD117) as well as NGF-R, ErbB3/Her3, IGF-1-R and CD44. In conclusion, melanoma cells display a unique composition of surface target antigens and cytokine receptors. Malignant transformation of melanomas is accompanied by loss of KIT and acquisition of EPO-R and ErbB4, both of which are co-expressed with NGF-R and PD-1 in distinct subfractions of melanoma cells. However, expression of EPO-R/ErbB4/PD-1 is not indicative of a selective melanoma-initiating potential. PMID:24489649

  9. Phenotyping of human melanoma cells reveals a unique composition of receptor targets and a subpopulation co-expressing ErbB4, EPO-R and NGF-R.

    PubMed

    Mirkina, Irina; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Krepler, Clemens; Mikula, Mario; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Strommer, Sabine; Stella, Alexander; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Höller, Christoph; Wacheck, Volker; Pehamberger, Hubert; Valent, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer increasingly diagnosed in the western world. In advanced disease the prognosis is grave. Growth and metastasis formation in melanomas are regulated by a network of cytokines, cytokine-receptors, and adhesion molecules. However, little is known about surface antigens and target expression profiles in human melanomas. We examined the cell surface antigen profile of human skin melanoma cells by multicolor flow cytometry, and compared their phenotype with 4 melanoma cell lines (A375, 607B, Mel-Juso, SK-Mel28). Melanoma cells were defined as CD45-/CD31- cells co-expressing one or more melanoma-related antigens (CD63, CD146, CD166). In most patients, melanoma cells exhibited ErbB3/Her3, CD44/Pgp-1, ICAM-1/CD54 and IGF-1-R/CD221, but did not express CD20, ErbB2/Her2, KIT/CD117, AC133/CD133 or MDR-1/CD243. Melanoma cell lines were found to display a similar phenotype. In most patients, a distinct subpopulation of melanoma cells (4-40%) expressed the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and ErbB4 together with PD-1 and NGF-R/CD271. Both the EPO-R+ and EPO-R- subpopulations produced melanoma lesions in NOD/SCID IL-2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice in first and secondary recipients. Normal skin melanocytes did not express ErbB4 or EPO-R, but expressed a functional KIT receptor (CD117) as well as NGF-R, ErbB3/Her3, IGF-1-R and CD44. In conclusion, melanoma cells display a unique composition of surface target antigens and cytokine receptors. Malignant transformation of melanomas is accompanied by loss of KIT and acquisition of EPO-R and ErbB4, both of which are co-expressed with NGF-R and PD-1 in distinct subfractions of melanoma cells. However, expression of EPO-R/ErbB4/PD-1 is not indicative of a selective melanoma-initiating potential.

  10. Plasmonic enhanced fs-laser optoporation of human melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, J.; Humbert, L.; St.-Louis Lalonde, B.; Lebrun, J.-J.; Meunier, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present the results of in vitro gene transfer by plasmonic enhanced optoporation of human melanoma cells. The fs-laser based optoporation is a gentle and efficient method for transfection. An optimum perforation rate with efficient dye or DNA uptake and high viability of the cells (~90%) was found for different types of nanostructures, spherical and rod shaped. The technique offers a very high selectivity and the low damage induced to the cell leads to a high transfection efficiency. The cell selectivity of this technique on the one hand is realized by using bioconjugated nanostructures, that couple selectively to a special cell type, and on the other hand, the spatial selectivity is due to the fact that only irradiated cells are perforated. In many biological applications a virus free and efficient transfection method is needed, especially in terms of its use in vivo. In cancer cells, the aggressiveness of the cells is shown in the migration and invasion velocity. The laser based and nanostructure enhanced transfection of cells offers the possibility to directly compare the treated and untreated cells. The treatment for migration and invasion assays can be performed by laser-scraping and laser transfection, resulting in a fully non-contact and therefore sterile method where the shape and the size of the scrape is well defined and reproducible. The laser based scrape test therefore offers less uncertainty due to scrape variations, high transfection efficiency, as well as direct comparison of treated and control cells in the same dish.

  11. The plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump PMCA4b inhibits the migratory and metastatic activity of BRAF mutant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hegedũs, Luca; Garay, Tamás; Molnár, Eszter; Varga, Karolina; Bilecz, Ágnes; Török, Szilvia; Padányi, Rita; Pászty, Katalin; Wolf, Matthias; Grusch, Michael; Kállay, Enikõ; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Hegedũs, Balázs; Enyedi, Agnes

    2016-11-04

    Oncogenic mutations of BRAF lead to constitutive ERK activity that supports melanoma cell growth and survival. While Ca(2+) signaling is a well-known regulator of tumor progression, the crosstalk between Ca(2+) signaling and the Ras-BRAF-MEK-ERK pathway is much less explored. Here we show that in BRAF mutant melanoma cells the abundance of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase isoform 4b (PMCA4b, ATP2B4) is low at baseline but markedly elevated by treatment with the mutant BRAF specific inhibitor vemurafenib. In line with these findings gene expression microarray data also shows decreased PMCA4b expression in cutaneous melanoma when compared to benign nevi. The MEK inhibitor selumetinib-similarly to that of the BRAF-specific inhibitor-also increases PMCA4b levels in both BRAF and NRAS mutant melanoma cells suggesting that the MAPK pathway is involved in the regulation of PMCA4b expression. The increased abundance of PMCA4b in the plasma membrane enhances [Ca(2+) ]i clearance from cells after Ca(2+) entry. Moreover we show that both vemurafenib treatment and PMCA4b overexpression induce marked inhibition of migration of BRAF mutant melanoma cells. Importantly, reduced migration of PMCA4b expressing BRAF mutant cells is associated with a marked decrease in their metastatic potential in vivo. Taken together, our data reveal an important crosstalk between Ca(2+) signaling and the MAPK pathway through the regulation of PMCA4b expression and suggest that PMCA4b is a previously unrecognized metastasis suppressor.

  12. Rapid induction of mitochondrial events and caspase-independent apoptosis in Survivin-targeted melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Brouha, Brook; Grossman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin is expressed in most cancers and is a key factor in maintaining apoptosis resistance. Although several IAPs have been shown to act as direct inhibitors of caspases, the precise antiapoptotic function of Survivin remains controversial. To clarify the mechanism by which Survivin protects cells, we investigated the kinetics of apoptosis and apoptotic events following Survivin inhibition utilizing a melanoma cell line harboring a tetracycline-regulated Survivin dominant-negative mutant (Survivin-T34A). Blocking Survivin resulted in both caspase activation and apoptosis; however, the level of apoptosis was only partially reduced by caspase inhibition. Survivin blockade also resulted in mitochondrial events that preceded caspase activation, including depolarization and release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. Levels of other IAPs were not altered in Survivin-targeted cells, although modest cleavage of XIAP and Livin was observed. The earliest proapoptotic event observed in Survivin-targeted cells was nuclear translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), known to trigger both apoptotic mitochondrial events and caspase-independent DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that a key anti-apoptotic function of Survivin relates to inhibition of mitochondrial and AIF-dependent apoptotic pathways, and its expression in melanoma and other cancers likely protects against both caspase-independent and -dependent apoptosis. PMID:14712209

  13. CD40L confers helper functions to human intra-melanoma class-I-restricted CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Tiphaine; Oger, Romain; Benlalam, Houssem; Raingeard de la Blétière, Diane; Jouand, Nicolas; Coutolleau, Anne; Preisser, Laurence; Khammari, Amir; Dréno, Brigitte; Guardiola, Philippe; Delneste, Yves; Labarrière, Nathalie; Gervois, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) T cells represent a small fraction of peripheral T lymphocytes in healthy human donors, their frequency is often increased under pathological conditions (in blood and targeted tissues). In solid cancers such as melanoma, we previously demonstrated an enrichment of tumor reactive CD4lowCD8highαβ DP T cells among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of unknown function. Similarly to their single positive (SP) CD8+ counterparts, intra-melanoma DP T cells recognized melanoma cell lines in an HLA-class-I restricted context. However, they presented a poor cytotoxic activity but a strong production of diverse Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The aim of this study was to clearly define the role of intra-melanoma CD4lowCD8highαβ DP T cells in the antitumor immune response. Based on a comparative transcriptome analysis between intra-melanoma SP CD4+, SP CD8+ and DP autologous melanoma-infiltrating T-cell compartments, we evidenced an overexpression of the CD40L co-stimulatory molecule on activated DP T cells. We showed that, like SP CD4+ T cells, and through CD40L involvement, DP T cells are able to induce both proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and maturation of functional DCs able to efficiently prime cytotoxic melanoma-specific CD8 T-cell responses. Taken together, these results highlight the helper potential of atypical DP T cells and their role in potentiating antitumor response. PMID:28123891

  14. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade. PMID:28205573

  15. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-02-13

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade.

  16. Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Ji Hong; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-11-27

    Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and is therefore particularly relevant for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for cancers. In this study, time- and dose-dependent cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed to determine the effects of apigenin on A2058 and A375 melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were pretreated with different concentrations of apigenin and analyzed for morphological changes, anoikis induction, cell migration, and levels of proteins associated with apoptosis. Apigenin reduced integrin protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), which induce anoikis in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Apigenin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell migration, unlike untreated controls. Furthermore, apigenin treatment increased apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the metastasis of melanoma cells. Our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which apigenin prevents melanoma metastasis by sensitizing anoikis induced by the loss of integrin proteins in the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings elucidate the related mechanisms and suggest the potential of apigenin in developing clinical treatment strategies against malignant melanoma.

  17. A novel immune resistance mechanism of melanoma cells controlled by the ADAR1 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Nemlich, Yael; Greenberg, Eyal; Ashkenazi, Shira; Hakim, Motti; Itzhaki, Orit; Shoshani, Noa; Shapira-Fromer, Ronnie; Ben-Ami, Eytan; Ofek, Efrat; Anafi, Liat; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Markel, Gal

    2015-10-06

    The blossom of immunotherapy in melanoma highlights the need to delineate mechanisms of immune resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the RNA editing protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) is down-regulated during metastatic transition of melanoma, which enhances melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Here we investigate the role of ADAR1 in melanoma immune resistance.Importantly, knockdown of ADAR1 in human melanoma cells induces resistance to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a cell contact-dependent mechanism. We show that ADAR1, in an editing-independent manner, regulates the biogenesis of miR-222 at the transcription level and thereby Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) expression, which consequently affects melanoma immune resistance. ADAR1 thus has a novel, pivotal, role in cancer immune resistance. Corroborating with these results, the expression of miR-222 in melanoma tissue specimens was significantly higher in patients who had no clinical benefit from treatment with ipilimumab as compared to patients that responded clinically, suggesting that miR-222 could function as a biomarker for the prediction of response to ipilimumab.These results provide not only novel insights on melanoma immune resistance, but also pave the way to the development of innovative personalized tools to enable optimal drug selection and treatment.

  18. Deep-proteome mapping of WM-266-4 human metastatic melanoma cells: From oncogenic addiction to druggable targets

    PubMed Central

    Litou, Zoi I.; Konstandi, Ourania A.; Giannopoulou, Aikaterini F.; Anastasiadou, Ema; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E.; Tsangaris, George Th.; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor of skin melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells located in the basal layer (stratum basale) of epidermis. Accumulation of genetic mutations within their oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes compels melanocytes to aberrant proliferation and spread to distant organs of the body, thereby resulting in severe and/or lethal malignancy. Metastatic melanoma’s heavy mutational load, molecular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy necessitate the development of novel biomarkers and drug-based protocols that target key proteins involved in perpetuation of the disease. To this direction, we have herein employed a nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) proteomics technology to profile the deep-proteome landscape of WM-266-4 human metastatic melanoma cells. Our advanced melanoma-specific catalogue proved to contain 6,681 unique proteins, which likely constitute the hitherto largest single cell-line-derived proteomic collection of the disease. Through engagement of UNIPROT, DAVID, KEGG, PANTHER, INTACT, CYTOSCAPE, dbEMT and GAD bioinformatics resources, WM-266-4 melanoma proteins were categorized according to their sub-cellular compartmentalization, function and tumorigenicity, and successfully reassembled in molecular networks and interactomes. The obtained data dictate the presence of plastically inter-converted sub-populations of non-cancer and cancer stem cells, and also indicate the oncoproteomic resemblance of melanoma to glioma and lung cancer. Intriguingly, WM-266-4 cells seem to be subjected to both epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) programs, with 1433G and ADT3 proteins being identified in the EMT/MET molecular interface. Oncogenic addiction of WM-266-4 cells to autocrine/paracrine signaling of IL17-, DLL3-, FGF(2/13)- and OSTP-dependent sub-routines suggests their critical contribution to the metastatic melanoma chemotherapeutic refractoriness. Interestingly, the

  19. ALDH1A Isozymes Are Markers of Human Melanoma Stem Cells and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuchun; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Chen, Ying; Robinson, William A; Robinson, Steven E; McCarter, Martin D; Wang, Jianbin; Gonzalez, Rene; Thompson, David C; Norris, David A; Roop, Dennis R; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Fujita, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    Although the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is well accepted for many tumors, the existence of such cells in human melanoma has been the subject of debate. In the present study, we demonstrate the existence of human melanoma cells that fulfill the criteria for CSCs (self-renewal and differentiation) by serially xenotransplanting cells into NOD/SCID mice. These cells possess high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 being the predominant ALDH isozymes. ALDH-positive melanoma cells are more tumorigenic than ALDH-negative cells in both NOD/SCID mice and NSG mice. Biological analyses of the ALDH-positive melanoma cells reveal the ALDH isozymes to be key molecules regulating the function of these cells. Silencing ALDH1A by siRNA or shRNA leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and decreased cell viability in vitro and reduced tumorigenesis in vivo. ALDH-positive melanoma cells are more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and silencing ALDH1A by siRNA sensitizes melanoma cells to drug-induced cell death. Furthermore, we, for the first time, examined the molecular signatures of ALDH-positive CSCs from patient-derived tumor specimens. The signatures of melanoma CSCs include retinoic acid (RA)-driven target genes with RA response elements and genes associated with stem cell function. These findings implicate that ALDH isozymes are not only biomarkers of CSCs but also attractive therapeutic targets for human melanoma. Further investigation of these isozymes and genes will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing CSCs and reveal new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention of cancer. PMID:22887839

  20. Hypericin phototoxicity induces different modes of cell death in melanoma and human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Davids, Lester M; Kleemann, Britta; Kacerovská, Denisa; Pizinger, Karl; Kidson, Susan H

    2008-05-29

    Hypericin, the major component of St. John's Wort, absorbs light in the UV and visible ranges whereupon it becomes phototoxic through the production of reactive oxygen species. Although photodynamic mechanisms (i.e. through endogenous photosensitizers) play a role in UVA phototherapy for the treatment of skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis, photodynamic therapy employing exogenous photosensitizers are currently being used only for the treatment of certain forms of non-melanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses. There are few reports however on its use in treating melanomas. This in vitro study analyses the phototoxic effect of UVA (400-315 nm) - activated hypericin in human pigmented and unpigmented melanomas and immortalised keratinocytes and melanocytes. We show that neither hypericin exposure nor UV irradiation alone reduces cell viability. We show that an exposure to 1 microM UVA-activated hypericin does not bring about cell death, while 3 microM activated hypericin induces a necrotic mode of cell death in pigmented melanoma cells and melanocytes and an apoptotic mode of cell death in non-pigmented melanoma cells and keratinocytes. We hypothesis that the necrotic mode of cell death in the pigmented cells is possibly related to the presence of melanin-containing melanosomes in these cells and that the hypericin-induced increase in reactive oxygen species leads to an increase in permeability of melanosomes. This would result in toxic melanin precursors (of an indolic and phenolic nature) leaking into the cytoplasm which in turn leads to cell death. Hypericin localisation in the endoplasmic reticulum in these cells shown by fluorescent microscopy, further support a disruption in cellular processing and induction of cell death. In contrast, this study shows that cells that do not contain melanosomes (non-pigmented melanoma cells and keratinocytes) die by apoptosis. Further, using a mitochondrial-specific fluorescent dye, we show that intracellular

  1. Capture and On-chip analysis of Melanoma Cells Using Tunable Surface Shear forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Simon Chang-Hao; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Christophi, Christopher; Cebon, Jonathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Behren, Andreas; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    With new systemic therapies becoming available for metastatic melanoma such as BRAF and PD-1 inhibitors, there is an increasing demand for methods to assist with treatment selection and response monitoring. Quantification and characterisation of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) has been regarded as an excellent non-invasive candidate but a sensitive and efficient tool to do these is lacking. Herein we demonstrate a microfluidic approach for melanoma cell capture and subsequent on-chip evaluation of BRAF mutation status. Our approach utilizes a recently discovered alternating current electrohydrodynamic (AC-EHD)-induced surface shear forces, referred to as nanoshearing. A key feature of nanoshearing is the ability to agitate fluid to encourage contact with surface-bound antibody for the cell capture whilst removing nonspecific cells from the surface. By adjusting the AC-EHD force to match the binding affinity of antibodies against the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP), a commonly expressed melanoma antigen, this platform achieved an average recovery of 84.7% from biological samples. Subsequent staining with anti-BRAFV600E specific antibody enabled on-chip evaluation of BRAFV600E mutation status in melanoma cells. We believe that the ability of nanoshearing-based capture to enumerate melanoma cells and subsequent on-chip characterisation has the potential as a rapid screening tool while making treatment decisions.

  2. Capture and On-chip analysis of Melanoma Cells Using Tunable Surface Shear forces

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Simon Chang-Hao; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G.; Christophi, Christopher; Cebon, Jonathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Behren, Andreas; Trau, Matt

    2016-01-01

    With new systemic therapies becoming available for metastatic melanoma such as BRAF and PD-1 inhibitors, there is an increasing demand for methods to assist with treatment selection and response monitoring. Quantification and characterisation of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) has been regarded as an excellent non-invasive candidate but a sensitive and efficient tool to do these is lacking. Herein we demonstrate a microfluidic approach for melanoma cell capture and subsequent on-chip evaluation of BRAF mutation status. Our approach utilizes a recently discovered alternating current electrohydrodynamic (AC-EHD)-induced surface shear forces, referred to as nanoshearing. A key feature of nanoshearing is the ability to agitate fluid to encourage contact with surface-bound antibody for the cell capture whilst removing nonspecific cells from the surface. By adjusting the AC-EHD force to match the binding affinity of antibodies against the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP), a commonly expressed melanoma antigen, this platform achieved an average recovery of 84.7% from biological samples. Subsequent staining with anti-BRAFV600E specific antibody enabled on-chip evaluation of BRAFV600E mutation status in melanoma cells. We believe that the ability of nanoshearing-based capture to enumerate melanoma cells and subsequent on-chip characterisation has the potential as a rapid screening tool while making treatment decisions. PMID:26815318

  3. Synthesis and shedding of hyaluronan from plasma membranes of human fibroblasts and metastatic and non-metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lüke, H J; Prehm, P

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of hyaluronan synthesis and shedding was analysed in human fibroblasts and in two melanoma cells that differed in the metastatic potential and proteolysis of the hyaluronan receptor CD44. Dissociation of nascent hyaluronan from plasma membranes isolated from fibroblasts by high salt concentrations led to activation of hyaluronan synthase. Hyaluronan synthesis was also enhanced in plasma membranes from fibroblasts that had been treated with hyaluronidase or trypsin. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides stimulated hyaluronan production in fibroblast cultures. These results indicated that nascent high-molecular-mass hyaluronan inhibited its own chain elongation, if it was retained in the vicinity of the synthase by cell-surface receptors. The results also indicated that increased hyaluronan synthesis and shedding correlated with proteolysis of CD44 on the melanoma cell lines, which has been observed by others. PMID:10493913

  4. Reduced paxillin expression contributes to the antimetastatic effect of 4-hydroxycoumarin on B16-F10 melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Mendoza-Patiño, Nicandro; Mandoki, Juan J

    2008-01-01

    Background 4-Hydroxycoumarin (4-HC) is a coumarin that lacks anticoagulant activity. 4-HC affects the cytoskeletal stability and decreases cell adhesion and motility of the melanoma cell line B16-F10. Together with integrins and other cytoskeletal proteins, paxillin participates in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility, acting as an adapter protein at focal adhesions. The present study determined the participation of paxillin in the reported effects of 4-HC and analyzed the role of paxillin in the formation of melanoma metastases. Results 4-HC decreased protein and mRNA levels of α- and β-paxillin isoforms in B16-F10 cells. Paxillin downregulation correlated with an inadequate translocation of paxillin to focal adhesions and a reduced phosphotyr118-paxillin pool. Consequently, 4-HC altered paxillin-mediated signaling, decreasing the phosphorylation of FAK and the level of GTP-bound Rac-1. These results partially explain the mechanism of the previously reported effects of 4-HC. Additionally, we studied the effect of 4-HC on metastatic potential of B16-F10 cells through experimental metastasis assays. In vitro treatment of cells with 4-HC inhibited their capability to originate pulmonary metastases. 4-HC did not affect cell proliferation or survival, demonstrating that its antimetastatic effect is unrelated to changes on cell viability. We also studied the importance of paxillin in metastasis by transfecting melanoma cells with paxillin-siRNA. Transfection produced a modest reduction on metastatic potential, indicating that: i) paxillin plays a role as inducer of melanoma metastasis; and ii) paxillin downregulation is not sufficient to explain the antimetastatic effect of 4-HC. Therefore, we evaluated other changes in gene expression by differential display RT-PCR analysis. Treatment with 4-HC produced a downregulation of Adhesion Regulating Molecule-1 (ARM-1), which correlated with a decreased adhesion of melanoma cells to lung slides. Conclusion This study

  5. Arginine deiminase resistance in melanoma cells is associated with metabolic reprogramming, glucose dependence, and glutamine addiction.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Savaraj, Niramol; Feun, Lynn G; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2013-11-01

    Many malignant human tumors, including melanomas, are auxotrophic for arginine due to reduced expression of argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1), the rate-limiting enzyme for arginine biosynthesis. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which degrades extracellular arginine, resulting in arginine deprivation, has shown favorable results in clinical trials for treating arginine-auxotrophic tumors. Drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective ADI-PEG20 usage. To elucidate mechanisms of resistance, we established several ADI-PEG20-resistant (ADI(R)) variants from A2058 and SK-Mel-2 melanoma cells. Compared with the parental lines, these ADI(R) variants showed the following characteristics: (i) all ADI(R) cell lines showed elevated ASS1 expression, resulting from the constitutive binding of the transcription factor c-Myc on the ASS1 promoter, suggesting that elevated ASS1 is the major mechanism of resistance; (ii) the ADI(R) cell lines exhibited enhanced AKT signaling and were preferentially sensitive to PI3K/AKT inhibitors, but reduced mTOR signaling, and were preferentially resistant to mTOR inhibitor; (iii) these variants showed enhanced expression of glucose transporter-1 and lactate dehydrogenase-A, reduced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and elevated sensitivity to the glycolytic inhibitors 2-deoxy-glucose and 3-bromopyruvate, consistent with the enhanced glycolytic pathway (the Warburg effect); (iv) the resistant cells showed higher glutamine dehydrogenase and glutaminase expression and were preferentially vulnerable to glutamine inhibitors. We showed that c-Myc, not elevated ASS1 expression, is involved in upregulation of many of these enzymes because knockdown of c-Myc reduced their expression, whereas overexpressed ASS1 by transfection reduced their expression. This study identified multiple targets for overcoming ADI-PEG resistance in cancer chemotherapy using recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes.

  6. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Medic, Sandra; Rizos, Helen; Ziman, Mel

    2011-08-12

    The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as "stem" cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated "stem" cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

  7. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M. Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  8. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chun-Ting; Lai, Cong-Hao; Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  9. Testing the cancer stem cell hypothesis in melanoma: the clinics will tell.

    PubMed

    Shakhova, Olga; Sommer, Lukas

    2013-09-10

    Whether tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in melanoma has been the focus of much controversy in recent years. A number of studies have pointed to the existence of melanoma cell sub-populations that act as CSCs and can be distinguished from other tumor cells based on specific surface marker expression or specific properties such as the capacity for extensive self-renewal. Other studies failed to identify melanoma stem cells and proposed that the potential to initiate tumors is a wide spread feature in melanoma inherent to most if not all cells of the tumor mass. As with normal stem cells, the term CSC is based on an operational definition, indicating not just a tumor-initiating cell, but also a cell with the capacity to sustain long-term tumor propagation. Therefore, the experimental set-up chosen to identify putative CSCs in melanoma is crucial: Both the method of tumor cell preparation and the procedure used to assess CSC properties in vivo influence the experimental outcome and hence its interpretation. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on CSCs and the role of stem cell properties in melanoma and discuss recent findings with respect to their clinical relevance.

  10. Interferon-alpha and bortezomib overcome Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 over-expression in melanoma cells by stimulating the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Raig, Ene T.; Guenterberg, Kristan; Brown, Lloyd; Go, Michael R.; Shah, Nisha N.; Lewis, Adrian; Quimper, Megan; Hade, Erinn; Young, Gregory; Chaudhury, Abhik Ray; Ladner, Katherine J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Bouchard, Page

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that interferon-alpha (IFN-α) would enhance the apoptotic activity of bortezomib on melanoma cells. Combined treatment with bortezomib and IFN-α induced synergistic apoptosis in melanoma and other solid tumor cell lines. Apoptosis was associated with processing of procaspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and with cleavage of Bid and PARP. Bortezomib plus IFN-α was effective at inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells that over-expressed Bcl-2 or Mcl-1, suggesting that this treatment combination can overcome mitochondrial pathways of cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effects of this treatment combination were abrogated by a caspase-8 inhibitor, led to increased association of Fas and FADD prior to the onset of cell death, and were significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant-negative FADD construct or siRNA targeting Fas. These data suggest that bortezomib and IFN-α act through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via FADD-induced caspase-8 activation to initiate cell death. Finally, bortezomib and IFN-α displayed statistically significant anti-tumor activity as compared to either agent alone in both the B16 murine model of melanoma and in athymic mice bearing human A375 xenografts. These data support the future clinical development of bortezomib and IFN-α for malignant melanoma. PMID:18922907

  11. Inhibitory effect of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 on invasion in vitro of human melanoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bi-wen; Jiao, Ze-long; Fan, Jian-feng; Peng, Liang; Li, Lei; Zhao, Zi-gang; Ding, Xiang-yu; Li, Heng-jin

    2013-06-01

    The acquisition of metastasis potential is a critical point for malignant tumors. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a potential tumor suppress gene and frequently down-regulated in malignant tumors. It has been implicated that overexpression of MDA-7 led to proliferation inhibition in many types of human tumor. Invasion is an important process which is potential to promote tumor metastasis. However, the role and potential molecular mechanism of mda-7/IL-24 to inhibit the invasion of human melanoma cancer is not fully clear. In this report, we identified a solid role for mda-7/IL-24 in invasion inhibition of human melanoma cancer LiBr cells, including decreasing of adhesion and invasion in vitro, blocking cell cycle, down-regulating the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, CDK1, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, NF-κB and AP-1 transcription activity. Meanwhile, there was an increased expression of PTEN in mda-7/IL-24 over-expression LiBr cells. Our results demonstrated that mda-7/IL-24 is a potential invasion suppress gene, which inhibits the invasion of LiBr cells by the down-regulation of ICAM-1, MMP-2/9, PTEN, and CDK1 expression. The molecular pathways involved were the MAPK/ERK, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, and AP-1. These findings suggest that mda-7/IL-24 may be used as a possible therapeutic strategy for human melanoma cancer.

  12. Growth Hormone Receptor Knockdown Sensitizes Human Melanoma Cells to Chemotherapy by Attenuating Expression of ABC Drug Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Basu, Reetobrata; Baumgaertel, Nicholas; Wu, Shiyong; Kopchick, John J

    2017-03-14

    Melanoma remains one of the most therapy-resistant forms of human cancer despite recent introductions of highly efficacious targeted therapies. The intrinsic therapy resistance of human melanoma is largely due to abundant expression of a repertoire of xenobiotic efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Here, we report that GH action is a key mediator of chemotherapeutic resistance in human melanoma cells. We investigated multiple ABC efflux pumps (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCB8, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCG1, and ABCG2) reportedly associated with melanoma drug resistance in different human melanoma cells and tested the efficacy of five different anti-cancer compounds (cisplatin, doxorubicin, oridonin, paclitaxel, vemurafenib) with decreased GH action. We found that GH treatment of human melanoma cells upregulates expression of multiple ABC transporters and increases the EC50 of melanoma drug vemurafenib. Also, vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells had upregulated levels of GH receptor (GHR) expression as well as ABC efflux pumps. GHR knockdown (KD) using siRNA in human melanoma cells treated with sub-EC50 doses of anti-tumor compounds resulted in significantly increased drug retention, decreased cell proliferation and increased drug efficacy, compared to mock-transfected controls. Our set of findings identify an unknown mechanism of GH regulation in mediating melanoma drug resistance and validates GHR as a unique therapeutic target for sensitizing highly therapy-resistant human melanoma cells to lower doses of anti-cancer drugs.

  13. Vaccination with Irradiated Autologous Melanoma Cells Engineered to Secrete Human Granulocyte--Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Generates Potent Antitumor Immunity in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soiffer, Robert; Lynch, Thomas; Mihm, Martin; Jung, Ken; Rhuda, Catherine; Schmollinger, Jan C.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Liebster, Laura; Lam, Prudence; Mentzer, Steven; Singer, Samuel; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Duda, Rosemary; Sober, Arthur; Bhan, Atul; Daley, John; Neuberg, Donna; Parry, Gordon; Rokovich, Joseph; Richards, Laurie; Drayer, Jan; Berns, Anton; Clift, Shirley; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Mulligan, Richard C.; Dranoff, Glenn

    1998-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I clinical trial investigating the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma. Immunization sites were intensely infiltrated with T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in all 21 evaluable patients. Although metastatic lesions resected before vaccination were minimally infiltrated with cells of the immune system in all patients, metastatic lesions resected after vaccination were densely infiltrated with T lymphocytes and plasma cells and showed extensive tumor destruction (at least 80%), fibrosis, and edema in 11 of 16 patients examined. Antimelanoma cytotoxic T cell and antibody responses were associated with tumor destruction. These results demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent antitumor immunity in humans with metastatic melanoma.

  14. Platelet GPIIb supports initial pulmonary retention but inhibits subsequent proliferation of melanoma cells during hematogenic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Echtler, Katrin; Konrad, Ildiko; Lorenz, Michael; Schneider, Simon; Hofmaier, Sebastian; Plenagl, Florian; Stark, Konstantin; Czermak, Thomas; Tirniceriu, Anca; Eichhorn, Martin; Walch, Axel; Enders, Georg; Massberg, Steffen; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Platelets modulate the process of cancer metastasis. However, current knowledge on the direct interaction of platelets and tumor cells is mostly based on findings obtained in vitro. We addressed the role of the platelet fibrinogen receptor glycoprotein IIb (integrin αIIb) for experimental melanoma metastasis in vivo. Highly metastatic B16-D5 melanoma cells were injected intravenously into GPIIb-deficient (GPIIb-/-) or wildtype (WT) mice. Acute accumulation of tumor cells in the pulmonary vasculature was assessed in real-time by confocal videofluorescence microscopy. Arrest of tumor cells was dramatically reduced in GPIIb-/- mice as compared to WT. Importantly, we found that mainly multicellular aggregates accumulated in the pulmonary circulation of WT, instead B16-D5 aggregates were significantly smaller in GPIIb-/- mice. While pulmonary arrest of melanoma was clearly dependent on GPIIb in this early phase of metastasis, we also addressed tumor progression 10 days after injection. Inversely, and unexpectedly, we found that melanoma metastasis was now increased in GPIIb-/- mice. In contrast, GPIIb did not regulate local melanoma proliferation in a subcutaneous tumor model. Our data suggest that the platelet fibrinogen receptor has a differential role in the modulation of hematogenic melanoma metastasis. While platelets clearly support early steps in pulmonary metastasis via GPIIb-dependent formation of platelet-tumor-aggregates, at a later stage its absence is associated with an accelerated development of melanoma metastases. PMID:28253287

  15. Knockdown of USP39 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Sun, Jingying; Zhang, Yaohua; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    The spliceosome machinery composed of multimeric protein complexes guides precursor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) (pre-mRNAs) splicing in eukaryotic cells. Spliceosome components have been shown to be downregulated in cancer and could be a promising molecular target for anticancer therapy. The ubiquitin-specific protease 39 (USP39) is essential for pre-mRNA splicing, and upregulated USP39 expression is noted in a variety of cancers. However, the role of USP39 in the development and progression of melanoma remains unclear. In the present study, USP39 expression was found to be increased in melanoma tissues compared with that in nevus tissues. USP39 silencing via lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly suppressed melanoma cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle phase arrest, and increased apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, USP39 knockdown suppressed melanoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. In addition, USP39 silencing was associated with the increased expressions of p21, p27, and Bax. Furthermore, the inhibition of USP39 expression decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, indicating that ERK signaling pathways might be involved in the regulation of melanoma cell proliferation by USP39. Our findings suggest that USP39 may play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of melanoma, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for melanoma.

  16. Melanoma cells revive an embryonic transcriptional network to dictate phenotypic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Niels; Berx, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Compared to the overwhelming amount of literature describing how epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors orchestrate cellular plasticity in embryogenesis and epithelial cells, the functions of these factors in non-epithelial contexts, such as melanoma, are less clear. Melanoma is an aggressive tumor arising from melanocytes, endowed with unique features of cellular plasticity. The reversible phenotype-switching between differentiated and invasive phenotypes is increasingly appreciated as a mechanism accounting for heterogeneity in melanoma and is driven by oncogenic signaling and environmental cues. This phenotypic switch is coupled with an intriguing and somewhat counterintuitive signaling switch of EMT-inducing transcription factors. In contrast to carcinomas, different EMT-inducing transcription factors have antagonizing effects in melanoma. Balancing between these different EMT transcription factors is likely the key to successful metastatic spread of melanoma.

  17. Role of versican V0/V1 and CD44 in the regulation of human melanoma cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Daniel; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Docampo, Maria José; Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna

    2011-02-01

    Versican is a hyaluronan-binding, large extracellular matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan whose expression is increased in malignant melanoma. Binding to hyaluronan allows versican to indirectly interact with the hyaluronan cell surface receptor CD44. The aim of this work was to study the effect of silencing the large versican isoforms (V0 and V1) and CD44 in the SK-mel-131 human melanoma cell line. Versican V0/V1 or CD44 silencing caused a decrease in cell proliferation and migration, both in wound healing assays and in Transwell chambers. Versican V0/V1 silencing also caused an increased adhesion to type I collagen, laminin and fibronectin. These results support the proposed role of versican as a proliferative, anti-adhesive and pro-migratory molecule. On the other hand, CD44 silencing caused a decrease in cell adhesion to vitronectin, fibronectin and hyaluronan. CD44 silencing inhibited the binding of a FITC-hyaluronan complex to the cell surface and its internalization into the cytoplasm. Our results indicate that both versican and CD44 play an important role regulating the behavior of malignant melanoma cells.

  18. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. Methods: The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. Results: The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone. PMID:27563423

  19. Putative CD133+ melanoma cancer stem cells induce initial angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Rüdiger M; Matthiesen, Peter; Kreher, Fritjof; Kampmann, Andreas; Spalthoff, Simon; Jehn, Philipp; Bittermann, Gido; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Tavassol, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, and is regulated by a complex network of various types of cells, chemokines, and stimulating factors. In contrast to sprouting angiogenesis, tumor angiogenesis is also influenced by hypoxia, inflammation, and the attraction of bone-marrow-derived cells. Recently, cancer stem cells have been reported to mimic vascularization by differentiating into endothelial cells and inducing vessel formation. In this study, the influence of cancer stem cells on initial angiogenesis was evaluated for the metastatic melanoma cell line D10. Following flow cytometry, CD133+ and CD133- cells were isolated using magnetic cell separation and different cell fractions were transferred to porcine gelatin sponges, which were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of immunocompromised mice. Angiogenesis was analyzed based on microvessel density over a 10-day period using in vivo fluorescence microscopy, and the results were verified using immunohistology. CD133+ D10 cells showed a significant induction of early angiogenesis in vivo, contrary to CD133- D10 cells, unsorted D10 cells, and negative control. Neovascularization was confirmed by visualizing endothelial cells by immunohistology using an anti-CD31 antibody. Because CD133+ cells are rare in clinical specimens and hardly amenable to functional assays, the D10 cell line provides a suitable model to study the angiogenic potential of putative cancer stem cells and the leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the dorsal skinfold chamber in vivo. This cancer stem cell model might be useful in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents targeting tumors.

  20. CLO: The cell line ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO consortium, new cell line cells, upper level alignment with the Cell Ontology (CL) and the Ontology for Biomedical Investigation, and logical extensions. Construction and content Collaboration among the CLO, CL, and OBI has established consensus definitions of cell line-specific terms such as ‘cell line’, ‘cell line cell’, ‘cell line culturing’, and ‘mortal’ vs. ‘immortal cell line cell’. A cell line is a genetically stable cultured cell population that contains individual cell line cells. The hierarchical structure of the CLO is built based on the hierarchy of the in vivo cell types defined in CL and tissue types (from which cell line cells are derived) defined in the UBERON cross-species anatomy ontology. The new hierarchical structure makes it easier to browse, query, and perform automated classification. We have recently added classes representing more than 2,000 cell line cells from the RIKEN BRC Cell Bank to CLO. Overall, the CLO now contains ~38,000 classes of specific cell line cells derived from over 200 in vivo cell types from various organisms. Utility and discussion The CLO has been applied to different biomedical research studies. Example case studies include annotation and analysis of EBI ArrayExpress data, bioassays, and host-vaccine/pathogen interaction. CLO’s utility goes beyond a catalogue of cell line types. The alignment of the CLO with related ontologies combined with the use of ontological reasoners will support sophisticated inferencing to advance translational informatics development. PMID:25852852

  1. Epigenetic regulation of the transcription factor Foxa2 directs differential elafin expression in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kyung Sook; Jo, Ji Yoon; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Yangsoon; Bae, Jong Hwan; Chung, Young-Hwa; Koh, Sang Seok

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Elafin expression is epigenetically silenced in human melanoma cells. {yields} Foxa2 expression in melanoma cells is silenced by promoter hypermethylation. {yields} Foxa2 directs activation of the elafin promoter in vivo. {yields} Foxa2 expression induces apoptosis of melanoma cells via elafin re-expression. -- Abstract: Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor, induces the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human melanoma cells, where its expression is transcriptionally silenced. However, it remains unknown how the elafin gene is repressed in melanoma cells. We here demonstrate that elafin expression is modulated via epigenetically regulated expression of the transcription factor Foxa2. Treatment of melanoma cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor induced elafin expression, which was specifically responsible for reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. Suppression of Foxa2 transcription, mediated by DNA hypermethylation in its promoter region, was released in melanoma cells upon treatment with the demethylating agent. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the Foxa2 binding site in the elafin promoter was critical for the activation of the promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that Foxa2 bound to the elafin promoter in vivo. Analyses of melanoma cells with varied levels of Foxa2 revealed a correlated expression between Foxa2 and elafin and the ability of Foxa2 to induce apoptosis. Our results collectively suggest that, in melanoma cells, Foxa2 expression is silenced and therefore elafin is maintained unexpressed to facilitate cell proliferation in the disease melanoma.

  2. Fenofibrate Induces Ketone Body Production in Melanoma and Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja M.; Wilk, Anna; Antonczyk, Anna; Banks, Paula; Walczyk-Tytko, Emilia; Dean, Matthew; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies [beta-hydroxybutyrate (bHB) and acetoacetate] are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly, its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of non-transformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and downregulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic) therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma. PMID:26869992

  3. Tumor-Related Methylated Cell-Free DNA and Circulating Tumor Cells in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Salvianti, Francesca; Orlando, Claudio; Massi, Daniela; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Grazzini, Marta; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinzani, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumor release into the circulation cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which represent promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Circulating tumor DNA may be studied in plasma from cancer patients by detecting tumor specific alterations, such as genetic or epigenetic modifications. Ras association domain family 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor gene silenced by promoter hypermethylation in a variety of human cancers including melanoma. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic performance of a tumor-related methylated cfDNA marker in melanoma patients and to compare this parameter with the presence of CTCs. RASSF1A promoter methylation was quantified in cfDNA by qPCR in a consecutive series of 84 melanoma patients and 68 healthy controls. In a subset of 68 cases, the presence of CTCs was assessed by a filtration method (Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor Cells, ISET) as well as by an indirect method based on the detection of tyrosinase mRNA by RT-qPCR. The distribution of RASSF1A methylated cfDNA was investigated in cases and controls and the predictive capability of this parameter was assessed by means of the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The percentage of cases with methylated RASSF1A promoter in cfDNA was significantly higher in each class of melanoma patients (in situ, invasive and metastatic) than in healthy subjects (Pearson chi-squared test, p < 0.001). The concentration of RASSF1A methylated cfDNA in the subjects with a detectable quantity of methylated alleles was significantly higher in melanoma patients than in controls. The biomarker showed a good predictive capability (in terms of AUC) in discriminating between melanoma patients and healthy controls. This epigenetic marker associated to cfDNA did not show a significant correlation with the presence of CTCs, but, when the two parameters are jointly considered, we obtain a higher sensitivity of the detection of positive cases in invasive and

  4. EPR studies of free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells treated by valproic acid and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin.

    PubMed

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Chodurek, Ewa; Pilawa, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals in A-2058 human melanoma cells were studied by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to determine the changes in relative free radical concentrations in tumor A-2058 cells after treatment by valproic acid (VPA) and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC). The influences of VPA and DMC on free radicals in A-2058 cells were compared with those for human melanoma malignum A-375 and G-361 cells, which were tested by us earlier. Human malignant melanoma A-2058 cells were exposed to interactions with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC. The tumor cells A-2058 were purchased from LGC Standards (Lomianki, Poland), and they were grown in the standard conditions: at 37°C and in an atmosphere containing 95% air and 5% CO2, in the Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (MEM, Sigma-Aldrich). The A-2058 cells were incubated with VPA (1 mM) and DMC (10 μM) for 4 days. The first-derivative EPR spectra of the control A-2058 cells, and the cells treated with VPA, DMC, and both VPA and DMC, were measured by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer of Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) with microwaves from an X-band (9.3 GHz). The parameters of the EPR lines: amplitudes (A), integral intensities (I), line widths (ΔBpp), and g-factors, were analyzed. The changes of amplitudes and line widths with microwave power increasing from 2.2 to 70 mW were drawn evaluated, o-Semiquinone free radicals of melanin biopolymer are mainly responsible for the EPR lines of A-2058 melanoma malignum cells. The amounts of free radicals in A-2058 cells treated with VPA, and both VPA and DMC, were lower than in the untreated control cells. Application of the tested substances (VPA, and both VPA and DMC) as the antitumor compounds was discussed. DMC without VPA did not decrease free radicals concentration in A-2058 cells. The studies con-firmed that EPR spectroscopy may be used to examine interactions of free radicals with antitumor compounds.

  5. Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of MiR-4286 Inhibition in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Komina, Anna; Palkina, Nadezhda; Aksenenko, Mariya; Tsyrenzhapova, Seseg; Ruksha, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs are essential regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Their expression is altered in cancer tissues, and evaluation of these alterations is considered a promising tool used to diagnose and identify prognostic markers. Materials and methods The microRNA expression profiles of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded melanoma and melanocytic nevi samples were estimated with a microarray and subsequently validated by real-time PCR. Melanoma cells were transfected with miR-4286 inhibitor to evaluate the influence of this microRNA on the viability, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of melanoma cells. Results The microarray revealed that the expression of 1,171 microRNAs was altered in melanoma samples compared to melanocytic nevi. Real-time PCR validation experiments found the microRNA expression levels to correspond to the melanoma/melanocytic nevi microarray results. The pathway analysis identified 52 modulated pathways in melanoma. Moreover, the application of miR-4286 inhibitor to BRO melanoma cells resulted in a 2.6-fold increase in the apoptosis rate and a 1.7-fold decrease in the cell proliferation/viability but did not affect the invasiveness and migration of these cells. Furthermore, the use of miR-4286 inhibitor altered the mRNA expression of several miR-4286 gene targets: folylpolyglutamate synthase, RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor, apelin, G-protein-coupled receptor 55, and high-mobility group A1 protein, which have been implicated in cell proliferation/apoptosis regulation. Lastly, the transiently transfected SK-MEL-1 cells with miR-4286 inhibitor decreased proliferation rate and modulated folylpolyglutamate synthase rates of these cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that miR-4286 mediates proliferation and apoptosis in melanoma cells, these findings may represent a novel mechanism underlying these processes. PMID:28005927

  6. Ultraviolet mutagenesis in a plasmid vector replicated in lymphoid cells from patient with the melanoma-prone disorder dysplastic nevus syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Seetharam, S.; Waters, H.L.; Seidman, M.M.; Kraemer, K.H. )

    1989-11-01

    The hereditary dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which affected individuals have increased numbers of dysplastic (premalignant) nevi and a greater than 100-fold increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with hereditary DNS have been shown to be hypermutable to UV radiation. To examine the mechanism involved in this UV hypermutability, we used a shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, which carries a 160-base pair marker gene, supF, and can replicate in human cells. pZ189 was treated with UV radiation and transfected into DNS6BE, a lymphoblastoid cell line from a patient with hereditary DNS. Plasmid survival after UV was similar with the DNS6BE line and with a lymphoblastoid cell line from a normal donor. Plasmid mutation frequency was greater with the DNS line in accord with the DNS cellular hypermutability. Base sequence analysis was performed on 69 mutated plasmids recovered from the DNS line. There were significantly more plasmids with single base substitution mutations (P less than 0.01) in comparison to UV-treated plasmids passed through normal fibroblasts. pZ189 hypermutability and an increased frequency of single base substitutions was previously found with a cell line from a melanoma-prone xeroderma pigmentosum patient. These differences may be related to the increased melanoma susceptibility in both DNS and xeroderma pigmentosum.

  7. Ocular albinism type 1-induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun; Xie, Xin; Lei, Yun; An, Gaili; He, Li; Lv, Xiaopeng

    2014-07-01

    Malignant melanoma has the highest risk of mortality among all types of skin cancer due to its highly metastatic potential. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) protein is a pigment cell‑specific glycoprotein, which shares significant structural and functional features with G protein‑coupled receptors. However, the role of OA1 in melanoma has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration. OA1 was found to stimulate cell migration in a dose‑dependent manner in cultured human melanoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of OA1 using small interfering RNA was observed to significantly inhibit melanoma cell migration. In addition, the mechanism underlying OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration was investigated. Stimulation of the RAS/RAF/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) pathway using growth factors enhanced OA1 expression and melanoma cell migration, whereas inhibition of this pathway using U0126 was observed to markedly decrease OA1 expression and the number of migrated cells. These findings indicate that OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration and that OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Therefore, OA1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for melanoma.

  8. Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy E.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H.; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L. C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Rudman, Sarah M.; Beavil, Rebecca L.; Blower, Philip J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; Gould, Hannah J.; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. PMID:21559411

  9. Monitoring the systemic human memory B cell compartment of melanoma patients for anti-tumor IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy E; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L C; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M; Rudman, Sarah M; Beavil, Rebecca L; Blower, Philip J; Beavil, Andrew J; Gould, Hannah J; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2011-04-29

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer.

  10. Scratching below the surface: wound healing and alanine mutagenesis provide unique insights into interactions between eristostatin, platelets and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    McLane, Mary Ann; Zhang, Xiaoming; Tian, Jing; Zelinskas, Claire; Srivastava, Apoorva; Hensley, Brett; Paquette-Straub, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of the disintegrin eristostatin, cellular functional studies were performed using ten recombinant alanine mutants. ADP-induced platelet aggregation revealed critical contributions of seven residues within the 'RGD loop' (R24, R27, G28, N31) and C-terminus (W47, N48, G49) of this disintegrin. Using an in vitro scratch wound healing assay, four human melanoma cell lines yielded similar results when exposed to wildtype eristostatin. All eristostatin-treated cells healed less of the wounded area than control conditions. This phenomenon was reproduced when using fibronectin as the matrix. C8161 cells showed significant delay in wound closure with the N-terminal mutant P4A but not with R24A or G28A. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggests neither alpha IIb, alpha 4 nor alpha 5 integrins are directly involved in eristostatin's interactions. Eristostatin did not affect the number of melanoma cells in culture after 24 h or the development of apoptosis. However, phosphorylation studies performed after these melanoma cells were exposed to eristostatin revealed changes in several tyrosine phosphorylated molecules.

  11. Conversion of L-tryptophan to serotonin and melatonin in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Pisarchik, Alexander; Sweatman, Trevor; Szczesniewski, Andre; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2002-01-30

    We showed in human melanoma cells tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and hydroxyindole methyltransferase genes expression with the sequential enzymatic activities of TPH, serotonin (Ser) N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole methyltransferase. The presence of the products Ser, 5OH-tryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, melatonin (Mel), 5-methoxytryptamine and 5-methoxytryptophol was documented by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thus, human melanoma cells can synthesize and metabolize Ser and Mel.

  12. Fli-1 expression in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Slipicevic, Ana; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Chibbar, Richa; DeCoteau, John F; Bilalovic, Nurija

    2008-11-01

    Friend leukemia integration site 1 (Fli-1) has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation; it is expressed in leukocytes and recently demonstrated in melanomas. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 97 melanomas including 69 cases of primary and 28 metastatic melanomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Five melanoma cell lines were evaluated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Fli-1 expression was observed in all cell lines. Fli-1 expression was higher in metastatic than in primary tumors (r=0.208, p=0.041, Spearman correlation), it positively correlated with Ki-67 expression (r=0.233, p=0.022, Spearman correlation), and the presence of an ulcer in the primary tumor (r=0.267, p=0.030, Spearman correlation). Therefore, the expression of Fli-1 in malignant melanoma appears to be associated with biologically more aggressive tumors.

  13. Pigment-cell-specific genes from fibroblasts are transactivated after chromosomal transfer into melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.P.; Davidson, R.L.; Shows, T.B.

    1994-02-01

    Human and mouse fibroblast chromosomes carrying tyrosinase or b-locus genes were introduced, by microcell hybridization, into pigmented Syrian hamster melanoma cells, and the microcell hybrids were tested for transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. By using species-specific PCR amplification to distinguish fibroblast and melanoma cDNAs, it was demonstrated that the previously silent fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes were transactivated following chromosomal transfer into pigmented melanoma cells. However, transactivation of the mouse fibroblast tyrosinase gene was unstable in microcell hybrid subclones and possibly dependent on a second fibroblast locus that could have segregated in the subclones. This second locus was not necessary for transactivation of the fibroblast b-locus gene, thus demonstrating noncoordinate transactivation of fibroblast tyrosinase and b-locus genes. Transactivation of the fibroblast tyrosinase gene in microcell hybrids apparently is dependent on the absence of a putative fibroblast extinguisher locus for tyrosinase gene expression, which presumably is responsible for the extinction of pigmentation in hybrids between karyotypically complete fibroblasts and melanoma cells. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Low numbers of tryptase+ and chymase+ mast cells associated with reduced survival and advanced tumor stage in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, Hanna; Poukka, Mari; Bykachev, Andrey; Tyynelä-Korhonen, Kristiina; Sironen, Reijo; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Harvima, Ilkka T

    2015-12-01

    The role of mast cells in cutaneous melanoma remains unclear. Tryptase and chymase are serine proteinases and major proteins in mast cell secretory granules. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of tryptase and chymase mast cells in benign and malignant cutaneous melanocytic lesions and in lymph node metastases of melanomas. The presence of positively stained mast cells was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in invasive melanomas. Paraffin-embedded sections of 28 benign (13 intradermal, 10 compound, and five junctional nevi) and 26 dysplastic nevi, 15 in-situ melanomas, 36 superficially (pT1, Breslow's thickness<1 mm), and 49 deeply (pT4, Breslow's thickness>4 mm) invasive melanomas and 30 lymph node metastases were immunohistochemically stained for mast cell tryptase and chymase, and immunopositive cells were counted using the hotspot counting method. The mean count of tryptase and chymase mast cells was lower in invasive melanomas compared with in-situ melanomas and dysplastic and benign nevi. In deeply invasive melanomas, the difference was statistically significant compared with dysplastic nevi (P=0.003 for tryptase and P=0.009 for chymase) and in-situ melanomas (0.043 for tryptase). Low numbers of tryptase mast cells were associated with poor overall survival (P=0.031) in deeply invasive melanomas and with a more advanced stage (T1b, P=0.008) in superficially invasive melanomas. Low numbers of chymase mast cells were associated with microsatellites (P=0.017) in deeply invasive melanomas. The results suggest that these serine proteinases of mast cells may be protective in the pathogenesis of melanoma.

  15. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors Sensitize GNAQ Mutant Uveal Melanoma Cells to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cerne, Jasmina Ziva; Hartig, Sean Michael; Hamilton, Mark Patrick; Chew, Sue Anne; Mitsiades, Nicholas; Poulaki, Vassiliki; McGuire, Sean Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Uveal melanoma (UM) tumors require large doses of radiation therapy (RT) to achieve tumor ablation, which frequently results in damage to adjacent normal tissues, leading to vision-threatening complications. Approximately 50% of UM patients present with activating somatic mutations in the gene encoding for G protein αq-subunit (GNAQ), which lead to constitutive activation of downstream pathways, including protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, we investigated the impact of small-molecule PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM) and sotrastaurin (AEB071), combined with ionizing radiation (IR), on survival in melanoma cell lines. Methods. Cellular radiosensitivity was determined by using a combination of proliferation, viability, and clonogenic assays. Cell-cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were performed by quantitative real-time PCR, reverse-phase protein array analysis, and immunofluorescence. Results. We found that the PKC inhibitors combined with IR significantly decreased the viability, proliferation, and clonogenic potential of GNAQmt, but not GNAQwt/BRAFmt cells, compared with IR alone. Combined treatment increased the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of IR in GNAQmt cells through delayed DNA-damage resolution and enhanced induction of proteins involved in cell-cycle arrest, cell-growth arrest, and apoptosis. Conclusions. Our preclinical results suggest that combined modality treatment may allow for reductions in the total RT dose and/or fraction size, which may lead to better functional organ preservation in the treatment of primary GNAQmt UM. These findings suggest future clinical trials combining PKC inhibitors with RT in GNAQmt UM warrant consideration. PMID:24595385

  16. Interactions between ultraviolet light and interleukin-1 on MSH binding in both mouse melanoma and human squamous carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Birchall, N.; Orlow, S.J.; Kupper, T.; Pawelek, J. )

    1991-03-29

    Interactions between beta-melanotropin (MSH), interleukin 1-a (IL-1), and ultraviolet light (UV) were examined in Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma and RHEK human squamous carcinoma cell lines. The following points were established: (1) both cell lines produced IL-1 and their production was stimulated by exposure of the cells to UV; (2) both cell lines possessed high affinity binding sites for MSH, and their ability to bind MSH was modulated by IL-1; (3) IL-1 exhibited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on MSH binding to Cloudman cells; and (4) the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on MSH binding to melanoma cells was reflected in enhanced cellular responsiveness to MSH regarding tyrosinase activity (E.C. 1.14.18.1) and melanin content. The findings raise the possibility that interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes may be regulated by IL-1 and MSH, and suggest a possible mechanism for stimulation of cutaneous melanogenesis by solar radiation: enhancement of MSH receptor activity by induction of IL-1.

  17. Sodium ascorbate inhibits growth via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Lai, Wan-Wen; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hsiu-Maan; Li, Te-Mao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2006-12-01

    Vitamin C has been reported to be useful in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Inconsistent effects from growth stimulation to induction of apoptosis of malignant tumor cells, however, have been reported. Melanoma is an increasingly common and potentially lethal malignancy. It was reported that melanoma cells were more susceptible to ascorbate toxicity than any other tumor cells. The mechanisms accounting for ascorbate-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells, however, have remained unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sodium ascorbate on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells. A375.S2 cells were incubated with a certain range of concentrations of sodium ascorbate for various time periods. In order to examine the effects of sodium ascorbate on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and necrosis, we performed 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride assays and flow cytometry analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the mRNA levels of p53, p21, p27, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, which are associated with cell cycle S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that sodium ascorbate significantly induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the A375.S2 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The increased expressions of p53 and p21, and the decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2 and CDK4, indicated the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase after the cells had been treated with sodium ascorbate. Induction of apoptosis involved an increase in the levels of p53, p21 and cellular Ca, and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3 before culminating in apoptosis in sodium ascorbate-treated A375.S2 cells.

  18. DC-HIL-expressing myelomonocytic cells are critical promoters of melanoma growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Sung; Tamura, Kyoichi; Cruz, Ponciano D; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-01

    A major barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumor's ability to induce T-cell tolerance by exploiting host regulatory mechanisms. Having discovered the DC-HIL receptor, which inhibits T-cell responses by binding to syndecan-4 on effector T cells, we posited the DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway to have an important role in cancer promotion. Among DC-HIL(+) myelomonocytic cells, during growth of implanted mouse melanoma, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were the most expanded population and the most potent at suppressing T-cell activation. Deletion of the DC-HIL gene or infusion of anti-DC-HIL mAb abrogated these cells' suppressor function and expansion, and markedly diminished melanoma growth and metastasis. IL-1β and IFN-γ were elevated in mice bearing melanoma, and concurrent exposure to both cytokines optimally induced DC-HIL expression by tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Ligation of DC-HIL transduced phosphorylation of its intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which in turn induced intracellular expression of IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), known to mediate T-cell suppression by CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Thus, DC-HIL is the critical mediator of these cells' suppressor function in melanoma-bearing mice and a potential target for improving melanoma immunotherapy.

  19. Functional Proteomics to Identify Moderators of CD8+ T-Cell Function in Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Moderators of CD8+ T-Cell Function in Melanoma 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0357 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...these inhibitors with monoclonal antibodies, a process known as checkpoint blockade, can lead to the control of tumor. In melanoma patients...months 16- 24) using 3 C57BL/6 mice, plus 3 controls, per phage. Task 3. To identify the ligands of inhibitory molecules expressed by melanomas

  20. Inhibition by Tyroserleutide (YSL) on the Invasion and Adhesion of the Mouse Melanoma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhi; Che, Xu-chun; Lu, Rong; Zheng, Min-na; Zhu, Zhi-feng; Li, Jin-ping; Jian, Xu; Shi, Lin-xi; Liu, Jun-yan; Gao, Wen-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Tyroserleutide (YSL) is an active, low-molecular-weight polypeptide, comprised of three amino acids, that has shown antitumor effects on human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of YSL on invasion and adhesion of the mouse B16-F10 melanoma cell line by injecting B16-F10 cells into the tail veins of C57BL/6 mice to establish an experimental lung metastasis model. YSL inhibited B16-F10 cell metastasis to lung, reducing the number and area of metastasis lesions. When we treated B16-F10 cells with YSL (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL) in vitro, we found that YSL inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 cells with a 28.11% rate of inhibition. YSL significantly decreased the adhesiveness of B16-F10 cells to Matrigel with a 29.15% inhibition rate; YSL also significantly inhibited the invasion of B16-F10 cells, producing an inhibition of 35.31%. By analyses with Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, we found that YSL markedly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 in B16-F10 cells. These data suggest that YSL inhibits the growth, invasion, and adhesion of B16-F10 cells. PMID:17515953

  1. Survival of Cloudman mouse melanoma cells after irradiation by solar wavelengths of light.

    PubMed

    Cieszka, K; Hill, H Z; Xin, P; Azure, M; Hill, G J; Meyenhofer, M F; Boissy, R E; Mitchell, D L

    1997-08-01

    A number of variants of Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma cells that differ with respect to the amount of pigment produced are available for study. In this report, we compare the photobiological responses of S91/amel, which contains about 1 pg of melanin per cell, with S91/I3, which contains about 3 pg/cell. Earlier studies had shown that UVC induced more oxidative damage (in the form of thymine glycols) in cell line S91/I3 than in S91/amel and that cell line S91/amel was more resistant to killing by UVC than S91/I3. The present study finds that S91/amel cells are also relatively resistant to killing by near monochromatic UVB from a Philips TL01 fluorescent lamp and by near monochromatic UVA from a Philips HPW125 lamp. However, when the cells are irradiated with a Westinghouse FS20 polychromatic lamp, the S91/I3 cells are more resistant than the S91/amel cells. These findings cannot be explained on the basis of pigment induction because in S91/I3 this is about the same after UVB and FS20, although the maximum is reached earlier after UVB. Nor can our findings be explained on the basis of pyrimidine dimer formation, which is comparable in the two cell lines regardless of the type of irradiation. These results suggest that, with a pigment such as melanin, which absorbs light across the visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum, cellular responses to monochromatic light do not necessarily predict responses to polychromatic mixtures.

  2. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-B regulates JAM-C-dependent melanoma cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Frontera, Vincent; Bardin, Florence; Thomassin, Jeanne; Chetaille, Bruno; Adams, Susanne; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2012-11-16

    Metastasis is a major clinical issue and results in poor prognosis for most cancers. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) expressed by B16 melanoma and endothelial cells has been involved in metastasis of tumor cells through homophilic JAM-C/JAM-C trans-interactions. Here, we show that JAM-B expressed by endothelial cells contributes to murine B16 melanoma cells metastasis through its interaction with JAM-C on tumor cells. We further show that this adhesion molecular pair mediates melanoma cell adhesion to primary Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and that it is functional in vivo as demonstrated by the reduced metastasis of B16 cells in Jam-b deficient mice.

  3. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vayssade, Muriel; Sengkhamparn, Nipaporn; Verhoef, René; Delaigue, Claire; Goundiam, Oumou; Vigneron, Pascale; Voragen, Alphons G J; Schols, Henk A; Nagel, Marie-Danielle

    2010-07-01

    The proliferation and apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells are often abnormal. We have evaluated the action of a pectic rhamnogalacturonan obtained by hot buffer extraction of okra pods (okra RG-I) on melanoma cell growth and survival in vitro. We added okra RG-I containing an almost pure RG-I carrying very short galactan side chains to 2D (on tissue culture polystyrene, tPS) and 3D (on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), polyHEMA) cultures of highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. We then analyzed cell morphology, proliferation index, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the expression of adhesion molecules. Immunostaining and western blotting were used to assay galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein.Incubation with okra RG-I altered the morphology of B16F10 cells and significantly reduced their proliferation on both tPS and polyHEMA. The cell cycle was arrested in G2/M, and apoptosis was induced, particularly in cells on polyHEMA. The expression of N-cadherin and alpha5 integrin subunit was reduced and that of the multifunctional carbohydrate-binding protein, Gal-3, at the cell membrane increased.These findings suggest that okra RG-I induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by interacting with Gal-3. As these interactions might open the way to new melanoma therapies, the next step will be to determine just how they occur.

  4. Modulation of the Metastatic Activity of Melanoma Cells by Laminin and Fibronectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Victor P.; Williams, Jeannette E.; Liotta, Lance A.; Martin, George R.

    1984-11-01

    Metastatic mouse melanoma cells have a high affinity for the basement membrane and the ability to degrade it; these properties may allow tumor cells to invade the membrane and disseminate. In this study it was found that the metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells varied when the cells were exposed in culture to fibronectin or laminin. After removal of fibronectin or exposure to laminin, the cells had an increased affinity for basement membrane collagen, were more invasive of basement membranes in vitro, and produced more lung colonies in vivo. These changes are correlated with and may be due to an increase in the laminin-binding capacity of the tumor cell surface.

  5. Melanogenesis inhibitors from Coix lacryma-jobi seeds in B16-F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Amen, Yhiya; Arung, Enos Tangke; Afifi, Mohamed S; Halim, Ahmed F; Ashour, Ahmed; Fujimoto, Ryoji; Goto, Takahiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-02-16

    An adenine derivative, 9-β-D-glucopyranosyl adenine, reported for the first time from a natural source, in addition to nine known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Coix lacryma-jobi. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic and chemical studies. The isolated compounds and the ethanol extract have been assayed for melanin inhibition using B16-F10 melanoma cell line. The results of our study suggested the potential use of Coix lacryma-jobi seeds as a skin whitening agent and reveal the seeds to be a rich source of important phytochemicals with melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Among the isolated compounds, coixol (2) and 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (8) exhibited potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity with no obvious melanocytotoxicity. The rest of the compounds showed weak to moderate activity.

  6. Not only for melanoma. Subcutaneous pseudoprogression in lung squamous-cell carcinoma treated with nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Sarfaty, Michal; Moore, Assaf; Dudnik, Elizabeth; Peled, Nir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pseudoprogression, that is, initial tumor growth followed by subsequent tumor regression, has been well described for immunomodulation therapy in melanoma patients. This phenomenon is not well defined in lung cancer. Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, was recently approved for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a second-line therapy. Patient concerns and diagnosis: We present a patient with squamous NSCLC, suffering from multiple bone and subcutaneous metastases. Interventions: The patient was treated with nivolumab. Outcomes: A subcutaneous lesion in her upper back grew substantially after the first cycle of nivolumab, and later regressed, with marked improvement in all cancer sites. Lessons: Such pseudoprogression may serve to predict subsequent clinical response. PMID:28121940

  7. A new ceramide from Suillus luteus and its cytotoxic activity against human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    León, Francisco; Brouard, Ignacio; Torres, Fernando; Quintana, José; Rivera, Augusto; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A new phytosphingosine-type ceramide, suillumide (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the basidiomycete Suillus luteus (L.) S. F. Gray, along with ten known compounds: ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, suillin, (E)-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic alcohol, 5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxyergosta-8,22-diene-3beta,7 beta-diol, (R)-1-palmitoylglycerol, ergosta-7,9(11),22-triene-3beta,5 alpha,6 beta-triol, cerevisterol, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses, as well as by chemical methods. Compound 1 and its synthetic diacetyl derivative 2 were tested for their cytotoxic activities against the human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-1. Both drugs showed IC(50) values of ca. 10 microM after 72 h of exposure.

  8. Circulating tumour cells as tumour biomarkers in melanoma: detection methods and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Khoja, L; Lorigan, P; Dive, C; Keilholz, U; Fusi, A

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are cells of solid tumour origin detectable in the peripheral blood. Their occurrence is considered a prerequisite step for establishing distant metastases. Metastatic melanoma was the first malignancy in which CTCs were detected and numerous studies have been published on CTC detection in melanoma at various stages of disease. In spite of this, there is no general consensus as to the clinical utility of CTCs in melanoma, largely due to conflicting results from heterogeneous studies and discrepancies in methods of detection between studies. In this review, we examine the possible clinical significance of CTCs in cutaneous, mucosal and ocular melanoma, focusing on detection methods and prognostic value of CTC detection.

  9. Circulating Melanoma Cell Subpopulations: Their Heterogeneity and Differential Responses to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elin S; Reid, Anna L; Bowyer, Samantha; Calapre, Leslie; Siew, Kelvin; Pearce, Robert; Cowell, Lester; Frank, Markus H; Millward, Michael; Ziman, Mel

    2015-08-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor; thus, methods to analyze tumor-derived cells circulating in blood should address this diversity. Taking this into account, we analyzed, using multiparametric flow cytometry, the co-expression of the melanoma markers melanoma cell adhesion molecule and melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and the tumor-initiating markers ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 (ABCB5), CD271, and receptor activator of NF-κβ (RANK) in individual circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from 40 late-stage (III-IV) and 16 early-stage (I-II) melanoma patients. CTCs were heterogeneous within and between patients, with limited co-expression between the five markers analyzed. Analysis of patient matched blood and metastatic tumors revealed that ABCB5 and RANK subpopulations are more common among CTCs than in the solid tumors, suggesting a preferential selection for these cells in circulation. Pairwise comparison of CTC subpopulations longitudinally before and 6-13 weeks after treatment initiation showed that the percentage of RANK(+) CTCs significantly increased in the patients undergoing targeted therapy (N=16, P<0.01). Moreover, the presence of ⩾5 RANK(+) CTCs in the blood of patients undergoing targeted therapies was prognostic of shorter progression-free survival (hazards ratio 8.73, 95% confidence interval 1.82-41.75, P<0.01). Taken together, our results provide evidence of the heterogeneity among CTC subpopulations in melanoma and the differential response of these subpopulations to targeted therapy.

  10. Cooperative antiproliferative signaling by aspirin and indole-3-carbinol targets microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression and promoter activity in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, Kevin M; Matthew, Susanne; Aronchik, Ida; Firestone, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Antiproliferative signaling of combinations of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural indolecarbinol compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, was investigated in human melanoma cells. Melanoma cell lines with distinct mutational profiles were sensitive to different extents to the antiproliferative response of aspirin, with oncogenic BRAF-expressing G361 cells and wild-type BRAF-expressing SK-MEL-30 cells being the most responsive. I3C triggered a strong proliferative arrest of G361 melanoma cells and caused only a modest decrease in the proliferation of SK-MEL-30 cells. In both cell lines, combinations of aspirin and I3C cooperatively arrested cell proliferation and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and nearly ablated protein and transcript levels of the melanocyte master regulator microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoform M (MITF-M). In melanoma cells transfected with a -333/+120-bp MITF-M promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid, treatment with aspirin and I3C cooperatively disrupted MITF-M promoter activity, which accounted for the loss of MITF-M gene products. Mutational analysis revealed that the aspirin required the LEF1 binding site, whereas I3C required the BRN2 binding site to mediate their combined and individual effects on MITF-M promoter activity. Consistent with LEF1 being a downstream effector of Wnt signaling, aspirin, but not I3C, downregulated protein levels of the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor-related protein-6 and β-catenin and upregulated the β-catenin destruction complex component Axin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that aspirin-regulated Wnt signaling and I3C-targeted signaling pathways converge at distinct DNA elements in the MITF-M promoter to cooperatively disrupt MITF-M expression and melanoma cell proliferation.

  11. FTY720 induces apoptosis in B16F10-NEX2 murine melanoma cells, limits metastatic development in vivo, and modulates the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Felipe V.; Arruda, Denise C.; Figueiredo, Carlos R.; Massaoka, Mariana H.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Bueno, Valquiria; Rodrigues, Elaine G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Available chemotherapy presents poor control over the development of metastatic melanoma. FTY720 is a compound already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. It has also been observed that FTY720 inhibits tumor growth in vivo (experimental models) and in vitro (animal and human tumor cells). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of FTY720 on a metastatic melanoma model and in tumor cell lines. METHODS: We analyzed FTY720 efficacy in vivo in a syngeneic murine metastatic melanoma model, in which we injected tumor cells intravenously into C57BL/6 mice and then treated the mice orally with the compound for 7 days. We also treated mice and human tumor cell lines with FTY720 in vitro, and cell viability and death pathways were analyzed. RESULTS: FTY720 treatment limited metastatic melanoma growth in vivo and promoted a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of murine and human tumor cells in vitro. Melanoma cells treated with FTY720 exhibited characteristics of programmed cell death, reactive oxygen species generation, and increased β-catenin expression. In addition, FTY720 treatment resulted in an immunomodulatory effect in vivo by decreasing the percentage of Foxp3+ cells, without interfering with CD8+ T cells or lymphocyte-producing interferon-gamma. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed using FTY720 as a monotherapy or in combined therapy, as different types of cancer cells would require a variety of signaling pathways to be extinguished. PMID:23917669

  12. Lymphocyte imprinting with melanoma antigens acquired by trogocytosis facilitates identification of tumor-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Galit; Uzana, Ronny; Pato, Aviad; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Merims, Sharon; Yefenof, Eitan; Ferrone, Soldano; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent inter-cellular transfer of membrane fragments and associated molecules from antigen presenting cells to effector lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that trogocytosis also occurs between tumor target and cognate melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Here we show that, following trogocytosis, immune effector cells acquire molecular components of the tumor, including surface antigens, which are detectable by specific monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from melanoma patients’ PBMC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) capture melanoma antigens, enabling identification of trogocytosing lymphocytes by staining with antigen-specific antibodies. This finding circumvents the necessity of tumor pre-labeling, which in the past was mandatory to detect membrane-capturing T cells. Through the detection of melanoma antigens on TIL, we sorted trogocytosing T cells and verified their preferential reactivity and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, tumor-antigen imprinted T cells were detected at low frequency in fresh TIL cultures shortly after extraction from the tumor. Thus, T cell imprinting by tumor antigens may allow the enrichment of melanoma antigen-specific T cells for research and potentially even for the adoptive immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:23626012

  13. Targeting melanoma cells with human high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen-specific antibodies elicited by a peptide mimotope: functional effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Ko, Eric; Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano

    2006-05-15

    Human high molecular weight-melanoma associated Ag (HMW-MAA) mimics have been shown to elicit HMW-MAA-specific humoral immune responses that appear to be clinically beneficial. This finding has stimulated interest in characterizing the mechanism(s) underlying the ability of the elicited Abs to exert an anti-tumor effect. To address this question, in the present study, we have generated HMW-MAA-specific Abs by sequentially immunizing rabbits with the peptide P763.74, which mimics the HMW-MAA determinant recognized by mAb 763.74, and with HMW-MAA(+) melanoma cells. HMW-MAA-specific Abs isolated from immunized rabbits mediated cell-dependent cytotoxicity but did not mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity of HMW-MAA(+) melanoma cells. These Abs also effectively inhibited spreading, migration and Matrigel invasion of HMW-MAA(+) melanoma cells. Besides contributing to our understanding of the role of HMW-MAA in the biology of melanoma cells, these results suggest that both immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms underlie the beneficial clinical effects associated with the induction of HMW-MAA-specific Abs in melanoma patients immunized with a HMW-MAA mimic.

  14. BRG1 promotes survival of UV-irradiated melanoma cells by cooperating with MITF to activate the melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis gene.

    PubMed

    Saladi, Srinivas V; Wong, Philip G; Trivedi, Archit R; Marathe, Himangi G; Keenen, Bridget; Aras, Shweta; Liew, Zi-Qi; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-05-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a survival factor in melanocytes and melanoma cells. MITF regulates expression of antiapoptotic genes and promotes lineage-specific survival in response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to chemotherapeutics. SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes interact with MITF to regulate MITF target gene expression. We determined that the catalytic subunit, BRG1, of the SWI/SNF complex protects melanoma cells against UV-induced death. BRG1 prevents apoptosis in UV-irradiated melanoma cells by activating expression of the melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis (ML-IAP). Down-regulation of ML-IAP compromises BRG1-mediated survival of melanoma cells in response to UV radiation. BRG1 regulates ML-IAP expression by cooperating with MITF to promote transcriptionally permissive chromatin structure on the ML-IAP promoter. The alternative catalytic subunit, BRM, and the BRG1-associated factor, BAF180, were found to be dispensable for elevated expression of ML-IAP in melanoma cells. Thus, we illuminate a lineage-specific mechanism by which a specific SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, modulates the cellular response to DNA damage by regulating an antiapoptotic gene and implicate this subunit of the SWI/SNF complex in mediating the prosurvival function of MITF.

  15. Study of the immunophenotype of the inflammatory cells in melanomas with regression and halo nevi.

    PubMed

    Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenesis and prognostic implications of regression in melanoma are not well understood. It has traditionally been considered an immunologically mediated phenomenon. Improvement in the knowledge of the mechanisms that lead to regression may prove to be of great value in an era in which treatments oriented to the augmentation of the host's immunity against melanoma have demonstrated excellent clinical results. This study was designed to improve the understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanoma regression and the differences between similar situations in benign melanocytic nevus. The study sample consisted of 77 lesions: 62 melanomas and 15 halo nevi. The following markers were included in the study: CD4, CD8, FoxP3, PD1, CD123, granzyme, and TIA-1. Staining was evaluated in 5 categories, according to the percentage of labeled cells. Granzyme, PD1, and TIA-1 stained significantly more cells in halo nevi than in melanomas with regression (P < 0.01). The ratio CD123/TIA-1 was higher in melanomas than in halo nevi (1 vs. 0.67, P < 0.05). Regression in the 62 melanomas was categorized as early in 14 cases and late in 48 cases. Early regression was associated with a higher percentage of CD123, CD4, and TIA-1 staining than late regression. The inflammatory infiltrate found in halo nevi is characterized by a higher number of active cytotoxic T cells and regulatory PD1-positive T cells than the infiltrate found in melanoma with regression. CD123 staining was higher in early regression than in late regression, suggesting the presence of a tolerogenic mechanism in this phenomenon's initiation phase.

  16. Chrysin-induced apoptosis is mediated through p38 and Bax activation in B16-F1 and A375 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Elena; Cicconi, Rosella; Mattei, Maurizio; Canini, Antonella

    2011-02-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural and biologically active compound extracted from honey, plants and propolis. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant properties and promotes cell death by perturbing cell cycle progression. In this study, our attention focused on the possible role that chrysin may have as a potential anti-cancer agent, and we tested its biological activity in murine and human melanoma cell lines (B16-F1 and A375). This study demonstrated that chrysin reduced melanoma cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation in both human and murine melanoma cells through synthesis increase and intracellular accumulation of protoporphirin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, following treatments with chrysin an increase in the expression of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) was noted. This study demontrated also that chrysin induces cell death in human and murine melanoma cells through caspase-dependent mechanisms, involving down-regulation of ERK 1/2, and activation of p38 MAP kinases. Induction of cell death may be a promising therapeutic approach in cancer therapy. Our results suggest that chrysin may be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment.

  17. Design and synthesis of new imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives with antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Garamvölgyi, Rita; Dobos, Judit; Sipos, Anna; Boros, Sándor; Illyés, Eszter; Baska, Ferenc; Kékesi, László; Szabadkai, István; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Kéri, György; Őrfi, László

    2016-01-27

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer and it is generally associated with poor prognosis in patients with late-stage disease. Due to the increasing occurrence of melanoma, there is a need for the development of novel therapies. A new series of diarylamide and diarylurea derivatives containing imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine or imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine scaffold was designed and synthesized to investigate their in vitro efficacy against the A375P human melanoma cell line. We found several compounds expressing submicromolar IC50 values against the A375P cells, from which 15d, 17e, 18c, 18h, 18i demonstrated the highest potencies with IC50 below 0.06 μM.

  18. UVB-irradiation regulates VLA-4-mediated melanoma cell adhesion to endothelial VCAM-1 under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Shirure, Venktesh S; Burdick, Monica M; Wu, Shiyong

    2011-01-01

    The major aspect contributing to the mortality of melanoma is its ability to spread, or metastasize. Ultraviolet B light (UVB) is considered an indirect cause of melanoma formation. However, little is known about the potential effects of UVB to melanoma metastasis. Integrins, a large family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) expressed on the melanoma cell surface, are important for cell signaling, growth, and migration during metastasis. Most critically, tumor cell tissue invasion is dependent on the initial interaction of tumor cells with vascular endothelium at the target organ, and there is increasing evidence for a prominent role of melanoma very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) integrin binding to its endothelial ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in this process. This research focuses on the quantitative modulation of VLA-4 integrin expression and function on melanoma cells after UVB irradiation. The present data show that at 3, 12, and 18 h post-UVB irradiation, VLA-4 expression was unchanged relative to untreated cells, but adhesion to VCAM-1 decreased significantly. Immunofluorescence studies implied that the spatial organization of VLA-4 on the melanoma cell surface contributed to the changes in avidity for VCAM-1 upon UVB irradiation. With increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma-endothelial interactions upon UVB irradiation, clinical advances for melanoma may be developed.

  19. The neural guidance receptor Plexin C1 delays melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Soong, J; Mohanty, S; Xu, L; Scott, G

    2013-01-01

    Plexin C1 is a type I transmembrane receptor with intrinsic R-Ras GTPase activity, which regulates cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion in normal human melanocytes. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells of the epidermis, precursors for melanoma, and express high levels of Plexin C1, which is lost in melanoma in vitro and in vivo. To determine if Plexin C1 is a tumor suppressor for melanoma, we introduced Plexin C1 into a primary human melanoma cell line, and phenotypes including migration, apoptosis, proliferation and tumor growth in mice were analyzed. Complimentary studies in which Plexin C1 was silenced in human melanocytes were performed. Plexin C1 significantly inhibited migration and proliferation in melanoma, whereas in melanocytes, loss of Plexin C1 increased migration and proliferation. In mouse xenografts, Plexin C1 delayed tumor growth of melanoma at early time points, but tumors eventually escaped the suppressive effects of Plexin C1, due to Plexin C1-dependent activation of the pro-survival protein Akt. R-Ras activation stimulates melanoma migration. Plexin C1 lowered R-Ras activity in melanoma and melanocytes, consistent with inhibitory effects of Plexin C1 on migration of melanocytes and melanoma. To determine if R-Ras is expressed in melanocytic lesions in vivo, staining of tissue microarrays of nevi and melanoma were performed. R-Ras expression was highly limited in melanocytic lesions, being essentially confined to primary melanoma, and almost completely absent in nevi and metastatic melanoma. These data suggest that loss of Plexin C1 in melanoma may promote early steps in melanoma progression through suppression of migration and proliferation, but pro-survival effects of Plexin C1 ultimately abrogate the tumor suppressive effects of Plexin C1. In primary melanoma, loss of Plexin C1 may function in early steps of melanoma progression by releasing inhibition of R-Ras activation, and stimulating migration. PMID:23160370

  20. The neural guidance receptor Plexin C1 delays melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Soong, J; Mohanty, S; Xu, L; Scott, G

    2013-10-10

    Plexin C1 is a type I transmembrane receptor with intrinsic R-Ras GTPase activity, which regulates cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion in normal human melanocytes. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells of the epidermis, precursors for melanoma, and express high levels of Plexin C1, which is lost in melanoma in vitro and in vivo. To determine if Plexin C1 is a tumor suppressor for melanoma, we introduced Plexin C1 into a primary human melanoma cell line, and phenotypes including migration, apoptosis, proliferation and tumor growth in mice were analyzed. Complimentary studies in which Plexin C1 was silenced in human melanocytes were performed. Plexin C1 significantly inhibited migration and proliferation in melanoma, whereas in melanocytes, loss of Plexin C1 increased migration and proliferation. In mouse xenografts, Plexin C1 delayed tumor growth of melanoma at early time points, but tumors eventually escaped the suppressive effects of Plexin C1, due to Plexin C1-dependent activation of the pro-survival protein Akt. R-Ras activation stimulates melanoma migration. Plexin C1 lowered R-Ras activity in melanoma and melanocytes, consistent with inhibitory effects of Plexin C1 on migration of melanocytes and melanoma. To determine if R-Ras is expressed in melanocytic lesions in vivo, staining of tissue microarrays of nevi and melanoma were performed. R-Ras expression was highly limited in melanocytic lesions, being essentially confined to primary melanoma, and almost completely absent in nevi and metastatic melanoma. These data suggest that loss of Plexin C1 in melanoma may promote early steps in melanoma progression through suppression of migration and proliferation, but pro-survival effects of Plexin C1 ultimately abrogate the tumor suppressive effects of Plexin C1. In primary melanoma, loss of Plexin C1 may function in early steps of melanoma progression by releasing inhibition of R-Ras activation, and stimulating migration.

  1. Tumor-reactive CD4+ T cell responses to the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in melanoma patients and healthy individuals in the absence of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Erfurt, Cornelia; Sun, Zhaojun; Haendle, Ina; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Schuler, Gerold; Schultz, Erwin S

    2007-06-15

    To avoid immune escape by down-regulation or loss of Ag by the tumor cells, target Ags are needed, which are important for the malignant phenotype and survival of the tumor. We could identify a CD4(+) T cell epitope derived from the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) (also known as high m.w.-melanoma-associated Ag), which is strongly expressed on >90% of human melanoma lesions and is important for the motility and invasion of melanoma cells. However, MCSP is not strictly tumor specific, because it is also expressed in a variety of normal tissues. Therefore, self tolerance should prevent the induction of strong T cell responses against these Ags by vaccination strategies. In contrast, breaking self tolerance to this Ag by effectively manipulating the immune system might mediate antitumor responses, although it would bear the risk of autoimmunity. Surprisingly, we could readily isolate CD4(+) Th cells from the blood of a healthy donor-recognizing peptide MCSP(693-709) on HLA-DR11-expressing melanoma cells. Broad T cell reactivity against this Ag could be detected in the peripheral blood of both healthy donors and melanoma patients, without any apparent signs of autoimmune disease. In some patients, a decline of T cell reactivity was observed upon tumor progression. Our data indicate that CD4(+) T cells are capable of recognizing a membrane glycoprotein that is important in melanoma cell function, and it may be possible that the sizable reactivity to this Ag in most normal individuals contributes to immune surveillance against cancer.

  2. Tumor Cell Adhesion As a Risk Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Meves, Alexander; Nikolova, Ekaterina; Heim, Joel B.; Squirewell, Edwin J.; Cappel, Mark A.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Otley, Clark C.; Behrendt, Nille; Saunte, Ditte M.; Lock-Andersen, Jorgen; Schenck, Louis A.; Weaver, Amy L.; Suman, Vera J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Less than 20% of patients with melanoma who undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy based on American Society of Clinical Oncology/Society of Surgical Oncology recommendations are SLN positive. We present a multi-institutional study to discover new molecular risk factors associated with SLN positivity in thin and intermediate-thickness melanoma. Patients and Methods Gene clusters with functional roles in melanoma metastasis were discovered by next-generation sequencing and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using a discovery set of 73 benign nevi, 76 primary cutaneous melanoma, and 11 in-transit melanoma metastases. We then used polymerase chain reaction to quantify gene expression in a model development cohort of 360 consecutive thin and intermediate-thickness melanomas and a validation cohort of 146 melanomas. Outcome of interest was SLN biopsy metastasis within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. Logic and logistic regression analyses were used to develop a model for the likelihood of SLN metastasis from molecular, clinical, and histologic variables. Results ITGB3, LAMB1, PLAT, and TP53 expression were associated with SLN metastasis. The predictive ability of a model that included these molecular variables in combination with clinicopathologic variables (patient age, Breslow depth, and tumor ulceration) was significantly greater than a model that only considered clinicopathologic variables and also performed well in the validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97; false-positive and false-negative rates of 22% and 0%, respectively, using a 10% cutoff for predicted SLN metastasis risk). Conclusion The addition of cell adhesion–linked gene expression variables to clinicopathologic variables improves the identification of patients with SLN metastases within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. PMID:26150443

  3. Melanoma cell lysosome secretory burst neutralizes the CTL-mediated cytotoxicity at the lytic synapse

    PubMed Central

    Khazen, Roxana; Müller, Sabina; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Espinosa, Eric; Puissegur, Marie-Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Human melanoma cells express various tumour antigens that are recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and elicit tumour-specific responses in vivo. However, natural and therapeutically enhanced CTL responses in melanoma patients are of limited efficacy. The mechanisms underlying CTL effector phase failure when facing melanomas are still largely elusive. Here we show that, on conjugation with CTL, human melanoma cells undergo an active late endosome/lysosome trafficking, which is intensified at the lytic synapse and is paralleled by cathepsin-mediated perforin degradation and deficient granzyme B penetration. Abortion of SNAP-23-dependent lysosomal trafficking, pH perturbation or impairment of lysosomal proteolytic activity restores susceptibility to CTL attack. Inside the arsenal of melanoma cell strategies to escape immune surveillance, we identify a self-defence mechanism based on exacerbated lysosome secretion and perforin degradation at the lytic synapse. Interfering with this synaptic self-defence mechanism might be useful in potentiating CTL-mediated therapies in melanoma patients. PMID:26940455

  4. Versican Is Differentially Expressed in Human Melanoma and May Play a Role in Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Touab, Malika; Villena, Juan; Barranco, Carlos; Arumí-Uría, Montserrat; Bassols, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Undifferentiated human melanoma cell lines produce a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, different from the well-known melanoma-specific proteoglycan mel-PG (Heredia and colleagues, Arch Biochem Biophys, 333: 198–206, 1996). We have identified this proteoglycan as versican and analyzed the expression of versican in several human melanoma cell lines. Versican isoforms are expressed in undifferentiated cell lines but not in differentiated cells, and the isoform expression pattern depends on the degree of cell differentiation. The V0 and V1 isoforms are found on cells with an early degree of differentiation, whereas the V1 isoform is present in cells with an intermediate degree of differentiation. We have also characterized some functional properties of versican on human melanoma cells: the purified proteoglycan stimulates cell growth and inhibits cell adhesion when cells are grown on fibronectin or collagen type I as substrates, and thus may facilitate tumor cell detachment and proliferation. Furthermore, we have analyzed the expression of versican in human melanocytic nevi and melanoma: 10 benign melanocytic nevi, 10 dysplastic nevi, 11 primary malignant melanomas, and 8 metastatic melanomas were tested. Immunoreactivity for versican was negative in benign melanocytic nevi, weakly to strongly positive in dysplastic nevi, and intensely positive in primary malignant melanomas and metastatic melanomas. Our results indicate that versican is involved in the progression of melanomas and may be a reliable marker for clinical diagnosis. PMID:11839575

  5. Hypoxia negatively regulates antimetastatic PEDF in melanoma cells by a hypoxia inducible factor-independent, autophagy dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barral, Asunción; Orgaz, José Luis; Gomez, Valentí; del Peso, Luis; Calzada, María José; Jiménez, Benilde

    2012-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) superfamily, displays a potent antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activity in a broad range of tumor types. Melanocytes and low aggressive melanoma cells secrete high levels of PEDF, while its expression is lost in highly aggressive melanomas. PEDF efficiently abrogates a number of functional properties critical for the acquisition of metastatic ability by melanoma cells, such as neovascularization, proliferation, migration, invasiveness and extravasation. In this study, we identify hypoxia as a relevant negative regulator of PEDF in melanocytes and low aggressive melanoma cells. PEDF was regulated at the protein level. Importantly, although downregulation of PEDF was induced by inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, it was independent of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a key mediator of the adaptation to hypoxia. Decreased PEDF protein was not mediated by inhibition of translation through untranslated regions (UTRs) in melanoma cells. Degradation by metalloproteinases, implicated on PEDF degradation in retinal pigment epithelial cells, or by the proteasome, was also excluded as regulatory mechanism in melanoma cells. Instead, we found that degradation by autophagy was critical for PEDF downregulation under hypoxia in human melanoma cells. Our findings show that hypoxic conditions encountered during primary melanoma growth downregulate antiangiogenic and antimetastasic PEDF by a posttranslational mechanism involving degradation by autophagy and could therefore contribute to the acquisition of highly metastatic potential characteristic of aggressive melanoma cells.

  6. Ursolic acid and resveratrol synergize with chloroquine to reduce melanoma cell viability.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jacob J; Mancha-Ramirez, Anna; Malik, Gunjan; Wei, Sung-Jen; Kim, Dae Joon; Liang, Huiyun; Slaga, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20% once metastasized. Malignant melanoma cells exhibit increased levels of autophagy, a process of intracellular digestion that allows cells to survive various stresses including chemotherapies, resulting in reduced patient survival. Autophagy can be inhibited by chemicals like chloroquine (CQ), which prevents fusion of autophagosomes to lysosomes, resulting in autophagosome accumulation in most systems. Here, we describe how tested CQ to see whether it could sensitize B16F10 metastatic mouse melanoma cells to the anticancer activities of the natural compounds ursolic acid (UA) and resveratrol (RES). CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduced the viability of B16F10 mouse melanoma and A375 human melanoma cells. Surprisingly, flow cytometry of acridine orange-stained cells showed that UA or RES in combination with CQ significantly reduced autophagosome levels. Western blotting analysis revealed that CQ plus UA or RES paradoxically increased LC3II, indicative of autophagosome accumulation. In addition, CQ plus RES synergistically decreased the levels of both autophagy initiator beclin-1 and autophagy supporter p62. These results indicate that CQ with UA or RES strongly and synergistically reduces the viability of B16F10 and A375 melanoma cells. However, studies on B16F10 cells have shown that the synergistic effect was not mediated by inhibition of autophagy induced by UA or RES. These compounds are well-tolerated in humans, and CQ has shown promise as an adjuvant therapy. These combinations may be valuable treatment strategies for melanoma.

  7. Structure and regulation of the versican promoter: the versican promoter is regulated by AP-1 and TCF transcription factors in invasive human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Domenzain-Reyna, Clelia; Hernández, Daniel; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Docampo, María José; Badenas, Celia; Fabra, Angels; Bassols, Anna

    2009-05-01

    Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix that is involved in a variety of cellular processes. We showed previously that versican, which is overexpressed in cutaneous melanomas as well as in premalignant lesions, contributes to melanoma progression, favoring the detachment of cells and the metastatic dissemination. Here, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the versican promoter in melanoma cell lines with different levels of biological aggressiveness and stages of differentiation. We show that versican promoter up-regulation accounts for the differential expression levels of mRNA and protein detected in the invasive SK-mel-131 human melanoma cells. The activity of the versican promoter increased 5-fold in these cells in comparison with that measured in non-invasive MeWo melanoma cells. Several transcriptional regulatory elements were identified in the proximal promoter, including AP-1, Sp1, AP-2, and two TCF-4 sites. We show that promoter activation is mediated by the ERK/MAPK and JNK signaling pathways acting on the AP-1 site, suggesting that BRAF mutation present in SK-mel-131 cells impinge upon the up-regulation of the versican gene through signaling elicited by the ERK/MAPK pathway. This is the first time the AP-1 transcription factor family has been shown to be related to the regulation of versican expression. Furthermore, deletion of the TCF-4 binding sites caused a 60% decrease in the promoter activity in SK-mel-131 cells. These results showing that AP-1 and TCF-4 binding sites are the main regulatory regions directing versican production provide new insights into versican promoter regulation during melanoma progression.

  8. Melanocytes Affect Nodal Expression and Signaling in Melanoma Cells: A Lesson from Pediatric Large Congenital Melanocytic Nevi.

    PubMed

    Margaryan, Naira V; Gilgur, Alina; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Purnell, Chad; Arva, Nicoleta C; Gosain, Arun K; Hendrix, Mary J C; Strizzi, Luigi

    2016-03-22

    Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining results show varying degree of Nodal expression in pediatric dysplastic nevi and LCMN. Moreover, median scores from Nodal IHC expression analysis were not significantly different between these two groups. Additionally, none of the LCMN patients in this study developed melanoma, regardless of Nodal IHC levels. Co-culture experiments revealed reduced tumor growth and lower levels of Nodal and its signaling molecules P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 when melanoma cells were grown in vivo or in vitro with normal melanocytes. The same was observed in melanoma cells cultured with melanocyte conditioned media containing pigmented melanocyte derived melanosomes (MDM). Since MDM contain molecules capable of inactivating radical oxygen species, to investigate potential anti-oxidant effect of MDM on Nodal expression and signaling in melanoma, melanoma cells were treated with either N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a component of the anti-oxidant glutathione or synthetic melanin, which in addition to providing pigmentation can also exert free radical scavenging activity. Melanoma cells treated with NAC or synthetic melanin showed reduced levels of Nodal, P-SMAD2 and P-ERK1/2 compared to untreated melanoma cells. Thus, the potential role for Nodal in melanoma development in LCMN is less evident than in adult dysplastic nevi possibly due to melanocyte cross-talk in LCMN capable of offsetting or delaying the pro-melanoma

  9. Melanotransferrin induces human melanoma SK-Mel-28 cell invasion in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Yanick . E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2007-02-09

    The expression of melanotransferrin (MTf), a membrane-bound glycoprotein highly expressed in melanomas, is correlated with tumor vascularization and progression, suggesting a proinvasive function associated with MTf in malignant tumors. To test this hypothesis, we silenced MTf in human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and examined the plasmin activity and invasiveness of MTf-silenced melanoma. In vitro, the siRNA-mediated MTf knockdown inhibited by 58% the cell surface activation of plasminogen into plasmin. In addition, decreased expression of MTf in melanoma cells reduced cell migration. In vivo, we used a nude mice invasion model in which tissue factor (TF) induces vascular [{sup 125}I]-fibrin deposition following injection. Using this metastasis model, the invasive potential of MTf-silenced cells into the lungs was reduced by fivefold. Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that MTf overexpression in melanoma cells contributes to tumor progession by stimulating plasmin generation as well as cell migration and invasion.

  10. In vitro long-term treatment with MAPK inhibitors induces melanoma cells with resistance plasticity to inhibitors while retaining sensitivity to CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Rowdo, Florencia Paula Madorsky; Barón, Antonela; Von Euw, Erika María; Mordoh, José

    2017-01-01

    The development of BRAF V600 and MEK inhibitors constitutes a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. However, although there is an increase in overall survival, these patients generally confront recurrence, and several resistance mechanisms have already been described. In the present study we describe a different resistance mechanism. After several weeks of long-term in vitro treatment of two different V600E BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines with MARK inhibitors, PLX4032 and/or GDC-0973, the majority of the cells died whereas some remained viable and quiescent (SUR). Markedly, discontinuing treatment of SUR cells with MAPK inhibitors allowed the population to regrow and these cells retained drug sensitivity equal to that of the parental cells. SUR cells had increased expression levels of CD271 and ABCB5 and presented senescence-associated characteristics. Notably, SUR cells were efficiently lysed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognizing MART-1 and gp100 melanoma differentiation antigens. We propose quiescent plasticity as a mechanism of resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors while retaining sensitivity to immune effectors. PMID:28098866

  11. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-07-19

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence.

  12. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence. PMID:27322141

  13. Downregulation of discoidin domain receptor 2 in A375 human melanoma cells reduces its experimental liver metastasis ability.

    PubMed

    Badiola, Iker; Villacé, Patricia; Basaldua, Iratxe; Olaso, Elvira

    2011-10-01

    Discoidin domain receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) are tyrosine kinase receptors for fibrillar collagen implicated in postnatal development, tissue repair, and primary and metastatic cancer progression. While DDR1 has been described in tumor cells, DDR2 has been localized in the tumor stroma, but its presence in the tumor cells remains unknown. T