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Sample records for melanopsin-dependent nonvisual responses

  1. A direct and melanopsin-dependent fetal light response regulates mouse eye development.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sujata; Chun, Christina; Fan, Jieqing; Kofron, J Matthew; Yang, Michael B; Hegde, Rashmi S; Ferrara, Napoleone; Copenhagen, David R; Lang, Richard A

    2013-02-14

    Vascular patterning is critical for organ function. In the eye, there is simultaneous regression of embryonic hyaloid vasculature (important to clear the optical path) and formation of the retinal vasculature (important for the high metabolic demands of retinal neurons). These events occur postnatally in the mouse. Here we have identified a light-response pathway that regulates both processes. We show that when mice are mutated in the gene (Opn4) for the atypical opsin melanopsin, or are dark-reared from late gestation, the hyaloid vessels are persistent at 8 days post-partum and the retinal vasculature overgrows. We provide evidence that these vascular anomalies are explained by a light-response pathway that suppresses retinal neuron number, limits hypoxia and, as a consequence, holds local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) in check. We also show that the light response for this pathway occurs in late gestation at about embryonic day 16 and requires the photopigment in the fetus and not the mother. Measurements show that visceral cavity photon flux is probably sufficient to activate melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse fetus. These data thus show that light--the stimulus for function of the mature eye--is also critical in preparing the eye for vision by regulating retinal neuron number and initiating a series of events that ultimately pattern the ocular blood vessels.

  2. Identification of non-visual photomotor response cells in the vertebrate hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Kokel, David; Dunn, Timothy W.; Ahrens, Misha B.; Alshut, Rüdiger; Cheung, Chung Yan J.; Saint-Amant, Louis; Bruni, Giancarlo; Mateus, Rita; van Ham, Tjakko J.; Shiraki, Tomoya; Fukada, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Daisuke; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.; Mikut, Ralf; von Lintig, Johannes; Engert, Florian; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Non-visual photosensation enables animals to sense light without sight. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of non-visual photobehaviors are poorly understood, especially in vertebrate animals. Here, we describe the photomotor response (PMR), a robust and reproducible series of motor behaviors in zebrafish that is elicited by visual wavelengths of light, but does not require the eyes, pineal gland or other canonical deep-brain photoreceptive organs. Unlike the relatively slow effects of canonical non-visual pathways, motor circuits are strongly and quickly (seconds) recruited during the PMR behavior. We find that the hindbrain is both necessary and sufficient to drive these behaviors. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we identify a discrete set of neurons within the hindbrain whose responses to light mirror the PMR behavior. Pharmacological inhibition of the visual cycle blocks PMR behaviors, suggesting that opsin-based photoreceptors control this behavior. These data represent the first known light-sensing circuit in the vertebrate hindbrain. PMID:23447595

  3. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Léon, L; Collomb, S; Kawasaki, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  4. Comparison of acute non-visual bright light responses in patients with optic nerve disease, glaucoma and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M.; Léon, L.; Collomb, S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of optic nerve disease, hence retinal ganglion cell loss, on non-visual functions related to melanopsin signalling. Test subjects were patients with bilateral visual loss and optic atrophy from either hereditary optic neuropathy (n = 11) or glaucoma (n = 11). We measured melatonin suppression, subjective sleepiness and cognitive functions in response to bright light exposure in the evening. We also quantified the post-illumination pupil response to a blue light stimulus. All results were compared to age-matched controls (n = 22). Both groups of patients showed similar melatonin suppression when compared to their controls. Greater melatonin suppression was intra-individually correlated to larger post-illumination pupil response in patients and controls. Only the glaucoma patients demonstrated a relative attenuation of their pupil response. In addition, they were sleepier with slower reaction times during nocturnal light exposure. In conclusion, glaucomatous, but not hereditary, optic neuropathy is associated with reduced acute light effects. At mild to moderate stages of disease, this is detected only in the pupil function and not in responses conveyed via the retinohypothalamic tract such as melatonin suppression. PMID:26478261

  5. Cholescintigraphy: gallbladder nonvisualization secondary to neoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Rosen, P.R.; Nusynowitz, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Whereas the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis is characterized by nonvisualization of the gallbladder with Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives, nonvisualization is not specific for acute cholecystitis. The first reported case of nonvisualization of the gallbladder due to neoplasm is added to an expanding list of causes of nonvisualization other than the more frequent causes: acute and chronic cholecystitis.

  6. A role for the ciliary marginal zone in the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic pupillary light reflex.

    PubMed

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Gias, Carlos; Ahmado, Ahmad; Vugler, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    Maintenance of pupillary constriction in light-adapted rodents has traditionally been thought to involve a reflex between retina, brain and iris, with recent work identifying the melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) as the major conduits for retinal input to the brain. There is also a less well-understood phenomenon whereby the iris of some mammals, including mice, will constrict to light when either the eye, or the iris itself is physically isolated from the brain. The intrinsic pupillary light reflex (iPLR) is the term given to pupil constriction in the absence of retinal input to the brain. Here, using an intraocular axotomy approach, we show that the iPLR in conscious mice spans a dynamic range over 3 log units of irradiance. This iPLR response is absent in melanopsin knockout (MKO) mice and can be significantly inhibited by atropine. Immunohistochemistry for cfos and melanopsin, in combination with light exposure revealed a population of small ipRGCs in the retinal ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), which remain responsive to light in axotomised mice. We report that damage to the CMZ in a novel in vitro preparation removes a significant component of the iPLR response, while a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of the CMZ in wildtype mice revealed a melanopsin-rich plexus, which was consistently most intense in nasal retina. There were clear examples of melanopsin-positive, direct retino-ciliary projections, which appear to emanate from Brn3b negative, M1 type ipRGCs. These cells are clustered along the melanopsin-rich plexus nasally and may channel ipRGC signals from retina into the iris via ciliary body. Comparison between wildtype and MKO mice reveals that the ciliary body is also weakly stained for melanopsin. Our results show that the full extent of iPLR in mice requires cholinergic neurotransmission and intact signalling at the CMZ/ciliary body. This response may be mediated to some extent by ipRGCs, which send

  7. Imposed delay of response: effects on aphasics auditory comprehension of visuality and non-visually cued material.

    PubMed

    Yorkston, K M; Marshall, R C; Butler, M R

    1977-04-01

    Two groups of aphasics were administered an auditory comprehension task under conditions of 0-, 5-, and 10-sec. imposed delay of response. The auditory-visual group received auditory and visual cues; the auditory group received only auditory cues. Comprehension for the auditory-visual group was significantly better than for the auditory group. Increase in delay time significantly improved comprehension for the auditory-visual group but not for the auditory group.

  8. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  9. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  10. Nonvisual Adaptive Devices for Measuring Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, M. E.; Hamilton, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents information on nonvisual adaptive devices for measuring insulin and offers some suggestions for rehabilitation professionals who instruct and supervise clients with diabetes and visual impairment in the use of these devices. (Author)

  11. Early Appearance of Nonvisual and Circadian Markers in the Developing Inner Retinal Cells of Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Nicolás M.; Morera, Luis P.; Verra, Daniela M.; Contin, María A.; Guido, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The retina is a key component of the vertebrate circadian system; it is responsible for detecting and transmitting the environmental illumination conditions (day/night cycles) to the brain that synchronize the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). For this, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to the SCN and other nonvisual areas. In the chicken, intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4) transmit photic information and regulate diverse nonvisual tasks. In nonmammalian vertebrates, two genes encode Opn4: the Xenopus (Opn4x) and the mammalian (Opn4m) orthologs. RGCs express both Opn4 genes but are not the only inner retinal cells expressing Opn4x: horizontal cells (HCs) also do so. Here, we further characterize primary cultures of both populations of inner retinal cells (RGCs and HCs) expressing Opn4x. The expression of this nonvisual photopigment, as well as that for different circadian markers such as the clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per2, and Cry1, and the key melatonin synthesizing enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), appears very early in development in both cell populations. The results clearly suggest that nonvisual Opn4 photoreceptors and endogenous clocks converge all together in these inner retinal cells at early developmental stages. PMID:24977155

  12. Active control of locomotion facilitates nonvisual navigation.

    PubMed

    Philbeck, J W; Klatzky, R L; Behrmann, M; Loomis, J M; Goodridge, J

    2001-02-01

    In some navigation tasks, participants are more accurate if they view the environment beforehand. To characterize the benefits associated with visual previews, 32 blindfolded participants were guided along simple paths and asked to walk unassisted to a specified destination (e.g., the origin). Paths were completed without vision, with or without a visual preview of the environment. Previews did not necessarily improve nonvisual navigation. When previewed landmarks stood near the origin or at off-path locations, they provided little benefit; by contrast, when they specified intermediate destinations (thereby increasing the degree of active control), performance was greatly enhanced. The results suggest that the benefit of a visual preview stems from the information it supplies for actively controlled locomotion. Accuracy in reaching the final destination, however, is strongly contingent upon the destination's location during the preview.

  13. Absorption Characteristics of Vertebrate Non-Visual Opsin, Opn3.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Tomohiro; Nagata, Takashi; Mason, Benjamin; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrum spectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation. The photoproduct experienced a remarkable blue-shift, with changes in position of the isosbestic point, during further irradiation. We then used a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay to investigate light-dependent cAMP responses in cultured cells expressing zebrafish, pufferfish, anole and chicken Opn3. The wild type opsins did not produce responses, but cells expressing chimera mutants (WT Opn3s in which the third intracellular loops were replaced with the third intracellular loop of a Gs-coupled jellyfish opsin) displayed light-dependent changes in cAMP. The results suggest that Opn3 is capable of activating G protein(s) in a light-dependent manner. Finally, we used this assay to measure the relative wavelength-dependent response of cells expressing Opn3 chimeras to multiple quantally-matched stimuli. The inferred spectral sensitivity curve of zebrafish Opn3 accurately matched the measured absorption spectrum. We were unable to estimate the spectral sensitivity curve of mouse or anole Opn3, but, like zebrafish Opn3, the chicken and pufferfish Opn3-JiL3 chimeras also formed blue-sensitive pigments. These findings suggest that vertebrate Opn3s may form blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. Further, we suggest that the method described here, combining a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay with chimeric opsins possessing the third

  14. Absorption Characteristics of Vertebrate Non-Visual Opsin, Opn3

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, Tomohiro; Nagata, Takashi; Mason, Benjamin; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2016-01-01

    Most animals possess multiple opsins which sense light for visual and non-visual functions. Here, we show spectral characteristics of non-visual opsins, vertebrate Opn3s, which are widely distributed among vertebrates. We successfully expressed zebrafish Opn3 in mammalian cultured cells and measured its absorption spectrum spectroscopically. When incubated with 11-cis retinal, zebrafish Opn3 formed a blue-sensitive photopigment with an absorption maximum around 465 nm. The Opn3 converts to an all-trans retinal-bearing photoproduct with an absorption spectrum similar to the dark state following brief blue-light irradiation. The photoproduct experienced a remarkable blue-shift, with changes in position of the isosbestic point, during further irradiation. We then used a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay to investigate light-dependent cAMP responses in cultured cells expressing zebrafish, pufferfish, anole and chicken Opn3. The wild type opsins did not produce responses, but cells expressing chimera mutants (WT Opn3s in which the third intracellular loops were replaced with the third intracellular loop of a Gs-coupled jellyfish opsin) displayed light-dependent changes in cAMP. The results suggest that Opn3 is capable of activating G protein(s) in a light-dependent manner. Finally, we used this assay to measure the relative wavelength-dependent response of cells expressing Opn3 chimeras to multiple quantally-matched stimuli. The inferred spectral sensitivity curve of zebrafish Opn3 accurately matched the measured absorption spectrum. We were unable to estimate the spectral sensitivity curve of mouse or anole Opn3, but, like zebrafish Opn3, the chicken and pufferfish Opn3-JiL3 chimeras also formed blue-sensitive pigments. These findings suggest that vertebrate Opn3s may form blue-sensitive G protein-coupled pigments. Further, we suggest that the method described here, combining a cAMP-dependent luciferase reporter assay with chimeric opsins possessing the third

  15. Looking for Answers: Eye Movements in Non-Visual Cognitive Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlichman, Howard; Micic, Dragana; Sousa, Amber; Zhu, John

    2007-01-01

    It is not known why people move their eyes when engaged in non-visual cognition. The current study tested the hypothesis that differences in saccadic eye movement rate (EMR) during non-visual cognitive tasks reflect different requirements for searching long-term memory. Participants performed non-visual tasks requiring relatively low or high…

  16. [Circadian clock and non-visual functions: the role of light in humans].

    PubMed

    Gronfier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal secretion, cognitive performance, motor activity, metabolic processes, the sleep wake cycle and, most recently shown, cell division and ADN repair show a 24 h rhythmicity that is driven by the circadian timing system (the biological clock). Their appropriate activity over the 24 h requires appropriate entrainment of the circadian clock, which is achieved through the synchronizing effects of ocular light exposure. The activation of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in the retina depends on timing, quality, intensity, and history of light exposure. Inappropriate lighting leads to inappropriate synchronization of the clock, and activation of non-visual functions (mood, wakefulness, cognition, etc.). In turn, a deficit of circadian entrainment to the 24 h is responsible for alterations of a large number of functions, and leads to altered sleep, wake, mood, neurobehavioral processes and cell division, but also to pathologies. The crucial role of the circadian clock and the nature of the non-visual functions activated by light give rise to the concept that light is a biological need fundamental to health. Without an appropriate light hygiene, the clock receives an odd tempo, and it is cacophony!

  17. Tuning optical radiation for visual and nonvisual impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral tuning---the allocation of radiant energy emitted by a lamp---is a fundamental element of illuminating engineering. Proper placement of optical radiation allows for reduced energy consumption, increased brightness perception, and improved color rendition. It can also result in lamps that have a greater impact on nonvisual human functions such as circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition. For an architectural lighting system, careful consideration must be given to all of these areas; recent advancements in understanding nonvisual photoreception must be balanced with the traditional emphasis on visual quality and energy efficiency. The three research projects described herein investigated spectral tuning by examining the effects of optical radiation or seeking ideal spectral power distributions. In all three cases, emphasis was placed on developing an architectural lighting system based on red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs) that is capable of providing maximum stimulation to nonvisual systems while maintaining visual quality standards. In particular, the elderly were considered as a target population because they have an increased risk of developing disorders linked to illumination deficits. The three endeavors can be summarized as follows: Light Therapy for Seniors in Long-term Care AIM: To examine the effect of optical radiation on circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition for frail elderly in a long-term care environment. METHODOLOGY: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of light therapy was conducted using circadian-effective short-wavelength (blue) optical radiation to treat a sample of residents recruited for participation without bias for existing medical diagnoses. KEY FINDINGS: Light therapy treatment improved cognitive functioning compared to placebo but no changes were detected in nighttime sleep statistics, reports of daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythms, or depression inventory parameters. Perceived

  18. Nonvisual photoreceptors of the deep brain, pineal organs and retina.

    PubMed

    Vigh, B; Manzano, M J; Zádori, A; Frank, C L; Lukáts, A; Röhlich, P; Szél, A; Dávid, C

    2002-04-01

    The role of the nonvisual photoreception is to synchronise periodic functions of living organisms to the environmental light periods in order to help survival of various species in different biotopes. In vertebrates, the so-called deep brain (septal and hypothalamic) photoreceptors, the pineal organs (pineal- and parapineal organs, frontal- and parietal eye) and the retina (of the "lateral" eye) are involved in the light-based entrain of endogenous circadian clocks present in various organs. In humans, photoperiodicity was studied in connection with sleep disturbances in shift work, seasonal depression, and in jet-lag of transmeridional travellers. In the present review, experimental and molecular aspects are discussed, focusing on the histological and histochemical basis of the function of nonvisual photoreceptors. We also offer a view about functional changes of these photoreceptors during pre- and postnatal development as well as about its possible evolution. Our scope in some points is different from the generally accepted views on the nonvisual photoreceptive systems. The deep brain photoreceptors are hypothalamic and septal nuclei of the periventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neuronal system. Already present in the lancelet and representing the most ancient type of vertebrate nerve cells ("protoneurons"), CSF-contacting neurons are sensory-type cells sitting in the wall of the brain ventricles that send a ciliated dendritic process into the CSF. Various opsins and other members of the phototransduction cascade have been demonstrated in telencephalic and hypothalamic groups of these neurons. In all species examined so far, deep brain photoreceptors play a role in the circadian and circannual regulation of periodic functions. Mainly called pineal "glands" in the last decades, the pineal organs actually represent a differentiated form of encephalic photoreceptors. Supposed to be intra- and extracranially outgrown groups of deep brain photoreceptors

  19. Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging: nonvisualization of the gallbladder secondary to prolonged fasting

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.J.; Klingensmith, W.C. III; Kuni, C.C.

    1982-11-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging demonstrated nonvisualization of the gallbladder in four patients who were studied after fasting from 14 hr to 12 days. Two patients subsequently had normal gallbladders at autopsy, and two gave normal gallbladder visualization on repeat imaging studies after fasts of 2 to 3 hr. These findings suggest that prolonged fasting may be a cause for nonvisualization of a normal gallbladder.

  20. Tuning optical radiation for visual and nonvisual impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral tuning---the allocation of radiant energy emitted by a lamp---is a fundamental element of illuminating engineering. Proper placement of optical radiation allows for reduced energy consumption, increased brightness perception, and improved color rendition. It can also result in lamps that have a greater impact on nonvisual human functions such as circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition. For an architectural lighting system, careful consideration must be given to all of these areas; recent advancements in understanding nonvisual photoreception must be balanced with the traditional emphasis on visual quality and energy efficiency. The three research projects described herein investigated spectral tuning by examining the effects of optical radiation or seeking ideal spectral power distributions. In all three cases, emphasis was placed on developing an architectural lighting system based on red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs) that is capable of providing maximum stimulation to nonvisual systems while maintaining visual quality standards. In particular, the elderly were considered as a target population because they have an increased risk of developing disorders linked to illumination deficits. The three endeavors can be summarized as follows: Light Therapy for Seniors in Long-term Care AIM: To examine the effect of optical radiation on circadian rhythms, sleep, mood, and cognition for frail elderly in a long-term care environment. METHODOLOGY: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of light therapy was conducted using circadian-effective short-wavelength (blue) optical radiation to treat a sample of residents recruited for participation without bias for existing medical diagnoses. KEY FINDINGS: Light therapy treatment improved cognitive functioning compared to placebo but no changes were detected in nighttime sleep statistics, reports of daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythms, or depression inventory parameters. Perceived

  1. Human non-visual discrimination of gradual turning is poor.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Edward H; Bourassa, Charles M

    2007-05-01

    We report three measures of the ability of normally sighted adults to discriminate turning while walking blindfolded outdoors. Constant error in selecting line drawings of paths indicated that participants under represent the amount of turning along more curved paths and over represent the amount of turning on less curved paths. Constant error in the direction of pointing to the origin of paths indicated a bias consistent with the direction of turning along more curved paths. Participants produced more accurate drawings of paths as the amount of turning increased. The results suggest that non-visual cues that accompany self movement are not sufficient for accurate representation of large radius curves in geographic scale travel.

  2. Nonvisual eye position control in a patient with ocular lateropulsion.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, K; Sawa, M; Matsuda, S; Uno, A; Takeda, M

    1988-01-01

    For elucidating the nonvisual eye position control system, we studied the accuracy of saccades toward the remembered position (memory-guided saccades) in a patient with ocular lateropulsion having tonic bias of the eye position. Although the saccadic dysmetria caused by ocular lateropulsion was recorded during memory-guided saccades in the same manner as visually guided saccades, the eyes reached precisely the intended position by corrective saccades. The mean latency of corrective saccades was significantly longer than that of corrective saccades observed for visually guided saccades. This long latency of corrective saccades supports the assumption that feedback information of the eye position is a signal generated by orbital afferents rather than a copy of the motor command.

  3. Non-visual effects of the color temperature of fluorescent lamps on physiological aspects in humans.

    PubMed

    Yasukouchi, Akira; Ishibashi, Keita

    2005-01-01

    The non-visual effects of the color temperature of fluorescent lamps were reviewed based mainly on our recent studies with special reference to physiological aspects in humans such as arousal level, autonomic nerve system including heart rate variability, blood pressure and body temperature regulation, and sleep architecture. It was concluded that there obviously existed the non-visual effects of the spectral composition of fluorescent lamps on physiological aspects, as predicted based on the functions of the nuclei located on the photic non-visual pathway.

  4. Visual plus nonvisual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: development and evolution over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Ouyang, Bichun

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the development and evolution of visual and nonvisual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease over 10 years. Hallucinations increase over time, but minimal attention has been placed on nonvisual domains. We studied 60 patients with Parkinson's disease who had never hallucinated at baseline and followed them over 10 years. The Rush Hallucination Inventory monitored frequency and type (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) of hallucinations at baseline and after 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years. Descriptive statistics were applied, and general estimating equation modeling assessed longitudinal risks. Over 10 years, visual hallucinations were endorsed by patients more frequently than other sensory modalities. Whereas isolated visual hallucinations dominated the early hallucination profile, visual plus nonvisual hallucinations accounted for progressively higher proportions of hallucinators over 10 years: 0.5 years, 0%; 4 years, 26%; 6 years, 47%; 10 years, 60% (odds ratio, 1.17; confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P = .04). Once visual plus nonvisual hallucinations developed, the risk of continuing to have multidomain hallucinations was high (odds ratio, 3.67; confidence interval, 1.13-11.93; P = .03). Hallucination severity was highly associated with current visual plus nonvisual hallucinations (odds ratio, 4.06; confidence interval, 2.93-5.61; P < .0001) and the continuation of multidomain hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.58; confidence interval, 1.12-2.24; P = .01). Whereas visual hallucinations in isolation are classic in Parkinson's disease, nonvisual hallucinations emerge over time, and the combination of visual with nonvisual hallucinations predominates in late Parkinson's disease. To capture the breadth and severity of hallucinations in chronically hallucinating patients with Parkinson's disease, screening inventories and practice-based interviews must include questions on both visual and nonvisual components.

  5. Nonvisual learning of intrinsic object properties in a reaching task dissociates grasp from reach.

    PubMed

    Karl, Jenni M; Schneider, Leandra R; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2013-04-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel theory proposes that skilled reaching is composed of a Reach that directs the hand in relation to the extrinsic properties of an object (e.g., location) and a Grasp that opens and closes the hand in relation to the intrinsic properties of an object (e.g., size). While Reach and Grasp movements are often guided by vision, they can also be performed without vision when reaching for a body part or an object on one's own body. Memory of a recently touched but unseen object can also be used to guide Reach and Grasp movements although the touch-response memory durations described are extremely brief (Karl et al. in Exp Brain Res 219:59-74, 2012a). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether repeated nonvisual reaching for a consistent object could calibrate Reach and Grasp movements in a way similar to those guided by vision. The nonvision group wore vision-occluding goggles and reached for fifty consecutive trials for a round donut ball placed on a pedestal. The control group performed the same task with vision. Frame-by-frame video analysis and linear kinematics revealed that nonvision participants consistently used an elevated Reach trajectory, in which the hand, rather than being directed toward the target in the horizontal plane, was first elevated above the target before being lowered to touch and locate it. First contact was established with the dorsal surface of the target, and thus, adjustments in contact locations were often required for purchase. Although nonvision participants initially used an open and extended hand during transport, with practice they began to scale digit aperture to object size with an accuracy and temporal relation similar to vision participants. The different ways in which the Reach and Grasp movements respond to nonvisual learning are discussed in relation to support for the dual channel theory of reaching and to the idea that the Reach and Grasp channels may be differentially dependent on

  6. Melanopsin and the Non-visual Photochemistry in the Inner Retina of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Nicolás M; Morera, Luis P; Guido, Mario E

    2016-01-01

    Melanopsin (Opn4), a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family, is a vitamin A-based opsin in the vertebrate retina that has been shown to be involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, pupillary light reflexes, melatonin suppression and other light-regulated tasks. In nonmammalian vertebrates there are two Opn4 genes, Opn4m and Opn4x, the mammalian and Xenopus orthologs respectively. Opn4x is only expressed in nonmammalian vertebrates including reptiles, fish and birds, while Opn4m is found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the intrinsically photosensitive (ip) RGCs of the inner retina of both mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates. All opsins described utilize retinaldehyde as chromophore, photoisomerized from 11-cis- to all-trans-retinal upon light exposure. Visual retinal photoreceptor cones and rods, responsible for day and night vision respectively, recycle retinoids through a process called the visual cycle that involves the retinal pigment epithelium or glial Müller cells. Although Opn4 has been characterized as a bistable photopigment, little is known about the mechanism/s involved in its chromophore regeneration. In this review, we will attempt to shed light on the visual cycle taking place in the inner retina and discuss the state of the art in the nonvisual photochemistry of vertebrates. PMID:26500165

  7. The value of radionuclide scintigraphy in patients with non-visualized gallbladders by oral cholecystography

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Rosenquist, C.J.; Trudeau, W.L.; Hines, H.H.

    1981-11-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy in patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder after OCG. Nineteen patients with non-visualized gallbladder with OCG subsequently had Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy performed. In nine patients the gallbladder visualized, whereas in ten it did not. Statistical analysis of this limited number of patients showed that Tc-99m-PyG cholescintigraphy was able to separate those patients with clinically significant gallbladder disease from those patients without significant gallbladder disease (p less than 0.05).

  8. Aging of Non-Visual Spectral Sensitivity to Light in Humans: Compensatory Mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Raymond P.; Chiquet, Christophe; Teikari, Petteri; Cornut, Pierre-Loïc; Claustrat, Bruno; Denis, Philippe; Gronfier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of sleep in the older population is a prevalent feature that contributes to a decrease in quality of life. Inappropriate entrainment of the circadian clock by light is considered to contribute to the alteration of sleep structure and circadian rhythms in the elderly. The present study investigates the effects of aging on non-visual spectral sensitivity to light and tests the hypothesis that circadian disturbances are related to a decreased light transmittance. In a within-subject design, eight aged and five young subjects were exposed at night to 60 minute monochromatic light stimulations at 9 different wavelengths (420–620 nm). Individual sensitivity spectra were derived from measures of melatonin suppression. Lens density was assessed using a validated psychophysical technique. Although lens transmittance was decreased for short wavelength light in the older participants, melatonin suppression was not reduced. Peak of non-visual sensitivity was, however, shifted to longer wavelengths in the aged participants (494 nm) compared to young (484 nm). Our results indicate that increased lens filtering does not necessarily lead to a decreased non-visual sensitivity to light. The lack of age-related decrease in non-visual sensitivity to light may involve as yet undefined adaptive mechanisms. PMID:24465738

  9. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all.

  10. Superficial neuromasts facilitate non-visual feeding by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Sampson, Julia A; Duston, Jim; Croll, Roger P

    2013-09-15

    To investigate whether mechanoreception is used in non-visual feeding in larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the ontogeny of superficial neuromasts along the lateral line was described using the vital stain FM1-43FX and fluorescent microscopy. The number of neuromasts visible along one flank increased from 11 at first feeding [5 to 7 days post-hatch (dph)] to >150 by the juvenile stage (27 dph). A neomycin dose response (0, 1, 2 and 5 mmol l(-1)) was evaluated for neuromast ablation of bass aged 10, 13, 17 and 20 dph. Using these same age groups, the ability of bass to catch Artemia salina prey in both dark and light tank-based feeding trials was compared between larvae with neuromasts ablated using neomycin (5 mmol l(-1)) and controls. Neomycin significantly reduced the incidence of feeding in the light and dark. Among larvae that fed, those in the dark treated with neomycin caught fewer Artemia (~5 prey h(-1); P<0.05) than controls (16 prey h(-1) at 10 dph; 72 prey h(-1) at 20 dph). In the light, by contrast, neomycin treatment had no significant effect on prey capture by larvae age 13 to 20 dph, but did inhibit feeding of 10 dph larvae. Verification that neomycin was specifically ablating the hair cells of superficial neuromasts and not affecting either neuromast innervation, olfactory pits, or taste cells was achieved by a combination of staining with FM1-43FX and immunocytochemistry for tubulin and the calcium binding proteins, S100 and calretinin. PMID:23737563

  11. Superficial neuromasts facilitate non-visual feeding by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Sampson, Julia A; Duston, Jim; Croll, Roger P

    2013-09-15

    To investigate whether mechanoreception is used in non-visual feeding in larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the ontogeny of superficial neuromasts along the lateral line was described using the vital stain FM1-43FX and fluorescent microscopy. The number of neuromasts visible along one flank increased from 11 at first feeding [5 to 7 days post-hatch (dph)] to >150 by the juvenile stage (27 dph). A neomycin dose response (0, 1, 2 and 5 mmol l(-1)) was evaluated for neuromast ablation of bass aged 10, 13, 17 and 20 dph. Using these same age groups, the ability of bass to catch Artemia salina prey in both dark and light tank-based feeding trials was compared between larvae with neuromasts ablated using neomycin (5 mmol l(-1)) and controls. Neomycin significantly reduced the incidence of feeding in the light and dark. Among larvae that fed, those in the dark treated with neomycin caught fewer Artemia (~5 prey h(-1); P<0.05) than controls (16 prey h(-1) at 10 dph; 72 prey h(-1) at 20 dph). In the light, by contrast, neomycin treatment had no significant effect on prey capture by larvae age 13 to 20 dph, but did inhibit feeding of 10 dph larvae. Verification that neomycin was specifically ablating the hair cells of superficial neuromasts and not affecting either neuromast innervation, olfactory pits, or taste cells was achieved by a combination of staining with FM1-43FX and immunocytochemistry for tubulin and the calcium binding proteins, S100 and calretinin.

  12. Nonvisual Opsins and the Regulation of Peripheral Clocks by Light and Hormones.

    PubMed

    Poletini, Maristela O; Ramos, Bruno C; Moraes, Maria Nathalia; Castrucci, Ana Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The molecular clock machinery is conserved throughout evolution. However, how environmental cues are perceived has evolved in such a way that peripheral clocks in mammals require a variety of signals, including hormones. On the other hand, in nonmammalian cells able to directly detect light, light seems to play a major role in the synchronization of the clock. The interaction between perception of circadian light by nonvisual opsins and hormones will be discussed under the perspective of clock synchronization at the molecular level.

  13. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, G.; Kempi, V.; van der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  14. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraph

    SciTech Connect

    Kempi, G.E.; Van Der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  15. Anticipating the effects of gravity when intercepting moving objects: differentiating up and down based on nonvisual cues.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Intercepting an object requires a precise estimate of its time of arrival at the interception point (time to contact or "TTC"). It has been proposed that knowledge about gravitational acceleration can be combined with first-order, visual-field information to provide a better estimate of TTC when catching falling objects. In this experiment, we investigated the relative role of visual and nonvisual information on motor-response timing in an interceptive task. Subjects were immersed in a stereoscopic virtual environment and asked to intercept with a virtual racket a ball falling from above or rising from below. The ball moved with different initial velocities and could accelerate, decelerate, or move at a constant speed. Depending on the direction of motion, the acceleration or deceleration of the ball could therefore be congruent or not with the acceleration that would be expected due to the force of gravity acting on the ball. Although the best success rate was observed for balls moving at a constant velocity, we systematically found a cross-effect of ball direction and acceleration on success rate and response timing. Racket motion was triggered on average 25 ms earlier when the ball fell from above than when it rose from below, whatever the ball's true acceleration. As visual-flow information was the same in both cases, this shift indicates an influence of the ball's direction relative to gravity on response timing, consistent with the anticipation of the effects of gravity on the flight of the ball. PMID:16120661

  16. Anticipating the effects of gravity when intercepting moving objects: differentiating up and down based on nonvisual cues.

    PubMed

    Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Intercepting an object requires a precise estimate of its time of arrival at the interception point (time to contact or "TTC"). It has been proposed that knowledge about gravitational acceleration can be combined with first-order, visual-field information to provide a better estimate of TTC when catching falling objects. In this experiment, we investigated the relative role of visual and nonvisual information on motor-response timing in an interceptive task. Subjects were immersed in a stereoscopic virtual environment and asked to intercept with a virtual racket a ball falling from above or rising from below. The ball moved with different initial velocities and could accelerate, decelerate, or move at a constant speed. Depending on the direction of motion, the acceleration or deceleration of the ball could therefore be congruent or not with the acceleration that would be expected due to the force of gravity acting on the ball. Although the best success rate was observed for balls moving at a constant velocity, we systematically found a cross-effect of ball direction and acceleration on success rate and response timing. Racket motion was triggered on average 25 ms earlier when the ball fell from above than when it rose from below, whatever the ball's true acceleration. As visual-flow information was the same in both cases, this shift indicates an influence of the ball's direction relative to gravity on response timing, consistent with the anticipation of the effects of gravity on the flight of the ball.

  17. Non-visual crypsis: a review of the empirical evidence for camouflage to senses other than vision

    PubMed Central

    Ruxton, Graeme D.

    2008-01-01

    I review the evidence that organisms have adaptations that confer difficulty of detection by predators and parasites that seek their targets primarily using sensory systems other than vision. In other words, I will answer the question of whether crypsis is a concept that can usefully be applied to non-visual sensory perception. Probably because vision is such an important sensory system in humans, research in this field is sparse. Thus, at present we have very few examples of chemical camouflage, and even these contain some ambiguity in deciding whether they are best seen as examples of background matching or mimicry. There are many examples of organisms that are adaptively silent at times or in locations when or where predation risk is higher or in response to detection of a predator. By contrast, evidence that the form (rather than use) of vocalizations and other sound-based signals has been influenced by issues of reducing detectability to unintended receivers is suggestive rather than conclusive. There is again suggestive but not completely conclusive evidence for crypsis against electro-sensing predators. Lastly, mechanoreception is highly understudied in this regard, but there are scattered reports that strongly suggest that some species can be thought of as being adapted to be cryptic in this modality. Hence, I conclude that crypsis is a concept that can usefully be applied to senses other than vision, and that this is a field very much worthy of more investigation. PMID:19000976

  18. Nonvisual spatial navigation fMRI lateralizes mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in a patient with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Grunwald, Thomas; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; König, Kristina; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-01-01

    Nonvisual spatial navigation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help clinicians determine memory lateralization in blind individuals with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We report on an exceptional case of a congenitally blind woman with late-onset left MTLE undergoing presurgical memory fMRI. To activate mesial temporal structures despite the lack of visual memory, the patient was requested to recall familiar routes using nonvisual multisensory and verbal cues. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of a nonvisual fMRI task to lateralize MTLE despite congenital blindness and may therefore contribute to the risk assessment for postsurgical amnesia in rare cases with refractory MTLE and accompanying congenital blindness.

  19. Why Do We Move Our Eyes while Trying to Remember? The Relationship between Non-Visual Gaze Patterns and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micic, Dragana; Ehrlichman, Howard; Chen, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Non-visual gaze patterns (NVGPs) involve saccades and fixations that spontaneously occur in cognitive activities that are not ostensibly visual. While reasons for their appearance remain obscure, convergent empirical evidence suggests that NVGPs change according to processing requirements of tasks. We examined NVGPs in tasks with long-term memory…

  20. Non-visual biological effect of lighting and the practical meaning for lighting for work.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Wout J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of good lighting extend much further than we used to think. Recent medical and biological research has consistently shown that light entering the human eyes has, apart from a visual effect, also an important non-visual biological effect on the human body. As a consequence, good lighting has a positive influence on health, well-being, alertness, and even on sleep quality. Our better understanding of the diversity in lighting effects teaches us that new rules governing the design of good and healthy lighting installations are required. Thanks to the recent discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the eye and its probable distribution within the eye we can now begin to define these new rules. These will guide us to dynamic lighting installations: that is to say dynamic in lighting level and dynamic in tint of whiteness of the lighting colour.

  1. Matching visual and nonvisual signals: evidence for a mechanism to discount optic flow during locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurrell, Adrian; Pelah, Adar

    2005-03-01

    We report on recent experiments to investigate the Arthrovisual Locomotor Effect (ALE), a mechanism based on non-visual signals postulated to discount or remove the self-generated visual motion signals during locomotion. It is shown that perceptual matches made by standing subjects to a constant motion optic flow stimulus that is viewed while walking on a treadmill are linearly reduced by walking speed, a measure of the reported ALE. The degree of reduction in perceived speed depends on the similarity of the motor activity to natural locomotion, thus for the four activities tested, ALE strength is ranked as follows: Walking > Cycling > Hand Pedalling > Finger Tapping = 0. Other variations and important controls for the ALE are described.

  2. Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Santino; Brooks, Samantha Jane; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods PubMed and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory

  3. Nonvisualization of the Internal Carotid Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography: Discussion of Two Cases with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saran, Sonal; Rajagopal, Rengarajan; Khera, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nonvisualization of the internal carotid artery (ICA) on cross-sectional imaging studies can be due to congenital (dysgenesis of the ICA) or acquired (complete occlusion of ICA) causes. We report two cases, one with absent carotid canal on bone window setting of computed tomography (CT) suggestive of congenital cause and the other with normal carotid canal, suggesting acquired cause. Development of aortic arches with six pathways of collateral circulation in brain is also discussed. PMID:27298744

  4. Nonvisual and visual object shape representations in occipitotemporal cortex: evidence from congenitally blind and sighted adults.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; He, Chenxi; Han, Zaizhu; Caramazza, Alfonso; Bi, Yanchao

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of object shape is primarily acquired through the visual modality but can also be acquired through other sensory modalities. In the present study, we investigated the representation of object shape in humans without visual experience. Congenitally blind and sighted participants rated the shape similarity of pairs of 33 familiar objects, referred to by their names. The resulting shape similarity matrices were highly similar for the two groups, indicating that knowledge of the objects' shapes was largely independent of visual experience. Using fMRI, we tested for brain regions that represented object shape knowledge in blind and sighted participants. Multivoxel activity patterns were established for each of the 33 aurally presented object names. Sighted participants additionally viewed pictures of these objects. Using representational similarity analysis, neural similarity matrices were related to the behavioral shape similarity matrices. Results showed that activity patterns in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) regions, including inferior temporal (IT) cortex and functionally defined object-selective cortex (OSC), reflected the behavioral shape similarity ratings in both blind and sighted groups, also when controlling for the objects' tactile and semantic similarity. Furthermore, neural similarity matrices of IT and OSC showed similarities across blind and sighted groups (within the auditory modality) and across modality (within the sighted group), but not across both modality and group (blind auditory-sighted visual). Together, these findings provide evidence that OTC not only represents objects visually (requiring visual experience) but also represents objects nonvisually, reflecting knowledge of object shape independently of the modality through which this knowledge was acquired.

  5. City Forensics: Using Visual Elements to Predict Non-Visual City Attributes.

    PubMed

    Arietta, Sean M; Efros, Alexei A; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2014-12-01

    We present a method for automatically identifying and validating predictive relationships between the visual appearance of a city and its non-visual attributes (e.g. crime statistics, housing prices, population density etc.). Given a set of street-level images and (location, city-attribute-value) pairs of measurements, we first identify visual elements in the images that are discriminative of the attribute. We then train a predictor by learning a set of weights over these elements using non-linear Support Vector Regression. To perform these operations efficiently, we implement a scalable distributed processing framework that speeds up the main computational bottleneck (extracting visual elements) by an order of magnitude. This speedup allows us to investigate a variety of city attributes across 6 different American cities. We find that indeed there is a predictive relationship between visual elements and a number of city attributes including violent crime rates, theft rates, housing prices, population density, tree presence, graffiti presence, and the perception of danger. We also test human performance for predicting theft based on street-level images and show that our predictor outperforms this baseline with 33% higher accuracy on average. Finally, we present three prototype applications that use our system to (1) define the visual boundary of city neighborhoods, (2) generate walking directions that avoid or seek out exposure to city attributes, and (3) validate user-specified visual elements for prediction.

  6. Creating Low Vision and Nonvisual Instructions for Diabetes Technology: An Empirically Validated Process

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nearly 20% of the adults with diagnosed diabetes in the United States also have visual impairment. Many individuals in this group perform routine diabetes self-management tasks independently, often using technology that was not specifically designed for use by people with visual impairment (e.g., insulin pumps and pens). Equitable care for persons with disabilities requires providing instructions in formats accessible for nonreaders. However, instructions in accessible formats, such as recordings, braille, or digital documents that are legible to screen readers, are seldom available. Method This article includes a summary of existing guidelines for creating accessible documents. The guidelines are followed by a description of the production of accessible nonvisual instructions for use of insulin pens used in a study of dosing accuracy. The study results indicate that the instructions were used successfully by 40 persons with visual impairment. Discussion and Conclusions Instructions in accessible formats can increase access to the benefits of diabetes technology for persons with visual impairment. Recorded instructions may also be useful to sighted persons who do not read well, such as those with dyslexia, low literacy, or who use English as a second language. Finally, they may have important benefits for fully sighted people who find it easier to learn to use technology by handling the equipment while listening to instructions. Manufacturers may also benefit from marketing to an increased pool of potential users. PMID:22538133

  7. Carotenoid Supplementation Positively Affects the Expression of a Non-Visual Sexual Signal

    PubMed Central

    Van Hout, Alain J.-M.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic) signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). After only 3–7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent) positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T), we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented) song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant) nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual) signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments. PMID:21283591

  8. Response Patterns of Children with Visual Impairments on Measures of Internalized Self-Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Rebecca A.; Head, Daniel N.; Pysh, Margaret Van Dusen; Chalfant, James C.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the mastery-oriented and learned-helplessness response patterns of children (n=13) with visual impairments in grades 3 to 6 who were divided into two groups, low vision children who were visual learners and nonvisual learners. Subjects were given the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. No significant…

  9. [Study of non-visually induced smooth pursuit eye movements and their predictability using pseudorandom target motion].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Hashiba, M

    1997-12-01

    It has been found that the smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are elicited by not only visual stimuli but also non-visual information such as the subject's fingertip movement and a moving sound source. We have already reported the quantitative analysis of SPEM which were induced by somatosensory and acoustic information. In the previous study, we used a sinusoidal waveform that could be highly predictable. Since it is wellknown that predictive control has an important role in the normal SPEM, we expect the predictive control to function in non-visually induced SPEM (NVSPEM). We quantitatively analyzed NVSPEM and normal SPEM evoked by pseudorandom target motion in ten human subjects who had no ocular, oculomotor or vestibular disorders. NVSPEM were induced by the following two non-visual targets: 1, subjects' fingertip motion as a somatosensory target ("Somato"), 2, a small loudspeaker (3-cm diameter.) generating white noise with an intensity of about 60 dB (A) as an acoustic target ("Acoustic"). A servo-controlled swing arm of 50cm was used to drive the subject's fingertip and the acoustic target of the small loudspeaker. The horizontal motion of the swing arm was controlled by a personal computer. The pseudorandom target motion was generated by mixing four sinusoids (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 Hz) of which the phases were randomly selected and the peak velocities were equally set at 19 deg/s. The mean peak velocity of the target was 26.2 deg/s and the amplitude was limited within 15 deg. Horizontal eye movements were recorded by DC electro-oculography and on an analogue datatape. The experiment was performed for 30 s in complete darkness so that the subjects' fingertip and loudspeaker as such remain invisible to the subject. Signals from the data recorder were smoothed by a low pass analogue filter of 20Hz, after digitization with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz and precision of 12 bits, and stored on a computer. The slow and quick eye movement components, both of which

  10. Role of receptor-attached phosphates in binding of visual and non-visual arrestins to G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Luis E; Kook, Seunghyi; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Ahmed, M Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2012-03-16

    Arrestins are a small family of proteins that regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins specifically bind to phosphorylated active receptors, terminating G protein coupling, targeting receptors to endocytic vesicles, and initiating G protein-independent signaling. The interaction of rhodopsin-attached phosphates with Lys-14 and Lys-15 in β-strand I was shown to disrupt the interaction of α-helix I, β-strand I, and the C-tail of visual arrestin-1, facilitating its transition into an active receptor-binding state. Here we tested the role of conserved lysines in homologous positions of non-visual arrestins by generating K2A mutants in which both lysines were replaced with alanines. K2A mutations in arrestin-1, -2, and -3 significantly reduced their binding to active phosphorhodopsin in vitro. The interaction of arrestins with several GPCRs in intact cells was monitored by a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assay. BRET data confirmed the role of Lys-14 and Lys-15 in arrestin-1 binding to non-cognate receptors. However, this was not the case for non-visual arrestins in which the K2A mutations had little effect on net BRET(max) values for the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2R), β(2)-adrenergic (β(2)AR), or D2 dopamine receptors. Moreover, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of M2R interacted with wild type non-visual arrestins normally, whereas phosphorylation-deficient β(2)AR mutants bound arrestins at 20-50% of the level of wild type β(2)AR. Thus, the contribution of receptor-attached phosphates to arrestin binding varies depending on the receptor-arrestin pair. Although arrestin-1 always depends on receptor phosphorylation, its role in the recruitment of arrestin-2 and -3 is much greater in the case of β(2)AR than M2R and D2 dopamine receptor.

  11. The evolution of irradiance detection: melanopsin and the non-visual opsins

    PubMed Central

    Peirson, Stuart N.; Halford, Stephanie; Foster, Russell G.

    2009-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24 h cycles that persist in the absence of external time cues. These rhythms provide an internal representation of day length and optimize physiology and behaviour to the varying demands of the solar cycle. These clocks require daily adjustment to local time and the primary time cue (zeitgeber) used by most vertebrates is the daily change in the amount of environmental light (irradiance) at dawn and dusk, a process termed photoentrainment. Attempts to understand the photoreceptor mechanisms mediating non-image-forming responses to light, such as photoentrainment, have resulted in the discovery of a remarkable array of different photoreceptors and photopigment families, all of which appear to use a basic opsin/vitamin A-based photopigment biochemistry. In non-mammalian vertebrates, specialized photoreceptors are located within the pineal complex, deep brain and dermal melanophores. There is also strong evidence in fish and amphibians for the direct photic regulation of circadian clocks in multiple tissues. By contrast, mammals possess only ocular photoreceptors. However, in addition to the image-forming rods and cones of the retina, there exists a third photoreceptor system based on a subset of melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs). In this review, we discuss the range of vertebrate photoreceptors and their opsin photopigments, describe the melanopsin/pRGC system in some detail and then finally consider the molecular evolution and sensory ecology of these non-image-forming photoreceptor systems. PMID:19720649

  12. Principal component and cluster analysis of layer V pyramidal cells in visual and non-visual cortical areas projecting to the primary visual cortex of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Laramée, M E; Rockland, K S; Prince, S; Bronchti, G; Boire, D

    2013-03-01

    The long-distance corticocortical connections between visual and nonvisual sensory areas that arise from pyramidal neurons located within layer V can be considered as a subpopulation of feedback connections. The purpose of the present study is to determine if layer V pyramidal neurons from visual and nonvisual sensory cortical areas that project onto the visual cortex (V1) constitute a homogeneous population of cells. Additionally, we ask whether dendritic arborization relates to the target, the sensory modality, the hierarchical level, or laterality of the source cortical area. Complete 3D reconstructions of dendritic arbors of retrogradely labeled layer V pyramidal neurons were performed for neurons of the primary auditory (A1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices and from the lateral (V2L) and medial (V2M) parts of the secondary visual cortices of both hemispheres. The morphological parameters extracted from these reconstructions were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The PCA showed that neurons are distributed within a continuous range of morphologies and do not form discrete groups. Nevertheless, the cluster analysis defines neuronal groups that share similar features. Each cortical area includes neurons belonging to several clusters. We suggest that layer V feedback connections within a single cortical area comprise several cell types. PMID:22426333

  13. The Melanopic Sensitivity Function Accounts for Melanopsin-Driven Responses in Mice under Diverse Lighting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M.; Allen, Annette E.; al-Enezi, Jazi; Wynne, Jonathan; Schlangen, Luc; Hommes, Vanja; Lucas, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to rods and cones, photoreception in mammals extends to a third retinal cell type expressing the photopigment melanopsin. The influences of this novel opsin are widespread, ranging from pupillary and circadian responses to brightness perception, yet established approaches to quantifying the biological effects of light do not adequately account for melanopsin sensitivity. We have recently proposed a novel metric, the melanopic sensitivity function (VZλ), to address this deficiency. Here, we further validate this new measure with a variety of tests based on potential barriers to its applicability identified in the literature or relating to obvious practical benefits. Using electrophysiogical approaches and pupillometry, initially in rodless+coneless mice, our data demonstrate that under a very wide range of different conditions (including switching between stimuli with highly divergent spectral content) the VZλ function provides an accurate prediction of the sensitivity of melanopsin-dependent responses. We further show that VZλ provides the best available description of the spectral sensitivity of at least one aspect of the visual response in mice with functional rods and cones: tonic firing activity in the lateral geniculate nuclei. Together, these data establish VZλ as an important new approach for light measurement with widespread practical utility. PMID:23301090

  14. Visual and nonvisual auditory systems in mammals. Anatomical evidence indicates two kinds of auditory pathways and suggests two kinds of hearing in mammals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J M; Irving, R

    1966-11-11

    -cell retinas (squirrel monkey, man, and macaque) and four rodents with rod-cell retinas (mouse, rat, guinea pig, and chinchilla). The cell numbers for the ground squirrel (a rodent with cone-cell retina) fitted an extension of the primate curve, and the cell numbers for the cat (in whose retina rods predominate) fitted an extension of the rodent curve. Thus, it is clear that the medial superior olive is related to the visual system, and that it is present in animals with cone-cell fovea and retina (diurnalanimals) and animals with rod-cell retina (that is, nocturnal animals) having good vision. In nonvisual nocturnal animals the nucleus is small or absent. The medial superior olive is probably not concerned with auditory localization in the psychophysical sense but is probably concerned with the movement of head and eyes in the direction of a sound in space. Localization in the psychophysical sense and fine auditory discrimination probably depend upon the ascending pathway which includes the lateral superior olive. PMID:4958477

  15. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  16. Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olague, Gustavo; Hammoud, Riad; Trujillo, Leonardo; Hernández, Benjamín; Romero, Eva

    This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction techniques: a principal com ponent analysis-based approach with automatic feature selection and one based on texture information selected by an evolutionary algorithm. In the former, facial fea tures are selected based on interest point clusters, and classification is carried out us ing eigenfeature information; in the latter, an evolutionary-based learning algorithm searches for optimal regions of interest and texture features based on classification accuracy. Both of these approaches use a support vector machine-committee for classification. Results show effective performance for both techniques, from which we can conclude that thermal imagery contains worthwhile information for the FER problem beyond the human visual spectrum.

  17. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  18. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light

    PubMed Central

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frédéric; Cooper, Howard M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Non-visual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and towards the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modelling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light. PMID:17329208

  19. Modeling the role of mid-wavelength cones in circadian responses to light.

    PubMed

    Dkhissi-Benyahya, Ouria; Gronfier, Claude; De Vanssay, Wena; Flamant, Frederic; Cooper, Howard M

    2007-03-01

    Nonvisual responses to light, such as photic entrainment of the circadian clock, involve intrinsically light-sensitive melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells as well as rod and cone photoreceptors. However, previous studies have been unable to demonstrate a specific contribution of cones in the photic control of circadian responses to light. Using a mouse model that specifically lacks mid-wavelength (MW) cones we show that these photoreceptors play a significant role in light entrainment and in phase shifting of the circadian oscillator. The contribution of MW cones is mainly observed for light exposures of short duration and toward the longer wavelength region of the spectrum, consistent with the known properties of this opsin. Modeling the contributions of the various photoreceptors stresses the importance of considering the particular spectral, temporal, and irradiance response domains of the photopigments when assessing their role and contribution in circadian responses to light.

  20. Spectral responses of the human circadian system depend on the irradiance and duration of exposure to light

    PubMed Central

    Gooley, Joshua J; Rajaratnam, Shantha M; Brainard, George C; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    In humans, circadian responses to light are thought to be mediated primarily by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells, not rods or cones. Melanopsin cells are intrinsically blue-light sensitive, but also receive input from visual photoreceptors. We therefore tested in humans whether cone photoreceptors contribute to the regulation of circadian and neuroendocrine light responses. Dose-response curves for melatonin suppression and circadian phase resetting were constructed in subjects exposed to blue (460 nm) or green (555 nm) light near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion. At the beginning of the intervention, 555 nm light was just as effective as 460 nm light at suppressing melatonin, suggesting a significant contribution from the three-cone visual system (lambdamax 555 nm). During light exposure, however, the spectral sensitivity to 555 nm light decayed exponentially relative to 460 nm light. For phase-resetting responses, the effects of exposure to low irradiance 555 nm light were too large relative to 460 nm light to be explained solely by the activation of melanopsin. Our findings suggest that cone photoreceptors contribute substantially to non-visual responses at the beginning of a light exposure and at low irradiances, whereas melanopsin appears to be the primary circadian photopigment in response to long-duration light exposure and at high irradiances. These results are consistent with a non-redundant role for visual photoreceptors and melanopsin in mediating human non-visual photoreception and suggest that light therapy for circadian rhythm sleep disorders and other indications might be optimized by stimulating both the melanopsin- and cone-driven photoreceptor systems. PMID:20463367

  1. Post-illumination pupil response after blue light: Reliability of optimized melanopsin-based phototransduction assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; te Lindert, Bart H W; Bijlenga, Denise; Coppens, Joris E; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Bruijel, Jessica; Kooij, J J Sandra; Cajochen, Christian; Bourgin, Patrice; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-10-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history. Pupil diameter of the left eye was continuously measured during a series of light exposures to the right eye, of which the pupil was dilated using tropicamide 0.5%. The light exposure paradigm consisted of the following five consecutive blocks of five minutes: baseline dark; monochromatic red light (peak wavelength: 630 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)) to maximize the effect of subsequent blue light; dark; monochromatic blue light (peak wavelength: 470 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)); and post-blue dark. PIPR was quantified as the difference between baseline dark pupil diameter and post-blue dark pupil diameter (PIPR-mm). In addition, a relative PIPR was calculated by dividing PIPR by baseline pupil diameter (PIPR-%). In total 54 PIPR assessments were obtained in 25 healthy young adults (10 males, mean age ± SD: 26.9 ± 4.0 yr). From repeated measurements on two consecutive days in 15 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 27.8 ± 4.3 yrs) test-retest reliability of both PIPR outcome parameters was calculated. In the presence of considerable between-subject differences, both outcome parameters had very high test-retest reliability: Cronbach's α > 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85. In 12 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 26.5

  2. Post-illumination pupil response after blue light: Reliability of optimized melanopsin-based phototransduction assessment.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; te Lindert, Bart H W; Bijlenga, Denise; Coppens, Joris E; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Bruijel, Jessica; Kooij, J J Sandra; Cajochen, Christian; Bourgin, Patrice; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2015-10-01

    Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history. Pupil diameter of the left eye was continuously measured during a series of light exposures to the right eye, of which the pupil was dilated using tropicamide 0.5%. The light exposure paradigm consisted of the following five consecutive blocks of five minutes: baseline dark; monochromatic red light (peak wavelength: 630 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)) to maximize the effect of subsequent blue light; dark; monochromatic blue light (peak wavelength: 470 nm, luminance: 375 cd/m(2)); and post-blue dark. PIPR was quantified as the difference between baseline dark pupil diameter and post-blue dark pupil diameter (PIPR-mm). In addition, a relative PIPR was calculated by dividing PIPR by baseline pupil diameter (PIPR-%). In total 54 PIPR assessments were obtained in 25 healthy young adults (10 males, mean age ± SD: 26.9 ± 4.0 yr). From repeated measurements on two consecutive days in 15 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 27.8 ± 4.3 yrs) test-retest reliability of both PIPR outcome parameters was calculated. In the presence of considerable between-subject differences, both outcome parameters had very high test-retest reliability: Cronbach's α > 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.85. In 12 of the 25 participants (6 males, mean age ± SD: 26.5

  3. Think Spatial: The Representation in Mental Rotation Is Nonvisual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2013-01-01

    For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information…

  4. Non-Visual Effects of Classroom Lighting on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1993-01-01

    A two-year study in Alberta on the effects of classroom lighting found that elementary school students exposed to full-spectrum lighting with measurable ultraviolet output had fewer dental caries, larger gains in height and weight, larger gains in achievement, and better attendance. Students exposed to high-pressure sodium vapor lamps had the…

  5. A Comparison of Three Nonvisual Methods for Presenting Scientific Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Patrick; Kamel, Hesham; Petrucci, Lori; Pun, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    A study implemented three different methods of presenting scientific graphs to 12 adults with visual impairments: audition, kinesthetics, or a combination of the two. Results indicate the combination of both audio and kinesthetic modalities can be a promising representation medium of common scientific graphs for people with visual impairments.…

  6. Non-Visual Effects of Classroom Lighting on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1994-01-01

    Results from a pilot study of four different lighting systems indicate that over a two-year period, light had measurable and significant effects on students. Under full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet enhancement, students developed fewer dental cavities and had better attendance, achievement, and growth and development than students…

  7. Active artificial echolocation and the nonvisual perception of aperture passability.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B

    2001-11-01

    The potential of airborne sonar to provide effective information about three-dimensional (3D) spatial layouts was assessed in four companion experiments. Blindfolded participants, never given visual access to the layout of a large room, were asked to use a sonar device whose output they had never previously encountered to judge the passability (by normal walking) of apertures between two aligned wall panels. Estimates were made from fixed and variable locations, approaches to the apertures were made from orthogonal and oblique angles, and the panels were at different distances and orientations. In each experiment, participants gave evidence of an ability to immediately use the information in structured echoes to make these judgments, though aperture location, approach angles, wall alignment and orientation each had significant effects on performance. The data are compared with performance under visual and nonechoic auditory conditions and are discussed with respect to the notions of potential information and effective information during these perceptually guided tasks.

  8. More Than Meets the Eye: Nonvisual Observations in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment intended for blind students that can be used to demonstrate acid-base reactions, carbonate reactions, or endothermic reactions. Includes both instructor information and a student activity sheet. (YDS)

  9. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Hankins, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Gnat−/−, Cnga3−/−, Opn4−/− triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  10. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Hankins, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Gnat(-/-), Cnga3(-/-), Opn4(-/-) triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  11. Effects of Vestibular Loss on Orthostatic Responses to Tilts in the Pitch Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Serrador, Jorge M.; Black, F. Owen; Rupert,Angus H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vestibular loss might impair orthostatic responses to passive tilts in the pitch plane in human subjects. Data were obtained from six subjects having chronic bilateral vestibular loss and six healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Vestibular loss was assessed with a comprehensive battery including dynamic posturography, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and ocular counterrolling. Head up tilt tests were conducted using a motorized two-axis table that allowed subjects to be tilted in the pitch plane from either a supine or prone body orientation at a slow rate (8 deg/s). The sessions consisted of three tilts, each consisting of20 min rest in a horizontal position, tilt to 80 deg upright for 10 min, and then return to the horizontal position for 5 min. The tilts were performed in darkness (supine and prone) or in light (supine only). Background music was used to mask auditory orientation cues. Autonomic measurements included beat-to-beat recordings of blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), end tidal CO2, respiratory rate and volume (Respritrace), and stroke volume (impedance cardiography). For both patients and control subjects, cerebral blood flow appeared to exhibit the most rapid adjustment following transient changes in posture. Outside of a greater cerebral hypoperfusion in patients during the later stages of tilt, responses did not differ dramatically between the vestibular loss and control subjects, or between tilts performed in light and dark room conditions. Thus, with the 'exception of cerebrovascular regulation, we conclude that orthostatic responses during slow postural tilts are not substantially impaired in humans following chronic loss of vestibular function, a result that might reflect compensation by nonvisual graviceptor

  12. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  13. Top-down modulation of ventral occipito-temporal responses during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Tae; Kawabata Duncan, Keith J.; Price, Cathy J.; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2011-01-01

    Although interactivity is considered a fundamental principle of cognitive (and computational) models of reading, it has received far less attention in neural models of reading that instead focus on serial stages of feed-forward processing from visual input to orthographic processing to accessing the corresponding phonological and semantic information. In particular, the left ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex is proposed to be the first stage where visual word recognition occurs prior to accessing nonvisual information such as semantics and phonology. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether there is evidence that activation in vOT is influenced top-down by the interaction of visual and nonvisual properties of the stimuli during visual word recognition tasks. Participants performed two different types of lexical decision tasks that focused on either visual or nonvisual properties of the word or word-like stimuli. The design allowed us to investigate how vOT activation during visual word recognition was influenced by a task change to the same stimuli and by a stimulus change during the same task. We found both stimulus- and task-driven modulation of vOT activation that can only be explained by top-down processing of nonvisual aspects of the task and stimuli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that vOT acts as an interface linking visual form with nonvisual processing in both bottom up and top down directions. Such interactive processing at the neural level is in agreement with cognitive and computational models of reading but challenges some of the assumptions made by current neuro-anatomical models of reading. PMID:21232615

  14. Spreading photoparoxysmal EEG response is associated with an abnormal cortical excitability pattern.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groppa, Sergey; Jerosch, Bettina; Muhle, Hiltrud; Kurth, Christoph; Shepherd, Alex J; Siebner, Hartwig; Stephani, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is a highly heritable electroencephalographic trait characterized by an abnormal cortical response to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). In PPR-positive individuals, IPS induces spikes, spike-waves or intermittent slow waves. The PPR may be restricted to posterior visual areas (i.e. local PPR with occipital spikes only) or spread to anterior non-visual cortical regions (i.e. PPR with propagation). The mechanisms underlying the PPR and causing its spread remain to be clarified. In unmedicated PPR-positive individuals and PPR-negative control participants without any history of previous seizures, we used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the excitability of the visual or primary motor cortex (M1). In the first experiment [18 healthy control subjects (i.e. without PPR in electroencephalography: 6 females, mean age 26.5 +/- 7.34 years) and 17 healthy participants with PPR (7 females, mean age 25.18 +/- 12.2 years) were studied], occipital TMS was used to elicit phosphenes or to suppress the visual perception of letter trigrams. PPR-positive individuals with propagation had lower phosphene thresholds and steeper stimulus-response curves than individuals without PPR or with occipital spikes only. Occipital TMS also induced a stronger suppression of visual perception in PPR-positive subjects with propagation relative to subjects without PPR or with occipital spikes. In the second experiment, we applied TMS over the right M1 without concurrent IPS and measured the motor threshold, the stimulus response curve, and the duration of the cortical silent period (CSP) in PPR positive individuals with propagation and in PPR-negative control participants [15 right-handed healthy subjects without PPR (3 males, mean age 17.7 +/- 3.6 years) and 14 right-handed healthy individuals showing a PPR with propagation (3 males, mean age 17.4 +/- 3.9 years)]. PPR-positive individuals showed no changes in these

  15. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  16. Relational responsibilities in responsive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Visse, Merel; Abma, Tineke A; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2012-02-01

    This article explores how we can enhance our understanding of the moral responsibilities in daily, plural practices of responsive evaluation. It introduces an interpretive framework for understanding the moral aspects of evaluation practice. The framework supports responsive evaluators to better understand and handle their moral responsibilities. A case is introduced to illustrate our argument. Responsive evaluation contributes to the design and implementation of policy by working with stakeholders and coordinating the evaluation process as a relationally responsible practice. Responsive evaluation entails a democratic process in which the evaluator fosters and enters a partnership with stakeholders. The responsibilities of an evaluator generally involve issues such as 'confidentiality', 'accountability' and 'privacy'. The responsive evaluator has specific responsibilities, for example to include stakeholders and vulnerable groups and to foster an ongoing dialogue. In addition, responsive evaluation involves a relational responsibility, which becomes present in daily situations in which stakeholders express expectations and voice demands. In our everyday work as evaluators, it is difficult to respond to all these demands at the same time. In addition, this article demonstrates that novice evaluators experience challenges concerning over- and underidenfitication with stakeholders. Guidelines and quality criteria on how to act are helpful, but need interpretation and application to the unique situation at hand.

  17. Nonvisual Route Following with Guidance from a Simple Haptic or Auditory Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, James R.; Loomis, Jack M.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Golledge, Reginald G.

    2007-01-01

    A path-following experiment, using a global positioning system, was conducted with participants who were legally blind. On- and off-course confirmations were delivered by either a vibrotactile or an audio stimulus. These simple binary cues were sufficient for guidance and point to the need to offer output options for guidance systems for people…

  18. On the domain-specificity of the visual and non-visual face-selective regions.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    What happens in our brains when we see a face? The neural mechanisms of face processing - namely, the face-selective regions - have been extensively explored. Research has traditionally focused on visual cortex face-regions; more recently, the role of face-regions outside the visual cortex (i.e., non-visual-cortex face-regions) has been acknowledged as well. The major quest today is to reveal the functional role of each this region in face processing. To make progress in this direction, it is essential to understand the extent to which the face-regions, and particularly the non-visual-cortex face-regions, process only faces (i.e., face-specific, domain-specific processing) or rather are involved in a more domain-general cognitive processing. In the current functional MRI study, we systematically examined the activity of the whole face-network during face-unrelated reading task (i.e., written meaningful sentences with content unrelated to faces/people and non-words). We found that the non-visual-cortex (i.e., right lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus), but not the visual cortex face-regions, responded significantly stronger to sentences than to non-words. In general, some degree of sentence selectivity was found in all non-visual-cortex cortex. Present result highlights the possibility that the processing in the non-visual-cortex face-selective regions might not be exclusively face-specific, but rather more or even fully domain-general. In this paper, we illustrate how the knowledge about domain-general processing in face-regions can help to advance our general understanding of face processing mechanisms. Our results therefore suggest that the problem of face processing should be approached in the broader scope of cognition in general.

  19. Stated Preferences for Components of a Personal Guidance System for Nonvisual Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Marston, James R.; Loomis, Jack M.; Klatzky, Roberta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of the preferences of visually impaired persons for a possible personal navigation device. The results showed that the majority of participants preferred speech input and output interfaces, were willing to use such a product, thought that they would make more trips with such a device, and had some concerns about…

  20. Individual Differences in (Non-Visual) Processing Style Predict the Face Inversion Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Natalie A.; Martin, Douglas; Pickup, Tracey; Macrae, C. Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that individuals with relatively weak global precedence (i.e., a smaller propensity to view visual stimuli in a configural manner) show a reduced face inversion effect (FIE). Coupled with such findings, a number of recent studies have demonstrated links between an advantage for feature-based processing and the presentation…

  1. Walking between the Lines: Nonvisual Cues for Maintaining Headings during Street Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Five cues were evaluated with respect to their usefulness in directing the headings of pedestrians who were blind during street crossings. The study was conducted at a simulated crosswalk, with the angle of the crosswalk varied relative to the approach and direction of the slope of the ramp. Three cues worked well over the distance equivalent to…

  2. Non-visual numerical discrimination in a blind cavefish (Phreatichthys andruzzii).

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; Tagliapietra, Christian; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto; Agrillo, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Over a decade of comparative studies, researchers have found that rudimentary numerical abilities are widespread among vertebrates. While experiments in mammals and birds have employed a variety of stimuli (visual, auditory and tactile), all fish studies involved visual stimuli and it is unknown whether fish can process numbers in other sensory modalities. To fill this gap, we studied numerical abilities in Phreatichthys andruzzii, a blind cave-dwelling species that evolved in the phreatic layer of the Somalia desert. Fish were trained to receive a food reward to discriminate between two groups of objects placed in opposite positions of their home tank. In Experiment 1, subjects learned to discriminate between two and six objects, with stimuli not controlled for non-numerical continuous variables that co-vary with numbers, such as total area occupied by stimuli or density. In Experiment 2, the discrimination was two versus four, with half of the stimuli controlled for continuous quantities and half not controlled for continuous quantities. The subjects discriminated only the latter condition, indicating that they spontaneously used non-numerical information, as other vertebrates tested in similar experiments. In Experiments 3 and 4, cavefish trained from the beginning only with stimuli controlled for continuous quantities proved able to learn the discrimination of quantities based on the sole numerical information. However, their numerical acuity was lower than that reported in other teleost fish tested with visual stimuli. PMID:24871921

  3. The Role of Visual and Nonvisual Information in the Control of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2005-01-01

    During locomotion, retinal flow, gaze angle, and vestibular information can contribute to one's perception of self-motion. Their respective roles were investigated during active steering: Retinal flow and gaze angle were biased by altering the visual information during computer-simulated locomotion, and vestibular information was controlled…

  4. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  5. Retention Test and Strategy Analysis of a Nonvisual Seriation Task Performed by First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael J.

    Reported is a test of retention related to a weight, texture, and force experiment performed by a group of 120 first grade students who had been randomly grouped into three treatment strategies. The results of the retention task, accuracy test, an analysis of the strategies used on both posttests and retention tests, and some miscellaneous post…

  6. On the domain-specificity of the visual and non-visual face-selective regions.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    What happens in our brains when we see a face? The neural mechanisms of face processing - namely, the face-selective regions - have been extensively explored. Research has traditionally focused on visual cortex face-regions; more recently, the role of face-regions outside the visual cortex (i.e., non-visual-cortex face-regions) has been acknowledged as well. The major quest today is to reveal the functional role of each this region in face processing. To make progress in this direction, it is essential to understand the extent to which the face-regions, and particularly the non-visual-cortex face-regions, process only faces (i.e., face-specific, domain-specific processing) or rather are involved in a more domain-general cognitive processing. In the current functional MRI study, we systematically examined the activity of the whole face-network during face-unrelated reading task (i.e., written meaningful sentences with content unrelated to faces/people and non-words). We found that the non-visual-cortex (i.e., right lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus), but not the visual cortex face-regions, responded significantly stronger to sentences than to non-words. In general, some degree of sentence selectivity was found in all non-visual-cortex cortex. Present result highlights the possibility that the processing in the non-visual-cortex face-selective regions might not be exclusively face-specific, but rather more or even fully domain-general. In this paper, we illustrate how the knowledge about domain-general processing in face-regions can help to advance our general understanding of face processing mechanisms. Our results therefore suggest that the problem of face processing should be approached in the broader scope of cognition in general. PMID:27255921

  7. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus ... blood. B lymphocytes provide the body with humoral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search ...

  8. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  9. Responsible Polling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lowell C.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2002-01-01

    Response to Terry Moe's published claim that certain results of 2001 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup poll of the public's attitude toward education underrepresented public support for educational vouchers. (PKP)

  10. Low velocity impact response of carbon fiber laminates fabricated by pulsed infusion: A review of damage investigation and semi-empirical models validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, V.; Caputo, F.; Ferraro, P.; Langella, A.; Lopresto, V.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ricciardi, M. R.; Riccio, A.; Toscano, C.

    2016-02-01

    The research reported in this paper was aimed mainly to investigate the different NDE techniques on specimens made by a new process labeled as "pulsed infusion", very crucial for voids content under critical loading conditions. The impact load, in fact, is critical for composite laminates due to their anisotropy, in particular in extreme temperature conditions due to their brittleness. An additional and very relevant aim was to collect a large number of experimental results to supply useful information for the numerical models needed to simulate the dynamic behavior of composite laminates. At the aim to investigate the response under dynamic loads of laminates fabricated by a new vacuum assisted technology labeled as "pulsed infusion", rectangular carbon fiber composite specimens were subjected to low velocity impact tests. Experimental tests up to complete penetration and at different energy levels, were carried out by a modular falling weight tower. All the parameters related to the phenomenon, like penetration energy, maximum force and indentation depths, were used to validate existing semi-empirical and numerical models. The largely used ultra sound technique (US) was adopted to investigate the delamination together with the thermo graphic technique. The results of the measurements were compared with data obtained on the same specimens by holographic analysis (ESPI). One of the scope was to investigate the crucial internal impact damage and assess the ability of an unconventional ND system (ESPI) in giving right information about non-visual damage generated inside composite laminates subjected to dynamic loads. Moreover, some of the specimens were cut to allow the fractographic analysis. The efficiency of the above mentioned new fabrication technology was studied also comparing the results with measurements from literature on impacted autoclave cured laminates. By the comparison between the results, good agreements were found denoting the efficiency and the

  11. Responsive Lotteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feige, Uriel; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    Given a set of alternatives and a single player, we introduce the notion of a responsive lottery. These mechanisms receive as input from the player a reported utility function, specifying a value for each one of the alternatives, and use a lottery to produce as output a probability distribution over the alternatives. Thereafter, exactly one alternative wins (is given to the player) with the respective probability. Assuming that the player is not indifferent to which of the alternatives wins, a lottery rule is called truthful dominant if reporting his true utility function (up to affine transformations) is the unique report that maximizes the expected payoff for the player. We design truthful dominant responsive lotteries. We also discuss their relations with scoring rules and with VCG mechanisms.

  12. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  13. Naturalizing Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior. Those who stand behind brain imaging believe that this can indeed be achieved, whereas those in opposition stress that brain scans are highly open to interpretation and that the data they provide is insufficient to establish causal connections. The question essentially comes down to whether technology can reliably be used to determine the intentions of the individual, thus establishing mens rea, for example, and hence responsibility. This article focuses on the latter notion and explores whether we can rely on the neurosciences to shed light on a complex form of moral and legal reasoning, as well as the role of the neurosciences in reawakening a philosophical and legal interest in trying to set responsibility on an empirical basis. PMID:27634721

  14. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  15. Assessment of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythms and melatonin response to light in disease states: lessons from cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, Sara; Middleton, Benita; Corrias, Michela; Mani, Ali Reza; Skene, Debra J; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2015-03-01

    Circadian rhythmicity and non-visual sensitivity to light can be assessed, in healthy subjects, by measuring the rhythm of the urinary melatonin metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and by determining the response of plasma melatonin to nocturnal retinal light exposure, respectively. However, the validity of these techniques has not been assessed in disease states in which disruption of the circadian rhythm is known or suspected to occur. Thus, the aims of this study were as follows: (i) to assess the reliability of circadian aMT6s profile estimates derived from 36 h versus 56 h urine collections and (ii) to test different models for calculating melatonin suppression in response to light in healthy volunteers and patients with cirrhosis. Twenty patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 10 matched healthy volunteers undertook: (i) separate 36 - and 56-h urine collections, under controlled conditions, for cosinor analysis of the urinary aMT6s profile; (ii) a melatonin suppression test, comprising of a baseline night, during which subjects were woken and asked to sit in front of a switched off light sphere, and an experimental night, identically executed, except that the light sphere was switched on and the subjects were exposed to white light (4.1 × 10(14) photons/cm(2)/s) for 30 min. Alternative approaches to the calculation of melatonin suppression were taken, with/without inclusion of the baseline night. Eighteen patients and eight healthy volunteers had matched analysable 36 - and 56-h urinary samples. Cosinor analysis showed a significant fit in 88% of the remaining 56 h collections, and 48% of the remaining 36-h collections. Thus, eight patients and five healthy volunteers had matched analysable samples for cosinor analysis. In the healthy volunteers, aMT6s profile indices obtained using the 36 - and the 56-h collections did not differ significantly. In contrast, considerably more variability was observed in patients [i.e. the difference

  16. Role of visual and non-visual cues in constructing a rotation-invariant representation of heading in parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Adhira

    2015-01-01

    As we navigate through the world, eye and head movements add rotational velocity patterns to the retinal image. When such rotations accompany observer translation, the rotational velocity patterns must be discounted to accurately perceive heading. The conventional view holds that this computation requires efference copies of self-generated eye/head movements. Here we demonstrate that the brain implements an alternative solution in which retinal velocity patterns are themselves used to dissociate translations from rotations. These results reveal a novel role for visual cues in achieving a rotation-invariant representation of heading in the macaque ventral intraparietal area. Specifically, we show that the visual system utilizes both local motion parallax cues and global perspective distortions to estimate heading in the presence of rotations. These findings further suggest that the brain is capable of performing complex computations to infer eye movements and discount their sensory consequences based solely on visual cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04693.001 PMID:25693417

  17. The Effect of Non-Visual Working Memory Load on Top-Down Modulation of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While a core function of the working memory (WM) system is the active maintenance of behaviorally relevant sensory representations, it is also critical that distracting stimuli are appropriately ignored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the role of domain-general WM resources in the top-down attentional modulation of…

  18. The effect of non-visual working memory load on top-down modulation of visual processing.

    PubMed

    Rissman, Jesse; Gazzaley, Adam; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-06-01

    While a core function of the working memory (WM) system is the active maintenance of behaviorally relevant sensory representations, it is also critical that distracting stimuli are appropriately ignored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the role of domain-general WM resources in the top-down attentional modulation of task-relevant and irrelevant visual representations. In our dual-task paradigm, each trial began with the auditory presentation of six random (high load) or sequentially ordered (low load) digits. Next, two relevant visual stimuli (e.g., faces), presented amongst two temporally interspersed visual distractors (e.g., scenes), were to be encoded and maintained across a 7-s delay interval, after which memory for the relevant images and digits was probed. When taxed by high load digit maintenance, participants exhibited impaired performance on the visual WM task and a selective failure to attenuate the neural processing of task-irrelevant scene stimuli. The over-processing of distractor scenes under high load was indexed by elevated encoding activity in a scene-selective region-of-interest relative to low load and passive viewing control conditions, as well as by improved long-term recognition memory for these items. In contrast, the load manipulation did not affect participants' ability to upregulate activity in this region when scenes were task-relevant. These results highlight the critical role of domain-general WM resources in the goal-directed regulation of distractor processing. Moreover, the consequences of increased WM load in young adults closely resemble the effects of cognitive aging on distractor filtering [Gazzaley, A., Cooney, J. W., Rissman, J., & D'Esposito, M. (2005). Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nature Neuroscience 8, 1298-1300], suggesting the possibility of a common underlying mechanism.

  19. Issues in Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Ronald C.; Rycus, Judith S.; Saunders-Adams, Stacey M.; Hughes, Laura K.; Hughes, Kelli N.

    2013-01-01

    Differential response (DR), also referred to as alternative response (AR), family assessment response (FAR), or multiple track response, was developed to incorporate family-centered, strengths-based practices into child protective services (CPS), primarily by diverting lower risk families into an assessment track rather than requiring the…

  20. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  1. Modification of radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    There has been a substantial and intense interest by laboratory and clinical investigators in the development of agents which modify the response of tissue to radiation differentially so as to increase the effect on tumor relative to normal tissue. These have included efforts to increase the response of tumor or to decrease response of normal tissue. The plan of this presentation is to: define radiation response modifiers; consider the impact of response modifiers on dose response curves; comment on problems inherent in assessment of results of clinical trials of response modifiers; and review briefly results of several trials of: sensitizers of hypoxic cells (hyperbaric oxygen, chemical sensitizer), pyrimidine analogs, and protectors.

  2. Neuronal Organization of Deep Brain Opsin Photoreceptors in Adult Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Chong Yee; Kitahashi, Takashi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological impacts of light beyond vision, i.e., non-visual functions of light, signify the need to better understand light detection (or photoreception) systems in vertebrates. Photopigments, which comprise light-absorbing chromophores bound to a variety of G-protein coupled receptor opsins, are responsible for visual and non-visual photoreception. Non-visual opsin photopigments in the retina of mammals and extra-retinal tissues of non-mammals play an important role in non-image-forming functions of light, e.g., biological rhythms and seasonal reproduction. This review highlights the role of opsin photoreceptors in the deep brain, which could involve conserved neurochemical systems that control different time- and light-dependent physiologies in in non-mammalian vertebrates including teleost fish. PMID:27199680

  3. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  4. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  5. Constructed-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinford, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    With rigor outlined in state and Common Core standards and the addition of constructed-response test items to most state tests, math constructed-response questions have become increasingly popular in today's classroom. Although constructed-response problems can present a challenge for students, they do offer a glimpse of students' learning through…

  6. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  7. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  8. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  9. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  10. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  11. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  12. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  13. Differential Response: Response to Hughes and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bryan; Brown, Brett Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    In their critique of differential response (DR), Hughes and colleagues raise a number of important issues that are central to broader efforts at the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) including the need for greater reliance on evidence-based practice in child welfare, more rigorous evaluation methodologies, and a robust set of…

  14. Response to the "Responsive PhD"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyssen, David

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American…

  15. Indomethacin-responsive headaches.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Indomethacin-responsive headaches are a heterogeneous group of primary headache disorders distinguished by their swift and often absolute response to indomethacin. The epidemiology of these conditions is incompletely defined. Traditionally, indomethacin-responsive headaches include a subset of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua), Valsalva-induced headaches (cough headache, exercise headache, and sex headache), primary stabbing headache, and hypnic headache. These headache syndromes differ in extent of response to indomethacin, clinical features, and differential diagnoses. Neuroimaging is recommended to investigate for various organic causes that may mimic these headaches. Case reports of other primary headache disorders that also respond to indomethacin, such as cluster headache, nummular headache, and ophthalmoplegic migraine, have been described. These "novel" indomethacin-responsive headaches beg the question of what headache characteristics are required to qualify a headache as an indomethacin-responsive headache. Furthermore, they challenge the concept of using a therapeutic intervention as a diagnostic criterion.

  16. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  17. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  18. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  19. Credibility, Will, and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Barnaby C.

    1974-01-01

    Factors that shaped institutions's responses to campus agitation about Vietnam, discrimination, and poverty include: a loss of institutional credibility, of will, and of power to act prerogatively. (JH)

  20. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  1. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-11-29

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  2. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light.

    PubMed

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Gorin, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  3. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light

    PubMed Central

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W.; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z.; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  4. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  5. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Daniel F.; Byrd, Gwen; Rocchio, Dominica

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, this journal invites responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This paper presents responses from Daniel F. Curtin, Gwen Byrd and Dominica Rocchio to the…

  6. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  7. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  8. Chores and Responsibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... not learn to accept responsibility. In unstructured home environments, or in families that are very permissive and where little is expected of children, youngsters are losing out on some valuable learning experiences, and their development of a sense of responsibility and initiative may ...

  9. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  10. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Michael; Hankins, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to encourage dialogue and reflection on matters of common concern and interest, the journal staff invite responses on selected articles from other educators, who engage the text critically and offer some reflections about its utility and validity. This article offers responses from Michael Fierro and Diana Hankins on the article…

  11. Linear response at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, Adam; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    We study a set of cooperatively interacting units at criticality, and we prove with analytical and numerical arguments that they generate the same renewal non-Poisson intermittency as that produced by blinking quantum dots, thereby giving a stronger support to the results of earlier investigation. By analyzing how this out-of-equilibrium system responds to harmonic perturbations, we find that the response can be described only using a new form of linear response theory that accounts for aging and the nonergodic behavior of the underlying process. We connect the undamped response of the system at criticality to the decaying response predicted by the recently established nonergodic fluctuation-dissipation theorem for dichotomous processes using information about the second moment of the fluctuations. We demonstrate that over a wide range of perturbation frequencies the response of the cooperative system is greatest when at criticality.

  12. IMMUNE RESPONSES IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Carl W.; Solliday, Susan M.; Asofsky, Richard

    1972-01-01

    Suppression of Ig class-specific PFC responses by class-specific antibody to mouse immunoglobulin was studied in cultures of spleen cells from immunized mice. In contrast to cultures from normal mice where anti-µ suppressed responses in all Ig classes, anti-µ had progressively less suppressive effect on γ1 and γ2 responses in cultures from immunized mice with time after immunization. This was most pronounced at 10 days after immunization when anti-µ suppressed γM and γA responses, but had no or slight effect on γ1 or γ2 responses which were still suppressed with anti-γ1 and anti-γ2. These changes in precursor cell susceptibility to anti-µ were antigen specific. PMID:4536707

  13. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  14. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  15. Photodynamic therapy: first responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2009-06-01

    During the irradiation of photosensitized cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated leading to a variety of effects including apoptosis and autophagy. These responses can occur within minutes after irradiation. Apoptosis is an irreversible pathway to death that can be triggered by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Autophagy is a recycling process that can occur as a result of Bcl-2 photodamage or as a response to organelle disruption. We have reported that autophagy is associated with a 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve. Although predominantly a survival pathway, autophagy can also play a role in cell death if cells attempt an excessive amount of recycling, beyond their ability to repair photodamage. Recent studies have been directed toward assessing the role of different ROS in the immediate response to PDT. While singlet oxygen is considered to be the major phototoxic ROS, it appears that catalase activity is also a determinant of the apoptotic response and that H2O2•OH can amplify the effects of singlet oxygen. An early response to PDT also involves inhibition of membrane trafficking systems related to the endocytic pathway. The extent and nature of these early responses appear to be among the determinants of subsequent tumor eradication.

  16. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  17. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  18. Frequency Response Tool

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  19. Responsibility and confidence

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Zubin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the changing role of the pharmacist in patient-centred practice, pharmacists anecdotally reported little confidence in their clinical decision-making skills and do not feel responsible for their patients. Observational findings have suggested these trends within the profession, but there is a paucity of evidence to explain why. We conducted an exploratory study with an objective to identify reasons for the lack of responsibility and/or confidence in various pharmacy practice settings. Methods: Pharmacist interviews were conducted via written response, face-to-face or telephone. Seven questions were asked on the topic of responsibility and confidence as it applies to pharmacy practice and how pharmacists think these themes differ in medicine. Interview transcripts were analyzed and divided by common theme. Quotations to support these themes are presented. Results: Twenty-nine pharmacists were asked to participate, and 18 responded (62% response rate). From these interviews, 6 themes were identified as barriers to confidence and responsibility: hierarchy of the medical system, role definitions, evolution of responsibility, ownership of decisions for confidence building, quality and consequences of mentorship and personality traits upon admission. Discussion: We identified 6 potential barriers to the development of pharmacists’ self-confidence and responsibility. These findings have practical applicability for educational research, future curriculum changes, experiential learning structure and pharmacy practice. Due to bias and the limitations of this form of exploratory research and small sample size, evidence should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion: Pharmacists feel neither responsible nor confident for their clinical decisions due to social, educational, experiential and personal reasons. Can Pharm J 2013;146:155-161. PMID:23795200

  20. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  1. The Aging Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Haigis, Marcia C.; Yankner, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is the outcome of a balance between damage and repair. The rate of aging and the appearance of age-related pathology are modulated by stress response and repair pathways that gradually decline, including the proteostasis and DNA damage repair networks and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism. Highly conserved insulin/IGF-1, TOR, and sirtuin signaling pathways in turn, control these critical cellular responses. The coordinated action of these signaling pathways maintains cellular and organismal homeostasis in the face of external perturbations, such as changes in nutrient availability, temperature and oxygen level, as well as internal perturbations, such as protein misfolding and DNA damage. Studies in model organisms suggest that changes in signaling can augment these critical stress response systems, increasing lifespan and reducing age-related pathology. The systems biology of stress response signaling thus provides a new approach to the understanding and potential treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20965426

  2. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  3. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Keers, Robert; Aitchison, Katherine J

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial interindividual variation in response to antidepressants. Family and twin studies suggest that genetic variation may, at least in part, explain these differences. Pharmacogenetic research attempts to identify the genetic variants associated with antidepressant response to both understand the mechanism of action of pharmacotherapies and to predict outcome. Genes implicated in the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodyamics of antidepressants have been shown to predict response; however, the failure of some findings to replicate has been disappointing. More recent hypothesis-free approaches have identified novel candidates for antidepressant response. However, results have been considerably modest and suggest that treatment outcome is determined by multiple genetic variants of small effect. The small effect sizes of genetic variants and heterogeneity between studies have significantly hindered attempts to find robust genetic predictors of response to antidepressants. To allow the direct comparison of findings, future pharmacogenetic studies should employ standardized methodology and consider using intermediate phenotypes of response, such as neurogenesis, that may more closely reflect the mechanism of action of antidepressants. PMID:21158559

  4. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Lagnado, David A; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in multiple agent contexts. We draw on the structural model account of actual causation (e.g., Halpern & Pearl, 2005) and its extension to responsibility judgments (Chockler & Halpern, 2004). We review the main theoretical and empirical issues that arise from this literature and propose a novel model of intuitive judgments of responsibility. This model is a function of both pivotality (whether an agent made a difference to the outcome) and criticality (how important the agent is perceived to be for the outcome, before any actions are taken). The model explains empirical results from previous studies and is supported by a new experiment that manipulates both pivotality and criticality. We also discuss possible extensions of this model to deal with a broader range of causal situations. Overall, our approach emphasizes the close interrelations between causality, counterfactuals, and responsibility attributions. PMID:23855451

  5. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  6. Response criteria for glioma.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A Gregory; Batchelor, Tracy T; Wen, Patrick Y; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Jain, Rakesh K

    2008-11-01

    The current method for assessing the response to therapy of glial tumors was described by Macdonald et al. in 1990. Under this paradigm, response categorization is determined on the basis of changes in the cross-sectional area of a tumor on neuroimaging, coupled with clinical assessment of neurological status and corticosteroid utilization. These categories of response have certain limitations; for example, cross-sectional assessment is not as accurate as volumetric assessment, which is now feasible. Disentangling antitumor effects of therapies from their effects on blood-brain barrier permeability can be challenging. The use of insufficient response criteria might be overestimating the true benefits of drugs in early-stage studies, and, therefore, such therapies could mistakenly move forward into later phases, only to result in disappointment when overall survival is measured. We propose that studies report both radiographic and clinical response rates, use volumetric rather than cross-sectional area to measure lesion size, and incorporate findings from mechanistic imaging and blood biomarker studies more frequently, and also suggest that investigators recognize the limitations of imaging biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  7. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  8. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field.

  9. Craziness and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, S J

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses why mental disorder is relevant to criminal responsibility. It begins by considering the meaning of criminal responsibility because it is impossible to understand the relevance of mental disorder unless one understands responsibility clearly. The next section provides a theoretical account of responsibility and excuse in general and addresses common misconceptions about these topics. The third section examines in detail why mental disorder can sometimes produce either a complete or partial excusing condition, such as legal insanity or "partial responsibility," and whether the U.S. Constitution requires the provision of an excuse based on mental disorder. The section proposes that mental disorder should produce an excusing condition in appropriate cases. The next section considers the relation of mental disorder to mens rea, the mental state "element" that is a definitional criterion of most crimes, and whether the U.S. Constitution requires that defendants be permitted to use evidence of mental disorder to negate mental state elements of the crime charged. This section argues that mental disorder rarely negates mens rea, but in those cases in which a plausible claim for negation could be made, defendants should be allowed to make this claim.

  10. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Response.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Daniel L; Rae, James M

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics attempts to predict treatment response using a patient's "germline" genome as the biomarker of interest. This chapter on pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response is divided into four sections. The first introduces readers to genetic variation and describes how variation in the germline genome can affect biology or pharmacology. The second section introduces the translational pathway for pharmacogenetic research and discusses the specific challenges to identifying pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response. The third section is divided into three subsections, each of which discusses a distinct category of pharmacogenetic response predictors; pharmacokinetics, cancer cell sensitivity, and effector cell activation. Within each subsection a specific pharmacogenetic association is described in detail; CYP2D6-tamoxifen, BRCA-PARP inhibitors, and FCGRA-trastuzumab, respectively, followed by a general discussion of other less well-established examples or areas for further research. The chapter concludes with a summary of the current status of pharmacogenetic predictors of breast cancer response and a few predictions for the future of this field. PMID:26987536

  11. The responsibility to protect.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  12. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  13. [Cytokines and allergic response].

    PubMed

    Guenounou, M

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactions are under the control of several events that occur sequentially following allergen exposure, recognition by the immune system, IgE production and their interaction with effector cells bearing Fc epsilon receptors. The lymphocyte activation in response to allergens determines the intensity and the nature of the immune response. Cytokines produced by T (and non-T) cells are involved in the polarized development of the specific immune response. In particular, type 1 and type 2 cytokines are responsible for the control of the different steps during allergic reactions. Th2 cytokines and particularly IL4 are responsible for switching the immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells to IgE production. They also play a key role in the activation of effector cells that occurs following allergen interaction with fixed specific IgE and participate to the local inflammatory reaction. Cytokine profile determination appears to represent a helpful laboratory parameter in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases. The development of new technological tools may allow the use of cell activation parameters, and cytokine profiles determination in clinical biology. This review aims to analyze the involvement of the cytokine network in the mechanisms leading to IgE production and the involvement of cytokines in effector mechanisms of allergic reactions. It also analyses the potential use of cytokine profile determination for diagnosis purpose and survey of immune desensitization of allergic diseases.

  14. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  15. Stress responses of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marles-Wright, Jon; Lewis, Richard J

    2007-12-01

    Bacteria, irrespective of natural habitat, are exposed to constant fluctuations in their growth conditions. Consequently they have developed sophisticated responses, modulated by the re-modelling of protein complexes and by phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction systems, to adapt to and to survive a variety of insults. Ultimately these signalling systems affect transcriptional regulons either by activating an alternative sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase, for example, sigma E (sigma(E)) of Escherichia coli and sigma B (sigma(B)) and sigma F (sigma(F)) in Bacillus subtilis or by activating DNA-binding two-component response regulators. Recent structure determinations, and systems biology analysis of key regulators in well-characterised stress-responsive pathways, illustrate conserved and novel mechanisms in these representative model bacteria.

  16. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  17. Defining responsibility for screening.

    PubMed

    Sifri, R; Wender, R

    1999-10-01

    Patients commonly receive medical care from multiple providers and confusion as to who is responsible for cancer screening undoubtedly contributes to inadequate recommendations. Effective screening requires successful implementation of a series of steps that begin with the initial discussion of a screening test and proceed through obtaining results and instituting appropriate follow-up. Clear definition of generalist and specialist physician roles are necessary to optimally screen the public. This article explores the differences in how generalists and specialists approach screening, describes models of care that facilitate shared responsibility for screening, and suggests strategies on how to improve communication between physicians to maximize screening performance. PMID:10452930

  18. Unexpected response. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.R.

    1985-05-08

    This paper reviews the NATO mission of deterrence and the threat of its use of nuclear weapons. It suggests that the threat is viable until a war starts, but then becomes meaningless because the Federal Republic of Germany would opt for a different course of action - its Unexpected Response. The conclusion is that convential forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity. Then strategic mobility is addressed as it provides greater conventional reinforcement potential than generally assumed. An Unexpected Response by the Congress which could be counter-productive to the use of our new mobility is then discussed.

  19. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  20. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  1. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". The author finds it very interesting to read James Hartley's reflections on the teaching of psychology and he thought it would be worth adding a rather different perspective, while agreeing with Hartley's main conclusions about the…

  2. Environmentally responsive graphene systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-12

    Graphene materials have been attracting significant research interest in the past few years, with the recent focuses on graphene-based electronic devices and smart stimulus-responsive systems that have a certain degree of automatism. Owing to its huge specific surface area, large room-temperature electron mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, exceptionally high thermal conductivity and environmental stability, graphene is identified as a beneficial additive or an effective responding component by itself to improve the conductivity, flexibility, mechanical strength and/or the overall responsive performance of smart systems. In this review article, we aim to present the recent advances in graphene systems that are of spontaneous responses to external stimulations, such as environmental variation in pH, temperature, electric current, light, moisture and even gas ambient. These smart stimulus-responsive graphene systems are believed to have great theoretical and practical interests to a wide range of device applications including actuators, switches, robots, sensors, drug/gene deliveries, etc. PMID:24376152

  3. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  4. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civille, John; Beckman, Mary; Green, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers responses from various authors to the article "Incarnational immersion-based learning in cultural contexts: A charity model," by Dr. John Trokan (2005.) Mount St. Joseph's program on incarnational immersion-based learning, as described in the article by Dr. John Trokan, will have the participating students' eyes opened to the…

  5. The Responsibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; Kluever, Raymond C.

    As individuals mature, they show increasing responsibility for events in their lives, but with variation in this form of maturation from one individual to another. These individual differences can be observed in doctoral candidates' activities associated with completion of the doctoral dissertation. The purpose of this study was to assess doctoral…

  6. [Aesthetic Response to Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Helen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. The theme of this issue is aesthetic response. The following papers focus on the audience and the persons responding to art: "Attitudes of Three Urban Appalachian Teenagers Toward Selected Early Modern American…

  7. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  8. Environmental Quality & Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khare, R. S.; And Others

    Edited transcripts of presentations made at a conference sponsored by the University of Wisconsin--Green Bay are arranged in five sections: (1) "Mass Production, Mass Consumption, Mass Waste;" (2) "Man Versus Nature;" (3) "The Urban Social Environment: Problems of Affluence, Membership, and Security;" (4) "Institutional Response to Technological…

  9. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. PMID:27633700

  10. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  11. Response to Rollock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Nicola Rollock's critique on the author's paper in which the author has argued that ethnographic data should be more widely used in psychology (Woods 2005, 2007b). Rollock argues that the paper neglects Zak's level of educational achievement, and fails to critically interrogate his teachers' actions…

  12. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  13. Response to Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In my response to the commentaries made about my article, I observe that the commentators find no obvious errors with my estimates of the size of the signing deaf community. However, most of them are not as pessimistic as I am partly because of the position they take on a number of issues. Namely, the supposed uniqueness of Australia in its…

  14. Response to Mackenzie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  15. Evaluator Responsiveness to Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted in an attempt to examine how evaluators modify their evaluation design in response to differing stakeholder groups. In this study, evaluators were provided with a fictitious description of a school-based program. They were then asked to design an evaluation of the program. After the evaluation design decisions were…

  16. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Lori; Weaver, Roberta; Adams, Shauna M.; Landers, Mary F.; Owen, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article offers responses from Lori Moreau, a principal, Roberta Weaver, associate dean, Shauna M. Adams, associate professor, Mary F. Landers of University of Dayton, and Mary Jane Owen, a founding director, to the article "The State of Special Education in Catholic Schools," by L. DeFiore (2006). Jesus, the master teacher, reached out to the…

  17. Improving Student Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Sara; Hughs, Leah; Wilder, Ronda

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for increasing student academic and social responsibility. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, 1st, and 5th grade students in a growing middle-class community in central Illinois. The problems of irresponsible academic and social behavior were documented through…

  18. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  19. Toward Aesthetic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1979-01-01

    The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)

  20. Culturally Responsive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

    The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

  1. Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

  2. A Response from Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The suggested role for assessment in developing "Roadmaps for Learning" has potentially important implications for the learning of second or foreign languages in school, a major concern of applied linguistics. In this response, the authors consider how the findings of a detailed ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment in two foreign…

  3. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  4. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  5. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J; Bolton, Philip S.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. PMID:24715571

  6. Rotating Responsibility Reaps Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara; Schullery, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a process used for group assignments in a business communication course which holds all group members accountable by using a structure of rotating responsibility. Discusses selecting assignments and implementing the process, noting how this structure requires equivalent advance preparation from all members and provides opportunities for…

  7. Response to hurricane disasters.

    PubMed

    Shatz, David V; Wolcott, Katharine; Fairburn, Jennifer Bencie

    2006-06-01

    Unlike most natural and man-made disasters, preparation and planning for hurricanes is possible and effective. Medical needs can be disparate, given the large geographic area involved and the often-prolonged recovery phase. All aspects of medical response, from first responders to hospitals, can directly and negatively be affected by the storm. Planning and practice, however, can drastically improve the outcome.

  8. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  9. Response to Arend Flick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, R. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Arend Flick. The author states that Flick is correct that the issue of rubrics is broader than interrater reliability, though it is the assessment practitioner's primary armament against what the author has heard dubbed "refried bean counting" (insinuating that assessment statistics are not just bean…

  10. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". Hartley concludes that the teaching of psychology has changed relatively little over the past several decades. The author states that his way of teaching now is very different from his way of 1975. This essay is about the…

  11. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  12. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  13. Hypoxia: from molecular responses to ecosystem responses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rudolf S S

    2002-01-01

    Hypoxia affects thousands of km2 of marine waters all over the world, and has caused mass mortality of marine animals, benthic defaunation and decline in fisheries production in many places. The severity, frequency occurrence and spatial scale of hypoxia have increased in the last few decades. Due to rapid human population growth and global warming, the problem of hypoxia is likely to become worse in the coming years. Molecular responses of marine animals to hypoxia are poorly known. In many animals, a haem protein probably serves as the cellular sensor for oxygen, and reactive oxygen species are generated as signaling molecules. In mammal and fish, a heterodimeric transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been identified. HIF-1 receives signals from the molecular oxygen senor through redox reactions and/or phosphorylation, and in turn, regulates the transcription of a number of hypoxia-inducible genes, including genes involved in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and glycolysis. These molecular responses then cascade into a series of biochemical and physiological adjustments, enabling the animal to survive better under hypoxic conditions. Marine animals respond to hypoxia by first attempting to maintain oxygen delivery (e.g. increases in respiration rate, number of red blood cells, or oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin), then by conserving energy (e.g. metabolic depression, down regulation of protein synthesis and down regulation/modification of certain regulatory enzymes). Upon exposure to prolonged hypoxia, animals must eventually resort to anaerobic respiration. Hypoxia reduces growth and feeding, which may eventually affect individual fitness. Effects of hypoxia on reproduction and development of marine animals, albeit important in affecting species survival, remain almost unknown. Many fish and marine organisms can detect, and actively avoid hypoxia. Some benthos may leave their burrows and move to sediment surface during hypoxia. These

  14. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  15. Bifactor Item Response Theory Model of Acute Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Yuan; Tang, Jingjing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Better understanding of acute stress responses is important for revision of DSM-5. However, the latent structure and relationship between different aspects of acute stress responses haven’t been clarified comprehensively. Bifactor item response model may help resolve this problem. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of acute stress responses, based on data from earthquake rescuers using Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS). Through this model, we could better understand acute stress responses comprehensively, and provide preliminary information for computerized adaptive testing of stress responses. Methods Acute stress responses of earthquake rescuers were evaluated using ASRS, and state/trait anxiety were assessed using State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was used to analyze the data. Additionally, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with one-dimensional and five-dimensional models. The correlations among acute stress responses and state/trait anxiety were compared, based on both the five-dimensional and bifactor models. Results Model fit comparisons showed bifactor model fit the data best. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied greatly between different aspects of stress responses. Many symptoms (40%) of physiological responses had positive loadings on general factor, and negative loadings on specific factor of physiological responses, while other stress responses had positive loadings on both general and specific factors. After extracting general factor of stress responses using bifactor analysis, significant positive correlations between physiological responses and state/trait anxiety (r = 0.185/0.112, p<0.01) changed into negative ones (r = −0.177/−0.38, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results demonstrated bifactor structure of acute stress responses, and positive and negative correlations between physiological responses

  16. Responsibility and Responsiveness. The HEW Potential for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    The Secretary of HEW presents an overview of departmental undertakings for the purpose of developing more responsible and responsive personnel. The major portion of the statement focuses on internal processes of responsibility and external processes of responsiveness. Departmental strategies, a planning cycle, an operational planning system,…

  17. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  18. Rethinking scientific responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Hetlevik, Irene; Strand, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Researchers should be made co-responsible for the wider consequences of their research focus and the application of their findings. This paper describes a meta-reflection procedure that can be used as a tool to enhance scientific responsibility and reflective practice. The point of departure is that scientific practice is situated in power relations, has direction and, consequently, power implications. The contextual preconditions and implications of research should be stated and discussed openly. The reflection method aims at revealing both upstream elements, such as for instance preconceptions, and downstream elements, for example, public consequences of research. The validity of research might improve from such discussions. Validity should preferably be understood as a broader concept than the methodological concerns in science. PMID:21266389

  19. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  20. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  1. Behavioral response to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, R L

    1979-07-01

    This article reviews the literature concerning the behavioral and psychological response of men and their wives to the vasectomy operation when used as a contraceptive technique. The data suggest that two primary changes may frequently be observed postoperatively. Individuals who have experienced anxiety in conjunction with intercourse because of a fear of contraceptive failure or pregnancy tend to report a decline in anxiety and a disinhibition of sexual arousal postoperatively. Also, test results suggest that behavoir patterns within the marital dyad are altered in some cases when the men adopt stereotyped masculine behavior, presumably to deny any suggestion that they are less masculine because of the operation. Ramifications of these findings as well as numerous other speculations, are considered, along with the suggestion that prescreening and postvasectomy counseling may help reduce negative response to the operation. PMID:454098

  2. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  3. Cutaneous response to irritants.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Cannistraci, C; Lesnoni, I; Ferraro, C; Rocco, M G D E; Dell'Anna, L; Giannarelli, D; Cristaudo, A

    2003-02-01

    We evaluated the role of pre-existing dermatitis in the response to irritants by patch testing the skin of 40 healthy volunteers and the uninvolved skin of 480 subjects for 2 days. These latter were affected by active atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema with positive and negative patch test reactions, urticaria and generalized pruritus. A first panel containing 15 micro L of aq. solutions of disodium laureth sulfosuccinate (NaLSS) 5% and 10%, potassium cocoate (KCC) 5%, potassium oleate (KOL) 5%, zinc coleth sulphate (ZnCS) 5%, sodium mireth sulphate (NaMS) 5%, sodium cocoamphoacetate (NaCCAA) 3% and 5%, was simultaneously applied to 1 site on the upper back. The results, scored by visual assessment, were compared to those observed when testing on the opposite side a second panel containing 15 micro L of aq. solutions of 3 well-known irritants, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) 1%, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 1%, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) 10%. Whilst the substances of the first panel and DMSO gave, on the whole, a scarce number of positive responses in all the tested groups, more evident differences in number, percent and mean intensity of the positive responses to BAK and SLS were found between the different groups. Although some of them seemed statistically significant, when the same values were evaluated by means of chi2 and Student t-test, they did not differ in a statistically significant way from the values found in healthy subjects. The results of this study seem to indicate that the substances of the first panel have a chemical structure that makes them quite safe in real-life conditions. In contrast, BAK and SLS have chemical properties that condition the number and intensity of the responses, making the role exerted by the pre-existing dermatosis quite marginal. In particular, there is no proof that the healthy skin of active atopic subjects is the most susceptible to the irritating effects of the tested substances.

  4. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  5. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  6. Environmental producer responsibility.

    PubMed

    Evans, J L

    1997-05-01

    The Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive (P&PWD) requires manufacturers to take responsibility for recovering packaging waste. This article examines some of the challenges this presents. Product designers must now integrate environmental regulations into product and packaging design. This will entail handling the conflict between the differing requirements of the P&PWD and the Medical Device Directive, and marking products to indicate whether packaging is reusable or recyclable. PMID:10167685

  7. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy. PMID:23130746

  10. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  11. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  12. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible.

  13. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible. PMID:27473408

  14. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  15. Root responses to flooding.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2013-06-01

    Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding.

  16. TMD: it's our responsibility.

    PubMed

    Dale, R

    1999-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a reality. Surveys place the incidence at about 20-50%. For decades debate has raged as to whether this is a medical or dental problem. Scientific study of anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, and objective analysis with kinesiology, electromyography and sonography, along with case history all point to the same thing; occlusion affects the joint and the muscles. This is our profession's "crown jewel". We diagnose, construct and modify our patient's occlusion. It is about time we all agree, understand, take responsibility and start cooperating in preventing and treating this common malady that seriously affects the quality of life of many. PMID:10806950

  17. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  18. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  19. A guide to hazmat response.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The Emergency Response Guidebook provides responders with important first response information. It is intended to assist in managing the first 15-30 minutes of an emergency response and should not be used as the definitive response resource. It does, however, provide information that can be used to identify protective clothing and response procedures that can save lives and initiate successful control of the incident. Using the known product information, responders can use the ERG to determine response procedures for emergencies involving chemicals in a fixed facility. Responders should review and practice using the guidebook on a regular basis.

  20. A guide to hazmat response.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Dave

    2007-04-01

    The Emergency Response Guidebook provides responders with important first response information. It is intended to assist in managing the first 15-30 minutes of an emergency response and should not be used as the definitive response resource. It does, however, provide information that can be used to identify protective clothing and response procedures that can save lives and initiate successful control of the incident. Using the known product information, responders can use the ERG to determine response procedures for emergencies involving chemicals in a fixed facility. Responders should review and practice using the guidebook on a regular basis. PMID:17461387

  1. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand. PMID:27571696

  2. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  3. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  4. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. PMID:27595527

  5. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  6. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  7. Automated security response robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.

    1999-01-01

    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  8. Responsibility for global health.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Allen; DeCamp, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    There are several reasons for the current prominence of global health issues. Among the most important is the growing awareness that some risks to health are global in scope and can only be countered by global cooperation. In addition, human rights discourse and, more generally, the articulation of a coherent cosmopolitan ethical perspective that acknowledges the importance of all persons, regardless of where they live, provide a normative basis for taking global health seriously as a moral issue. In this paper we begin the task of translating the vague commitment to doing something to improve global health into a coherent set of more determinate obligations. One chief conclusion of our inquiry is that the responsibilities of states regarding global health are both more determinate and more extensive than is usually assumed. We also argue, however, that institutional innovation will be needed to achieve a more comprehensive, fair distribution of concrete responsibilities regarding global health and to provide effective mechanisms for holding various state and nonstate actors accountable for fulfilling them.

  9. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  10. Host Responses to Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Watters, C; Fleming, D; Bishop, D; Rumbaugh, K P

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death the human host immune system interacts with bacterial cells. Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in matrices composed of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and have been implicated in both the healthy microbiome and disease states. The immune system recognizes many different bacterial patterns, molecules, and antigens, but these components can be camouflaged in the biofilm mode of growth. Instead, immune cells come into contact with components of the EPS matrix, a diverse, hydrated mixture of extracellular DNA (bacterial and host), proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. As bacterial cells transition from planktonic to biofilm-associated they produce small molecules, which can increase inflammation, induce cell death, and even cause necrosis. To survive, invading bacteria must overcome the epithelial barrier, host microbiome, complement, and a variety of leukocytes. If bacteria can evade these initial cell populations they have an increased chance at surviving and causing ongoing disease in the host. Planktonic cells are readily cleared, but biofilms reduce the effectiveness of both polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, in the presence of these cells, biofilm formation is actively enhanced, and components of host immune cells are assimilated into the EPS matrix. While pathogenic biofilms contribute to states of chronic inflammation, probiotic Lactobacillus biofilms cause a negligible immune response and, in states of inflammation, exhibit robust antiinflammatory properties. These probiotic biofilms colonize and protect the gut and vagina, and have been implicated in improved healing of damaged skin. Overall, biofilms stimulate a unique immune response that we are only beginning to understand.

  11. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  12. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  13. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Anoli; Ward, Honorine

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses play a critical role in protection from, and resolution of, cryptosporidiosis. However, the nature of these responses, particularly in humans, is not completely understood. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important. Innate immune responses may be mediated by Toll-like receptor pathways, antimicrobial peptides, prostaglandins, mannose-binding lectin, cytokines and chemokines. Cell-mediated responses, particularly those involving CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ play a dominant role. Mucosal antibody responses may also be involved. Proteins mediating attachment and invasion may serve as putative protective antigens. Further knowledge of human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis is essential in order to develop targeted prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on recent advances and future prospects in the understanding of human immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:20210556

  14. Sexual health, teenage responsibility.

    PubMed

    1995-10-01

    The Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa in 1992, published a manual on ¿Responsible Teenage Sexuality¿. It deals comprehensively and frankly with issues of teenage sexuality in an easy-to-use module format. With increasing emphasis on the need for sex education at school and in the home, this manual provides essential information for teachers, youth leaders, and health professionals. The modules take cognizance of the sensitive issues that concern young people. The open approach enables counselors to provide the answers that young people seek in an honest and comfortable way. Compiled by the youth counselors of the Cape Town Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa, the manual is based on their knowledge and experience of providing sex education to young people from all communities over the past 10 years.

  15. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  16. Airburst warning and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

  17. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  18. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle. PMID:16722770

  19. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  20. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  1. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  2. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  3. TEPC Response Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue equivalent proportional counter had the purpose of providing the energy absorbed from a radiation field and an estimate of the corresponding linear energy transfer (LET) for evaluation of radiation quality to convert to dose equivalent. It was the recognition of the limitations in estimating LET which lead to a new approach to dosimetry, microdosimetry, and the corresponding emphasis on energy deposit in a small tissue volume as the driver of biological response with the defined quantity of lineal energy. In many circumstances, the average of the lineal energy and LET are closely related and has provided a basis for estimating dose equivalent. Still in many cases the lineal is poorly related to LET and brings into question the usefulness as a general purpose device. These relationships are examined in this paper.

  4. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  5. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  6. Randomized Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The randomized response (RR) technique is often used to obtain answers on sensitive questions. A new method is developed to measure latent variables using the RR technique because direct questioning leads to biased results. Within the RR technique is the probability of the true response modeled by an item response theory (IRT) model. The RR…

  7. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  8. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  9. Randomized Response Analysis in Mplus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hox, Joop; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a technique to analyze randomized response data using available structural equation modeling (SEM) software. The randomized response technique was developed to obtain estimates that are more valid when studying sensitive topics. The basic feature of all randomized response methods is that the data are deliberately…

  10. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  11. Responsibility ascriptions and Vision Zero.

    PubMed

    Fahlquist, Jessica Nihlén

    2006-11-01

    Vision Zero is a traffic safety policy that was adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1997. Similar policies have been adopted in Norway and Denmark. In essence, Vision Zero states that it is unacceptable for anyone to die while using the road transport system. The policy also introduces an explicit distribution of responsibility for traffic safety, in which the system designers are ultimately responsible. In this article, it is argued that the proposed new distribution of responsibility can be better understood if we distinguish between two general types of responsibility ascriptions, namely backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility ascriptions. Both types include some kind of causal responsibility and whereas backward-looking responsibility implies an element of blame, forward-looking responsibility implies potential blame, meaning that in cases where the agent who was ascribed responsibility did not achieve the expected result, we are likely to blame her. Vision Zero still ascribes backward-looking responsibility and to some degree forward-looking responsibility to individuals, but adds the explicit forward-looking responsibility of the system designers.

  12. The effects of response cost and response restriction on a multiple-response repertoire with humans

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, John

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments a multiple-response repertoire of four free-operant responses was developed with university students as subjects using monetary gain as reinforcement. Following baseline, one of the responses was reduced either by making monetary loss contingent upon it (response cost) or by removing it from the repertoire (response restriction). In Experiment 1 a multielement baseline design was employed in which baseline and restriction or response-cost contingencies alternated semirandomly every 3 minutes. In Experiment 2 a reversal design was employed (i.e., baseline, restriction or response cost, then baseline), and each response required a different amount of effort. Both experiments had the following results: (a) The target response decreased substantially; (b) most nontarget responses increased, and the rest remained near their baseline levels; and (c) no support was found for Dunham's hierarchical, most frequent follower, or greatest temporal similarity rules. For several subjects, the least probable responses during baseline increased most, and the most probable responses increased least. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, responses with the lowest frequency of reinforcement increased most (for all 7 subjects), and those with the greatest frequency of reinforcement increased least (for 5 subjects). PMID:16812683

  13. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  14. The relative role of visual and non-visual cues in determining the perceived direction of "up": experiments in parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, H L; Dyde, R T; Zacher, J E; Zikovitz, D C; Jenkin, M R; Allison, R S; Howard, I P; Harris, L R

    2005-01-01

    In order to measure the perceived direction of "up", subjects judged the three-dimensional shape of disks shaded to be compatible with illumination from particular directions. By finding which shaded disk appeared most convex, we were able to infer the perceived direction of illumination. This provides an indirect measure of the subject's perception of the direction of "up". The different cues contributing to this percept were separated by varying the orientation of the subject and the orientation of the visual background relative to gravity. We also measured the effect of decreasing or increasing gravity by making these shape judgements throughout all the phases of parabolic flight (0 g, 2 g and 1 g during level flight). The perceived up direction was modeled by a simple vector sum of "up" defined by vision, the body and gravity. In this model, the weighting of the visual cue became negligible under microgravity and hypergravity conditions.

  15. Middle Interhemispheric Variant of Holoprosencephaly - Presenting as Non-Visualized Cavum Septum Pellucidum and An Interhemispheric Cyst in A 19-Weeks Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Nayak, Shalini S; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Girisha, Katta M; Shetty, Jyothi

    2015-09-01

    Middle Interhemispheric variant (MIH) is a rare subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE), also known as syntelencephaly. We present a case of MIH, which was diagnosed as an interhemispheric cyst on antenatal sonography at 19 weeks, but later diagnosed as MIH variant of holoprosencephaly after a postabortal MRI and perinatal autopsy. PMID:26500966

  16. Preparing for emergency spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An inherent problem facing many industries is emergency response to releases and spills of regulated materials. The complexity and severity of an emergency response action varies tremendously, but all represent a potential cost and liability to the responsible party. Liability is measured not only in current dollars associated with the cleanup and subsequent financial exposure, but also from a public relations and regulatory awareness standpoint. As in most processes, the emergency response process can be reduced to very simple and well-defined tasks that will commonly occur no matter the complexity, location or nature of the emergency response. The consistent nature of the basic stages of an emergency response provide a framework from which a response can be managed properly. Individual operations and site specific conditions must be considered at all stages throughout the process. The stages outlined here assume outside contractors and consultants are utilized for the management of the emergency response activities. It should be noted that while the stages are separate and divided by definition, the timing of all of these stages should be run as simultaneously as possible and in the most efficient manner possible. This may require that during an emergency response operation more than one individual is responsible for the various stages to ensure a timely response.

  17. Stimuli-responsive polymer films.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymer films undergo interesting structural and property changes upon external stimuli. Their applications have extended from smart coatings to controlled drug release, smart windows, self-repair and other fields. This tutorial review summarizes non-covalent bonding, reversible reactions and responsive molecules that have played important roles in creating stimuli-responsive systems, and presents the recent development of three types of responsive polymer systems: layer-by-layer polymer multilayer films, polymer brushes, and self-repairing polymer films, with a discussion of their response mechanism. Future research efforts include comprehensive understanding of the response mechanism, producing polymer systems with controlled response properties regarding single or multiple external signals, combining polymer film fabrication with nanotechnology, improving the stability of polymer films on substrates, and evaluating the toxicity of the degradation products. PMID:23749141

  18. Temporal Scattering And Response

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  19. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  20. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  1. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R. R.; Ray, S. L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  2. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  3. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  4. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  5. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  6. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  7. Facial EMG responses to noise.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, A; Sköldström, B; Tesarz, M; Dallner, M

    1994-12-01

    Tension of the forehead increases as a response to unpleasant stimuli. In three experiments EMG activity in corrugator muscle was measured to test this response as an indicator of noise annoyance. In Exp. 1 (n = 24) monotonic sound level-response functions were obtained for four levels of 100- and 1000-Hz tones. In Exp. 2 (n = 20) recordings were made during work with a simple and a difficult task in a group of women and a group of men. Larger responses were obtained during the difficult task, especially during noise exposure. The response was much larger for the women. Exp. 3 (n = 24) showed that the sex difference was unaffected by a correction for differences in maximum level of corrugator response. Rated annoyance was a linear function of log EMG.

  8. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  9. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  10. Information Technology and Personal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempner, Irving M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the societal implications of advanced information technology, focusing on ethical questions and the personal responsibility of the information professional in designing information systems. (FM)

  11. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p < 0.05), but similar %HRR responses to Salsa dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  12. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  13. Thinking Differentially: A Response to Issues in Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluke, John D.; Merkel-Holguin, Lisa; Schene, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This is a response to the document by Hughes et al. in this issue that offers a critique of the status of differential response (DR). We find the document to be helpful in intent, but do not find that it reflects scientifically sound methods, and contains many mischaracterizations of the status, impetus, research, and evaluation of DR to date. We…

  14. Motivation of chemical industry social responsibility through Responsible Care.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Advocates of corporate social responsibility argue corporations should not only meet the needs of shareholders, but other key stakeholders including the community, customers, suppliers, and employees. Since 1988, the chemical industry has engaged in a major self-regulatory "Responsible Care" industry-wide social responsibility campaign to ensure environmental, public health, safety, and security performance among member companies. Contrary to the arguments of advocates of corporate social responsibility that such efforts meet the needs of stakeholders other than shareholders such as the community, the primary goal of the Responsible Care effort has been to change public concerns and opinion about chemical industry environmental and public health practices while also opposing support for stronger and more expensive public health and environmental legislation and regulation of chemical products, even if warranted.

  15. Foundations of Responsibility for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillen, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…

  16. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  17. The Writing Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Gloria; Rosen, Lois Matz

    When students write in response to literature, they make reading a creative act. Recording their personal reaction to a poem or an excerpt from a larger work, students become aware of the complex web of past experiences, associations and ideas triggering their responses; they learn to interact more fully, more consciously, with the text. Besides…

  18. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  19. Rorschach Responses of Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ann L.; Miles, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rorschach responses of 15 dyslexia children (eight-16 years old) were compared with those of 12 suitably matched controls. Dyslexic Ss made considerable use of card shape, but much less use of other determinants (color, texture, etc.). Unlike controls they seldom turned the cards around and the overall number of responses per person was…

  20. Communication Repair and Response Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.

    2004-01-01

    A communicative repair has been defined as the ability to persist in communication and to modify, repeat, or revise a signal when the initial communication attempt failed. From an operant perspective, initial communicative acts and communicative repairs can be considered members of a response class in which each response produces the same outcome.…

  1. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  2. Text Rendering: Beginning Literary Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sandra L.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that "text rendering"--responding to oral readings by saying back remembered words or phrases--forces students to prolong their initial responses to texts and opens initial response to the influence of other readers. Argues that silence following oral readings allows words to sink into students' minds, creating individual images and…

  3. The Politics of Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The use of peer groups to respond to student papers is a long-established practice in the composition classroom, so well entrenched, that they may sometimes employ peer response without thoroughly evaluating underlying assumptions and beliefs about how such groups operate. As a central tenet of the writing process movement, peer response was…

  4. Response to Intervention: What & Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is the practice of providing high quality-instruction and intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important education decisions. In essence, RTI expands the practice of looking at students' risk…

  5. Financial Responsibilities of Governing Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, William S.

    2001-01-01

    This completely redone edition is meant to be a primer on the financial responsibilities of trustees of colleges and universities and on complex trends and issues bearing on the responsibilities of governing boards. Trustees must deal with a complex blend of competing values, evolving information, and challenging analyses while taking into account…

  6. Thermal Response Of Composite Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.; Smith, Marnell; Kolodziej, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Engineering model gives useful predictions. Pair of reports presents theoretical and experimental analyses of thermal responses of multiple-component, lightweight, porous, ceramic insulators. Particular materials examined destined for use in Space Shuttle thermal protection system, test methods and heat-transfer theory useful to chemical, metallurgical, and ceramic engineers needing to calculate transient thermal responses of refractory composites.

  7. The "response" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1976-01-01

    The term "response" is a basic one in behavior theory, particularly reflex theory, but its definition is not clear. The origin of the term in the common vocabulary has affected its later extensions in the analysis of behavior. Some contemporary theorists accept the existence of two "types" of response, coordinating one with the Pavlovian conditioning procedure, the other with the operant conditioning procedure of the so-called "contingent" variety. Reservations are expressed here about such distinctions between response classes and conditioning paradigms, emphasizing the difficulties that arise from certain conventions and inadequacies in current definitions and conceptions of "response". The critical nature of the problem for behavior theory is illustrated once again by the recent laboratory finding that a familiar and accepted conditional reflex, that of the "conditioned cardiac CR," can be fractionated into "parts" and is therefore perhaps no longer to be treated as a single unitary "response".

  8. Somatic responses in behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Wirick, Aaron; Holben, Heather

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured postdecision and prefeedback in a go/no-go (GNG) task in which participants used response feedback to learn when to respond or not to respond to numeric stimuli. Like somatic markers in gambling tasks and somatic reactions to error monitoring in choice reaction time tasks, SCR patterns distinguished between correct and incorrect trials over time. These somatic reactions were disrupted by a reversal of GNG contingencies, and they were facilitated by pretraining of the stimulus-response mappings. In all cases, however, the somatic reactions appeared to be a product of competent decision making rather than a contributor to performance. Differential somatic responses to good and bad choices appear to be a robust and fairly general phenomenon, but researchers should be cautious in assuming that the somatic responses contribute to performance.

  9. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  10. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  11. The responsibilities and rights of dental professionals 2. Professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, Nermin

    2006-06-01

    Although dentists have well recognised legal, professional and ethical responsibilities, the definition of their role and the corresponding responsibilities broaden further as the profession evolves, the demands from dentistry increase and the context of professionalism changes. Thus, continuous evaluation of the role and responsibilities of dentists is vital for provision of quality care, improvement of professional standards and maintaining professional status. In addition, efforts must be made to uphold the credibility of the profession and the associated public trust as well as meeting the increasing expectations from the profession and individual dentists. PMID:16826884

  12. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  13. Dose-response model for teratological experiments involving quantal responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, K.; Van Ryzin, J.

    1985-03-01

    This paper introduces a dose-response model for teratological quantal response data where the probability of response for an offspring from a female at a given dose varies with the litter size. The maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of the model are given as the solution of a nonlinear iterative algorithm. Two methods of low-dose extrapolation are presented, one based on the litter size distribution and the other a conservative method. The resulting procedures are then applied to a teratological data set from the literature.

  14. A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Responses from a Graded Disagree-Agree Response Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric item response theory model for unfolding binary or graded responses is developed. The graded unfolding model (GUM) is a generalization of the hyperbolic cosine model for binary data of D. Andrich and G. Luo (1993). Applicability of the GUM to attitude testing is illustrated with real data. (SLD)

  15. Fast-response cup anemometer features cosine response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzen, P.

    1968-01-01

    Six-cup, low-inertia anemometer combines high resolution and fast response with a unique ability to sense only the horizontal component of the winds fluctuating rapidly in three dimensions. Cup assemblies are fabricated of expanded polystyrene plastic.

  16. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  17. Allergen-induced airway responses.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Gail M; El-Gammal, Amani I; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can contribute to loss of asthma control and exacerbations. Allergen inhalation challenge has been a useful clinical model to examine the mechanisms of allergen-induced airway responses and inflammation. Allergen bronchoconstrictor responses are the early response, which reaches a maximum within 30 min and resolves by 1-3 h, and late responses, when bronchoconstriction recurs after 3-4 h and reaches a maximum over 6-12 h. Late responses are followed by an increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. These responses occur when IgE on mast cells is cross-linked by an allergen, causing degranulation and the release of histamine, neutral proteases and chemotactic factors, and the production of newly formed mediators, such as cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin D2. Allergen-induced airway inflammation consists of an increase in airway eosinophils, basophils and, less consistently, neutrophils. These responses are mediated by the trafficking and activation of myeloid dendritic cells into the airways, probably as a result of the release of epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from type 2 helper T-cells. Allergen inhalation challenge has also been a widely used model to study potential new therapies for asthma and has an excellent negative predictive value for this purpose. PMID:26206871

  18. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  19. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  20. Prison psychiatry and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E

    1987-05-01

    Professional responsibility is a multifaceted concept embracing elements of technical competence and accountability. It may seem anachronistic to examine professional responsibility in the context of prison psychiatry, which is a relatively unpopular and often controversial health service activity. Upon closer scrutiny, however, it appears that prison psychiatry presents a paradigm of the uncertainties, conflicts, and dilemmas which underlie current concerns about professional responsibility in psychiatry. In this paper, the author examines some of these issues and proposes some tentative answers, focusing on the critical question of the proper roles of psychiatry in prisons.

  1. Biologic response to environmental toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1983-12-01

    Biological response to environmental toxins results from the sum of natural, environmental, avocational, inapparent, and occupational exposures. These external exposures result in acceptable or unacceptable levels of absorption or internal exposure based on anticipated biological effects. There is no level of exposure which is in and of itself synonymous with intoxication. Biological effects may be classified as physiologic or pathologic, adaptive or nonadaptive, respectively. In each instance, the response may be acceptable or unacceptable. Intoxication requires the demonstration of a significant impairment of health. One may have an unacceptable pathologic response and still not have intoxication. Professional judgment is required.

  2. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

  3. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  4. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications. PMID:26091943

  5. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  6. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  7. The Chlamydomonas heat stress response.

    PubMed

    Schroda, Michael; Hemme, Dorothea; Mühlhaus, Timo

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves occurring at increased frequency as a consequence of global warming jeopardize crop yield safety. One way to encounter this problem is to genetically engineer crop plants toward increased thermotolerance. To identify entry points for genetic engineering, a thorough understanding of how plant cells perceive heat stress and respond to it is required. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system to study the fundamental mechanisms of the plant heat stress response has several advantages. Most prominent among them is the suitability of Chlamydomonas for studying stress responses system-wide and in a time-resolved manner under controlled conditions. Here we review current knowledge on how heat is sensed and signaled to trigger temporally and functionally grouped sub-responses termed response elements to prevent damage and to maintain cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  8. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  9. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  10. BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reclining chair or bed and remain still. Electrodes are placed on your scalp and on each ... earphones you are wearing during the test. The electrodes pick up the brain's responses to these sounds ...

  11. Regulation of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, P. L.; Sinclair, N. R. StC.

    1973-01-01

    Intact IgG antibody can terminate established immune responses, whereas F(ab′)2 antibody cannot do so. The difference between the two antibodies appears to be qualitative. F(ab′)2 antibody, but not pepsin-digested normal serum, can interfere with the suppression and termination of immune responses induced by intact IgG antibody. These results are discussed in terms of the tripartite inactivation model. PMID:4576780

  12. Regulation of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    Chan, P. L.; Sinclair, N. R. StC.

    1971-01-01

    Pepsin digested, F(ab')2 antibody has less ability to inhibit an antibody response than has intact IgG antibody, when the antibodies were given one day after antigen. F(ab')2 antibody has to be given with antigen to attain maximal suppression, while IgG antibody, administered after antigen, is still highly immunosuppressive. The IgG antibody was able to terminate established immune responses, whereas F(ab')2 antibody could not do so. We interpret these findings to indicate that F(ab')2 antibody suppresses immune responses by simple masking of antigen, whereas IgG antibody alters the immune response through a further activity which takes place after antibody has combined with antigen. This further activity involves the Fc portion of antibody. Two alterations in immune mechanism are suggested: (1) increased destruction of antigen and (2) inactivation of the antibody forming cell precursor population by antigen—antibody complexes. This latter possibility is considered in detail. The tripartite inactivation model has been constructed to explain the presently known observations concerning immunosuppression by antibody and to make a prediction which has been verified. A further prediction concerning the affinities of antibodies produced under IgG or F(ab')2 antibody-mediated immunosuppression is put forward. Thymus-bone marrow cell synergism does not give a simple thymus cell dose-response relationship but a multi-phasic relationship where the response increases once the dose of thymus cells is decreased to a sufficiently low level. Such a dose-response relationship is not explainable in terms of the usual mechanisms proposed for thymus-bone marrow cell interaction and this deviation from a simple dose-response relationship is interpreted in terms of the proposed function of thymus-derived cells in controlling antibody feedback regulation. PMID:4943149

  13. Evoked response to taste stimulations.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    For the recording of gustatory evoked responses, the tip of a stimulator is pressed vertically on one side of the tongue until the trigger pulses are generated by a switch attached to the bottom of the stimulator. According to our results, no detectable response was observed in the absence of taste. The positive waves were distinguishable by using the technique of superimposition before averaging, and the positive wave was made clearer by averaging.

  14. Endocrine response to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chioléro, R; Berger, M

    1994-11-01

    The neuroendocrine response (NER) is an essential component of the adaptive process to trauma, brain injury, and major surgery. While receiving additive humoral and neural afferent inputs, the brain nuclei responsible for the NER act mainly by efferent pathways to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathoadrenal system, the activations of which induce subsequent circulatory and metabolic responses. The NER to brain injury is similar to the response observed in patients with extracerebral injury, even if the response after brain injury is extremely variable. Generally, there is a biphasic pattern, with a sympathoadrenal storm associated with variable and altered stimulation of the HPA during the ebb phase. The first phase is followed by a decrease in both responses while other endocrine changes develop, involving mainly the counter-regulatory, gonadal, and thyroid hormones. The outcome after brain injury is closely correlated with the intensity of these changes, particularly with catecholamine plasma levels and the severity of the low triiodothyronine syndrome. Alterations of the thyroid hormones are largely related to a reduction in peripheral deiodination of thyroxin. Recent research shows that increased free-radical production and decreased selenium (an antioxidant) serum levels play an important role in thyroid metabolism. Two major issues remain unsolved: a) the precise definition of cerebral death, since endocrine brain function is not abolished in the state currently defined as brain death; and b) the question of whether substitutive hormone therapy should be applied in severe brain injury.

  15. Feedback control indirect response models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-08-01

    A general framework is introduced for modeling pharmacodynamic processes that are subject to autoregulation, which combines the indirect response (IDR) model approach with methods from classical feedback control of engineered systems. The canonical IDR models are modified to incorporate linear combinations of feedback control terms related to the time course of the difference (the error signal) between the pharmacodynamic response and its basal value. Following the well-established approach of traditional engineering control theory, the proposed feedback control indirect response models incorporate terms proportional to the error signal itself, the integral of the error signal, the derivative of the error signal or combinations thereof. Simulations are presented to illustrate the types of responses produced by the proposed feedback control indirect response model framework, and to illustrate comparisons with other PK/PD modeling approaches incorporating feedback. In addition, four examples from literature are used to illustrate the implementation and applicability of the proposed feedback control framework. The examples reflect each of the four mechanisms of drug action as modeled by each of the four canonical IDR models and include: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and extracellular serotonin; histamine H2-receptor antagonists and gastric acid; growth hormone secretagogues and circulating growth hormone; β2-selective adrenergic agonists and potassium. The proposed feedback control indirect response approach may serve as an exploratory modeling tool and may provide a bridge for development of more mechanistic systems pharmacology models. PMID:27394724

  16. Design of responsive polymer surfaces with ultrafast response time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzer, Jan; Ozcam, Evren; Willoughby, Julie

    2009-03-01

    Responsive surfaces with tailorable surface-reconstruction kinetics and switching hysteresis were prepared from poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) networks modified with thiol alkanes to provide hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface properties. The cooperative effects of polymer mobility, arising from the high flexibility of the siloxane backbone, and the enthalpic interactions between the contacting medium and the PVMS functionalized surface control the degree of responsiveness. Exposing the modified-elastomer surfaces to water resulted in rearrangement of the hydrophilic alkanes at the surface. The kinetics of reconstruction and reversibility were established by measuring the surface wettability via dynamic contact angle. By controlling the formation of semi-crystalline regions in our substrates we demonstrate either ``sluggish'' kinetics and eventual surface ``freezing'' and stability or stimuli-responsive substrates with a magnitude of change and repeated reversibility unparallel to most polymeric surfaces.

  17. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  18. 47 CFR 2.1073 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 2.1073 Section 2.1073... Responsibilities. (a) The responsible party, as defined in § 2.909, must warrant that each unit of equipment... party, the new responsible party shall bear the responsibility of continued compliance of the...

  19. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  20. Facial variations in sensory responses.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Marie; Whittle, Ed; Basketter, David A

    2003-11-01

    Subjective effects such as stinging, itching and burning commonly occur in the absence of any visible irritation and give rise to discomfort, which may be enough to deter an individual from using even the most effective of skin care products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different anatomical regions of the face to determine which region displayed the most intense stinging response to the application of lactic acid. The effect of occlusion on the level of response was also investigated. 45 volunteers were treated with 10% lactic acid on the nasolabial fold, forehead, chin and cheek, occluded and unoccluded for 8 min. Sensory reactions were recorded at 2.5, 5 and 8 min. The response levels on the occluded sites were always significantly lower than on the unoccluded sites, despite the dose per unit area being comparable. Females showed a trend towards being more sensitive to the subjective effects elicited by lactic acid than males, but these results were not conclusive. Interestingly, there was not a complete correlation between individuals who reacted on the nasolabial fold and the other sites, particularly the forehead. A positive stinging response on the nasolabial fold may not necessarily predict subjective responses to a product when used on other areas of the face. PMID:14996043

  1. Response surface development using RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J. ); Trikouros, N.G.; Mozias, E.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and GPU Nuclear Corporation have completed a demonstration project that provides justification for relaxing the high-pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. The project was undertaken because an undesirable overlap had been identified in the high-pressure setpoints when accounting for measurement uncertainties experienced during plant operation. The project employed a statistical combination of uncertainties (SCU) process to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties. This approach was used because previous experience indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance analysis processes. Through the use of SCU methodology and other deterministic analyses, it is possible to provide comprehensive bases for the desired technical specification changes to the high-pressure setpoints. The SCU process is based on the EPRI setpoint analysis guidelines, and it requires the development of response surfaces to simulate RETRAN peak pressure calculations for the limiting transient event. The use of response surfaces adds an intermediate step to the SCU process, but reduces the number of RETRAN cases required to make appropriate statistical statements about the result probabilities. Basically, each response surface is an approximation of the RETRAN code for one particular event and one output variable of interest, which is valid over a limited region. The response surfaces can be sampled very inexpensively using simple Monte Carlo methods. The basic input to the development of a response surface is a set of results obtained from specific RETRAN cases.

  2. Can site response be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large modifications of seismic waves are produced by variations of material properties near the Earth's surface and by both surface and buried topography. These modifications, usually referred to as "site response", in general lead to larger motions on soil sites than on rock-like sites. Because the soil amplifications can be as large as a factor of ten, they are important in engineering applications that require the quantitative specification of ground motions. This has been recognised for years by both seismologists and engineers, and it is hard to open an earthquake journal these days without finding an article on site response. What is often missing in these studies, however, are discussions of the uncertainty of the predicted response. A number of purely observational studies demonstrate that ground motions have large site-to-site variability for a single earthquake and large earthquake-location- dependent variability for a single site. This variability makes site-specific, earthquake-specific predictions of site response quite uncertain, even if detailed geotechnical and geological information is available near the site. Predictions of site response for average classes of sites exposed to the motions from many earthquakes can be made with much greater certainty if sufficient empirical observations are available.

  3. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  4. Response Tuning in Bacterial Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Yu-Lin; Trentham, David R.; Khan, Shahid

    1999-09-01

    Chemotaxis of enteric bacteria in spatial gradients toward a source of chemoattractant is accomplished by increases in the length of swimming runs up the gradient. Biochemical components of the intracellular signal pathway have been identified, but mechanisms for achieving the high response sensitivity remain unknown. Binding of attractant ligand to its receptor inactivates a receptor-associated histidine kinase, CheA, which phosphorylates the signal protein CheY. The reduction in phospho-CheY, CheY-P, levels prolongs swimming runs. Here, the stimulus-response relation has been determined by measurement of excitation responses mediated by the Tar receptor to defined concentration jumps of the attractant, aspartate, administered within milliseconds by photolysis of a photolabile precursor. The bacteria responded to <1% changes in Tar occupancy when adapted to aspartate over concentrations spanning three orders of magnitude. Response amplitudes increased approximately logarithmically with stimulus strength, extending responsiveness over a greater stimulus range. The extent and form of this relation indicates that, in contrast to mechanisms for adaptive recovery, excitation signal generation involves amplification based on cooperative interactions. These interactions could entail inactivation of multiple receptor-CheA signaling complexes and/or simultaneous activation of CheY-P dephosphorylation.

  5. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Norman; Osipow, Samuel H.

    1977-01-01

    The authors respond to professional identity issues raised in this special issue of The Counseling Psychologist. They discuss ambiguity of definition, counseling psychologist roles, training programs, public relations, and allegiance to professional groups. (Author/JEL)

  6. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Len

    2010-01-01

    A special issue of the "British Journal of Sociology of Education" has been devoted to an examination of Disability and Inclusive Education. The authors of the papers in this issue have all made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge and understanding in these fields of study. Overall, they have provided a comprehensive, valuable…

  7. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    I thank these authors (Buma et al., 2014), for their interest in my paper. The topic of postglacial tree migration has always been a controversial one, so it is not surprising that my review of the evidence for the postglacial establishment of Pacific Northwest forest species in southern Alaska would generate some additional controversy. Burma et al. are perfectly correct in their statement that I did not consider localized refugia for these tree species within southeast Alaska during the LGM. However, I take exception to their statement that I did not consider the ecology of these trees in my reconstruction of regional events during the last glacial maximum (LGM). On the contrary, a consideration of the ecological requirements of these PNW tree species is precisely the reason I excluded the possibility of their survival in southeast Alaska during the height of the last glaciation, as explained below.

  8. Assessing Gravitropic Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard; Cox, Benjamin; Silber, Logan; Sangari, Arash; Assadi, Amir; Masson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was the first higher organism to have its genome sequenced and is now widely regarded as the model dicot. Like all plants, Arabidopsis develops distinct growth patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. This can be seen in the gravitropic response of roots. Methods to investigate this particular tropism are presented here. First, we describe a high-throughput time-lapse photographic analysis of root growth and curvature response to gravistimulation allowing the quantification of gravitropic kinetics and growth rate at high temporal resolution. Second, we present a protocol that allows a quantitative evaluation of gravitropic sensitivity using a homemade 2D clinostat. Together, these approaches allow an initial comparative analysis of the key phenomena associated with root gravitropism between different genotypes and/or accessions. PMID:26867611

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  10. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  11. Pupillary responses to chromatic stimulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaste-Gomez, Ernesto; Rodriguez Guzman, M. C. Ma. Dolores A.; Druzgalski, Christopher

    2000-06-01

    Pupillary responses of the subjects under chromatic visual stimulation were filmed with video-oculography systems (VOG). Specifically, programmable chromatic visual stimuli were displayed on the monitor of a personal computer (PC) and responses tested in several normal subjects and those with ophthalmic pathologic conditions. Visual excitation utilized a reversal stimulus checkerboard pattern. Image processing techniques were applied in order to evaluate the pupil variations due to chromatic stimulation. In particular, the studies determined a relationship between pupillary response (PR) and steady-state retinal sensitivity (photopic vision). Finally, the retinal illuminance in trolands (td), as a product of the pupil area in mm2 and luminance in cd/m2 to full-field chromatic stimulation (FFCS) and checkerboard pattern reversal chromatic stimulation (CPRCS) was determined.

  12. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C; Jameton, A

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  13. Dynamic Metabolism in Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against “self” or “non-self” antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells. While a number of groups are dwelling into the nuances of the metabolism and its role in immune response at various strata, this review focuses on dynamic state of metabolism that is operational within various cellular compartments that interact to mount an effective immune response to alleviate disease state.

  14. Spike history neural response model.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Abramian, Miganoosh; Zarelli, Daniele; Nĕsić, Dragan; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2015-06-01

    There is a potential for improved efficacy of neural stimulation if stimulation levels can be modified dynamically based on the responses of neural tissue in real time. A neural model is developed that describes the response of neurons to electrical stimulation and that is suitable for feedback control neuroprosthetic stimulation. Experimental data from NZ white rabbit retinae is used with a data-driven technique to model neural dynamics. The linear-nonlinear approach is adapted to incorporate spike history and to predict the neural response of ganglion cells to electrical stimulation. To validate the fitness of the model, the penalty term is calculated based on the time difference between each simulated spike and the closest spike in time in the experimentally recorded train. The proposed model is able to robustly predict experimentally observed spike trains.

  15. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    PubMed

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  16. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.; Foran, Jeffery A.; Ferenc, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  17. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  18. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  19. Response to the Hughes et al. Paper on Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Park, Katherine; Lohrbach, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Ronald Hughes, Judith Rycus, and their colleagues have produced a seminal review of differential response (DR) programs implemented across the nation. Their review questions nearly every aspect of the DR movement, beginning with the concept on which all DR programs are based and ending with serious concerns about the quality of evaluations…

  20. Heterogeneity of neural mechanisms of response to pivotal response treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, Pamela; Yang, Daniel Y. J.; Friedman, Hannah E.; Oosting, Devon; Wolf, Julie; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) improves social communication in a case series of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified brain responses during a biological motion perception task conducted prior to and following 16 weeks of PRT treatment. Overall, the neural systems supporting social perception in these 10 children were malleable through implementation of PRT; following treatment, neural responses were more similar to those of typically developing children (TD). However, at baseline, half of the children exhibited hypoactivation, relative to a group of TD children, in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and half exhibited hyperactivation in this region. Strikingly, the groups exhibited differential neural responses to treatment: The five children who exhibited hypoactivation at baseline evidenced increased activation in components of the reward system including the ventral striatum and putamen. The five children who exhibited hyperactivation at baseline evidenced decreased activation in subcortical regions critical for regulating the flow of stimulation and conveying signals of salience to the cortex—the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Our results support further investigation into the differential effects of particular treatment strategies relative to specific neural targets. Identification of treatment strategies that address the patterns of neural vulnerability unique to each patient is consistent with the priority of creating individually tailored interventions customized to the behavioral and neural characteristics of a given person. PMID:25370452

  1. Responsibility, Complexity Science and Education: Dilemmas and Uncertain Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2009-01-01

    While complexity science is gaining interest among educational theorists, its constructs do not speak to educational responsibility or related core issues in education of power and ethics. Yet certain themes of complexity, as taken up in educational theory, can help unsettle the more controlling and problematic discourses of educational…

  2. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  3. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  4. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning".

  5. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning". PMID:15605571

  6. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  7. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  8. Criminal responsibility in amphetamine psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, A

    1994-01-01

    Historical changes in forensic psychiatric evaluation on criminal responsibility and proceedings in psychopathological findings of amphetamine psychosis are reviewed at first. The classification of amphetamine related mental disorders are proposed in 6 types. Among them, the clinical characteristics and psychopathological features of "Anxiety-situational reaction type" (Fukushima) are described. According to some reasonable grounds, offenders diagnosed as anxiety-situational reaction type should be evaluated as diminished responsibility in place of irresponsibility. Finally, two cases of murder committed under the influence of amphetamine, are reported in detail.

  9. Preliminary neural response telemetry results.

    PubMed

    Cullington, H

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the neural response telemetry (NRT) results obtained from the first 30 patients tested at this centre. One hundred per cent of patients tested intra-operatively had NRT responses on at least one electrode; this compared to 82.4% of patients tested post-operatively. Reasonable correlations existed between post-operative NRT thresholds and psychophysical threshold and comfort levels, although there was too much variability for the data to be used to set these parameters directly. Post-operative NRT thresholds were always at levels audible to patients.

  10. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  11. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  12. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  13. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  14. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  15. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education and the…

  16. Emotional Responsiveness in Marital Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the types of conversational patterns--from cross-complaining to contracting--that characterize satisfied couples; suggests theoretical models that account for their success. Proposes the hypothesis that the underlying mechanism that maintains closeness in marriages is symmetry in emotional responsiveness, which relates to whether spouses…

  17. Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

    To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

  18. Masculinities in Dialogue: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This response to the articles by Diana Wallace and Samantha Pinto seeks to locate the negotiation of gendered identities in the classroom within the larger study of the dialogic relations between texts, teachers, and students. Teaching, it proposes, is not a second-order derivative of scholarship, but a cultural form in its own right. The article…

  19. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  20. Rights and Responsibilities. Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert W.; And Others

    This handbook contains guidelines for the use of Ohio school districts in developing policy on student behavior, rights, and responsibilities. There are three main sections. The first describes current Federal and State law and practices relevant to student rights. The second deals with specific student behaviors that are often the subject of…

  1. Trustee Liability and Legal Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alton L.

    Litigation over actions and policies in higher education is becoming increasingly common, and college trustees can expect to be touched by it, as they are legally and ultimately responsible for what transpires on campus. Trustees must work as a team with college presidents in the development of institutional policies, as they will share the same…

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  3. Assessing Behavioral Responses to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Louis A.; Shermis, Mark D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of a stress paradigm in the assessment of children with behavior disorders. The Stress Response Scale, designed to assess such behavioral patterns, is presented and discussed. Data are presented which describe the most frequently found patterns among a population of school-aged children. (Author/LMO)

  4. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are attributed to the…

  5. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  6. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  7. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole.

  8. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  9. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  10. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary Me; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US $2.4 billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  11. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  12. Dispersion of Responses over Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a procedure for testing hypotheses regarding the dispersion of responses distributed over taxa that uses the distribution of the number of cells that are empty or are singly occupied. Presents a table showing the number of cases needed to achieve 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 significance for excessive numbers of empty cells. (SLD)

  13. Culturally Responsive Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    A widely held view of multicultural curricula sees them as strategies for improving academic performance and enhancing self-esteem among students whose racial, ethnic or language heritage differs from that of the Anglo-European population. There are others, however, who hold the view that culturally responsive curricula benefit all students. A…

  14. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  15. Comparative Education: Challenge and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines research reported in major books and journals of comparative education since 1977, focusing on challenges to established research traditions and the field's responses. Highlights work directing attention to new subjects of inquiry and challenging the nation-state as the exclusive research framework, input-output models and dominant…

  16. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  17. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary ME; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US$2.4billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  18. Competence and responsibility in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the historical background it is shown that the classical doctrine on responsibility in schizophrenia has left its mark on the wordings of the psychiatric textbooks of the different countries. Closely combined with the imputation of enduring irresponsibility in schizophrenia was the opinion that civil rights are largely suspended if a person is given the diagnosis of schizophrenia. By the more recent research results of the studies of course and long-term outcome of schizophrenia and related psychoses and the development of the basic symptom concept has shown that it is not justified on principle to summarily deprive a person, diagnosed as schizophrenia, of civil rights as well as of criminal responsibility. New directions and some guidelines for an adequate assessment of competence and responsibility in schizophrenia are described. The knowledge of the newer findings and the application and utilization of the concept of basic symptoms and non-psychotic basic stages enable to overcome the doctrines of incurability, principle heterogeneity and numinous singularity and may lead to a rather appropriate and adequate social appreciation of the disease. Insight, freedom, responsibility, and competence of a person diagnosed as schizophrenia are in the postpsychotic pure residues and basic stages much more frequently preserved and available than hitherto assumed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  20. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…

  1. Electronic Citizenship and Social Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Marilyn

    1993-01-01

    Discusses access to information technology and technological change; examines the culture that has grown up around computers; discusses previous military funding of academic computing and the need to change focus; describes the use of computers to promote equity and access; and considers the Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for Electronic…

  2. Public Assistance, Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

    Based primarily on two official manuals of the Division of Public Welfare of the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies, this handbook on public assistance rights and responsibilities can be used as a training manual for community action workers, and as a reference book for such workers and for those eligible for public assistance.…

  3. Responsibility for the Ecological Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard T.

    1970-01-01

    Critically analyzes the thesis of Christian responsibility for the ecological crisis and leads to its rejection. Present day environmental misuse results from greed, carelessness, and ignorance." Advocates ecological strategy of corrective action, with supplementary theological strategy" for church-influenced citizens. (AL)

  4. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  5. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  6. Adult Responses to Child Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyber, Edward C.; And Others

    Oral responses of 180 male and female undergraduates to scenarios containing positive-loving, neutral-informational, and/or negative-rejecting (male) child communications were obtained and scored along 25 specific categories, as well as a global rating of acceptance/rejection of child. A factor analysis generated six factors, which, along with the…

  7. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  8. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  9. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  10. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  11. Changing Breton Responses to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badone, Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Based on fieldwork conducted in Brittany, France, during 1983 and 1984, discusses changes in Breton responses to death which have accompanied modernization and economic development. Suggests that familiarity with death and acceptance of it are being replaced by the "denial of death" characteristic of contemporary Western culture. Notes parallel…

  12. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility. PMID:19847671

  13. Talking about Israel: 3 Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alan Wolfe's article "Free Speech, Israel, and Jewish Illiberalism" prompted numerous responses on The Chronicle's online discussion forum. The essay commented on the debate that erupted following the Polish Consulate's decision to cancel a speech by the scholar Tony Judt--allegedly prompted by protests over his critical views of Israel from the…

  14. Organismal Responses to Hypoxemic Challenges.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Dehghani, Gholam A; Kiihl, Samara

    2015-01-01

    As a counterpoint to the volumes of beautiful work exploring how the carotid bodies (CBs) sense and transduce stimuli into neural traffic, this study explored one organismal reflex response to such stimulation. We challenged the anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cat with two forms of acute hypoxemia: 10 % O(2)/balance N(2) (hypoxic hypoxia [HH] and carbon monoxide hypoxia [COH]). HH stimulates both CBs and aortic bodies (ABs), whereas COH stimulates only the ABs. Our design was to stimulate both with HH (HHint), then to stimulate only the ABs with COH (COHint); then, after aortic depressor nerve transaction, only the CBs with HH (HHabr), and finally neither with COH (COHabr). We recorded whole animal responses from Group 1 cats (e.g., cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure/and vascular resistance) before and after sectioning the aortic depressor nerves. From Group 2 cats (intact) and Group 3 cats (aortic body resected) we recorded the vascular resistance in several organs (e.g., brain, heart, spleen, stomach, pancreas, adrenal glands, eyes). The HHint challenge was the most effective at keeping perfusion pressures adequate to maintain homeostasis in the face of a systemic wide hypoxemia with locally mediated vasodilation. The spleen and pancreas, however, showed a vasoconstrictive response. The adrenals and eyes showed a CB-mediated vasodilation. The ABs appeared to have a significant impact on the pulmonary vasculature as well as the stomach. Chemoreceptors via the sympathetic nervous system play the major role in this organism's response to hypoxemia. PMID:26303472

  15. Reading Response Journals via Email.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Colleen

    This study discusses the successes and failures that resulted when fifth grade students used email to compose response journals. Every student was required to send at least one email a week to the teacher describing and reacting to the novel they were reading independently. The teacher would respond each evening. The study was conducted in an…

  16. Immune responses to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Freidenreich, Daniel J; Volek, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health.

  17. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  18. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  19. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment. PMID:27052306

  20. Program Evaluation Particularly Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some recent developments in the methodology of program evaluation and about what he calls "responsive evaluation." He discusses two models for program evaluation, namely (1) informal study or self-study; and (2) the pretest/posttest model. Then, he describes an approach that he has been working on, which will…

  1. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  2. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  3. Immune responses in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Papermaster, Ben W.; Condie, Richard M.; Finstad, Joanne; Good, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    1. The California hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii, seems to be completely lacking in adaptive immunity: it forms no detectable circulating antibody despite intensive stimulation with a range of antigens; it does not show reactivity to old tuberculin following sensitization with BCG; and gives no evidence of homograft immunity. 2. Studies on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, have been limited to the response to bacteriophage T2 and hemocyanin in small groups of spawning animals. They suggest that the lamprey may have a low degree of immunologic reactivity. 3. One holostean, the bowfin (Amia calva) and the guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus), an elasmobranch, showed a low level of primary response to phage and hemocyanin. The response is slow and antibody levels low. Both the bowfin and the guitarfish showed a vigorous secondary response to phage, but neither showed much enhancement of reactivity to hemocyanin in the secondary response. The bowfin formed precipitating antibody to hemocyanin, but the guitarfish did not. Both hemagglutinating and precipitating antibody to hemocyanin were also observed in the primary response of the black bass. 4. The bowfin was successfully sensitized to Ascaris antigen, and lesions of the delayed type developed after challenge at varying intervals following sensitization. 5. The horned shark (Heterodontus franciscii) regularly cleared hemocyanin from the circulation after both primary and secondary antigenic stimulation, and regularly formed hemagglutinating antibody, but not precipitating antibody, after both primary and secondary stimulation with this antigen. These animals regularly cleared bacteriophage from the circulation after both the primary and secondary stimulation with bacteriophage T2. Significant but small amounts of antibody were produced in a few animals in the primary response, and larger amounts in the responding animals after secondary antigenic stimulation. 6. Studies by starch gel and immunoelectrophoresis show that

  5. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltan<0.1) LCs are commonly used. However, for optical communications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial

  6. Covariate-adjusted response-adaptive designs for binary response.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, W F; Vidyashankar, A N; Agarwal, D K

    2001-11-01

    An adaptive allocation design for phase III clinical trials that incorporates covariates is described. The allocation scheme maps the covariate-adjusted odds ratio from a logistic regression model onto [0, 1]. Simulations assume that both staggered entry and time to response are random and follow a known probability distribution that can depend on the treatment assigned, the patient's response, a covariate, or a time trend. Confidence intervals on the covariate-adjusted odds ratio is slightly anticonservative for the adaptive design under the null hypothesis, but power is similar to equal allocation under various alternatives for n = 200. For similar power, the net savings in terms of expected number of treatment failures is modest, but enough to make this design attractive for certain studies where known covariates are expected to be important and stratification is not desired, and treatment failures have a high ethical cost.

  7. Responses to patronizing communication and factors that attenuate those responses.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Jessica A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate younger (n = 52, ages 18-24) and older (n = 69, ages 61-98) adults' responses to patronizing communication in terms of (a) performance on a cognitive task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) and (b) physiological responses (i.e., change in cortisol levels), as well as factors that may attenuate those responses. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions for the task using either a patronizing or nonpatronizing speech style. Participants also completed a measure of attitudes about aging and the quantity/quality of their intergenerational interaction. Older adults (relative to younger adults) were found to be more reactive to the patronizing speech style in terms of their performance on the task as well as the change in their cortisol levels. Older adults who had more positive attitudes about aging as well as more positive intergenerational interactions were protected from the performance deficits as a result of patronizing speech style. These findings could be used to inform social programs aimed at reducing age-based stigma and improving the life course outcomes of our aging population. PMID:26146886

  8. Excessive Response-Repetition Costs under Task Switching: How Response Inhibition Amplifies Response Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzyb, Kai Robin; Hubner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The size of response-repetition (RR) costs, which are usually observed on task-switch trials, strongly varies between conditions with univalent and bivalent stimuli. To test whether top-down or bottom-up processes can account for this effect, we assessed in Experiment 1 baselines for univalent and bivalent stimulus conditions (i.e., for stimuli…

  9. Radiative forcing and climate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.

    1997-03-01

    We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a "ghost" forcing introduced at arbitrary heights, latitudes, longitudes, seasons, and times of day. We show that, in general, the climate response, specifically the global mean temperature change, is sensitive to the altitude, latitude, and nature of the forcing; that is, the response to a given forcing can vary by 50% or more depending upon characteristics of the forcing other than its magnitude measured in watts per square meter. The consistency of the response among different forcings is higher, within 20% or better, for most of the globally distributed forcings suspected of influencing global mean temperature in the past century, but exceptions occur for certain changes of ozone or absorbing aerosols, for which the climate response is less well behaved. In all cases the physical basis for the variations of the response can be understood. The principal mechanisms involve alterations of lapse rate and decrease (increase) of large-scale cloud cover in layers that are preferentially heated (cooled). Although the magnitude of these effects must be model-dependent, the existence and sense of the mechanisms appear to be reasonable. Overall, we reaffirm the value of the radiative forcing concept for predicting climate response and for comparative studies of different forcings; indeed, the present results can help improve the accuracy of such analyses and define error estimates. Our results also emphasize the need for measurements having the specificity and precision needed to define poorly known forcings such as absorbing aerosols and ozone change. Available data on aerosol single scatter albedo imply that anthropogenic aerosols cause less cooling than has commonly been assumed. However, negative forcing due to the net ozone change since 1979 appears to have counterbalanced 30

  10. Modulating macrophage response to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Toral

    Macrophages recruited to the site of biomaterial implantation are the primary mediators of the chronic foreign body response to implanted materials. Since foreign body response limits performance and functional life of numerous implanted biomaterials/medical devices, various approaches have been investigated to modulate macrophage interactions with biomaterial surfaces to mitigate this response. In this work we have explored two independent approaches to modulate the macrophage inflammatory response to biomaterials. The first approach targets surface integrins, cell surface receptors that mediate cell adhesion to biomaterials through adhesive proteins spontaneously adsorbed on biomaterial surfaces. The second approach involves surface modification of biomaterials using nanotopographic features since nanotopography has been reported to modulate cell adhesion and viability in a cell type-dependent manner. More specifically, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface was investigated for its role in modulating macrophage adhesion and survival in vitro and foreign body response in vivo. For the first approach, we have investigated the role of integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in the in-vivo osteolysis response and macrophage inflammatory processes of phagocytosis as well as inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to particulate biomaterials. We have also investigated the in vivo foreign body response (FBR) to subcutaneously implanted biomaterials by evaluating the thickness of fibrous capsule formed around the implants after 2 weeks of implantation. The role of Mac-1 integrin was isolated using a Mac-1 KO mouse and comparing it to a WT control. The role of RGD binding integrins in FBR was investigated by coating the implanted biomaterial with ELVAX(TM) polymer loaded with Echistatin which contains the RGD sequence. For the in-vivo osteolysis study and to study the in-vitro macrophage response to particulate biomaterials, we used the RGD peptide encapsulated in ELVAX

  11. 5 CFR 838.123 - Claimants' responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claimants' responsibilities. 838.123 Section 838.123 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Responsibilities § 838.123 Claimants' responsibilities. Claimants are responsible for— (a) Filing a certified...

  12. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  13. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  14. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  15. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  16. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  17. 32 CFR 268.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 268.4 Section 268.4 National... COLLECTING AND REPORTING OF FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE § 268.4 Responsibilities..., or is otherwise assigned responsibility, is responsible for taking initial collection...

  18. 48 CFR 201.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 201.602... Authority, and Responsibilities 201.602-2 Responsibilities. (d) Follow the procedures at PGI 201.602-2 regarding designation, assignment, and responsibilities of a contracting officer's representative (COR)....

  19. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  20. 32 CFR 290.6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 290.6 Section 290.6 National... Responsibilities. (a) Headquarters. (1) The Assistant Director, Resources is responsible for: (i) The overall... Advisor, as required, in the discharge of their responsibilities. (iv) Coordinating Freedom of...

  1. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  2. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  3. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  4. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  5. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  6. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  7. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  8. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  9. 32 CFR 327.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 327.3 Section 327.3 National... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 327.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Director, DeCA. (1... requests received and prepares documentation to the office of primary responsibility (OPR) for response....

  10. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  11. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  12. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  13. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  14. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  15. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.903 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities. 1274.903 Section 1274.903... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.903 Responsibilities. Responsibilities July 2002 (a.... NASA and the Recipient agree to the following Responsibilities, a statement of cooperative...

  17. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  18. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  19. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  20. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  1. 32 CFR 700.802 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 700.802 Section 700.802 National... Officers in General § 700.802 Responsibility. (a) The responsibility of the commanding officer for his or... with his or her responsibility. While the commanding officer may, at his or her discretion, and...

  2. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  3. 43 CFR 3480.0-6 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3480.0-6 Section 3480.0... Exploration and Mining Operations Rules: General § 3480.0-6 Responsibilities. (a) Responsibilities of other Federal Agencies—(1) Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. The responsibility...

  4. 31 CFR 92.16 - Written response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written response. 92.16 Section 92.16... States Mint § 92.16 Written response. (a) Form and contents. (1) The written response submitted by a... person named in the Initial Notice of Assessment is filing the written response, a copy of the...

  5. 30 CFR 784.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 784.4 Section 784.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  6. 30 CFR 779.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 779.4 Section 779.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  7. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  8. 29 CFR 99.400 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Responsibilities. 99.400 Section 99.400 Labor Office of the... Pass-through Entities § 99.400 Responsibilities. (a) Cognizant agency for audit responsibilities... programs of more than one agency. (8) Coordinate the audit work and reporting responsibilities...

  9. 30 CFR 783.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 783.4 Section 783.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide, except where specifically exempted in this part, all information required by this part in the application. (b) It is the responsibility...

  10. 30 CFR 780.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 780.4 Section 780.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) It is the responsibility of the applicant to provide to the regulatory authority all of the... responsibility of State and Federal governmental agencies to provide information to the regulatory...

  11. 25 CFR 700.507 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Deputy Ethics Official in accordance with 5 CFR 738.202(b). Responsibilities of these officials are... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities. 700.507 Section 700.507 Indians THE... Responsibility and Conduct § 700.507 Responsibilities. (a) Office of the Commission and Office of...

  12. 39 CFR 775.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 775.3 Section 775.3 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Chief Environmental Officer is responsible for overall.... Each officer with responsibility over the proposed program, project, action, or facility is...

  13. 30 CFR 707.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibility. 707.4 Section 707.4 Mineral... Responsibility. (a) The regulatory authority is responsible for enforcing the requirements of this part. (b) Any... responsible for possessing, on the site of the extraction operation, the documentation required by 30 CFR...

  14. 30 CFR 740.4 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 740.4 Section 740.4 Mineral... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary is responsible for: (1) Approval, disapproval or conditional approval of mining... lands pursuant to the terms of any cooperative agreement. (c) The following responsibilities of OSM...

  15. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  16. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  17. 30 CFR 582.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 582.12 Section 582... Responsibilities of Director § 582.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  18. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Director's responsibilities. 282.12 Section 282... Responsibilities of Director § 282.12 Director's responsibilities. (a) The Director is responsible for the..., or human environment. (b)(1) In the evaluation of a Delineation Plan, the Director shall...

  19. Modelling hormonal response and development☆

    PubMed Central

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin–cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. PMID:24630843

  20. War, peace and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C K

    1983-01-01

    The technology of modern weapons, especially nuclear weapons, poses a critical threat to the health of all people. In addition to the unprecedented risk of massive destruction to living things and to the ecosphere, the resources used in production of these arsenals cause an economic threat to the health of populations even if the weapons are never used. Medical and social scientists have a responsibility to work for the prevention of nuclear war and the reversal of the arms race. This may imply an obligation to work towards the prevention of war in general. Professional responsibility in this regard is based on (1) special expertise, (2) influence in society and (3) the symbolic power of the values of life, health and human dignity.

  1. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  2. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  3. Pharmacogenetics of Response to Statins

    PubMed Central

    Zineh, Issam

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. On average, statins improve lipid profiles and have been shown to have ancillary beneficial effects on inflammation, platelet activity, and endothelial function. However, variability in drug response exists regardless of the measured phenotype, and genetic variability may be a contributing factor. Recently, there has been an interesting shift in statin pharmacogenetic studies. Novel study designs have been employed and nontraditional candidate genes have been investigated in relation to both lipid and nonlipid responses to statins. This review outlines earlier pharmacogenetic studies and highlights newly published findings that expand on previous work. Furthermore, a framework is provided in which the necessary next steps in research are described, with the ultimate goal of translating pharmacogenetic findings into clinically meaningful changes in patient care. PMID:18241612

  4. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other.

  5. Response thresholds in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Lele, Pushkar P; Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2015-10-01

    Stimulation of Escherichia coli by exponential ramps of chemoattractants generates step changes in the concentration of the response regulator, CheY-P. Because flagellar motors are ultrasensitive, this should change the fraction of time that motors spin clockwise, the CWbias. However, early work failed to show changes in CWbias when ramps were shallow. This was explained by a model for motor remodeling that predicted plateaus in plots of CWbias versus [CheY-P]. We looked for these plateaus by examining distributions of CWbias in populations of cells with different mean [CheY-P]. We did not find such plateaus. Hence, we repeated the work on shallow ramps and found that motors did indeed respond. These responses were quantitatively described by combining motor remodeling with ultrasensitivity in a model that exhibited high sensitivities over a wide dynamic range. PMID:26601280

  6. Thermal response based item identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. K.; Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems in NDA of nuclear materials is identifying the chemical form of the nuclear material and the surrounding matrix. Recent work analyzing the calorimeter response of sources embedded in a variety of matrices has led to a possible solution to this problem. The wide range of thermal time constants exhibited by typical matrix materials lends itself to permitting the differentiation between materials, based on time constants extracted from the measured response. Potential applications include simple item identification, item fingerprinting as part of shipper-receiver measurements, and distinguishing between Pu metal and Pu oxide as required under certain proposed attribute measurements. The results of applying this technique to a variety of items will be presented and discussed.

  7. Electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Vazifeh, M M; Franz, M

    2013-07-12

    It has been suggested recently, based on subtle field-theoretical considerations, that the electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals and the closely related Weyl insulators can be characterized by an axion term θE·B with space and time dependent axion angle θ(r,t). Here we construct a minimal lattice model of the Weyl medium and study its electromagnetic response by a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. We confirm the existence of the anomalous Hall effect expected on the basis of the field theory treatment. We find, contrary to the latter, that chiral magnetic effect (that is, ground state charge current induced by the applied magnetic field) is absent in both the semimetal and the insulator phase. We elucidate the reasons for this discrepancy.

  8. RORSCHACH SPACE RESPONSES AND ANGER.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Anna Maria; Chiorri, Carlo; Denevi, Simona

    2015-08-01

    In this study, three different subtypes of Space responses to the Rorschach test were hypothesized: S-fusion, S-reversal, and S-integration. The relationship between these subtypes and feelings of anger and aggression was investigated. The Rorschach test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to 50 university students. Scores on the STAXI-2 were positively associated with S-fusion and negatively associated with S-integration. No significant associations of S subtypes with aggression were found. The findings support the hypothesis that different figure-ground relationships, shown in the subtypes of S responses, indicate different psychological processes. PMID:26107109

  9. The human auditory evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Figures are presented of computer-averaged auditory evoked responses (AERs) that point to the existence of a completely endogenous brain event. A series of regular clicks or tones was administered to the ear, and 'odd-balls' of different intensity or frequency respectively were included. Subjects were asked either to ignore the sounds (to read or do something else) or to attend to the stimuli. When they listened and counted the odd-balls, a P3 wave occurred at 300msec after stimulus. When the odd-balls consisted of omitted clicks or tone bursts, a similar response was observed. This could not have come from auditory nerve, but only from cortex. It is evidence of recognition, a conscious process.

  10. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  11. Fixing responsibility for risk management.

    PubMed

    Maniccia, M D

    2000-01-01

    The responsibility for carrying financial risk for medical coverage has migrated from individuals to insurers to employers to providers, without finding a satisfactory home. Each shift further complicates the health care infrastructure, as other responsibilities in the management of benefits and provision of care gravitate to the stakeholder who accepts risk. The social imperative to broaden coverage is forcing a change in the mechanisms of risk management--from avoiding high-risk patients, to managing those patients to better outcomes. In this paper we seek to identify objectively the most appropriate party to carry the financial risk of medical coverage, consider what characteristics are necessary to make that a practical and enduring solution, and examine the secondary effects of the structure required to support that solution.

  12. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  13. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios.

  14. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  15. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. PMID:24182391

  16. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  17. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  18. Peripheral nerve response to injury.

    PubMed

    Steed, Martin B

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons caring for patients who have sustained a nerve injury to a branch of the peripheral trigeminal nerve must possess a basic understanding of the response of the peripheral nerves to trauma. The series of events that subsequently take place are largely dependent on the injury type and severity. Regeneration of the peripheral nerve is possible in many instances and future manipulation of the regenerative microenvironment will lead to advances in the management of these difficult injuries.

  19. Structural response and input identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, G. D.; Callahan, J. C.; Mcelman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major goals were delineated: (1) to develop a general method for determining the response of a structure to combined base and acoustic random excitation: (2) to develop parametric relationships to aid in the design of plates which are subjected to random force or random base excitation: (3) to develop a method to identify the individual acoustic and base input to a structure with only a limited number of measurement channels, when both types of excitation act simultaneously.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug response.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Reinhold

    2004-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a discipline of molecular medicine that investigates the genetic basis of individual variation of drug responses. Before the era of the human genome project and the subsequent progress in genomic research, this field was primarily restricted to the investigation of the genetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes as they account for individual differences in pharmacokinetics and tolerability of drugs. In the current genomic era, pharmacogenetic research is applied to all fields of drug treatment in clinical medicine, including hypertension research. In contrast to the traditional approach, however, the influence of individual genetic variation on the efficacy of a drug (ie, the pharmacodynamic response) is the major focus of pharmacogenetic research and its clinical applicability. Therefore, the identification of individual genetic variation influencing the blood pressure-lowering effect of an antihypertensive compound and the implementation of this knowledge into clinical practice is the major goal of pharmacogenetic research in the field of hypertension. In this article, some important, recent research work and progress on the pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive drug responses are reviewed and evaluated. PMID:14972084

  1. Mechanical Response of Cytoskeletal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gardel, Margaret L.; Kasza, Karen E.; Brangwynne, Clifford P.; Liu, Jiayu; Weitz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filamentous proteins, consisting of filamentous actin (F-actin), microtubules, and intermediate filaments. However, these networks are not simple linear, elastic solids; they can exhibit highly nonlinear elasticity and athermal dynamics driven by ATP-dependent processes. To build quantitative mechanical models describing complex cellular behaviors, it is necessary to understand the underlying physical principles that regulate force transmission and dynamics within these networks. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of the physics of networks of cytoskeletal proteins formed in vitro. We introduce rheology, the technique used to measure mechanical response. We discuss our current understanding of the mechanical response of F-actin networks, and how the biophysical properties of F-actin and actin cross-linking proteins can dramatically impact the network mechanical response. We discuss how incorporating dynamic and rigid microtubules into F-actin networks can affect the contours of growing microtubules and composite network rigidity. Finally, we discuss the mechanical behaviors of intermediate filaments. PMID:19118688

  2. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  3. Method for improving instrument response

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, David W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Johnsen, Howard A.; Flower, William L.

    2000-01-01

    This invention pertains generally to a method for improving the accuracy of particle analysis under conditions of discrete particle loading and particularly to a method for improving signal-to-noise ratio and instrument response in laser spark spectroscopic analysis of particulate emissions. Under conditions of low particle density loading (particles/m.sup.3) resulting from low overall metal concentrations and/or large particle size uniform sampling can not be guaranteed. The present invention discloses a technique for separating laser sparks that arise from sample particles from those that do not; that is, a process for systematically "gating" the instrument response arising from "sampled" particles from those responses which do not, is dislosed as a solution to his problem. The disclosed approach is based on random sampling combined with a conditional analysis of each pulse. A threshold value is determined for the ratio of the intensity of a spectral line for a given element to a baseline region. If the threshold value is exceeded, the pulse is classified as a "hit" and that data is collected and an average spectrum is generated from an arithmetic average of "hits". The true metal concentration is determined from the averaged spectrum.

  4. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    PubMed Central

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  5. Responses to creativity in psychoanalysts.

    PubMed

    Langs, R

    A discussion of "Concerning Transference and Countertransference" by Harold Searles, M.D. Searles's study, written and rejected for publication in 1948-49 contains six original contributions to these subjects. They include the definition of determinants of transference in the immediate analytic interaction, the role of projection in transference and its evocation by the analyst, its basis in actual traits of the analyst which are exaggerated, and its expression as an effort to elicit confirmatory responses. Searles also details the fullness of the analyst's participation in the therapeutic interaction and the constructive usage of countertransference reactions. The negative responses to Searles's creativity prompt the thesis that every professional has a wish to both accept and destroy the innovator and his innovations. Factors include envy, a dread of inner turmoil, impingements on countertransference defenses, and deviations in the conditions of training analysts. These reactions are paralleled by refractoriness to the patient's unconscious creativity and efforts to cure the analyst. The manifestations of these hostile reactions and the innovator's responses to them are discussed.

  6. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  7. Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2000-01-01

    Reduced atmospheric pressures will likely be used to minimize mass and engineering requirements for plant growth habitats used in extraterrestrial applications. This report provides a brief survey of key literature related to responses of plants to atmospheric variables and a broad rationale for designing minimal atmospheres for future plant growth structures on the Martian surface. The literature and recent work suggest that atmospheric pressure limits for normal plant function are likely to be 10 kPa or perhaps slightly lower. At Kennedy Space Center, a chamber with high vacuum capability was used to design and begin construction of a system for testing plant responses to reduced pressure atmospheres. A test rack with lighting provided by 3, high-pressure sodium vapor lamps was built to conduct measurements of short-term plant responses. Initial experiments with lettuce showed that a pressure of 10 kPa resulted in a 6.1-fold increase in the rate of water loss compared to water loss at ambient pressure (101 kPa).

  8. The Science of Climate Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Sparrow, S.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme events linked with human induced climate change have now been reported around the globe. Among the most troublesome impacts are increased wild fires, failed crop yields, extreme flooding and increase human mortality (Hansen and Cramer, 2015). Many of these impacts are predicted to increase into the future. Non-industrialised communities around the world will be the least capable of adapting, while the industrial communities, who are often responsible for historical carbon emissions, will find adaptation easier. Such a situation lends itself to the issue of responsibility. In order to assess responsibility, it must first be established where the major carbon and methane emissions are originating. It must then be estimated how these emissions project onto localised climate, which is often the primary indicator behind impacts on society. In this study, we address this question using a 25 km regional climate model capable of simulating climate thousands of times under the Weather@home citizen science project. The use of this framework allows us to generate huge data sample sizes, which can be put in the context of very low sample sizes of observational data. We concentrate on the 2003 heat wave over Europe, but show how this method could be applied to less data rich regions, including the Middle East and the Horn of Africa.

  9. Response bias in plaintiffs' histories.

    PubMed

    Lees-Haley, P R; Williams, C W; Zasler, N D; Marguilies, S; English, L T; Stevens, K B

    1997-11-01

    This study investigated response bias in self-reported history of factors relevant to the assessment of traumatic brain injury, toxic brain injury and related emotional distress. Response bias refers to systematic error in self-report data. A total of 446 subjects (comprising 131 litigating and 315 non-litigating adults from five locations in the United States) completed a symptom questionnaire. Data were obtained from university faculty and students, from patients in clinics specializing in physiatry neurology, and family medicine, and from plaintiffs undergoing forensic neuropsychological evaluations. Comparisons were made for litigant and non litigant ratings of their past and current cognitive and emotional functioning, including life in general, ability to concentrate, memory, depression, anxiety, alcohol, drugs, ability to work or attend school, irritability, headaches, confusion, self-esteem, and fatigue. Although there is no basis for hypothesizing plaintiffs to be healthier than the general population, plaintiffs rated their pre-injury functioning superior to non-plaintiffs. These findings suggest that response biases need to be taken into account by forensic examiners when relying on litigants' self-reports of pre-injury status.

  10. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  11. A mixture hierarchical model for response times and response accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Xu, Gongjun

    2015-11-01

    In real testing, examinees may manifest different types of test-taking behaviours. In this paper we focus on two types that appear to be among the more frequently occurring behaviours – solution behaviour and rapid guessing behaviour. Rapid guessing usually happens in high-stakes tests when there is insufficient time, and in low-stakes tests when there is lack of effort. These two qualitatively different test-taking behaviours, if ignored, will lead to violation of the local independence assumption and, as a result, yield biased item/person parameter estimation. We propose a mixture hierarchical model to account for differences among item responses and response time patterns arising from these two behaviours. The model is also able to identify the specific behaviour an examinee engages in when answering an item. A Monte Carlo expectation maximization algorithm is proposed for model calibration. A simulation study shows that the new model yields more accurate item and person parameter estimates than a non-mixture model when the data indeed come from two types of behaviour. The model also fits real, high-stakes test data better than a non-mixture model, and therefore the new model can better identify the underlying test-taking behaviour an examinee engages in on a certain item. PMID:25873487

  12. Bearing response-ability: theater, ethics and medical education.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Kate

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses a growing concern within the medical humanities community regarding the perceived need for a more empathically-focused medical curricula, and advocates for the use of creative pedagogical forms as a means to attend to issues of suffering and relationality. Drawing from the ethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas, I critique the notion of empathy on the basis that it erases difference and disregards otherness. Rather, I propose that the concept of empathy may be usefully replaced with that of ethical responsibility, which suggests a shared sense of humanity outside the boundaries of presumed knowledge of the other. To illustrate this argument, I theorize the importance of theater within medical education. Theater, I argue, may engender ethical responsibility in the Levinasian sense, and thus may allow learners to differently engage with the experience of the suffering other. As such, I examine Margaret Edson's widely used play Wit as a platform for such an ethical encounter to occur. Thus, rather than working to understand the value of theater in medical education in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition, I theorize that its primacy within medical curricula arises from its ethical/relational potential, or potential to engender new forms of inter-human relationality.

  13. Response Predicting LTCC Firing Shrinkage: A Response Surface Analysis Study

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, Michael; Barner, Gregg; Lopez, Cristie; Duncan, Brent; Zawicki, Larry

    2009-02-25

    The Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is used in a variety of applications including military/space electronics, wireless communication, MEMS, medical and automotive electronics. The use of LTCC is growing due to the low cost of investment, short development time, good electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, and flexibility in design integration (3 dimensional (3D) microstructures with cavities are possible)). The dimensional accuracy of the resulting x/y shrinkage of LTCC substrates is responsible for component assembly problems with the tolerance effect that increases in relation to the substrate size. Response Surface Analysis was used to predict product shrinkage based on specific process inputs (metal loading, layer count, lamination pressure, and tape thickness) with the ultimate goal to optimize manufacturing outputs (NC files, stencils, and screens) in achieving the final product design the first time. Three (3) regression models were developed for the DuPont 951 tape system with DuPont 5734 gold metallization based on green tape thickness.

  14. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  15. Beyond Responsible Conduct: Taking Responsibility for the Responsible Conduct of Others

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Richard; Schneeweis, David M.; Hitsman, Brian; Daniels, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    A unique Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) course was created for Ph.D., M.D., and M.D./Ph.D. postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty at Northwestern University, some of whom had prior RCR training and some of whom did not. The unique feature of the course is its dual focus on learning the core elements of RCR and preparing participants for being responsible for guiding and monitoring RCR behaviors of others. These more advanced but still junior scientists are at a key junction where they are beginning to mentor and supervise others. A second unique element is a required conversation on at least two RCR topics with their current mentors, with a short written report, modeling explicit conversations about RCR prospectively. Overall response has been very positive with a high level of engagement. Formal and informal evaluation feedback reveals how participants see the value of the course and how it has shaped how they intend to guide others in the future. An important goal of the course is to also position high quality RCR and RCR training within the research environment, not just the classroom. PMID:25574255

  16. Visual cortex activation in late-onset, Braille naive blind individuals: an fMRI study during semantic and phonological tasks with heard words.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; McLaren, Donald G

    2006-01-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in Braille literate people, which raise the question of whether Braille literacy influences cross-modal reorganization. We used fMRI to examine visual cortex activation during semantic and phonological tasks with auditory presentation of words in two late-onset blind individuals who lacked Braille literacy. Multiple visual cortical regions were activated in the Braille naive individuals. Positive BOLD responses were noted in lower tier visuotopic (e.g., V1, V2, VP, and V3) and several higher tier visual areas (e.g., V4v, V8, and BA 37). Activity was more extensive and cross-correlation magnitudes were greater during the semantic compared to the phonological task. These results with Braille naive individuals plausibly suggest that visual deprivation alone induces visual cortex reorganization. Cross-modal reorganization of lower tier visual areas may be recruited by developing skills in attending to selected non-visual inputs (e.g., Braille literacy, enhanced auditory skills). Such learning might strengthen remote connections with multisensory cortical areas. Of necessity, the Braille naive participants must attend to auditory stimulation for language. We hypothesize that learning to attend to non-visual inputs probably strengthens the remaining active synapses following visual deprivation, and thereby, increases cross-modal activation of lower tier visual areas when performing highly demanding non-visual tasks of which reading Braille is just one example.

  17. An extended family of novel vertebrate photopigments is widely expressed and displays a diversity of function

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Wayne I.L.; Tamai, T. Katherine; Zheng, Lei; Fu, Josephine K.; Rihel, Jason; Foster, Russell G.; Whitmore, David; Hankins, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Light affects animal physiology and behavior more than simply through classical visual, image-forming pathways. Nonvisual photoreception regulates numerous biological systems, including circadian entrainment, DNA repair, metabolism, and behavior. However, for the majority of these processes, the photoreceptive molecules involved are unknown. Given the diversity of photophysiological responses, the question arises whether a single photopigment or a greater diversity of proteins within the opsin superfamily detect photic stimuli. Here, a functional genomics approach identified the full complement of photopigments in a highly light-sensitive model vertebrate, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and characterized their tissue distribution, expression levels, and biochemical properties. The results presented here reveal the presence of 42 distinct genes encoding 10 classical visual photopigments and 32 nonvisual opsins, including 10 novel opsin genes comprising four new pigment classes. Consistent with the presence of light-entrainable circadian oscillators in zebrafish, all adult tissues examined expressed two or more opsins, including several novel opsins. Spectral and electrophysiological analyses of the new opsins demonstrate that they form functional photopigments, each with unique chromophore-binding and wavelength specificities. This study has revealed a remarkable number and diversity of photopigments in zebrafish, the largest number so far discovered for any vertebrate. Found in amphibians, reptiles, birds, and all three mammalian clades, most of these genes are not restricted to teleosts. Therefore, nonvisual light detection is far more complex than initially appreciated, which has significant biological implications in understanding photoreception in vertebrates. PMID:26450929

  18. Modulation of microsaccade rate by task difficulty revealed through between- and within-trial comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Yan, Hongmei; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Microsaccades (MSs) are small eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. While most studies concerning MSs focus on their roles in visual processing, some also suggest that the MS rate can be modulated by the amount of mental exertion involved in nonvisual processing. The current study focused on the effects of task difficulty on MS rate in a nonvisual mental arithmetic task. Experiment 1 revealed a general inverse relationship between MS rate and subjective task difficulty. During Experiment 2, three task phases with different requirements were identified: during calculation (between stimulus presentation and response), postcalculation (after reporting an answer), and a control condition (undergoing a matching sequence of events without the need to make a calculation). MS rate was observed to approximately double from the during-calculation phase to the postcalculation phase, and was significantly higher in the control condition compared to postcalculation. Only during calculation was the MS rate generally decreased with greater task difficulty. Our results suggest that the nonvisual cognitive processing can suppress MS rate, and that the extent of such suppression is related to the task difficulty. PMID:25740876

  19. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  20. Are patients morally responsible for their errors?

    PubMed

    Buetow, S; Elwyn, G

    2006-05-01

    Amid neglect of patients' contribution to error has been a failure to ask whether patients are morally responsible for their errors. This paper aims to help answer this question and so define a worthy response to the errors. Recent work on medical errors has emphasised system deficiencies and discouraged finding people to blame. We scrutinize this approach from an incompatibilist, agent causation position and draw on Hart's taxonomy of four senses of moral responsibility: role responsibility; capacity responsibility; causal responsibility; and liability responsibility. Each sense is shown to contribute to an overall theoretical judgment as to whether patients are morally responsible for their errors (and success in avoiding them). Though how to weight the senses is unclear, patients appear to be morally responsible for the avoidable errors they make, contribute to or can influence. PMID:16648274