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Sample records for meliae cortex extract

  1. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

  3. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  4. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  5. Potent limonoid insect antifeedant from Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Carpinella, Cecilia; Ferrayoli, Carlos; Valladares, Graciela; Defago, Maria; Palacios, Sara

    2002-08-01

    Systematic fractionation of a fruit extract from Argentine Melia azedarach L., which was monitored by an insect antifeedant bioassay, led to the isolation of meliartenin, a limonoid antifeedant, which existed as a mixture of two interchangeable isomers. At 4 microg/cm2 and 1 microg/cm2, the isomeric mixture was as active as azadirachtin in strongly inhibiting the larval feeding of Epilachna paenulata Germ. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and the polyphagous pest, Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively.

  6. Autoclave mediated one-pot-one-minute synthesis of AgNPs and Au-Ag nanocomposite from Melia azedarach bark extract with antimicrobial activity against food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pani, Alok; Lee, Joong Hee; Yun, Soon-Ii

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles and nanocomposite in pharmaceutical and processed food industry have increased the demand for nontoxic and inert metallic nanostructures. Chemical and physical method of synthesis of nanostructures is most popular in industrial production, despite the fact that these methods are labor intensive and/or generate toxic effluents. There has been an increasing demand for rapid, ecofriendly and relatively cheaper synthesis of nanostructures. Here, we propose a strategy, for one-minute green synthesis of AgNPs and a one-pot one-minute green synthesis of Au-Ag nanocomposite, using Melia azedarach bark aqueous extract as reducing agent. The hydrothermal mechanism of the autoclave technology has been successfully used in this study to accelerate the nucleation and growth of nano-crystals. The study also presents high antimicrobial potential of the synthesized nano solutions against common food and water born pathogens. The multistep characterization and analysis of the synthesized nanomaterial samples, using UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS, FT-IR, EDX, XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM, also reveal the reaction dynamics of AgNO3, AuCl3 and plant extract in synthesis of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. The antimicrobial effectiveness of the synthesized Au-Ag nanocomposite, with high gold to silver ratio, reduces the dependency on the AgNPs, which is considered to be environmentally more toxic than the gold counterpart. We hope that this new strategy will change the present course of green synthesis. The rapidity of synthesis will also help in industrial scale green production of nanostructures using Melia azedarach.

  7. Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Giuseppina; Madeddu, Silvia; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Cottiglia, Filippo; De Logu, Alessandro; Agus, Emanuela; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae). The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Very interestingly, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and melianone showed a potent antiviral activity (EC50 in the range of 3-11μM) against three important human pathogens, belonging to Flaviviridae family, West Nile virus, Dengue virus and Yellow Fever virus. Mode of action studies demonstrated that title compounds were inhibitors of West Nile virus only when added during the infection, acting as inhibitors of the entry or of a very early event of life cycle. Furthermore, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and methyl kulonate showed interesting antimycobacterial activity (with MIC values of 29 and 70 μM respectively). The limonoids are typically lipophilic compounds present in the fruits of Melia azeradach. They are known as cytotoxic compounds against different cancer cell lines, while their potential as antiviral and antibacterial was poorly investigated. Our studies show that they may serve as a good starting point for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of infections by Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which there is a continued need.

  8. [Application of genetic algorithm in blending technology for extractions of Cortex Fraxini].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhou, Yinmin; Chen, Jialei; Yu, Minying; Shi, Xiufeng; Gu, Xijun

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility of genetic algorithm (GA) on multiple objective blending technology for extractions of Cortex Fraxini. According to that the optimization objective was the combination of fingerprint similarity and the root-mean-square error of multiple key constituents, a new multiple objective optimization model of 10 batches extractions of Cortex Fraxini was built. The blending coefficient was obtained by genetic algorithm. The quality of 10 batches extractions of Cortex Fraxini that after blending was evaluated with the finger print similarity and root-mean-square error as indexes. The quality of 10 batches extractions of Cortex Fraxini that after blending was well improved. Comparing with the fingerprint of the control sample, the similarity was up, but the degree of variation is down. The relative deviation of the key constituents was less than 10%. It is proved that genetic algorithm works well on multiple objective blending technology for extractions of Cortex Fraxini. This method can be a reference to control the quality of extractions of Cortex Fraxini. Genetic algorithm in blending technology for extractions of Chinese medicines is advisable.

  9. Aptamer-functionalized Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the selective extraction of berberine from Cortex phellodendri.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Feng; Chen, Bo-Cheng; Chen, Ben; Li, Xue-Jian; Liao, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Wu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    The extraction adsorbent was fabricated by immobilizing the highly specific recognition and binding of aptamer onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, which not only acted as recognition elements to recognize and capture the target molecule berberine from the extract of Cortex phellodendri, but also could favor the rapid separation and purification of the bound berberine by using an external magnet. The developed solid-phase extraction method in this work was useful for the selective extraction and determination of berberine in Cortex phellodendri extracts. Various conditions such as the amount of aptamer-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, extraction time, temperature, pH value, Mg 2+ concentration, elution time and solvent were optimized for the solid-phase extraction of berberine. Under optimal conditions, the purity of berberine extracted from Cortex phellodendri was as high as 98.7% compared with that of 4.85% in the extract, indicating that aptamer-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles-based solid-phase extraction method was very effective for berberine enrichment and separation from a complex herb extract. The applicability and reliability of the developed solid-phase extraction method were demonstrated by separating berberine from nine different concentrations of one Cortex phellodendri extract. The relative recoveries of the spiked solutions of all the samples were between 95.4 and 111.3%, with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.57 and 1.85%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Physico-chemical characterization, antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro of a novel polysaccharide from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc fruit.

    PubMed

    He, Liang; Ji, Pengfei; Gong, Xingguo; Li, Weiqi; Cheng, Junwen; Qian, Hua; Song, Xianliang

    2011-10-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide pMTPS-3, obtained from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc fruit by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Its primary structural features and molecular weight were characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography (GC). And the antioxidant activities of pMTPS-3 in vitro were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that pMTPS-3 was a heteropolysaccharide, composed of arabinose, glucose, mannose, and galactose in the molar ratio of 17.3:28.3:41.6:12.6 with molecular weight 26100Da. The purified pMTPS-3 was revealed to have notable scavenging activity against DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner and present a moderate inhibition of superoxide radicals with an IC(50) (5.6mg/ml), and potent inhibiting power for hydroxyl radical compared with crude polysaccharide. Further, it exhibited strong inhibition effect in vitro on the growth of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. It is strongly evidenced that pMTPS-3 purified from the crude polysaccharides of Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc could be explored as a potential antioxidant and therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifeedant activity of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach senescent leaf extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use as synergists.

    PubMed

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Wajnberg, Eric; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René

    2012-09-01

    To reduce rates of synthetic insecticide applications, natural product alternatives and synergists are needed. A study has been made of the toxicity of ethanolic senescent leaf extracts (SLEs) of Jatropha gossypifolia and Melia azedarach on larvae of the noctuid pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Their effects as syngergists and inhibitors of several enzyme activities are also reported. When added to the diet, M. azedarach SLE showed lower toxicity than J. gossypifolia SLE. However, after 2 weeks on the diet, the M. azedarach SLE proved to be lethal to 100% of the larval population. Artificial diets with both SLEs have an antifeedant effect on armyworm larvae. Acute toxicity after topical application in a dipping assay was relatively low for both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs (LC(50) of 2.6 and 1.4 g L(-1), respectively, after 24 h). However, mixtures of the SLEs of M. azedarach and J. gossypifolia had a strong synergistic effect with cypermethrin. Synergism was higher with the J. gossypifolia SLE, perhaps because it contains several natural products with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety. Both extracts inhibited P450, general esterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro and in vivo. Both J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs are antifeedants to armyworm larvae when present in the food, and also have a synergistic effect with cypermethrin in topical assays. Although the synergistic effect is less than with piperonyl butoxide, both SLEs have some inhibitor activity against detoxification enzymes and acetylcholinesterase. Thus J. gossypifolia and M. azedarach SLEs may be considered as ecofriendly approaches for the control of S. frugiperda in order to reduce cypermethrin usage. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Comparison of anticancer activity of biocompatible ZnO nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aqueous leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum, Melia azedarach and Indigofera tinctoria as biofuels.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, G K; Prashanth, P A; Nagabhushana, B M; Ananda, S; Krishnaiah, G M; Nagendra, H G; Sathyananda, H M; Rajendra Singh, C; Yogisha, S; Anand, S; Tejabhiram, Y

    2018-08-01

    Recently, there has been an upsurge in the use of naturally available fuels for solution combustion synthesis (SCS) of nanoparticles. Although many reports suggest that these biofuels pose less harm to the environment, their strategic advantages and reliability for making NPs has not been discussed. In the present work, we try to address this issue using plant extracts as biofuels for the SCS of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a model system. In the present work, combustion synthesis of ZnO NPs using lactose and aqueous leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum, Melia azedarach, Indigofera tinctoria as biofuels has been carried out. A comparative analysis of the obtained powders has been conducted to understand the strategic advantages of using plant extracts over a chemical as combustion fuel for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples revealed the presence of Wurtzite hexagonal structure with varying crystallite sizes. Morphological studies indicated that samples prepared using biofuels had smaller diameter than those prepared using lactose as fuel. Surface characteristics of the samples were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous leaf extracts revealed the presence of many phytochemicals in them, which might be responsible for combustion. Gas chromatography mass spectrum was carried out to detect the phytochemicals present in the aqueous extracts of the leaves. Further, anticancer evaluation carried out against DU-145 and Calu-6 cancer cells indicated higher anticancer activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared using biofuels. The results of blood haemolysis revealed the biocompatibility of zinc oxide nanoparticles at lower concentrations. In conclusion, we propose that multiple other studies would be required in order to vindicate the potential advantages of using naturally available fuels in SCS.

  13. Enhanced Solubility and Permeability of Salicis cortex Extract by Formulating as a Microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Piazzini, Vieri; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Luceri, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla

    2018-04-24

    A microemulsion system was developed and investigated as a novel oral formulation to increase the solubility and absorption of Salicis cortex extract. This extract possesses many pharmacological activities, in particular, it is beneficial for back pain and osteoarthritic and rheumatic complaints. In this work, after qualitative and quantitative characterization of the extract and the validation of an HPLC/diode array detector analytical method, solubility studies were performed to choose the best components for microemulsion formulation. The optimized microemulsion consisted of 2.5 g of triacetin, as the oil phase, 2.5 g of Tween 20 as the surfactant, 2.5 g of labrasol as the cosurfactant, and 5 g of water. The microemulsion was visually checked, characterized by light scattering techniques and morphological observations. The developed formulation appeared transparent, the droplet size was around 40 nm, and the ζ -potential result was negative. The maximum loading content of Salicis cortex extract resulted in 40 mg/mL. Furthermore, storage stability studies and an in vitro digestion assay were performed. The advantages offered by microemulsion were evaluated in vitro using artificial membranes and cells, i.e., parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and a Caco-2 model. Both studies proved that the microemulsion was successful in enhancing the permeation of extract compounds, so it could be useful to ameliorate the bioefficacy of Salicis cortex. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Feature extraction inspired by V1 in visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chao; Xu, Yuelei; Zhang, Xulei; Ma, Shiping; Li, Shuai; Xin, Peng; Zhu, Mingning; Ma, Hongqiang

    2018-04-01

    Target feature extraction plays an important role in pattern recognition. It is the most complicated activity in the brain mechanism of biological vision. Inspired by high properties of primary visual cortex (V1) in extracting dynamic and static features, a visual perception model was raised. Firstly, 28 spatial-temporal filters with different orientations, half-squaring operation and divisive normalization were adopted to obtain the responses of V1 simple cells; then, an adjustable parameter was added to the output weight so that the response of complex cells was got. Experimental results indicate that the proposed V1 model can perceive motion information well. Besides, it has a good edge detection capability. The model inspired by V1 has good performance in feature extraction and effectively combines brain-inspired intelligence with computer vision.

  15. [Wavelet packet extraction and entropy analysis of telemetry EEG from the prelimbic cortex of medial prefrontal cortex in morphine-induced CPP rats].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Bai, Jia-Ming; Li, Jing; Li, Min; Yu, Ran; Pan, Qun-Wan

    2014-12-25

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the relationship between the telemetry electroencephalogram (EEG) changes of the prelimbic (PL) cortex and the drug-seeking behavior of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) rats by using the wavelet packet extraction and entropy measurement. The recording electrode was stereotactically implanted into the PL cortex of rats. The animals were then divided randomly into operation-only control and morphine-induced CPP groups, respectively. A CPP video system in combination with an EEG wireless telemetry device was used for recording EEG of PL cortex when the rats shuttled between black-white or white-black chambers. The telemetry recorded EEGs were analyzed by wavelet packet extraction, Welch power spectrum estimate, normalized amplitude and Shannon entropy algorithm. The results showed that, compared with operation-only control group, the left PL cortex's EEG of morphine-induced CPP group during black-white chamber shuttling exhibited the following changes: (1) the amplitude of average EEG for each frequency bands extracted by wavelet packet was reduced; (2) the Welch power intensity was increased significantly in 10-50 Hz EEG band (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); (3) Shannon entropy was increased in β, γ₁, and γ₂waves of the EEG (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); and (4) the average information entropy was reduced (P < 0.01). The results suggest that above mentioned EEG changes in morphine-induced CPP group rat may be related to animals' drug-seeking motivation and behavior launching.

  16. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  17. Effects of incisor extraction on jaw and tongue motor representations within face sensorimotor cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J

    2010-04-01

    Loss of teeth is associated with changes in somatosensory inputs and altered patterns of mastication, but it is unclear whether tooth loss is associated with changes in motor representations within face sensorimotor cortex of rats. We used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of cortically evoked muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities to test whether changes occur in the ICMS-defined motor representations of the left and right jaw muscles [masseter, anterior digastric (LAD, RAD)] and tongue muscle [genioglossus (GG)] within the cytoarchitectonically defined face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent face primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) 1 week following extraction of the right mandibular incisor in anesthetized (ketamine-HCl) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Under local and general anesthesia, an "extraction" group (n = 8) received mucoalveolar bone surgery and extraction of the mandibular right incisor. A "sham-extraction" group (n = 6) received surgery with no extraction. A "naive" group (n = 6) had neither surgery nor extraction. Data were compared by using mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVA. Dental extraction was associated with a significantly increased number of sites within face-M1 and face-S1 from which ICMS evoked RAD EMG activities, a lateral shift of the RAD and LAD centers of gravity within face-M1, shorter onset latencies of ICMS-evoked GG activities within face-M1 and face-S1, and an increased number of sites within face-M1 from which ICMS simultaneously evoked RAD and GG activities. Our novel findings suggest that dental extraction may be associated with significant neuroplastic changes within the rat's face-M1 and adjacent face-S1 that may be related to the animal's ability to adapt to the altered oral state. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Green-synthesised nanoparticles from Melia azedarach seeds and the cyclopoid crustacean Cyclops vernalis: an eco-friendly route to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Anbu, Priya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.

  19. [Inhibitory effects of extracts from Moutan Cortex on formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in vitro and specificity screening of its potential active components].

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Zhao, Di; Yuan, Jia-Rui; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA)/methylglyoxal (MGO) non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction system was used for the evaluation of the inhibitory effects of Moutan Cortex extracts on the formation of AGEs. The HPLC-LC-ESI-MS/MS technology was adopted to test and indentify active components in Moutan Cortex against AGEs formation. The different concentrations of extracts (crude herb concentration 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 g•L⁻¹) from Moutan Cortexwas determined by fluorospectrophotometry, indicating an activity against AGEs formation in different concentrations of extracts, the inhibition ratio were (36.2±5.3)%, (43.5±6.2)%, (55.4±7.8)%, (68.6±6.7)%, (70.4±8.2)%, respectively after 6-day reaction in a dose dependent manner. Besides, the forming speed of AGEs tended to be steady after 24 h reaction. The HPLC technology was used to analyze chromatograms before and after the incubation of Moutan Cortex and methylglyoxal, identify changes in five chromatographic peaks and show decrease or increase in chromatographic peaks. These substances were trigalloyl glucose, tetragalloyl glucose, galloylpaeoniflorin, hexagalloyl glucose and benzoylpaeoniflorin after LC-ESI-MS/MS identification. Extracts from Moutan Cortex showed the remarkable inhibitory effects against formation of AGEs in BSA/glucose system. Furthermore, these potential active components might be associated with the efficacy of Moutan Cortex on treatment of diabetic nephropathy, which enriches basic studies for Moutan Cortex and provides ideas and reference basis for subsequent studies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Protective Effects Induced by Microwave-Assisted Aqueous Harpagophytum Extract on Rat Cortex Synaptosomes Challenged with Amyloid β-Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Claudio; Recinella, Lucia; Locatelli, Marcello; Guglielmi, Paolo; Secci, Daniela; Leporini, Lidia; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Leone, Sheila; Martinotti, Sara; Brunetti, Luigi; Vacca, Michele; Menghini, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino

    2017-08-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens is a plant species that displays anti-inflammatory properties in multiple tissues. The iridoid glycosides arpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide appear to be the most therapeutically important constituents. In addition, harpagoside treatment exerted neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. Considering these findings, the aim of the present work is to explore the possible protective role of the previously described microwave-assisted aqueous extract of H. procumbens on rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells, and in rat cortex challenged with amyloid β-peptide (1-40). In this context, we assayed the protective effects induced by H. procumbens by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3-HK. Finally, we evaluated the effects of H. procumbens treatment on cortex levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. H. procumbens extract was well tolerated by Hypo-E22 cells and upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but down-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. In addition, the extract reduced amyloid β-peptide stimulation of malondialdehyde and 3-HK and blunted the decrease of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, in the cortex. In this context, our work supports further studies for the evaluation and confirmation of Harpagophytum in the management of the clinical symptoms related to Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Wenjie

    2012-12-15

    Cortex cinnamomi is associated with many health benefits and is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, an efficient ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the vanillin-HCl colorimetric method, respectively. 0.5M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 20.0 g sample were 230 W microwave irradiation power, 15 min microwave extraction time and 10 liquid-solid ratio. The yields of essential oil and proanthocyanidins were 1.24 ± 0.04% and 4.58 ± 0.21% under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Using the ILMSED method, the energy consumption was reduced and the extraction yields were improved. The proposed method was validated using stability, repeatability, and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the extraction of both the essential oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) Cortex Extract Alleviates Lead Acetate-Induced Bone Loss in Rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shanshan; Zheng, Hongxing; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Hai

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Du-Zhong cortex extract (DZCE) on lead acetate-induced bone loss in rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I (control) was provided with distilled water. Group II (PbAc) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 60 days. Group III (PbAc+DZCE) received 500 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, and given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. Group IV (DZCE) was given intragastric DZCE (100 mg/kg body weight) for 60 days. The bone mineral density, serum biochemical markers, bone histomorphology, and bone marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The results showed that the lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density was significantly decreased in PbAc group compared with the control (P < 0.05); however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of Du-Zhong cortex extract (P < 0.05, vs. PbAc group; P > 0.05, vs. control and DZCE group). Serum calcium and serum phosphorus in the PbAc+DZCE group were greater than that in the PbAc group (P < 0.05). The PbAc group had higher ALP, osteocalcin, and RANKL than the control group (P < 0.01), and they were significantly lower in the PbAc+DZCE group compared with the PbAc group. There were no significant differences of ALP, osteocalcin, and RANKL among the PbAc+DZCE, control, and DZCE groups (P > 0.05). Serum OPG and OPG/RANKL ration were significantly higher in the PbAc+DZCE group than that in the PbAc group (P < 0.05). The bone histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the PbAc group than that in the control group, but those were restored in the PbAc+DZCE groups. The bone marrow adipocyte number, percent adipocyte volume per tissue volume (AV/TV), and mean

  3. Rapid characterization of the chemical constituents of Cortex Fraxini by homogenate extraction followed by UHPLC coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Han, Fei; Song, Aihua; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Chunjie

    2016-11-01

    Cortex Fraxini is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, a rapid and reliable homogenate extraction method was applied for the fast extraction for Cortex Fraxini, and the method was optimized by response surface methodology. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry were established for the separation and characterization of the constituents of Cortex Fraxini. Liquid chromatography separation was conducted on a C 18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), and gas chromatography separation was performed on a capillary with a 5% phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 mm) by injection of silylated samples. According to the results, 33 chemical compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and 11 chemical compounds were characterized by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and coumarins were the major components characterized by both gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The proposed homogenate extraction was an efficient and rapid method, and coumarins, phenylethanoid glycosides, iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoids, and lignans were the main constituents of Cortex Fraxini. This work laid the foundation for further study of Cortex Fraxini and will be helpful for the rapid extraction and characterization of ingredients in other traditional Chinese medicines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antioxidative effects of cinnamomi cortex: A potential role of iNOS and COX-II

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamomi cortex has wide varieties of pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory action, anti-platelet aggregation, and improving blood circulation. In this study, we tested to determine whether the Cinnamomi cortex extract has antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative actions were explored by measuring free radical scavenging activity, NO levels, and reducing power. The mechanism of antioxidative action of Cinnamomi cortex was determined by measuring iNOS and COX-II expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw cells. Results: Seventy percent methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl--2--picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and NO scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner. More strikingly, the Cinnamomi cortex extract exerted dramatic reducing power activity (13-fold over control). Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract, suggesting that it inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Additionally, COX-2 induced by LPS was dramatically inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that 70% methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerts significant antioxidant activity via inhibiting iNOS and COX-II induction. PMID:22262934

  5. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Micelle-mediated extraction and cloud point preconcentration for the analysis of aesculin and aesculetin in Cortex fraxini by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhihong; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Hongyi

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, a micelle-mediated extraction and cloud point preconcentration method was developed for the determination of less hydrophobic compounds aesculin and aesculetin in Cortex fraxini by HPLC. Non-ionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) was employed as the extraction solvent. Various experimental conditions were investigated to optimize the extraction process. Under optimum conditions, i.e. 5% Genapol X-080 (w/v), pH 1.0, liquid/solid ratio of 400:1 (ml/g), ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 30 min, the extraction yield reached the highest value. For the preconcentration of aesculin and aesculetin by cloud point extraction (CPE), the solution was incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 55 degrees C for 30 min, and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added to the solution to facilitate the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor during the CPE process. Compared with methanol, which was used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005 edition) for the extraction of C. fraxini, the extraction efficiency of 5% Genapol X-080 reached higher value.

  7. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  8. Steroids from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach and their cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Ji, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Yun; Xia, Gang; Hu, Ying-He; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new (1-3) and several known (4-6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Chinese Melia azedarach. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry to be (20S)-5,24(28)-ergostadiene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (1), (20S)-5-ergostene-3beta,7alpha,16beta,20-tetrol (2), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydro-5-pregnen-16-one (3). The cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds against three human cancer cell lines (A549, H460, U251) were evaluated; only compounds 1, 2, and (20S)-5-stigmastene-3beta,7alpha,20-triol (4) were found to show significant cyctotoxic effects with IC(50)s from 12.0 to 30.1 microg/mL.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Rhus oxyacantha root cortex extract against DDT-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Miled, Hanène; Barka, Zaineb Ben; Hallègue, Dorsaf; Lahbib, Karima; Ladjimi, Mohamed; Tlili, Mounira; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Ksouri, Riadh; Tebourbi, Olfa

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of R. oxyacantha root cortex (RE) against DDT-induced liver injury in male rats. The RE exhibited high total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a significant potent free radical scavenging activity of the extract. The HPLC finger print of R. oxyacantha active extract showed the presence of five phenolic compounds with higher amounts of catechol and gallic acid. The in vivo results showed that a single intraperitoneal administration of DDT enhanced levels of hepatic markers (ALT, AST and LDH) in serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a significant induction of SOD and GPx, metallothioneins (MTs) and a concomitant decrease of non protein thiols (NPSH) in liver. However, pretreatment of rats with RE at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg body weight significantly lowered serum transaminases and LDH in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric reactive substances and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and hepatic MTs levels by treatment with plant extract against DDT, were observed. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations, suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of RE with the two doses used. These results strongly suggest that treatment with ethyl acetate extract normalizes various biochemical parameters and protects the liver against DDT-induced oxidative damage in rats and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural coding strategies in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2007-07-01

    In contrast to the visual system, the auditory system has longer subcortical pathways and more spiking synapses between the peripheral receptors and the cortex. This unique organization reflects the needs of the auditory system to extract behaviorally relevant information from a complex acoustic environment using strategies different from those used by other sensory systems. The neural representations of acoustic information in auditory cortex can be characterized by three types: (1) isomorphic (faithful) representations of acoustic structures; (2) non-isomorphic transformations of acoustic features and (3) transformations from acoustical to perceptual dimensions. The challenge facing auditory neurophysiologists is to understand the nature of the latter two transformations. In this article, I will review recent studies from our laboratory regarding temporal discharge patterns in auditory cortex of awake marmosets and cortical representations of time-varying signals. Findings from these studies show that (1) firing patterns of neurons in auditory cortex are dependent on stimulus optimality and context and (2) the auditory cortex forms internal representations of sounds that are no longer faithful replicas of their acoustic structures.

  11. Chemical characterization of Azadirachta indica grafted on Melia azedarach and analyses of azadirachtin by HPLC-MS-MS (SRM) and meliatoxins by MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Cornélio, Vivian Estevam; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Matinez, Sueli Souza; Napolitano, Michael P; Yost, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Melia azedarach adapted to cool climates was selected as rootstocks for vegetative propagation of Azadirachta indica. Cleft grafting of A. indica on M. azedarach rootstock showed excellent survival. Little is known about the chemistry of grafting. The roots, stems, leaves and seeds of this graft were examined in order to verify if grafted A. indica would produce limonoids different from those found in non-grafted plants. Intact matured fruits were also studied to verify if they were free of meliatoxins. After successive chromatographic separations the extracts afforded several limonoids. HPLC-MS/MS and MALDI-MS were used to develop sensitive methods for detecting azadirachtin on all aerial parts of this graft and meliatoxins in fruits, respectively. The stem afforded the limonoid salannin, which was previously found in the oil seeds of A. indica. Salannin is also found in the root bark of M. azedarach. Thus, the finding of salannin in this study suggests that it could have been translocated from the M. azedarach rootstock to the A. indica graft. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that azadirachtin was present in all parts of the fruits, stem, flowers and root, but absent in the leaves. The results of MALDI-MS analyses confirmed the absence of meliatoxins in graft fruits. This study showed that A. indica grafted onto M. azedarach rootstock produces azadirachtin, and also that its fruits are free of meliatoxins from rootstocks, confirming that this graft forms an excellent basis for breeding vigorous Neem trees in cooler regions.

  12. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for amore » new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.« less

  13. Symmetric Supercapacitor Electrodes from KOH Activation of Pristine, Carbonized, and Hydrothermally Treated Melia azedarach Stones.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Carlos; García-Rosero, Helena; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco

    2017-07-04

    Waste biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) are promising materials for supercapacitor electrodes due to their abundance and low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential use of Melia azedarach (MA) stones to prepare ACs for supercapacitors. The ash content was considerably lower in MA stones (0.7% ash) than that found in other lignocellulosic wastes. ACs were prepared by KOH activation of pristine, carbonized, and hydrothermally-treated MA stones. The morphology, composition, surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry of the ACs were determined. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in three- and two-electrode cells, 3EC and 2EC, respectively, using 1 M H₂SO₄ as the electrolyte. The highest capacitance from galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) in 2EC ranged between 232 and 240 F·g -1 at 1 A·g -1 . The maximum energy density reached was 27.4 Wh·kg -1 at a power density of 110 W·kg -1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed an increase in equivalent series resistance (ESR) and charge transfer resistance (R CT ) with greater ash content. Electrochemical performance of MA stone-derived ACs was compared with that of other ACs described in the recent literature that were prepared from different biomass wastes and results showed that they are among the best ACs for supercapacitor applications.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  15. Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

    2015-02-01

    Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 7.94, LC90 = 23.82 ppm and LC50 = 13.58 and LC90 = 40.03 ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 4.27 and 3.43 µg/mL; LC90 = 12.61 and 10.29 µg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24 h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A novel component of cannabis extract potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat olfactory cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Benjamin J; Wilkinson, Jonathan D; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Constanti, Andrew

    2004-07-15

    Cannabis is a potential treatment for epilepsy, although the few human studies supporting this use have proved inconclusive. Previously, we showed that a standardized cannabis extract (SCE), isolated Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and even Delta9-THC-free SCE inhibited muscarinic agonist-induced epileptiform bursting in rat olfactory cortical brain slices, acting via CB1 receptors. The present work demonstrates that although Delta9-THC (1 microM) significantly depressed evoked depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rat olfactory cortex neurones, both SCE and Delta9-THC-free SCE significantly potentiated evoked PSPs (all results were fully reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, 1 microM); interestingly, the potentiation by Delta9-THC-free SCE was greater than that produced by SCE. On comparing the effects of Delta9-THC-free SCE upon evoked PSPs and artificial PSPs (aPSPs; evoked electrotonically following brief intracellular current injection), PSPs were enhanced, whereas aPSPs were unaffected, suggesting that the effect was not due to changes in background input resistance. Similar recordings made using CB1 receptor-deficient knockout mice (CB1-/-) and wild-type littermate controls revealed cannabinoid or extract-induced changes in membrane resistance, cell excitability and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice that were similar to those seen in rat neurones, but no effect on these properties were seen in CB1-/- cells. It appears that the unknown extract constituent(s) effects over-rode the suppressive effects of Delta9-THC on excitatory neurotransmitter release, which may explain some patients' preference for herbal cannabis rather than isolated Delta9-THC (due to attenuation of some of the central Delta9-THC side effects) and possibly account for the rare incidence of seizures in some individuals taking cannabis recreationally.

  17. Affective facilitation of early visual cortex during rapid picture presentation at 6 and 15 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Bekhtereva, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), a neurophysiological marker of attentional resource allocation with its generators in early visual cortex, exhibits enhanced amplitude for emotional compared to neutral complex pictures. Emotional cue extraction for complex images is linked to the N1-EPN complex with a peak latency of ∼140–160 ms. We tested whether neural facilitation in early visual cortex with affective pictures requires emotional cue extraction of individual images, even when a stream of images of the same valence category is presented. Images were shown at either 6 Hz (167 ms, allowing for extraction) or 15 Hz (67 ms per image, causing disruption of processing by the following image). Results showed SSVEP amplitude enhancement for emotional compared to neutral images at a presentation rate of 6 Hz but no differences at 15 Hz. This was not due to featural differences between the two valence categories. Results strongly suggest that individual images need to be displayed for sufficient time allowing for emotional cue extraction to drive affective neural modulation in early visual cortex. PMID:25971598

  18. Harmonic template neurons in primate auditory cortex underlying complex sound processing

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Harmonicity is a fundamental element of music, speech, and animal vocalizations. How the auditory system extracts harmonic structures embedded in complex sounds and uses them to form a coherent unitary entity is not fully understood. Despite the prevalence of sounds rich in harmonic structures in our everyday hearing environment, it has remained largely unknown what neural mechanisms are used by the primate auditory cortex to extract these biologically important acoustic structures. In this study, we discovered a unique class of harmonic template neurons in the core region of auditory cortex of a highly vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), across the entire hearing frequency range. Marmosets have a rich vocal repertoire and a similar hearing range to that of humans. Responses of these neurons show nonlinear facilitation to harmonic complex sounds over inharmonic sounds, selectivity for particular harmonic structures beyond two-tone combinations, and sensitivity to harmonic number and spectral regularity. Our findings suggest that the harmonic template neurons in auditory cortex may play an important role in processing sounds with harmonic structures, such as animal vocalizations, human speech, and music. PMID:28096341

  19. Motor cortex guides selection of predictable movement targets

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Philip J.W.; Strauss, Soeren; Sami, Saber A.; Heinke, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper asks whether the motor cortex contributes to prediction-based guidance of target selection. This question was inspired by recent evidence that suggests (i) recurrent connections from the motor system into the attentional system may extract movement-relevant perceptual information and (ii) that the motor cortex cannot only generate predictions of the sensory consequences of movements but may also operate as predictor of perceptual events in general. To test this idea we employed a choice reaching task requiring participants to rapidly reach and touch a predictable or unpredictable colour target. Motor cortex activity was modulated via transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In Experiment 1 target colour repetitions were predictable. Under such conditions anodal tDCS facilitated selection versus sham and cathodal tDCS. This improvement was apparent for trajectory curvature but not movement initiation. Conversely, where no predictability of colour was embedded reach performance was unaffected by tDCS. Finally, the results of a key-press experiment suggested that motor cortex involvement is restricted to tasks where the predictable target colour is movement-relevant. The outcomes are interpreted as evidence that the motor system contributes to the top-down guidance of selective attention to movement targets. PMID:25835319

  20. Simultaneous determination of limonin, dictamnine, obacunone and fraxinellone in rat plasma by a validated UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Cortex Dictamni extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Sun, Jianbo; Gao, Enze; Zhao, Yunli; Qu, Wei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2013-06-01

    A rapid and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four major ingredients in Cortex Dictamni extract, including limonin, dictamnine, obacunone and fraxinellone in rats plasma. Nimodipine was used as the internal standard. Following extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether, the analytes were separated on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column by a gradient elution within a runtime of 9min. The mobile phase consisted of A (methanol) and B (2mmol/L ammonium acetate in water). The detection was accomplished by using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The lower limits of quantification were 9.18ng/mL for limonin, 12.0ng/mL for dictamnine, 16.05ng/mL for obacunone and 4.59ng/mL for fraxinellone. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was within 10% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -12.9% to 9.7%. This rapid and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of limonin, dictamnine, obacunone and fraxinellone in the rat plasma after oral administration of Cortex Dictamni extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of autophagy in apoptosis induction by methylene chloride extracts of Mori cortex in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Chi, Gyoo Yong; Eom, Hyun Sup; Kim, Gi-Young; Hyun, Jin Won; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-06-01

    The root of Mori cortex has traditionally been used in Korea for the treatment of cutaneous inflammation, pulmonary asthma, and congestion for thousands of years. The present study was designed to validate the anticancer effects of methylene chloride extracts of the M. cortex root (MEMC) in NCI-H460 human lung carcinoma cells. Exposure to MEMC was found to result in growth inhibition by the induction of caspase‑dependent apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells, which correlated with upregulated expression of death receptor (DR)4, DR5 and FasL, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression, cleavage of Bid, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, autophagosomes, a characteristic finding of autophagy, and markers of autophagy, conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II and increased beclin-1 accumulation, were observed in MEMC-treated NCI-H460 cells. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or LC3B small interfering (siRNA) resulted in enhanced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that MEMC-induced autophagy functions as a suppressor of apoptosis. MEMC-induced autophagy was also blocked by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and catalase, indicating that H2O2 can regulate autophagy. Our data demonstrate that MEMC triggers both ROS-mediated autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis, and that autophagy plays a protective role against apoptotic cell death.

  2. Cognitive processing in the primary visual cortex: from perception to memory.

    PubMed

    Supèr, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The primary visual cortex is the first cortical area of the visual system that receives information from the external visual world. Based on the receptive field characteristics of the neurons in this area, it has been assumed that the primary visual cortex is a pure sensory area extracting basic elements of the visual scene. This information is then subsequently further processed upstream in the higher-order visual areas and provides us with perception and storage of the visual environment. However, recent findings show that such neural implementations are observed in the primary visual cortex. These neural correlates are expressed by the modulated activity of the late response of a neuron to a stimulus, and most likely depend on recurrent interactions between several areas of the visual system. This favors the concept of a distributed nature of visual processing in perceptual organization.

  3. Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by the four herb extracts. Among the four herbs, P. chinensis cortex and S. baicalensis had the greatest inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa, followed by C reticulate peel and A. annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies.

  4. Multineuronal vectorization is more efficient than time-segmental vectorization for information extraction from neuronal activities in the inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hidekazu; Tamura, Hiroshi; Tate, Shunta; Kawashima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Shinya S; Fujita, Ichiro

    2010-08-01

    In order for patients with disabilities to control assistive devices with their own neural activity, multineuronal spike trains must be efficiently decoded because only limited computational resources can be used to generate prosthetic control signals in portable real-time applications. In this study, we compare the abilities of two vectorizing procedures (multineuronal and time-segmental) to extract information from spike trains during the same total neuron-seconds. In the multineuronal vectorizing procedure, we defined a response vector whose components represented the spike counts of one to five neurons. In the time-segmental vectorizing procedure, a response vector consisted of components representing a neuron's spike counts for one to five time-segment(s) of a response period of 1 s. Spike trains were recorded from neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys presented with visual stimuli. We examined whether the amount of information of the visual stimuli carried by these neurons differed between the two vectorizing procedures. The amount of information calculated with the multineuronal vectorizing procedure, but not the time-segmental vectorizing procedure, significantly increased with the dimensions of the response vector. We conclude that the multineuronal vectorizing procedure is superior to the time-segmental vectorizing procedure in efficiently extracting information from neuronal signals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered fatty acid concentrations in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbances in prefrontal cortex phospholipid and fatty acid composition have been reported in schizophrenic (SCZ) patients, often as percent of total lipid concentration or incomplete lipid profile. In this study, we quantified absolute concentrations (nmol/g wet weight) of several lipid classes and their constituent fatty acids in postmortem prefrontal cortex of SCZ patients (n = 10) and age-matched controls (n = 10). Methods Lipids were extracted, fractionated with thin layer chromatography and assayed. Results Mean total lipid, phospholipid, individual phospholipids, plasmalogen, triglyceride and cholesteryl ester concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups. Compared to controls, SCZ brains showed significant increases in several monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl ester. Significant increases or decreases occurred in palmitoleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid in total lipids, triglycerides or phospholipids. Conclusion These changes suggest disturbed prefrontal cortex fatty acid concentrations, particularly within cholesteryl esters, as a pathological aspect of schizophrenia. PMID:23428160

  6. Task-dependent recurrent dynamics in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Satohiro; Koida, Kowa; Tajima, Chihiro I; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2017-01-01

    The capacity for flexible sensory-action association in animals has been related to context-dependent attractor dynamics outside the sensory cortices. Here, we report a line of evidence that flexibly modulated attractor dynamics during task switching are already present in the higher visual cortex in macaque monkeys. With a nonlinear decoding approach, we can extract the particular aspect of the neural population response that reflects the task-induced emergence of bistable attractor dynamics in a neural population, which could be obscured by standard unsupervised dimensionality reductions such as PCA. The dynamical modulation selectively increases the information relevant to task demands, indicating that such modulation is beneficial for perceptual decisions. A computational model that features nonlinear recurrent interaction among neurons with a task-dependent background input replicates the key properties observed in the experimental data. These results suggest that the context-dependent attractor dynamics involving the sensory cortex can underlie flexible perceptual abilities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26868.001 PMID:28737487

  7. Auto-cortex of crystalline lens-induced iris neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Li, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Wen-Xin

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate auto-cortex of crystalline lens induced iris neovascularization (INV). METHODS Thirty-six eyes of 36 guinea-pigs were included and divided into three groups randomly in this cohort study. Group A: the right lens nucleus was extracted and the remaining cortical lens material was aspirated thoroughly. Group B: the lens was removed and 30µL precipitated lens cortex was injected into the anterior chamber again. Group C: aspirated the lens cortex of the left eyes and inject them into the right anterior chambers about 10µL. Clinical changes were followed by slit-lamp examination and photograph. The eye balls were enucleated at the day of 2, 4, 7, 11, 13, 17 after operation. HE was used to detect the pathological changes. RESULTS Group A: INV had not been observed until the end of empirical study. The stromal layer contained thick wall vessels, without expansion. Group B: All eyes developed INV. Postoperative (po) 7 days; the eyes developed intense and extensive INV. The vessels of iris expanded remarkably and neovascularization was observed erupting from it's lateral wall and stretching towards the anterior surface. Po11 days, INV regressed gradually after lens cortex had been absorbed. Group C: Po four (4) days, new blood vessels liking red line were presented on the anterior surface of the iris and they were not obvious. CONCLUSION Anterior chamber inside lens coriaceous can induce iris new blood vessels. PMID:22553749

  8. Dual-Pitch Processing Mechanisms in Primate Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bendor, Daniel; Osmanski, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Pitch, our perception of how high or low a sound is on a musical scale, is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sounds and is important for both music and speech. After more than a century of research, the exact mechanisms used by the auditory system to extract pitch are still being debated. Theoretically, pitch can be computed using either spectral or temporal acoustic features of a sound. We have investigated how cues derived from the temporal envelope and spectrum of an acoustic signal are used for pitch extraction in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a vocal primate species, by measuring pitch discrimination behaviorally and examining pitch-selective neuronal responses in auditory cortex. We find that pitch is extracted by marmosets using temporal envelope cues for lower pitch sounds composed of higher-order harmonics, whereas spectral cues are used for higher pitch sounds with lower-order harmonics. Our data support dual-pitch processing mechanisms, originally proposed by psychophysicists based on human studies, whereby pitch is extracted using a combination of temporal envelope and spectral cues. PMID:23152599

  9. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    PubMed

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  10. The effects of sesquiterpenes-rich extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on amyloid-β-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal abnormalities in the cortex and hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun; Jia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ(1-42) and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions.

  11. The Effects of Sesquiterpenes-Rich Extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on Amyloid-β-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Neuronal Abnormalities in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ 1−42 and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions. PMID:25180067

  12. Long-term neuroplasticity of the face primary motor cortex and adjacent somatosensory cortex induced by tooth loss can be reversed following dental implant replacement in rats.

    PubMed

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sood, Mandeep; Lakschevitz, Flavia; Fung, Michelle; Barashi-Gozal, Maayan; Glogauer, Michael; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is common, and exploring the neuroplastic capacity of the face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) is crucial for understanding how subjects adapt to tooth loss and their prosthetic replacement. The aim was to test if functional reorganization of jaw and tongue motor representations in the rat face-M1 and face-S1 occurs following tooth extraction, and if subsequent dental implant placement can reverse this neuroplasticity. Rats (n = 22) had the right maxillary molar teeth extracted under local and general anesthesia. One month later, seven rats had dental implant placement into healed extraction sites. Naive rats (n = 8) received no surgical treatment. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recording of evoked jaw and tongue electromyographic responses were used to define jaw and tongue motor representations at 1 month (n = 8) or 2 months (n = 7) postextraction, 1 month postimplant placement, and at 1-2 months in naive rats. There were no significant differences across study groups in the onset latencies of the ICMS-evoked responses (P > 0.05), but in comparison with naive rats, tooth extraction caused a significant (P < 0.05) and sustained (1-2 months) decreased number of ICMS-defined jaw and tongue sites within face-M1 and -S1, and increased thresholds of ICMS-evoked responses in these sites. Furthermore, dental implant placement reversed the extraction-induced changes in face-S1, and in face-M1 the number of jaw sites even increased as compared to naive rats. These novel findings suggest that face-M1 and adjacent face-S1 may play a role in adaptive mechanisms related to tooth loss and their replacement with dental implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Representation of Prediction Error in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan; Ulanovsky, Nachum; Tishby, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    To survive, organisms must extract information from the past that is relevant for their future. How this process is expressed at the neural level remains unclear. We address this problem by developing a novel approach from first principles. We show here how to generate low-complexity representations of the past that produce optimal predictions of future events. We then illustrate this framework by studying the coding of ‘oddball’ sequences in auditory cortex. We find that for many neurons in primary auditory cortex, trial-by-trial fluctuations of neuronal responses correlate with the theoretical prediction error calculated from the short-term past of the stimulation sequence, under constraints on the complexity of the representation of this past sequence. In some neurons, the effect of prediction error accounted for more than 50% of response variability. Reliable predictions often depended on a representation of the sequence of the last ten or more stimuli, although the representation kept only few details of that sequence. PMID:27490251

  14. Optogenetic stimulation of cortex to map evoked whisker movements in awake head-restrained mice.

    PubMed

    Auffret, Matthieu; Ravano, Veronica L; Rossi, Giulia M C; Hankov, Nicolas; Petersen, Merissa F A; Petersen, Carl C H

    2018-01-01

    Whisker movements are used by rodents to touch objects in order to extract spatial and textural tactile information about their immediate surroundings. To understand the mechanisms of such active sensorimotor processing it is important to investigate whisker motor control. The activity of neurons in the neocortex affects whisker movements, but many aspects of the organization of cortical whisker motor control remain unknown. Here, we filmed whisker movements evoked by sequential optogenetic stimulation of different locations across the left dorsal sensorimotor cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker movements were evoked by optogenetic stimulation of many regions in the dorsal sensorimotor cortex. Optogenetic stimulation of whisker sensory barrel cortex evoked retraction of the contralateral whisker after a short latency, and a delayed rhythmic protraction of the ipsilateral whisker. Optogenetic stimulation of frontal cortex evoked rhythmic bilateral whisker protraction with a longer latency compared to stimulation of sensory cortex. Compared to frontal cortex stimulation, larger amplitude bilateral rhythmic whisking in a less protracted position was evoked at a similar latency by stimulating a cortical region posterior to Bregma and close to the midline. These data suggest that whisker motor control might be broadly distributed across the dorsal mouse sensorimotor cortex. Future experiments must investigate the complex neuronal circuits connecting specific cell-types in various cortical regions with the whisker motor neurons located in the facial nucleus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal cortex segmentation using optimal surface search with novel graph construction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuli; Chen, Xinjian; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xing; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to solve the renal cortex segmentation problem, which has rarely been studied. In this study, the renal cortex segmentation problem is handled as a multiple-surfaces extraction problem, which is solved using the optimal surface search method. We propose a novel graph construction scheme in the optimal surface search to better accommodate multiple surfaces. Different surface sub-graphs are constructed according to their properties, and inter-surface relationships are also modeled in the graph. The proposed method was tested on 17 clinical CT datasets. The true positive volume fraction (TPVF) and false positive volume fraction (FPVF) are 74.10% and 0.08%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  17. [PREPARATION OF HUMAN TISSUE PROTEIN EXTRACTS ENRICHED WITH THE SPHINGOMYELIN SYNTHASE 1].

    PubMed

    Sudarkina, O Yu; Dergunova, L V

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS 1) catalyzes sphingomyelin biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. We previously studied the structure of the human SGMS1 gene, which encodes the enzyme and its numerous transcripts. The tissue-specific expression of the transcripts was also described. Analysis of the SMS1 protein expression in human tissues using immunoblotting of tissue extracts prepared in the RIPA (Radio Immuno-Precipitation Assay) buffer revealed a weak signal in renal cortex, testis, lung, and no signal in placenta and lymphatic node. In this work, a new method of preparation of the tissue protein extracts enriched with SMS1 was suggested. The method based on the consecutive extraction with a buffer containing 0.05 and 1 mg/ml of the Quillaja saponaria saponin allowed SMS1 to be detected in all tissues tested. The SMS1 content in the saponin extract of kidney cortex is about 12-fold higher compared to the RIPA extraction procedure.

  18. Cholecystokinin from the entorhinal cortex enables neural plasticity in the auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Kai; Zhang, Zicong; Sun, Wenjian; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Jingyu; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Yi Ping; He, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe show deficits in forming new declarative memories but can still recall older memories, suggesting that the medial temporal lobe is necessary for encoding memories in the neocortex. Here, we found that cortical projection neurons in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices were mostly immunopositive for cholecystokinin (CCK). Local infusion of CCK in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats induced plastic changes that enabled cortical neurons to potentiate their responses or to start responding to an auditory stimulus that was paired with a tone that robustly triggered action potentials. CCK infusion also enabled auditory neurons to start responding to a light stimulus that was paired with a noise burst. In vivo intracellular recordings in the auditory cortex showed that synaptic strength was potentiated after two pairings of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity in the presence of CCK. Infusion of a CCKB antagonist in the auditory cortex prevented the formation of a visuo-auditory association in awake rats. Finally, activation of the entorhinal cortex potentiated neuronal responses in the auditory cortex, which was suppressed by infusion of a CCKB antagonist. Together, these findings suggest that the medial temporal lobe influences neocortical plasticity via CCK-positive cortical projection neurons in the entorhinal cortex. PMID:24343575

  19. Spatial frequency supports the emergence of categorical representations in visual cortex during natural scene perception.

    PubMed

    Dima, Diana C; Perry, Gavin; Singh, Krish D

    2018-06-11

    In navigating our environment, we rapidly process and extract meaning from visual cues. However, the relationship between visual features and categorical representations in natural scene perception is still not well understood. Here, we used natural scene stimuli from different categories and filtered at different spatial frequencies to address this question in a passive viewing paradigm. Using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and cross-decoding of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we show that categorical representations emerge in human visual cortex at ∼180 ms and are linked to spatial frequency processing. Furthermore, dorsal and ventral stream areas reveal temporally and spatially overlapping representations of low and high-level layer activations extracted from a feedforward neural network. Our results suggest that neural patterns from extrastriate visual cortex switch from low-level to categorical representations within 200 ms, highlighting the rapid cascade of processing stages essential in human visual perception. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Portulaca oleraceae Ethanolic Extract Ameliorates Methylmercury Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Cerebellum and Cortex of Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Christinal, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in human is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. Portulaca oleraceae (purslane), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked the eighth most common plant in the world. In this study, we sought for potential beneficial effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract (POEE) against the neurotoxicity induced by MeHg in cerebellum and cortex of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with POEE (4 mg/kg, orally) 1 h prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After MeHg exposure, we determine the mercury concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); mercury content was observed high in MeHg-induced group. POEE reduced the mercury content. We also observed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the level of glutathione were reduced. The levels of glutathione reductase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were found to be increased. The above biochemical changes were found to be reversed with POEE. Behavioral changes like decrease tail flick response, longer immobility time, and decreased motor activity were noted down during MeHg exposure. POEE pretreatment offered protection from these behavioral changes. MeHg intoxication also caused histopathological changes in cerebellum and cortex, which was found to be normalized by treatment with POEE. The present results indicate that POEE has protective effect against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity.

  1. The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

  2. Cortical integrity of the inferior alveolar canal as a predictor of paresthesia after third-molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Park, Wonse; Choi, Ji-Wook; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Bong-Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2010-03-01

    Paresthesia is a well-known complication of extraction of mandibular third molars (MTMs). The authors evaluated the relationship between paresthesia after MTM extraction and the cortical integrity of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) by using computed tomography (CT). The authors designed a retrospective cohort study involving participants considered, on the basis of panoramic imaging, to be at high risk of experiencing injury of the inferior alveolar nerve who subsequently underwent CT imaging and extraction of the MTMs. The primary predictor variable was the contact relationship between the IAC and the MTM as viewed on a CT image, classified into three groups: group 1, no contact; group 2, contact between the MTM and the intact IAC cortex; group 3, contact between the MTM and the interrupted IAC cortex. The secondary predictor variable was the number of CT image slices showing the cortical interruption around the MTM. The outcome variable was the presence or absence of postoperative paresthesia after MTM extraction. The study sample comprised 179 participants who underwent MTM extraction (a total of 259 MTMs). Their mean age was 23.6 years, and 85 (47.5 percent) were male. The overall prevalence of paresthesia was 4.2 percent (11 of 259 teeth). The prevalence of paresthesia in group 3 (involving an interrupted IAC cortex) was 11.8 percent (10 of 85 cases), while for group 2 (involving an intact IAC cortex) and group 1 (involving no contact) it was 1.0 percent (1 of 98 cases) and 0.0 percent (no cases), respectively. The frequency of nerve damage increased with the number of CT image slices showing loss of cortical integrity (P=.043). The results of this study indicate that loss of IAC cortical integrity is associated with an increased risk of experiencing paresthesia after MTM extraction.

  3. HPLC-PDA analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of Mori Cortex Radicis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Lim, Hye-Sun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Ha, Hyekyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2013-10-01

    Mori Cortex Radicis (MCR, Moraceae) is used traditionally in the treatment ofjaundice, hematemesis, edema, and pollakisuria in Korea. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of MCR extract were investigated using RAW 264.7 cells. The simultaneous analysis of five components present (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid) in the MCR extract was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array (PDA) detection. We determined the effects of MCR extract and its components on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. MCR extract suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. None of the five components of the MCR extract had any influence on the production of NO. However, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid inhibited the production of PGE2 and mRNA expression of COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggest that MCR extract may offer potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation. The method we have established will help to improve the quality control of MCR extracts.

  4. The parietal cortex in sensemaking: the dissociation of multiple types of spatial information.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    According to the data-frame theory, sensemaking is a macrocognitive process in which people try to make sense of or explain their observations by processing a number of explanatory structures called frames until the observations and frames become congruent. During the sensemaking process, the parietal cortex has been implicated in various cognitive tasks for the functions related to spatial and temporal information processing, mathematical thinking, and spatial attention. In particular, the parietal cortex plays important roles by extracting multiple representations of magnitudes at the early stages of perceptual analysis. By a series of neural network simulations, we demonstrate that the dissociation of different types of spatial information can start early with a rather similar structure (i.e., sensitivity on a common metric), but accurate representations require specific goal-directed top-down controls due to the interference in selective attention. Our results suggest that the roles of the parietal cortex rely on the hierarchical organization of multiple spatial representations and their interactions. The dissociation and interference between different types of spatial information are essentially the result of the competition at different levels of abstraction.

  5. Useful signals from motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the motor cortical function has been explained as a funnel to muscle activation. This invokes the idea that motor cortical neurons, or ‘upper motoneurons’, directly cause muscle contraction just like spinal motoneurons. Thus, the motor cortex and muscle activity are inextricably entwined like a puppet master and his marionette. Recently, this concept has been challenged by current experimentation showing that many behavioural aspects of action are represented in motor cortical activity. Although this activity may still be related to muscle activation, the relation between the two is likely to be indirect and complex, whereas the relation between cortical activity and kinematic parameters is simple and robust. These findings show how to extract useful signals that help explain the underlying process that generates behaviour and to harness these signals for potentially therapeutic applications. PMID:17255162

  6. Brain networks of social action-outcome contingency: The role of the ventral striatum in integrating signals from the sensory cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sumiya, Motofumi; Koike, Takahiko; Okazaki, Shuntaro; Kitada, Ryo; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-10-01

    Social interactions can be facilitated by action-outcome contingency, in which self-actions result in relevant responses from others. Research has indicated that the striatal reward system plays a role in generating action-outcome contingency signals. However, the neural mechanisms wherein signals regarding self-action and others' responses are integrated to generate the contingency signal remain poorly understood. We conducted a functional MRI study to test the hypothesis that brain activity representing the self modulates connectivity between the striatal reward system and sensory regions involved in the processing of others' responses. We employed a contingency task in which participants made the listener laugh by telling jokes. Participants reported more pleasure when greater laughter followed their own jokes than those of another. Self-relevant listener's responses produced stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Laughter was associated with activity in the auditory cortex. The ventral striatum exhibited stronger activation when participants made listeners laugh than when another did. In physio-physiological interaction analyses, the ventral striatum showed interaction effects for signals extracted from the mPFC and auditory cortex. These results support the hypothesis that the mPFC, which is implicated in self-related processing, gates sensory input associated with others' responses during value processing in the ventral striatum. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through modulating AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Xu, Ling; Li, Baoying; Zhang, Weidong; Zhang, Chengmei; Feng, Hong; Cui, Xiaopei; Gao, Haiqing

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a severe complication in patients with long-term hyperglycemia. Oxidative stress is thought to be closely implicated in this disorder, so in this study, we examined whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a naturally occurring antioxidant derived from grape seeds, could reduce the injuries in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats by modulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/the receptor for AGEs (RAGE)/nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-kappaB p65) pathway, which is crucial in oxidative stress. Body weight and serum AGEs were tested; cerebral cortexes were isolated for morphological observations and the pyramidal cell layers were immunohistochemically stained for the detection of RAGE, NF-kappaB p65, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as well. For RAGE and NF-kappaB p65, quantitative reverse transcriptase coupled to polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed for determination of mRNA levels, and western blot was used to detect protein expression. Our results showed that long term hyperglycemia in diabetic rats caused the degeneration of neurons and the up-regulation of serum AGEs, and also the up-regulation of RAGE, NF-kappaB p65, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the brain. We found that GSPE treatment improved the pathological changes of diabetic rats by modulating the AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB p65 pathway. This study enables us to further understand the key role that the AGEs/RAGE/NF-kappaB pathway plays in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy, and confirms that GSPE might be a therapeutical means to the prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  8. Mastoid cortex plasty using bone pate.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Naoaki; Hinohira, Yasuyuki; Sato, Hidemitu

    2002-07-01

    To describe the surgical technique of mastoid cortex plasty using bone pate and its clinical significance. Retrospective. Tertiary medical center. Bone pate collected while drilling the mastoid cortex was mixed with fibrin glue to make a pate plate. The mastoid cortex defect was closed with a pate plate cut to the desired shape and size. Mastoid cortex plasty was included in the first-stage operation in 49 patients who underwent staged tympanoplasty. The second-stage operation was an inspection to see whether the mastoid cortex was reconstructed and the ingrowth of fibrous soft tissue was prevented. In 35 patients, the mastoid cortex was reconstructed completely, and soft tissue ingrowth into the mastoid cavity was blocked completely. In the remaining 14 patients, a defect of varying size occurred at the site of drainage-tube insertion. This defect was small enough to prevent soft tissue ingrowth into the mastoid cavity. Mastoid cortex plasty is a simple and rapid procedure for preventing postoperative deformity of the mastoid process and is valuable for restoring mastoid cavity function.

  9. The role of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in action verb comprehension: evidence from Granger causality analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2012-08-01

    Although numerous studies find the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are involved in action language comprehension, so far the nature of these motor effects is still in controversy. Some researchers suggest that the motor effects reflect that the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex make functional contributions to the semantic access of action verbs, while other authors argue that the motor effects are caused by comprehension. In the current study, we used Granger causality analysis to investigate the roles of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in processing of manual-action verbs. Regions of interest were selected in the primary motor cortex (M1) and the premotor cortex based on a hand motion task, and in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lexical semantic area) based on the reading task effect. We found that (1) the left posterior middle temporal gyrus had a causal influence on the left M1; and (2) the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and the left premotor cortex had bidirectional causal relations. These results suggest that the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex play different roles in manual verb comprehension. The premotor cortex may be involved in motor simulation that contributes to action language processing, while the primary motor cortex may be engaged in a processing stage influenced by the meaning access of manual-action verbs. Further investigation combining effective connectivity analysis and technique with high temporal resolution is necessary for better clarification of the roles of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex in action language comprehension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Parietal Cortex in Sensemaking: The Dissociation of Multiple Types of Spatial Information

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanlong; Wang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    According to the data-frame theory, sensemaking is a macrocognitive process in which people try to make sense of or explain their observations by processing a number of explanatory structures called frames until the observations and frames become congruent. During the sensemaking process, the parietal cortex has been implicated in various cognitive tasks for the functions related to spatial and temporal information processing, mathematical thinking, and spatial attention. In particular, the parietal cortex plays important roles by extracting multiple representations of magnitudes at the early stages of perceptual analysis. By a series of neural network simulations, we demonstrate that the dissociation of different types of spatial information can start early with a rather similar structure (i.e., sensitivity on a common metric), but accurate representations require specific goal-directed top-down controls due to the interference in selective attention. Our results suggest that the roles of the parietal cortex rely on the hierarchical organization of multiple spatial representations and their interactions. The dissociation and interference between different types of spatial information are essentially the result of the competition at different levels of abstraction. PMID:23710165

  11. Proliferative effect of plants used for wound healing in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alerico, Gabriela C; Beckenkamp, Aline; Vignoli-Silva, Márcia; Buffon, Andréia; von Poser, Gilsane L

    2015-12-24

    Wounds are normally resolved in a few days, but chronic wounds represent a major burden because of economic and social factors. Thereby, the search for new agents is ongoing and natural products become a great target. Also, Brazil as a consumer of herbal medicines with rich social diversity is promising for ethnopharmacological studies. The study aims to find the plants popularly used for wound healing purposes in Rio Grande do Sul state, and test the traditional knowledge through an in vitro screening. Ethnobotanical studies from state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed to find the most used plants to treat wounds. The selected species were collected, identified and ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared. After, proliferative capacity was accessed by MTT assay in a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The survey comprehended almost all state regions and led to 117 plant species from 85 genera, from which 14 were selected for in vitro testing. Aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides DC Lam., Matricaria recutita L., Melia azedarach L. and Mirabilis jalapa L. demonstrated the ability to stimulate keratinocyte growth up to 120% in concentrations of 25 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL. The ethanolic extract of A. satureioides was able to stimulate keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation on the lower concentration tested, 1 µg/mL, being the most promising species. The traditional knowledge collected from the ethnobotanical studies was accessed by in vitro investigation and extracts from Achyrocline satureioides, Matricaria recutita, Melia azedarach and Mirabilis jalapa can influence positively cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was cortex boundaries on 3D images was critical to obtaining accurate measurements. MR prefrontal cortex volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  13. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  14. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002) found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary somatosensory cortex (SI) early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence from human EEG and single-cell recording in primates that instead points to prefrontal cortex as the storage substrate for vibrotactile memory. In the present study, we use computational methods to demonstrate how Harris et al.'s results can be reproduced by TMS-induced activity in sensory cortex and subsequent feedforward interference with memory traces stored in prefrontal cortex, thereby reconciling discordant findings in the tactile memory literature.

  15. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Taylor, Kirsten I.

    2012-01-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  16. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  17. Occipital cortex of blind individuals is functionally coupled with executive control areas of frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Deen, Ben; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In congenital blindness, the occipital cortex responds to a range of nonvisual inputs, including tactile, auditory, and linguistic stimuli. Are these changes in functional responses to stimuli accompanied by altered interactions with nonvisual functional networks? To answer this question, we introduce a data-driven method that searches across cortex for functional connectivity differences across groups. Replicating prior work, we find increased fronto-occipital functional connectivity in congenitally blind relative to blindfolded sighted participants. We demonstrate that this heightened connectivity extends over most of occipital cortex but is specific to a subset of regions in the inferior, dorsal, and medial frontal lobe. To assess the functional profile of these frontal areas, we used an n-back working memory task and a sentence comprehension task. We find that, among prefrontal areas with overconnectivity to occipital cortex, one left inferior frontal region responds to language over music. By contrast, the majority of these regions responded to working memory load but not language. These results suggest that in blindness occipital cortex interacts more with working memory systems and raise new questions about the function and mechanism of occipital plasticity.

  18. Vibrissa motor cortex activity suppresses contralateral whisking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Christian Laut; Doron, Guy; Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity. To understand this activity decrease, we performed juxtacellular recordings, nanostimulation and in vivo whole-cell recordings. Social touch resulted in decreased spiking activity, decreased cell excitability and membrane hyperpolarization. Activation of vibrissa motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation elicited whisker retraction, as if to abort vibrissal touch. Various vibrissa motor cortex inactivation protocols resulted in contralateral protraction and increased whisker movements. These data collectively point to movement suppression as a prime function of vibrissa motor cortex activity.

  19. Reconstructing Perceived and Retrieved Faces from Activity Patterns in Lateral Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongmi; Kuhl, Brice A

    2016-06-01

    Recent findings suggest that the contents of memory encoding and retrieval can be decoded from the angular gyrus (ANG), a subregion of posterior lateral parietal cortex. However, typical decoding approaches provide little insight into the nature of ANG content representations. Here, we tested whether complex, multidimensional stimuli (faces) could be reconstructed from ANG by predicting underlying face components from fMRI activity patterns in humans. Using an approach inspired by computer vision methods for face recognition, we applied principal component analysis to a large set of face images to generate eigenfaces. We then modeled relationships between eigenface values and patterns of fMRI activity. Activity patterns evoked by individual faces were then used to generate predicted eigenface values, which could be transformed into reconstructions of individual faces. We show that visually perceived faces were reliably reconstructed from activity patterns in occipitotemporal cortex and several lateral parietal subregions, including ANG. Subjective assessment of reconstructed faces revealed specific sources of information (e.g., affect and skin color) that were successfully reconstructed in ANG. Strikingly, we also found that a model trained on ANG activity patterns during face perception was able to successfully reconstruct an independent set of face images that were held in memory. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that ANG forms complex, stimulus-specific representations that are reflected in activity patterns evoked during perception and remembering. Neuroimaging studies have consistently implicated lateral parietal cortex in episodic remembering, but the functional contributions of lateral parietal cortex to memory remain a topic of debate. Here, we used an innovative form of fMRI pattern analysis to test whether lateral parietal cortex actively represents the contents of memory. Using a large set of human face images, we first extracted

  20. Interconnections of the visual cortex with the frontal cortex in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sukekawa, K

    1988-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP) and autoradiography of tritiated leucine were used to trace the cortical origins and terminations of the connections between the visual and frontal cortices in the rat. Ipsilateral reciprocal connections between each subdivision of the visual cortex (areas 17, 18a and 18b) and the posterior half of the medial part of the frontal agranular cortex (PAGm), and their laminar organizations were confirmed. These connections did not appear to have a significant topographic organization. Although in areas 17 and 18b terminals or cells of origin in this fiber system were confined to the anterior half of these cortices, in area 18a they were observed spanning the anteroposterior extent of this cortex, with in part a column like organization. No evidence could be found for the participation of both the posterior parts of areas 17 and 18b and the anterior half of this frontal agranular cortex in these connections. Fibers from each subdivision of the visual cortex to the PAGm terminated predominantly in the lower part of layer I and in layer II. In area 17, this occipito-frontal projection was found to arise from the scattered pyramidal cells in layer V and more prominently from pyramidal cells in layer V of area 17/18a border. In area 18a, the fibers projecting to the PAGm originated mainly from pyramidal cells primarily in layer V and to a lesser extent in layers II, III and VI. Whereas in area 18b, this projection was found to arise mainly from pyramidal cells in layers II and III, to a lesser extent in layers V and VI, and less frequent in layer IV. On the other hand, the reciprocal projection to the visual cortex was found to originate largely from pyramidal cells in layers III and V of the PAGm. In areas 17 and 18a, these fibers terminated in layers I and VI, and in layers I, V and VI, respectively. Whereas in area 18b, they were distributed throughout all layers except layer II.

  1. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  2. Anatomical Distribution of Lipids in Human Brain Cortex by Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Antonio; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Barreda-Gómez, Gabriel; Manuel, Iván; Ferrer, Isidro; Teresa Giralt, María; Ochoa, Begoña; Fresnedo, Olatz; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael; Fernández, José A.

    2011-02-01

    Molecular mass images of tissues will be biased if differences in the physicochemical properties of the microenvironment affect the intensity of the spectra. To address this issue, we have performed—by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry—imaging on slices and lipidomic analysis in extracts of frontal cortex, both from the same postmortem tissue samples of human brain. An external calibration was used to achieve a mass accuracy of 10 ppm (1 σ) in the spectra of the extracts, although the final assignment was based on a comparison with previously reported species. The spectra recorded directly from tissue slices (imaging) show excellent s/n ratios, almost comparable to those obtained from the extracts. In addition, they retain the information about the anatomical distribution of the molecular species present in autopsied frozen tissue. Further comparison between the spectra from lipid extracts devoid of proteins and those recorded directly from the tissue unambiguously show that the differences in lipid composition between gray and white matter observed in the mass images are not an artifact due to microenvironmental influences of each anatomical area on the signal intensity, but real variations in the lipid composition.

  3. Cortex content of asporogenous mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Imae, Y; Strominger, J L

    1976-01-01

    A method for the measurement of muramic lactam, which is specifically located in the cortical peptidoglycan of bacterial spores, was developed as a quantitative assay method for spore cortex content. During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis 168, muramic lactam (i.e., spore cortex) began to appear at state IV of sporulation and continued to increase over most of the late stages of sporulation. Spore cortex contents of various spo mutants of B. subitils were surveyed. Cortex was not detected in mutants in which sporulation was blocked earlier than stage II sporulation. Spores of spo IV mutant had about 40% of the cortex content of the wild-type spores. One spo III mutant had a low amount of cortex, but four others had none. PMID:1262319

  4. Motor cortex inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, K.M.; Augusta, M.; MacNeil, L.K.; Mostofsky, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset behavioral diagnosis in which children often fail to meet age norms in development of motor control, particularly timed repetitive and sequential movements, motor overflow, and balance. The neural substrate of this motor delay may include mechanisms of synaptic inhibition in or adjacent to the motor cortex. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–evoked measures, particularly short interval cortical inhibition (SICI), in motor cortex correlate with the presence and severity of ADHD in childhood as well as with commonly observed delays in motor control. Methods: In this case-control study, behavioral ratings, motor skills, and motor cortex physiology were evaluated in 49 children with ADHD (mean age 10.6 years, 30 boys) and 49 typically developing children (mean age 10.5 years, 30 boys), all right-handed, aged 8–12 years. Motor skills were evaluated with the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS) and the Motor Assessment Battery for Children version 2. SICI and other physiologic measures were obtained using TMS in the left motor cortex. Results: In children with ADHD, mean SICI was reduced by 40% (p < 0.0001) and less SICI correlated with higher ADHD severity (r = −0.52; p = 0.002). Mean PANESS motor development scores were 59% worse in children with ADHD (p < 0.0001). Worse PANESS scores correlated modestly with less SICI (r = −.30; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reduced TMS-evoked SICI correlates with ADHD diagnosis and symptom severity and also reflects motor skill development in children. PMID:21321335

  5. Support vector machine and fuzzy C-mean clustering-based comparative evaluation of changes in motor cortex electroencephalogram under chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surendra; Ghosh, Subhojit; Tetarway, Suhash; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the magnitude and spatial distribution of frequency spectrum in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) were examined to address the problem of detecting alcoholism in the cerebral motor cortex. The EEG signals were recorded from chronic alcoholic conditions (n = 20) and the control group (n = 20). Data were taken from motor cortex region and divided into five sub-bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1 and beta-2). Three methodologies were adopted for feature extraction: (1) absolute power, (2) relative power and (3) peak power frequency. The dimension of the extracted features is reduced by linear discrimination analysis and classified by support vector machine (SVM) and fuzzy C-mean clustering. The maximum classification accuracy (88 %) with SVM clustering was achieved with the EEG spectral features with absolute power frequency on F4 channel. Among the bands, relatively higher classification accuracy was found over theta band and beta-2 band in most of the channels when computed with the EEG features of relative power. Electrodes wise CZ, C3 and P4 were having more alteration. Considering the good classification accuracy obtained by SVM with relative band power features in most of the EEG channels of motor cortex, it can be suggested that the noninvasive automated online diagnostic system for the chronic alcoholic condition can be developed with the help of EEG signals.

  6. Ginkobiloba extract improves working memory performance in middle-aged women: role of asymmetry of prefrontal cortex activity during a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Kaoru; Tanida, Masahiro; Hirao, Naoyasu; Takemura, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism through which extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) improves cognitive function, we examined the effects of EGb on cerebral blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on performance during a working memory task, using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). First, we evaluated differences in behavioral performance of the Sternberg working memory test (ST) and in the activation pattern of the PFC during ST between 15 young and 19 middle-aged healthy women. Then, we examined the effect of EGb (120 mg/day for 6 weeks) on ST performance and PFC activation pattern in the middle-aged group. The middle-aged group exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) in ST than the young group and showed a different PFC activation pattern during ST, i.e., the middle-aged group showed bilateral activation while the young group showed right-dominant activation. In the middle-aged group, administration of EGb for 6 weeks shortened the RT of ST and changed the PFC activation pattern to right-dominant, like that in the young group. The results indicate the PFC plays a role in the physiological cognitive function-enhancing effect of EGb. EGb might improve working memory function in middle-aged individuals by counteracting the occurrence of aging-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction.

  7. Temporal coordination of olfactory cortex sharp-wave activity with up- and downstates in the orbitofrontal cortex during slow-wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Onisawa, Naomi; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, interareal communications via coordinated, slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave (SPW) activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC SPWs in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and downstates of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the downstate in the OFC, the OC also exhibited downstate with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of SPW generation. OC SPWs occurred during two distinct phases of the upstate of the OFC: early-phase SPWs occurred at the start of upstate shortly after the down-to-up transition in the OFC, whereas late-phase SPWs were generated at the end of upstate shortly before the up-to-down transition. Such temporal coordination between neocortical up- and downstates and olfactory system SPWs was observed between the prefrontal cortex areas (OFC and medial prefrontal cortex) and the OC areas (anterior piriform cortex and posterior piriform cortex). These results suggest that during slow-wave sleep, OC and OFC areas communicate preferentially in specific time windows shortly after the down-to-up transition and shortly before the up-to-down transition. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during slow-wave sleep showed that APC sharp waves tended to occur during two distinct phases of OFC upstate: early phase, shortly after the down-to-up transition, and late phase, shortly before the up-to-down transition, suggesting that during slow-wave sleep, olfactory cortex and OFC areas communicate preferentially in the specific time windows. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Temporal coordination of olfactory cortex sharp-wave activity with up- and downstates in the orbitofrontal cortex during slow-wave sleep

    PubMed Central

    Onisawa, Naomi; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, interareal communications via coordinated, slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave (SPW) activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC SPWs in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and downstates of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the downstate in the OFC, the OC also exhibited downstate with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of SPW generation. OC SPWs occurred during two distinct phases of the upstate of the OFC: early-phase SPWs occurred at the start of upstate shortly after the down-to-up transition in the OFC, whereas late-phase SPWs were generated at the end of upstate shortly before the up-to-down transition. Such temporal coordination between neocortical up- and downstates and olfactory system SPWs was observed between the prefrontal cortex areas (OFC and medial prefrontal cortex) and the OC areas (anterior piriform cortex and posterior piriform cortex). These results suggest that during slow-wave sleep, OC and OFC areas communicate preferentially in specific time windows shortly after the down-to-up transition and shortly before the up-to-down transition. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during slow-wave sleep showed that APC sharp waves tended to occur during two distinct phases of OFC upstate: early phase, shortly after the down-to-up transition, and late phase, shortly before the up-to-down transition, suggesting that during slow-wave sleep, olfactory cortex and OFC areas communicate preferentially in the specific time windows. PMID:27733591

  9. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex—which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory—plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus. PMID:24009554

  10. Quantitative comparison of high-resolution MRI and myelin-stained histology of the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2009-01-01

    The architectonic analysis of the human cerebral cortex is presently based on the examination of stained tissue sections. Recent progress in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) promotes the feasibility of an in vivo architectonic analysis. Since the exact relationship between the laminar fine-structure of a cortical MRI signal and histological cyto-and myeloarchitectonic staining patterns is not known, a quantitative study comparing high-resolution MRI to histological ground truth images is necessary for validating a future MRI based architectonic analysis. This communication describes an ongoing study comparing post mortem MR images to a myelin-stained histology of the brain cortex. After establishing a close spatial correspondence between histological sections and MRI using a slice-to-volume nonrigid registration algorithm, transcortical intensity profiles, extracted from both imaging modalities along curved trajectories of a Laplacian vector field, are compared via a cross-correlational analysis.

  11. Simultaneous determination of five characteristic stilbene glycosides in root bark of Morus albus L. (Cortex Mori) using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shu-juan; Chen, Li-xia; Kang, Ning; Qiu, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Cortex Mori, one of the well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicines, is derived from the root bark of Morus alba L. according to the China Pharmacopeia. Stilbene glycosides are the main components isolated from aqueous extracts of Morus alba and their content varies depending on where Cortex Mori was collected. We have established a qualitative and quantitative method based on the bioactive stilbene glycosides for control of the quality of Cortex Mori from different sources. To develop a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detection for simultaneous quantitative determination of five major characteristic stilbene glycosides in 34 samples of the root bark of Morus alba L. (Cortex Mori) from different sources. The analysis was performed on an ODS column using methanol-water-acetic acid (18: 82: 0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and the peaks were monitored at 320 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r ≥ 0.9991) within test ranges. This method showed good repeatability for the quantification of these five components in Cortex Mori with intra- and inter-day standard deviations less than 2.19% and 1.45%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify the five investigated components, including a pair of cis-trans-isomers 1 and 2 and a pair of isomers 4 and 5 in 34 samples of Cortex Mori from different sources. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  13. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression

    PubMed Central

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J.; Levin, Yael

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so. PMID:19620180

  14. Effect of blood vessels on light distribution in optogenetic stimulation of cortex.

    PubMed

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, the impact of blood vessels on light distribution during photostimulation of cortical tissue in small rodents is investigated. Brain optical properties were extracted using a double-integrating sphere setup, and optical coherence tomography was used to image cortical vessels and capillaries to generate a three-dimensional angiogram of the cortex. By combining these two datasets, a complete volumetric structure of the cortical tissue was developed and linked to a Monte Carlo code which simulates light propagation in this inhomogeneous structure and illustrates the effect of blood vessels on the penetration depth and pattern preservation in optogenetic stimulation.

  15. Monoaminergic Modulation of Motor Cortex Function

    PubMed Central

    Vitrac, Clément; Benoit-Marand, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Elaboration of appropriate responses to behavioral situations rests on the ability of selecting appropriate motor outcomes in accordance to specific environmental inputs. To this end, the primary motor cortex (M1) is a key structure for the control of voluntary movements and motor skills learning. Subcortical loops regulate the activity of the motor cortex and thus contribute to the selection of appropriate motor plans. Monoamines are key mediators of arousal, attention and motivation. Their firing pattern enables a direct encoding of different states thus promoting or repressing the selection of actions adapted to the behavioral context. Monoaminergic modulation of motor systems has been extensively studied in subcortical circuits. Despite evidence of converging projections of multiple neurotransmitters systems in the motor cortex pointing to a direct modulation of local circuits, their contribution to the execution and learning of motor skills is still poorly understood. Monoaminergic dysregulation leads to impaired plasticity and motor function in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, thus it is critical to better understand how monoamines modulate neural activity in the motor cortex. This review aims to provide an update of our current understanding on the monoaminergic modulation of the motor cortex with an emphasis on motor skill learning and execution under physiological conditions. PMID:29062274

  16. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale fruit extract are involved in the protective effect against cellular death induced by sodium nitroprusside in brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Letícia Priscilla; Rauber, Ricardo; de Mattos, Sérgio Edgar Campos; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes due to its choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. We sought to investigate the protective activity of T. officinale fruit extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced decreased cellular viability and increased lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats in vitro. To explain the mechanism of the extract's antioxidant activity, its putative scavenger activities against NO, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2) were determined. Slices of cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were treated with 50 μM SNP and T. officinale fruit ethanolic extract (1-20 µg/mL) to determine cellular viability by MTT reduction assay. Lipid peroxidation was measure in cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices incubates with SNP (5 µM) and T. officinale fruit extract (1-20 µg/mL). We also determined the scavenger activities of T. officinale fruit extract against NO·, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2), as well as its iron chelating capacity. The extract (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) protected against SNP-induced decreases in cellular viability and increases in lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The extract had scavenger activity against DPPH· and NO· at low concentrations and was able to protect against H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)-induced deoxyribose oxidation. T. officinale fruit extract has antioxidant activity and protects brain slices against SNP-induced cellular death. Possible mechanisms of action include its scavenger activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  17. Rapid characterization of chemical markers for discrimination of Moutan Cortex and its processed products by direct injection-based mass spectrometry profiling and metabolomic method.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Ran; Li, Meng-Ning; Yang, Hua; Li, Ping; Gao, Wen

    2018-06-01

    Processing of herbal medicines is a characteristic pharmaceutical technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine, which can reduce toxicity and side effect, improve the flavor and efficacy, and even change the pharmacological action entirely. It is significant and crucial to perform a method to find chemical markers for differentiating herbal medicines in different processed degrees. The aim of this study was to perform a rapid and reasonable method to discriminate Moutan Cortex and its processed products, and to reveal the characteristics of chemical components depend on chemical markers. Thirty batches of Moutan Cortex and its processed products, including 11 batches of Raw Moutan Cortex (RMC), 9 batches of Moutan Cortex Tostus (MCT) and 10 batches of Moutan Cortex Carbonisatus (MCC), were directly injected in electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS) for rapid analysis in positive and negative mode. Without chromatographic separation, each run was completed within 3 min. The raw MS data were automatically extracted by background deduction and molecular feature (MF) extraction algorithm. In negative mode, a total of 452 MFs were obtained and then pretreated by data filtration and differential analysis. After that, the filtered 85 MFs were treated by principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensions. Subsequently, a partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model was constructed for differentiation and chemical markers detection of Moutan Cortex in different processed degrees. The positive mode data were treated as same as those in negative mode. RMC, MCT and MCC were successfully classified. Moreover, 14 and 3 chemical markers from negative and positive mode respectively, were screened by the combination of their relative peak areas and the parameter variable importance in the projection (VIP) values in PLS-DA model. The content changes of these chemical markers were employed in order to illustrate

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The orbitofrontal cortex and beyond: from affect to decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian

    2008-11-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex represents the reward or affective value of primary reinforcers including taste, touch, texture, and face expression. It learns to associate other stimuli with these to produce representations of the expected reward value for visual, auditory, and abstract stimuli including monetary reward value. The orbitofrontal cortex thus plays a key role in emotion, by representing the goals for action. The learning process is stimulus-reinforcer association learning. Negative reward prediction error neurons are related to this affective learning. Activations in the orbitofrontal cortex correlate with the subjective emotional experience of affective stimuli, and damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs emotion-related learning, emotional behaviour, and subjective affective state. With an origin from beyond the orbitofrontal cortex, top-down attention to affect modulates orbitofrontal cortex representations, and attention to intensity modulates representations in earlier cortical areas of the physical properties of stimuli. Top-down word-level cognitive inputs can bias affective representations in the orbitofrontal cortex, providing a mechanism for cognition to influence emotion. Whereas the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of reward or affective value on a continuous scale, areas beyond the orbitofrontal cortex such as the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 are involved in binary decision-making when a choice must be made. For this decision-making, the orbitofrontal cortex provides a representation of each specific reward in a common currency.

  20. A computational model of cerebral cortex folding.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingxin; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Faraco, Carlos; Stephen Miller, L; Liu, Tianming

    2010-05-21

    The geometric complexity and variability of the human cerebral cortex have long intrigued the scientific community. As a result, quantitative description of cortical folding patterns and the understanding of underlying folding mechanisms have emerged as important research goals. This paper presents a computational 3D geometric model of cerebral cortex folding initialized by MRI data of a human fetal brain and deformed under the governance of a partial differential equation modeling cortical growth. By applying different simulation parameters, our model is able to generate folding convolutions and shape dynamics of the cerebral cortex. The simulations of this 3D geometric model provide computational experimental support to the following hypotheses: (1) Mechanical constraints of the skull regulate the cortical folding process. (2) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the global cell growth rate of the whole cortex. (3) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on relative rates of cell growth in different cortical areas. (4) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the initial geometry of the cortex. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural Pathways Conveying Novisual Information to the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The visual cortex has been traditionally considered as a stimulus-driven, unimodal system with a hierarchical organization. However, recent animal and human studies have shown that the visual cortex responds to non-visual stimuli, especially in individuals with visual deprivation congenitally, indicating the supramodal nature of the functional representation in the visual cortex. To understand the neural substrates of the cross-modal processing of the non-visual signals in the visual cortex, we firstly showed the supramodal nature of the visual cortex. We then reviewed how the nonvisual signals reach the visual cortex. Moreover, we discussed if these non-visual pathways are reshaped by early visual deprivation. Finally, the open question about the nature (stimulus-driven or top-down) of non-visual signals is also discussed. PMID:23840972

  2. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Shazia Veqar; Chatterjee, Ushri; Kumar, Devvarta; Siddiqui, Aleem; Goyal, Nishant

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different functional operations within the PFC. The specification of the component ‘executive’ processes and their localization to particular regions of PFC have been implicated in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19742233

  3. Speech dynamics are coded in the left motor cortex in fluent speakers but not in adults who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, T. N. Linh; Neef, Andreas; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The precise excitability regulation of neuronal circuits in the primary motor cortex is central to the successful and fluent production of speech. Our question was whether the involuntary execution of undesirable movements, e.g. stuttering, is linked to an insufficient excitability tuning of neural populations in the orofacial region of the primary motor cortex. We determined the speech-related time course of excitability modulation in the left and right primary motor tongue representation. Thirteen fluent speakers (four females, nine males; aged 23–44) and 13 adults who stutter (four females, nine males, aged 21–55) were asked to build verbs with the verbal prefix ‘auf’. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the primary motor cortex during the transition phase between a fixed labiodental articulatory configuration and immediately following articulatory configurations, at different latencies after transition onset. Bilateral electromyography was recorded from self-adhesive electrodes placed on the surface of the tongue. Off-line, we extracted the motor evoked potential amplitudes and normalized these amplitudes to the individual baseline excitability during the fixed configuration. Fluent speakers demonstrated a prominent left hemisphere increase of motor cortex excitability in the transition phase (P = 0.009). In contrast, the excitability of the right primary motor tongue representation was unchanged. Interestingly, adults afflicted with stuttering revealed a lack of left-hemisphere facilitation. Moreover, the magnitude of facilitation was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Although orofacial midline muscles are bilaterally innervated from corticobulbar projections of both hemispheres, our results indicate that speech motor plans are controlled primarily in the left primary speech motor cortex. This speech motor planning-related asymmetry towards the left orofacial motor cortex is missing in stuttering. Moreover, a

  4. Diffeomorphic Sulcal Shape Analysis on the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shantanu H.; Cabeen, Ryan P.; Joshi, Anand A.; Sun, Bo; Dinov, Ivo; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Woods, Roger P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a diffeomorphic approach for constructing intrinsic shape atlases of sulci on the human cortex. Sulci are represented as square-root velocity functions of continuous open curves in ℝ3, and their shapes are studied as functional representations of an infinite-dimensional sphere. This spherical manifold has some advantageous properties – it is equipped with a Riemannian metric on the tangent space and facilitates computational analyses and correspondences between sulcal shapes. Sulcal shape mapping is achieved by computing geodesics in the quotient space of shapes modulo scales, translations, rigid rotations and reparameterizations. The resulting sulcal shape atlas preserves important local geometry inherently present in the sample population. The sulcal shape atlas is integrated in a cortical registration framework and exhibits better geometric matching compared to the conventional euclidean method. We demonstrate experimental results for sulcal shape mapping, cortical surface registration, and sulcal classification for two different surface extraction protocols for separate subject populations. PMID:22328177

  5. Inhibition of Rat 5α-Reductase Activity and Testosterone-Induced Sebum Synthesis in Hamster Sebocytes by an Extract of Quercus acutissima Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koseki, Junichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsubara, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Mizuhara, Yasuharu; Sekiguchi, Kyoji; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Junko; Kaneko, Atsushi; Hattori, Tomohisa; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bokusoku (BK) is an extract from the Quercus cortex used in folk medicine for treatment of skin disorders and convergence, and is present in jumihaidokuto, a traditional Japanese medicine that is prescribed for purulent skin diseases like acne vulgaris. The excess of sebum production induced by androgen is involved in the development of acne. Our aim is to examine whether BK and its constituents inhibit testosterone metabolism and testosterone-induced sebum synthesis. Methods. Measurements of 5α-reductase activity and lipogenesis were performed using rat liver microsomes and hamster sebocytes, respectively. Results. BK dose-dependently reduced the conversion of testosterone to a more active androgen, dihydrotestosterone in a 5α-reductase enzymatic reaction. Twenty polyphenols in BK categorized as gallotannin, ellagitannin, and flavonoid were identified by LC-MS/MS. Nine polyphenols with gallate group, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, eugeniin, 1-desgalloyl eugeniin, casuarinin, castalagin, stenophyllanin C, (−)-epicatechin gallate, and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, inhibited testosterone metabolism. In particular, pentagalloyl glucose showed the strongest activity. BK and pentagalloyl glucose suppressed testosterone-induced lipogenesis, whereas they weakly inhibited the lipogenic action of insulin. Conclusions. BK inhibited androgen-related pathogenesis of acne, testosterone conversion, and sebum synthesis, partially through 5α-reductase inhibition, and has potential to be a useful agent in the therapeutic strategy of acne. PMID:25709710

  6. Valeriana wallichii root extract improves sleep quality and modulates brain monoamine level in rats.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surajit; Ray, Koushik; Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gupta, Shilpa; Kauser, Hina; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mishra, Kshipra; Panjwani, Usha

    2012-07-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines on Sprague-Dawley rats. Electrodes and transmitters were implanted to record EEG and EMG in freely moving condition and the changes were recorded telemetrically after oral administration of VW in the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Sleep latency was decreased and duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease of sleep latency and duration of wakefulness were observed with VW at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Duration of NREM sleep as well as duration of total sleep was increased significantly after treatment with VW at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. VW also increased EEG slow wave activity during NREM sleep at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and hydroxy indole acetic acid (HIAA) were measured in frontal cortex and brain stem after VW treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. NE and 5HT level were decreased significantly in both frontal cortex and brain stem. DA and HIAA level significantly decreased only in cortex. DOPAC level was not changed in any brain region studied. In conclusion it can be said that VW water extract has a sleep quality improving effect which may be dependent upon levels of monoamines in cortex and brainstem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  8. Measurements of evoked electroencephalograph by transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to motor cortex and posterior parietal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahashi, Masakuni; Koyama, Yohei; Hyodo, Akira; Hayami, Takehito; Ueno, Shoogo; Iramina, Keiji

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the functional connectivity, the evoked potentials by stimulating at the motor cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the cerebellum by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured. It is difficult to measure the evoked electroencephalograph (EEG) by the magnetic stimulation because of the large artifact induced by the magnetic pulse. We used an EEG measurement system with sample-and-hold circuit and an independent component analysis to eliminate the electromagnetic interaction emitted from TMS. It was possible to measure EEG signals from all electrodes over the head within 10 ms after applying the TMS. When the motor area was stimulated by TMS, the spread of evoked electrical activity to the contralateral hemisphere was observed at 20 ms after stimulation. However, when the posterior parietal cortex was stimulated, the evoked electrical activity to the contralateral hemisphere was not observed. When the cerebellum was stimulated, the cortical activity propagated from the stimulated point to the frontal area and the contralateral hemisphere at around 20 ms after stimulation. These results suggest that the motor area has a strong interhemispheric connection and the posterior parietal cortex has no interhemispheric connection.

  9. Analysis of haptic information in the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic sensing of objects acquires information about a number of properties. This review summarizes current understanding about how these properties are processed in the cerebral cortex of macaques and humans. Nonnoxious somatosensory inputs, after initial processing in primary somatosensory cortex, are partially segregated into different pathways. A ventrally directed pathway carries information about surface texture into parietal opercular cortex and thence to medial occipital cortex. A dorsally directed pathway transmits information regarding the location of features on objects to the intraparietal sulcus and frontal eye fields. Shape processing occurs mainly in the intraparietal sulcus and lateral occipital complex, while orientation processing is distributed across primary somatosensory cortex, the parietal operculum, the anterior intraparietal sulcus, and a parieto-occipital region. For each of these properties, the respective areas outside primary somatosensory cortex also process corresponding visual information and are thus multisensory. Consistent with the distributed neural processing of haptic object properties, tactile spatial acuity depends on interaction between bottom-up tactile inputs and top-down attentional signals in a distributed neural network. Future work should clarify the roles of the various brain regions and how they interact at the network level. PMID:27440247

  10. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  11. Functional Topography of Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2016-01-01

    Functional and anatomical studies have clearly demonstrated that auditory cortex is populated by multiple subfields. However, functional characterization of those fields has been largely the domain of animal electrophysiology, limiting the extent to which human and animal research can inform each other. In this study, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize human auditory cortical subfields using a variety of low-level acoustic features in the spectral and temporal domains. Specifically, we show that topographic gradients of frequency preference, or tonotopy, extend along two axes in human auditory cortex, thus reconciling historical accounts of a tonotopic axis oriented medial to lateral along Heschl's gyrus and more recent findings emphasizing tonotopic organization along the anterior–posterior axis. Contradictory findings regarding topographic organization according to temporal modulation rate in acoustic stimuli, or “periodotopy,” are also addressed. Although isolated subregions show a preference for high rates of amplitude-modulated white noise (AMWN) in our data, large-scale “periodotopic” organization was not found. Organization by AM rate was correlated with dominant pitch percepts in AMWN in many regions. In short, our data expose early auditory cortex chiefly as a frequency analyzer, and spectral frequency, as imposed by the sensory receptor surface in the cochlea, seems to be the dominant feature governing large-scale topographic organization across human auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we examine the nature of topographic organization in human auditory cortex with fMRI. Topographic organization by spectral frequency (tonotopy) extended in two directions: medial to lateral, consistent with early neuroimaging studies, and anterior to posterior, consistent with more recent reports. Large-scale organization by rates of temporal modulation (periodotopy) was correlated with confounding

  12. Multisensory connections of monkey auditory cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, John F.; Falchier, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    Functional studies have demonstrated multisensory responses in auditory cortex, even in the primary and early auditory association areas. The features of somatosensory and visual responses in auditory cortex suggest that they are involved in multiple processes including spatial, temporal and object-related perception. Tract tracing studies in monkeys have demonstrated several potential sources of somatosensory and visual inputs to auditory cortex. These include potential somatosensory inputs from the retroinsular (RI) and granular insula (Ig) cortical areas, and from the thalamic posterior (PO) nucleus. Potential sources of visual responses include peripheral field representations of areas V2 and prostriata, as well as the superior temporal polysensory area (STP) in the superior temporal sulcus, and the magnocellular medial geniculate thalamic nucleus (MGm). Besides these sources, there are several other thalamic, limbic and cortical association structures that have multisensory responses and may contribute cross-modal inputs to auditory cortex. These connections demonstrated by tract tracing provide a list of potential inputs, but in most cases their significance has not been confirmed by functional experiments. It is possible that the somatosensory and visual modulation of auditory cortex are each mediated by multiple extrinsic sources. PMID:19619628

  13. CX-516 Cortex pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-07-01

    CX-516 is one of a series of AMPA modulators under development by Cortex, in collaboration with Shire and Servier, for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [234221]. By June 2001, CX-516 was in phase II trials for both schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [412513]. A phase II trial in fragile X syndrome and autism was expected to start in May 2002 [449861]. In October 2001, Cortex was awarded a Phase II SBIR grant of $769,818 from the National Institutes of Mental Health to investigate the therapeutic potential of AMPAkines in schizophrenia. This award was to support a phase IIb study of CX-516 as a combination therapy in schizophrenia patients concomitantly treated with olanzapine. The trial was to enroll 80 patients and employ a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in which the placebo group was to receive olanzapine plus placebo and the active group was to receive olanzapine plus CX-516 [425982]. In April 2000, Shire and Cortex signed an option agreement in which Shire was to evaluate CX-516for the treatment of ADHD. Under the terms of the agreement, Shire would undertake a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of CX-516 involving ADHD patients. If the study proved effective, Shire would have the right to convert its option into an exclusive worldwide license for the AMPAkines for ADHD under a development and licensing agreement. Should Shire elect to execute this agreement, Shire would bear all future developmental costs [363618]. By February 2002, Cortex and Servier had revealed their intention to begin enrolment for an international study of an AMPAkine compound as a potential treatment for MCI in the near future. Assuming enrollment proceeded as anticipated, results were expected during the second quarter of 2003 [439301]. By May 2002, phase II trials were underway [450134]. In March 2002, Cortex was awarded extended funding under the

  14. Improvement in Long-Term Memory following Chronic Administration of Eryngium planum Root Extract in Scopolamine Model: Behavioral and Molecular Study

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842

  15. Neural discriminability in rat lateral extrastriate cortex and deep but not superficial primary visual cortex correlates with shape discriminability.

    PubMed

    Vermaercke, Ben; Van den Bergh, Gert; Gerich, Florian; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a surprising degree of functional specialization in rodent visual cortex. It is unknown to what degree this functional organization is related to the well-known hierarchical organization of the visual system in primates. We designed a study in rats that targets one of the hallmarks of the hierarchical object vision pathway in primates: selectivity for behaviorally relevant dimensions. We compared behavioral performance in a visual water maze with neural discriminability in five visual cortical areas. We tested behavioral discrimination in two independent batches of six rats using six pairs of shapes used previously to probe shape selectivity in monkey cortex (Lehky and Sereno, 2007). The relative difficulty (error rate) of shape pairs was strongly correlated between the two batches, indicating that some shape pairs were more difficult to discriminate than others. Then, we recorded in naive rats from five visual areas from primary visual cortex (V1) over areas LM, LI, LL, up to lateral occipito-temporal cortex (TO). Shape selectivity in the upper layers of V1, where the information enters cortex, correlated mostly with physical stimulus dissimilarity and not with behavioral performance. In contrast, neural discriminability in lower layers of all areas was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. These findings, in combination with the results from Vermaercke et al. (2014b), suggest that the functional specialization in rodent lateral visual cortex reflects a processing hierarchy resulting in the emergence of complex selectivity that is related to behaviorally relevant stimulus differences.

  16. A Map of Anticipatory Activity in Mouse Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsai-Wen; Li, Nuo; Daie, Kayvon; Svoboda, Karel

    2017-05-17

    Activity in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) instructs directional movements, often seconds before movement initiation. It is unknown whether this preparatory activity is localized to ALM or widely distributed within motor cortex. Here we imaged activity across motor cortex while mice performed a whisker-based object localization task with a delayed, directional licking response. During tactile sensation and the delay epoch, object location was represented in motor cortex areas that are medial and posterior relative to ALM, including vibrissal motor cortex. Preparatory activity appeared first in deep layers of ALM, seconds before the behavioral response, and remained localized to ALM until the behavioral response. Later, widely distributed neurons represented the outcome of the trial. Cortical area was more predictive of neuronal selectivity than laminar location or axonal projection target. Motor cortex therefore represents sensory, motor, and outcome information in a spatially organized manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Bona, Natália Pontes; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; Cardoso, Juliane de Souza; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Vizzotto, Marcia; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E. uniflora prevented these alterations. The extract decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of animals submitted to HPD. We observed a HPD-induced reduction of thiol content in these cerebral structures. The extract prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD and the increase in immobility time observed in the forced swim test. Regarding chemical composition, LC/MS analysis showed the presence of nine anthocyanins as the major compounds. In conclusion, E. uniflora extract showed benefits against metabolic alterations caused by HPD, as well as exhibited antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Connie; Hamilton, Liberty S; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    In humans, listening to speech evokes neural responses in the motor cortex. This has been controversially interpreted as evidence that speech sounds are processed as articulatory gestures. However, it is unclear what information is actually encoded by such neural activity. We used high-density direct human cortical recordings while participants spoke and listened to speech sounds. Motor cortex neural patterns during listening were substantially different than during articulation of the same sounds. During listening, we observed neural activity in the superior and inferior regions of ventral motor cortex. During speaking, responses were distributed throughout somatotopic representations of speech articulators in motor cortex. The structure of responses in motor cortex during listening was organized along acoustic features similar to auditory cortex, rather than along articulatory features as during speaking. Motor cortex does not contain articulatory representations of perceived actions in speech, but rather, represents auditory vocal information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12577.001 PMID:26943778

  19. Extraction and analysis of neuron firing signals from deep cortical video microscopy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kerekes, Ryan A; Blundon, Jay

    We introduce a method for extracting and analyzing neuronal activity time signals from video of the cortex of a live animal. The signals correspond to the firing activity of individual cortical neurons. Activity signals are based on the changing fluorescence of calcium indicators in the cells over time. We propose a cell segmentation method that relies on a user-specified center point, from which the signal extraction method proceeds. A stabilization approach is used to reduce tissue motion in the video. The extracted signal is then processed to flatten the baseline and detect action potentials. We show results from applying themore » method to a cortical video of a live mouse.« less

  20. Aging, self-referencing, and medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gutchess, Angela H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    The lateral prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes with healthy aging. In contrast, there is little structural change in the medial prefrontal cortex, but relatively little is known about the functional changes to this region with age. Using an event-related fMRI design, we investigated the response of medial prefrontal cortex during self-referencing in order to compare age groups on a task that young and elderly perform similarly and that is known to actively engage the region in young adults. Nineteen young (M age = 23) and seventeen elderly (M age = 72) judged whether adjectives described themselves, another person, or were presented in upper case. We assessed the overlap in activations between young and elderly for the self-reference effect (self vs. other person), and found that both groups engage medial prefrontal cortex and mid-cingulate during self-referencing. The only cerebral differences between the groups in self versus other personality assessment were found in somatosensory and motor-related areas. In contrast, age-related modulations were found in the cerebral network recruited for emotional valence processing. Elderly (but not young) showed increased activity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex for positive relative to negative items, which could reflect an increase in controlled processing of positive information for elderly adults.

  1. Somatosensory responses in a human motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-01-01

    Somatic sensory signals provide a major source of feedback to motor cortex. Changes in somatosensory systems after stroke or injury could profoundly influence brain computer interfaces (BCI) being developed to create new output signals from motor cortex activity patterns. We had the unique opportunity to study the responses of hand/arm area neurons in primary motor cortex to passive joint manipulation in a person with a long-standing brain stem stroke but intact sensory pathways. Neurons responded to passive manipulation of the contralateral shoulder, elbow, or wrist as predicted from prior studies of intact primates. Thus fundamental properties and organization were preserved despite arm/hand paralysis and damage to cortical outputs. The same neurons were engaged by attempted arm actions. These results indicate that intact sensory pathways retain the potential to influence primary motor cortex firing rates years after cortical outputs are interrupted and may contribute to online decoding of motor intentions for BCI applications. PMID:23343902

  2. Cascade of neural processing orchestrates cognitive control in human frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hanlin; Yu, Hsiang-Yu; Chou, Chien-Chen; Crone, Nathan E; Madsen, Joseph R; Anderson, William S; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and flexible interpretation of conflicting sensory inputs in the context of current goals is a critical component of cognitive control that is orchestrated by frontal cortex. The relative roles of distinct subregions within frontal cortex are poorly understood. To examine the dynamics underlying cognitive control across frontal regions, we took advantage of the spatiotemporal resolution of intracranial recordings in epilepsy patients while subjects resolved color-word conflict. We observed differential activity preceding the behavioral responses to conflict trials throughout frontal cortex; this activity was correlated with behavioral reaction times. These signals emerged first in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) before dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), followed by medial frontal cortex (mFC) and then by orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). These results disassociate the frontal subregions based on their dynamics, and suggest a temporal hierarchy for cognitive control in human cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12352.001 PMID:26888070

  3. Entorhinal Cortex: Antemortem Cortical Thickness and Postmortem Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid Pathology.

    PubMed

    Thaker, A A; Weinberg, B D; Dillon, W P; Hess, C P; Cabral, H J; Fleischman, D A; Leurgans, S E; Bennett, D A; Hyman, B T; Albert, M S; Killiany, R J; Fischl, B; Dale, A M; Desikan, R S

    2017-05-01

    The entorhinal cortex, a critical gateway between the neocortex and hippocampus, is one of the earliest regions affected by Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Although our prior work has automatically delineated an MR imaging-based measure of the entorhinal cortex, whether antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness is associated with postmortem tangle burden within the entorhinal cortex is still unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between antemortem MRI measures of entorhinal cortex thickness and postmortem neuropathological measures. We evaluated 50 participants from the Rush Memory and Aging Project with antemortem structural T1-weighted MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic assessments. Here, we focused on thickness within the entorhinal cortex as anatomically defined by our previously developed MR imaging parcellation system (Desikan-Killiany Atlas in FreeSurfer). Using linear regression, we evaluated the association between entorhinal cortex thickness and tangles and amyloid-β load within the entorhinal cortex and medial temporal and neocortical regions. We found a significant relationship between antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .006) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .002); we found no relationship between entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .09) and medial temporal lobe amyloid-β ( P = .09). We also found a significant association between entorhinal cortex thickness and cortical tangles ( P = .003) and amyloid-β ( P = .01). We found no relationship between parahippocampal gyrus thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .31) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .051). Our findings indicate that entorhinal cortex-associated in vivo cortical thinning may represent a marker of postmortem medial temporal and neocortical Alzheimer disease pathology. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract Protects against Cerebral Ischemia and Osteoporosis in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Thipkaew, Cholathip; Thukham-mee, Wipawee; Wannanon, Panakaporn

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine the protective effects against cerebral ischemia and osteoporosis of Morinda citrifolia extract in experimental menopause. The neuroprotective effect was assessed by giving M. citrifolia leaf extract at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg BW to the bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 7 days. Then, they were occluded in the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 minutes. The neurological score, brain infarction volume, oxidative stress status, and ERK1/2 and eNOS activities were assessed 24 hours later. M. citrifolia improved neurological score, brain infarction, and brain oxidative stress status in the cortex of OVX rats plus the MCAO. No changes in ERK 1/2 signal pathway and NOS expression were observed in this area. Our data suggested that the neuroprotective effect of the extract might occur partly via the improvement of oxidative stress status in the cortex. The antiosteoporotic effect in OVX rats was also assessed after an 84-day intervention of M. citrifolia. The serum levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase and osteoblast density in the tibia were increased, but the density of osteoclast was decreased in OVX rats which received the extract. Therefore, the current data suggested that the extract possessed antiosteoporotic effect by increasing bone formation but decreasing bone resorption. PMID:29765488

  5. Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract Protects against Cerebral Ischemia and Osteoporosis in an In Vivo Experimental Model of Menopause.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Thipkaew, Cholathip; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine the protective effects against cerebral ischemia and osteoporosis of Morinda citrifolia extract in experimental menopause. The neuroprotective effect was assessed by giving M. citrifolia leaf extract at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg BW to the bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 7 days. Then, they were occluded in the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 minutes. The neurological score, brain infarction volume, oxidative stress status, and ERK1/2 and eNOS activities were assessed 24 hours later. M. citrifolia improved neurological score, brain infarction, and brain oxidative stress status in the cortex of OVX rats plus the MCAO. No changes in ERK 1/2 signal pathway and NOS expression were observed in this area. Our data suggested that the neuroprotective effect of the extract might occur partly via the improvement of oxidative stress status in the cortex. The antiosteoporotic effect in OVX rats was also assessed after an 84-day intervention of M. citrifolia . The serum levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase and osteoblast density in the tibia were increased, but the density of osteoclast was decreased in OVX rats which received the extract. Therefore, the current data suggested that the extract possessed antiosteoporotic effect by increasing bone formation but decreasing bone resorption.

  6. Automatic detection and quantitative analysis of cells in the mouse primary motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yunlong; He, Yong; Wu, Jingpeng; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Anan; Gong, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Neuronal cells play very important role on metabolism regulation and mechanism control, so cell number is a fundamental determinant of brain function. Combined suitable cell-labeling approaches with recently proposed three-dimensional optical imaging techniques, whole mouse brain coronal sections can be acquired with 1-μm voxel resolution. We have developed a completely automatic pipeline to perform cell centroids detection, and provided three-dimensional quantitative information of cells in the primary motor cortex of C57BL/6 mouse. It involves four principal steps: i) preprocessing; ii) image binarization; iii) cell centroids extraction and contour segmentation; iv) laminar density estimation. Investigations on the presented method reveal promising detection accuracy in terms of recall and precision, with average recall rate 92.1% and average precision rate 86.2%. We also analyze laminar density distribution of cells from pial surface to corpus callosum from the output vectorizations of detected cell centroids in mouse primary motor cortex, and find significant cellular density distribution variations in different layers. This automatic cell centroids detection approach will be beneficial for fast cell-counting and accurate density estimation, as time-consuming and error-prone manual identification is avoided.

  7. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  8. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. An Integrated Software Suite for Surface-based Analyses of Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Van Essen, David C.; Drury, Heather A.; Dickson, James; Harwell, John; Hanlon, Donna; Anderson, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database. PMID:11522765

  10. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, D C; Drury, H A; Dickson, J; Harwell, J; Hanlon, D; Anderson, C H

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  11. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Dickson, J.; Harwell, J.; Hanlon, D.; Anderson, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  12. Is the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex important for motor recovery in rats with photochemically induced cortical lesions?

    PubMed

    Takata, Kotaro; Yamauchi, Hideki; Tatsuno, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Keiji; Abo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex is important for motor recovery after brain damage in the photochemically initiated thrombosis (PIT) model. We induced PIT in the sensorimotor cortex in rats and examined the recovery of motor function using the beam-walking test. In 24 rats, the right sensorimotor cortex was lesioned after 2 days of training for the beam-walking test (group 1). After 10 days, PIT was induced in the left sensorimotor cortex. Eight additional rats (group 2) received 2 days training in beam walking, then underwent the beam-walking test to evaluate function. After 10 days of testing, the left sensorimotor cortex was lesioned and recovery was monitored by the beam-walking test for 8 days. In group 1 animals, left hindlimb function caused by a right sensorimotor cortex lesion recovered within 10 days after the operation. Right hindlimb function caused by the left-side lesion recovered within 6 days. In group 2, right hindlimb function caused by induction of the left-side lesion after a total of 12 days of beam-walking training and testing recovered within 6 days as with the double PIT model. The training effect may be relevant to reorganization and neuromodulation. Motor recovery patterns did not indicate whether motor recovery was dependent on the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the cortex of the contralateral side. The results emphasize the need for selection of appropriate programs tailored to the area of cortical damage in order to enhance motor functional recovery in this model. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Transient human auditory cortex activation during volitional attention shifting

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Christian Harm; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    While strong activation of auditory cortex is generally found for exogenous orienting of attention, endogenous, intra-modal shifting of auditory attention has not yet been demonstrated to evoke transient activation of the auditory cortex. Here, we used fMRI to test if endogenous shifting of attention is also associated with transient activation of the auditory cortex. In contrast to previous studies, attention shifts were completely self-initiated and not cued by transient auditory or visual stimuli. Stimuli were two dichotic, continuous streams of tones, whose perceptual grouping was not ambiguous. Participants were instructed to continuously focus on one of the streams and switch between the two after a while, indicating the time and direction of each attentional shift by pressing one of two response buttons. The BOLD response around the time of the button presses revealed robust activation of the auditory cortex, along with activation of a distributed task network. To test if the transient auditory cortex activation was specifically related to auditory orienting, a self-paced motor task was added, where participants were instructed to ignore the auditory stimulation while they pressed the response buttons in alternation and at a similar pace. Results showed that attentional orienting produced stronger activity in auditory cortex, but auditory cortex activation was also observed for button presses without focused attention to the auditory stimulus. The response related to attention shifting was stronger contralateral to the side where attention was shifted to. Contralateral-dominant activation was also observed in dorsal parietal cortex areas, confirming previous observations for auditory attention shifting in studies that used auditory cues. PMID:28273110

  14. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David N.; Jackson, Graeme D.

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic – being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability. PMID:25538678

  15. Dynamical organization of the cytoskeletal cortex probed by micropipette aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Brugués, Jan; Maugis, Benoit; Casademunt, Jaume; Nassoy, Pierre; Amblard, François; Sens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Bleb-based cell motility proceeds by the successive inflation and retraction of large spherical membrane protrusions (“blebs”) coupled with substrate adhesion. In addition to their role in motility, cellular blebs constitute a remarkable illustration of the dynamical interactions between the cytoskeletal cortex and the plasma membrane. Here we study the bleb-based motions of Entamoeba histolytica in the constrained geometry of a micropipette. We construct a generic theoretical model that combines the polymerization of an actin cortex underneath the plasma membrane with the myosin-generated contractile stress in the cortex and the stress-induced failure of membrane-cortex adhesion. One major parameter dictating the cell response to micropipette suction is the stationary cortex thickness, controlled by actin polymerization and depolymerization. The other relevant physical parameters can be combined into two characteristic cortex thicknesses for which the myosin stress (i) balances the suction pressure and (ii) provokes membrane-cortex unbinding. We propose a general phase diagram for cell motions inside a micropipette by comparing these three thicknesses. In particular, we theoretically predict and experimentally verify the existence of saltatory and oscillatory motions for a well-defined range of micropipette suction pressures. PMID:20713731

  16. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    PubMed

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Cortex Dictamni

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Li, Yan-Lin; Wang, Li-Li; Arai, Hiderori; Xu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS The in vitro antioxidant effect of CDAE was investigated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), β-carotene bleaching, reducing power, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assays. A linoleic acid system, including ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays, was used to evaluate the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of CDAE against CCl4-induced liver damage were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Liver damage was assessed by determining hepatic histopathology and liver marker enzymes in serum. Enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant levels and lipid peroxide content were measured in the liver. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining. Nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic subunit (γ-GCSc) protein expression was measured by Western blot. RESULTS Our results showed that CDAE exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro. CDAE scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals in a dose-dependent manner. CDAE inhibited lipid peroxidation with a lipid peroxide inhibition rate of 40.6% ± 5.2%. In the FTC and TBA assays, CDAE significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01). In vivo histopathological studies indicated that CCl4-induced liver injury was alleviated following CDAE treatment in rats of both sexes. CDAE (160 and 320 mg/kg) significantly prevented CCl4-induced elevations of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels in rats of both sexes (P < 0.05, 0.01, or 0.001). Moreover, CDAE

  18. Prefrontal cortex haemodynamics and affective responses during exercise: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Gavin D; Eston, Roger G; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2014-01-01

    The dose-response effects of the intensity of exercise upon the potential regulation (through top-down processes) of affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses in the prefrontal cortex during an incremental exercise protocol have not been explored. This study examined the functional capacity of the prefrontal cortex (reflected by haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy) and affective responses during exercise at different intensities. Participants completed an incremental cycling exercise test to exhaustion. Changes (Δ) in oxygenation (O2Hb), deoxygenation (HHb), blood volume (tHb) and haemoglobin difference (HbDiff) were measured from bilateral dorsal and ventral prefrontal areas. Affective responses were measured every minute during exercise. Data were extracted at intensities standardised to: below ventilatory threshold, at ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point and the end of exercise. During exercise at intensities from ventilatory threshold to respiratory compensation point, ΔO2Hb, ΔHbDiff and ΔtHb were greater in mostly ventral than dorsal regions. From the respiratory compensation point to the end of exercise, ΔO2Hb remained stable and ΔHbDiff declined in dorsal regions. As the intensity increased above the ventilatory threshold, inverse associations between affective responses and oxygenation in (a) all regions of the left hemisphere and (b) lateral (dorsal and ventral) regions followed by the midline (ventral) region in the right hemisphere were observed. Differential activation patterns occur within the prefrontal cortex and are associated with affective responses during cycling exercise.

  19. Prefrontal Cortex Haemodynamics and Affective Responses during Exercise: A Multi-Channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Tempest, Gavin D.; Eston, Roger G.; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2014-01-01

    The dose-response effects of the intensity of exercise upon the potential regulation (through top-down processes) of affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses in the prefrontal cortex during an incremental exercise protocol have not been explored. This study examined the functional capacity of the prefrontal cortex (reflected by haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy) and affective responses during exercise at different intensities. Participants completed an incremental cycling exercise test to exhaustion. Changes (Δ) in oxygenation (O2Hb), deoxygenation (HHb), blood volume (tHb) and haemoglobin difference (HbDiff) were measured from bilateral dorsal and ventral prefrontal areas. Affective responses were measured every minute during exercise. Data were extracted at intensities standardised to: below ventilatory threshold, at ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point and the end of exercise. During exercise at intensities from ventilatory threshold to respiratory compensation point, ΔO2Hb, ΔHbDiff and ΔtHb were greater in mostly ventral than dorsal regions. From the respiratory compensation point to the end of exercise, ΔO2Hb remained stable and ΔHbDiff declined in dorsal regions. As the intensity increased above the ventilatory threshold, inverse associations between affective responses and oxygenation in (a) all regions of the left hemisphere and (b) lateral (dorsal and ventral) regions followed by the midline (ventral) region in the right hemisphere were observed. Differential activation patterns occur within the prefrontal cortex and are associated with affective responses during cycling exercise. PMID:24788166

  20. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  1. Development of closed-loop neural interface technology in a rat model: combining motor cortex operant conditioning with visual cortex microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Timothy Charles; Lehmkuhle, Mark J; Gage, Gregory J; Kipke, Daryl R

    2010-04-01

    Closed-loop neural interface technology that combines neural ensemble decoding with simultaneous electrical microstimulation feedback is hypothesized to improve deep brain stimulation techniques, neuromotor prosthetic applications, and epilepsy treatment. Here we describe our iterative results in a rat model of a sensory and motor neurophysiological feedback control system. Three rats were chronically implanted with microelectrode arrays in both the motor and visual cortices. The rats were subsequently trained over a period of weeks to modulate their motor cortex ensemble unit activity upon delivery of intra-cortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the visual cortex in order to receive a food reward. Rats were given continuous feedback via visual cortex ICMS during the response periods that was representative of the motor cortex ensemble dynamics. Analysis revealed that the feedback provided the animals with indicators of the behavioral trials. At the hardware level, this preparation provides a tractable test model for improving the technology of closed-loop neural devices.

  2. Chemical Discrimination of Cortex Phellodendri amurensis and Cortex Phellodendri chinensis by Multivariate Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuhong; Meng, Xiangcai; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    As herbal medicines have an important position in health care systems worldwide, their current assessment, and quality control are a major bottleneck. Cortex Phellodendri chinensis (CPC) and Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) are widely used in China, however, how to identify species of CPA and CPC has become urgent. In this study, multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigation of chemical discrimination of CPA and CPC. Principal component analysis showed that two herbs could be separated clearly. The chemical markers such as berberine, palmatine, phellodendrine, magnoflorine, obacunone, and obaculactone were identified through the orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers for discrimination of CPA and CPC. Of them, phellodenrine is significantly higher in CPC than that of CPA, whereas obacunone and obaculactone are significantly higher in CPA than that of CPC. The present study proves that multivariate analysis approach based chemical analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of CPA and CPC, and showed that the identified chemical markers as a whole should be used to discriminate the two herbal medicines, and simultaneously the results also provided chemical information for their quality assessment. Multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigate the herbal medicineThe chemical markers were identified through multivariate analysis approachA total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based multivariate analysis method for the herbal medicine samples Abbreviations used: CPC: Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, CPA: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis, PCA: Principal component analysis, OPLS-DA: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, BPI: Base peaks ion intensity.

  3. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds. PMID:24381544

  4. The harmonic organization of auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    2013-12-17

    A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds.

  5. Metaphorically Feeling: Comprehending Textural Metaphors Activates Somatosensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  6. Spatial embedding of structural similarity in the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Song, H. Francis; Kennedy, Henry; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Recent anatomical tracing studies have yielded substantial amounts of data on the areal connectivity underlying distributed processing in cortex, yet the fundamental principles that govern the large-scale organization of cortex remain unknown. Here we show that functional similarity between areas as defined by the pattern of shared inputs or outputs is a key to understanding the areal network of cortex. In particular, we report a systematic relation in the monkey, human, and mouse cortex between the occurrence of connections from one area to another and their similarity distance. This characteristic relation is rooted in the wiring distance dependence of connections in the brain. We introduce a weighted, spatially embedded random network model that robustly gives rise to this structure, as well as many other spatial and topological properties observed in cortex. These include features that were not accounted for in any previous model, such as the wide range of interareal connection weights. Connections in the model emerge from an underlying distribution of spatially embedded axons, thereby integrating the two scales of cortical connectivity—individual axons and interareal pathways—into a common geometric framework. These results provide insights into the origin of large-scale connectivity in cortex and have important implications for theories of cortical organization. PMID:25368200

  7. A Predictive Model of Anesthesia Depth Based on SVM in the Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoyuan; Wan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel model for predicting anesthesia depth is put forward based on local field potentials (LFPs) in the primary visual cortex (V1 area) of rats. The model is constructed using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) to realize anesthesia depth online prediction and classification. The raw LFP signal was first decomposed into some special scaling components. Among these components, those containing higher frequency information were well suited for more precise analysis of the performance of the anesthetic depth by wavelet transform. Secondly, the characteristics of anesthetized states were extracted by complexity analysis. In addition, two frequency domain parameters were selected. The above extracted features were used as the input vector of the predicting model. Finally, we collected the anesthesia samples from the LFP recordings under the visual stimulus experiments of Long Evans rats. Our results indicate that the predictive model is accurate and computationally fast, and that it is also well suited for online predicting. PMID:24044024

  8. A theoretical and computational framework for mechanics of the cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-SáNchez, Alejandro; Arroyo, Marino

    The cell cortex is a thin network of actin filaments lying beneath the cell surface of animal cells. Myosin motors exert contractile forces in this network leading to active stresses, which play a key role in processes such as cytokinesis or cell migration. Thus, understanding the mechanics of the cortex is fundamental to understand the mechanics of animal cells. Due to the dynamic remodeling of the actin network, the cortex behaves as a viscoelastic fluid. Furthermore, due to the difference between its thickness (tens of nanometers) and its dimensions (tens of microns), the cortex can be regarded a surface. Thus, we can model the cortex as a viscoelastic fluid, confined to a surface, that generates active stresses. Interestingly, geometric confinement results in the coupling between shape generation and material flows. In this work we present a theoretical framework to model the mechanics of the cortex that couples elasticity, hydrodynamics and force generation. We complement our theoretical description with a computational setting to simulate the resulting non-linear equations. We use this methodology to understand different processes such as asymmetric cell division or experimental probing of the rheology of the cortex We acknowledge the support of the Europen Research Council through Grant ERC CoG-681434.

  9. ALCOHOL AND THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Kenneth; Chandler, L. Judson; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex occupies the anterior portion of the frontal lobes and is thought to be one of the most complex anatomical and functional structures of the mammalian brain. Its major role is to integrate and interpret inputs from cortical and sub-cortical structures and use this information to develop purposeful responses that reflect both present and future circumstances. This includes both action-oriented sequences involved in obtaining rewards and inhibition of behaviors that pose undue risk or harm to the individual. Given the central role in initiating and regulating these often complex cognitive and behavioral responses, it is no surprise that alcohol has profound effects on the function of the prefrontal cortex. In this chapter, we review the basic anatomy and physiology of the prefrontal cortex and discuss what is known about the actions of alcohol on the function of this brain region. This includes a review of both the human and animal literature including information on the electrophysiological and behavioral effects that follow acute and chronic exposure to alcohol. The chapter concludes with a discussion of unanswered questions and areas needing further investigation. PMID:20813246

  10. Contextual modulation of primary visual cortex by auditory signals.

    PubMed

    Petro, L S; Paton, A T; Muckli, L

    2017-02-19

    Early visual cortex receives non-feedforward input from lateral and top-down connections (Muckli & Petro 2013 Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 195-201. (doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020)), including long-range projections from auditory areas. Early visual cortex can code for high-level auditory information, with neural patterns representing natural sound stimulation (Vetter et al. 2014 Curr. Biol. 24, 1256-1262. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.020)). We discuss a number of questions arising from these findings. What is the adaptive function of bimodal representations in visual cortex? What type of information projects from auditory to visual cortex? What are the anatomical constraints of auditory information in V1, for example, periphery versus fovea, superficial versus deep cortical layers? Is there a putative neural mechanism we can infer from human neuroimaging data and recent theoretical accounts of cortex? We also present data showing we can read out high-level auditory information from the activation patterns of early visual cortex even when visual cortex receives simple visual stimulation, suggesting independent channels for visual and auditory signals in V1. We speculate which cellular mechanisms allow V1 to be contextually modulated by auditory input to facilitate perception, cognition and behaviour. Beyond cortical feedback that facilitates perception, we argue that there is also feedback serving counterfactual processing during imagery, dreaming and mind wandering, which is not relevant for immediate perception but for behaviour and cognition over a longer time frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Contextual modulation of primary visual cortex by auditory signals

    PubMed Central

    Paton, A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Early visual cortex receives non-feedforward input from lateral and top-down connections (Muckli & Petro 2013 Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 195–201. (doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020)), including long-range projections from auditory areas. Early visual cortex can code for high-level auditory information, with neural patterns representing natural sound stimulation (Vetter et al. 2014 Curr. Biol. 24, 1256–1262. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.020)). We discuss a number of questions arising from these findings. What is the adaptive function of bimodal representations in visual cortex? What type of information projects from auditory to visual cortex? What are the anatomical constraints of auditory information in V1, for example, periphery versus fovea, superficial versus deep cortical layers? Is there a putative neural mechanism we can infer from human neuroimaging data and recent theoretical accounts of cortex? We also present data showing we can read out high-level auditory information from the activation patterns of early visual cortex even when visual cortex receives simple visual stimulation, suggesting independent channels for visual and auditory signals in V1. We speculate which cellular mechanisms allow V1 to be contextually modulated by auditory input to facilitate perception, cognition and behaviour. Beyond cortical feedback that facilitates perception, we argue that there is also feedback serving counterfactual processing during imagery, dreaming and mind wandering, which is not relevant for immediate perception but for behaviour and cognition over a longer time frame. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044015

  12. Temporal tuning in the bat auditory cortex is sharper when studied with natural echolocation sequences.

    PubMed

    Beetz, M Jerome; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-06-30

    Precise temporal coding is necessary for proper acoustic analysis. However, at cortical level, forward suppression appears to limit the ability of neurons to extract temporal information from natural sound sequences. Here we studied how temporal processing can be maintained in the bats' cortex in the presence of suppression evoked by natural echolocation streams that are relevant to the bats' behavior. We show that cortical neurons tuned to target-distance actually profit from forward suppression induced by natural echolocation sequences. These neurons can more precisely extract target distance information when they are stimulated with natural echolocation sequences than during stimulation with isolated call-echo pairs. We conclude that forward suppression does for time domain tuning what lateral inhibition does for selectivity forms such as auditory frequency tuning and visual orientation tuning. When talking about cortical processing, suppression should be seen as a mechanistic tool rather than a limiting element.

  13. Role of the ventrolateral orbital cortex and medial prefrontal cortex in incentive downshift situations.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Uhelski, Megan; Fuchs, Perry N; Papini, Mauricio R

    2013-05-01

    The present research evaluated the role of two prefrontal cortex areas, the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), on two situations involving incentive downshifts, consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) with sucrose solutions and Pavlovian autoshaping following continuous vs. partial reinforcement with food pellets. Animals received electrolytic lesions and then were tested on cSNC, autoshaping, open-field activity, and sucrose sensitivity. Lesions of the VLO reduced suppression of consummatory behavior after the incentive downshift, but only during the first downshift trial, and also eliminated the enhancement of anticipatory behavior during partial reinforcement, relative to continuous reinforcement, in autoshaping. There was no evidence of specific effects of mPFC lesions on incentive downshifts. Open-field activity was also reduced by VLO lesions, but only in the central area, whereas mPFC lesions had no observable effects on activity. Animals with mPFC lesions exhibited decreased consumption of the lowest sucrose concentration, whereas no effects were observed in animals with VLO lesions. These results suggest that the VLO may exert nonassociative (i.e., motivational, emotional) influences on behavior in situations involving incentive downshifts. No clear role on incentive downshift was revealed by mPFC lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretation of the function of the striate cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Bernardette M.; Paplinski, Andrew P.

    2000-04-01

    Biological neural networks do not require retraining every time objects move in the visual field. Conventional computer neural networks do not share this shift-invariance. The brain compensates for movements in the head, body, eyes and objects by allowing the sensory data to be tracked across the visual field. The neurons in the striate cortex respond to objects moving across the field of vision as is seen in many experiments. It is proposed, that the neurons in the striate cortex allow continuous angle changes needed to compensate for changes in orientation of the head, eyes and the motion of objects in the field of vision. It is hypothesized that the neurons in the striate cortex form a system that allows for the translation, some rotation and scaling of objects and provides a continuity of objects as they move relative to other objects. The neurons in the striate cortex respond to features which are fundamental to sight, such as orientation of lines, direction of motion, color and contrast. The neurons that respond to these features are arranged on the cortex in a way that depends on the features they are responding to and on the area of the retina from which they receive their inputs.

  15. Tinnitus Intensity Dependent Gamma Oscillations of the Contralateral Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    van der Loo, Elsa; Gais, Steffen; Congedo, Marco; Vanneste, Sven; Plazier, Mark; Menovsky, Tomas; Van de Heyning, Paul; De Ridder, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. Methods and Findings In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left) source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05). Conclusion Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception. PMID:19816597

  16. Auditory Cortex Is Required for Fear Potentiation of Gap Detection

    PubMed Central

    Weible, Aldis P.; Liu, Christine; Niell, Cristopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortex is necessary for the perceptual detection of brief gaps in noise, but is not necessary for many other auditory tasks such as frequency discrimination, prepulse inhibition of startle responses, or fear conditioning with pure tones. It remains unclear why auditory cortex should be necessary for some auditory tasks but not others. One possibility is that auditory cortex is causally involved in gap detection and other forms of temporal processing in order to associate meaning with temporally structured sounds. This predicts that auditory cortex should be necessary for associating meaning with gaps. To test this prediction, we developed a fear conditioning paradigm for mice based on gap detection. We found that pairing a 10 or 100 ms gap with an aversive stimulus caused a robust enhancement of gap detection measured 6 h later, which we refer to as fear potentiation of gap detection. Optogenetic suppression of auditory cortex during pairing abolished this fear potentiation, indicating that auditory cortex is critically involved in associating temporally structured sounds with emotionally salient events. PMID:25392510

  17. Homeostatic circuits selectively gate food cue responses in insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, Yoav; Ramesh, Rohan n.; Burgess, christian R.; Levandowski, Kirsten M.; Madara, Joseph c.; Fenselau, henning; Goldey, Glenn J.; Diaz, Veronica E.; Jikomes, nick; Resch, Jon M.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Andermann, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is ‘hijacked’ by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how ‘cognitive’ cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states. Insular cortex neurons demonstrate food- cue-biased responses that are abolished during satiety. Unexpectedly, while multiple satiety-related visceral signals converge in insular cortex, chemogenetic activation of hypothalamic ‘hunger neurons’ (expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP)) bypasses these signals to restore hunger-like response patterns in insular cortex. Circuit mapping and pathway-specific manipulations uncover a pathway from AgRP neurons to insular cortex via the paraventricular thalamus and basolateral amygdala. These results reveal a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues. PMID:28614299

  18. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B; Middleton, Natalie A; Theriot, Jeremy J; Parker, Patrick D; Abdullah, Osama M; Ju, Y Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A; Brennan, K C

    2016-04-27

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations. Finally, we show a

  19. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  20. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)cortex (0.0625 mg/ml)=Siegesbeckia pubescens aerial part (0.0625 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted

  1. Anthocyanins protect against LPS-induced oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Tahir; Kim, Min Woo; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Jo, Min Gi; Badshah, Haroon; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-11-01

    Several studies provide evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of various neurological disorders. Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compounds and are well known for their anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins (extracted from black soybean) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS-mediated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 μg/kg) for 7 days triggers elevated ROS and oxidative stress, which induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the adult mouse cortex. Treatment with 24 mg/kg/day of anthocyanins for 14 days in LPS-injected mice (7 days before and 7 days co-treated with LPS) attenuated elevated ROS and oxidative stress compared to mice that received LPS-injection alone. The immunoblotting results showed that anthocyanins reduced the level of the oxidative stress kinase phospho-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 1 (p-JNK). The immunoblotting and morphological results showed that anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced-ROS-mediated neuroinflammation through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and the transcription factor NF- k B. Anthocyanins treatment also reduced activated astrocytes and microglia in the cortex of LPS-injected mice, as indicated by reductions in GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. Anthocyanins also prevent overexpression of various apoptotic markers, i.e., Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1. Immunohistochemical fluoro-jade B (FJB) and Nissl staining indicated that anthocyanins prevent LPS-induced neurodegeneration in the mouse cortex. Our results suggest that dietary flavonoids, such as anthocyanins, have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities that could be beneficial to various neurological disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The multisensory function of the human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Murray, Micah M; Thelen, Antonia; Thut, Gregor; Romei, Vincenzo; Martuzzi, Roberto; Matusz, Pawel J

    2016-03-01

    It has been nearly 10 years since Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) proposed that the neocortex is essentially multisensory in nature. However, it is only recently that sufficient and hard evidence that supports this proposal has accrued. We review evidence that activity within the human primary visual cortex plays an active role in multisensory processes and directly impacts behavioural outcome. This evidence emerges from a full pallet of human brain imaging and brain mapping methods with which multisensory processes are quantitatively assessed by taking advantage of particular strengths of each technique as well as advances in signal analyses. Several general conclusions about multisensory processes in primary visual cortex of humans are supported relatively solidly. First, haemodynamic methods (fMRI/PET) show that there is both convergence and integration occurring within primary visual cortex. Second, primary visual cortex is involved in multisensory processes during early post-stimulus stages (as revealed by EEG/ERP/ERFs as well as TMS). Third, multisensory effects in primary visual cortex directly impact behaviour and perception, as revealed by correlational (EEG/ERPs/ERFs) as well as more causal measures (TMS/tACS). While the provocative claim of Ghazanfar and Schroeder (2006) that the whole of neocortex is multisensory in function has yet to be demonstrated, this can now be considered established in the case of the human primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, David T.; Schmid, Ariel N.; Danaphongse, Tanya T.; Flanagan, Kate E.; Morrison, Robert A.; Kilgard, Michael P.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Hays, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. PMID:27392641

  4. The prefrontal cortex: categories, concepts and cognition.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Earl K; Freedman, David J; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2002-01-01

    The ability to generalize behaviour-guiding principles and concepts from experience is key to intelligent, goal-directed behaviour. It allows us to deal efficiently with a complex world and to adapt readily to novel situations. We review evidence that the prefrontal cortex-the cortical area that reaches its greatest elaboration in primates-plays a central part in acquiring and representing this information. The prefrontal cortex receives highly processed information from all major forebrain systems, and neurophysiological studies suggest that it synthesizes this into representations of learned task contingencies, concepts and task rules. In short, the prefrontal cortex seems to underlie our internal representations of the 'rules of the game'. This may provide the necessary foundation for the complex behaviour of primates, in whom this structure is most elaborate. PMID:12217179

  5. Phase-Locked Responses to Speech in Human Auditory Cortex are Enhanced During Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Gross, Joachim; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that ongoing oscillations in auditory cortex modulate their phase to match the rhythm of temporally regular acoustic stimuli, increasing sensitivity to relevant environmental cues and improving detection accuracy. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that nonsensory information provided by linguistic content enhances phase-locked responses to intelligible speech in the human brain. Sixteen adults listened to meaningful sentences while we recorded neural activity using magnetoencephalography. Stimuli were processed using a noise-vocoding technique to vary intelligibility while keeping the temporal acoustic envelope consistent. We show that the acoustic envelopes of sentences contain most power between 4 and 7 Hz and that it is in this frequency band that phase locking between neural activity and envelopes is strongest. Bilateral oscillatory neural activity phase-locked to unintelligible speech, but this cerebro-acoustic phase locking was enhanced when speech was intelligible. This enhanced phase locking was left lateralized and localized to left temporal cortex. Together, our results demonstrate that entrainment to connected speech does not only depend on acoustic characteristics, but is also affected by listeners’ ability to extract linguistic information. This suggests a biological framework for speech comprehension in which acoustic and linguistic cues reciprocally aid in stimulus prediction. PMID:22610394

  6. Phase-locked responses to speech in human auditory cortex are enhanced during comprehension.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Gross, Joachim; Davis, Matthew H

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that ongoing oscillations in auditory cortex modulate their phase to match the rhythm of temporally regular acoustic stimuli, increasing sensitivity to relevant environmental cues and improving detection accuracy. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that nonsensory information provided by linguistic content enhances phase-locked responses to intelligible speech in the human brain. Sixteen adults listened to meaningful sentences while we recorded neural activity using magnetoencephalography. Stimuli were processed using a noise-vocoding technique to vary intelligibility while keeping the temporal acoustic envelope consistent. We show that the acoustic envelopes of sentences contain most power between 4 and 7 Hz and that it is in this frequency band that phase locking between neural activity and envelopes is strongest. Bilateral oscillatory neural activity phase-locked to unintelligible speech, but this cerebro-acoustic phase locking was enhanced when speech was intelligible. This enhanced phase locking was left lateralized and localized to left temporal cortex. Together, our results demonstrate that entrainment to connected speech does not only depend on acoustic characteristics, but is also affected by listeners' ability to extract linguistic information. This suggests a biological framework for speech comprehension in which acoustic and linguistic cues reciprocally aid in stimulus prediction.

  7. Olfactocentric paralimbic cortex morphology in adolescents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together, these factors implicate a central role for the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex in the development of bipolar disorder and suggest that abnormalities in this cortex may be expressed by adolescence in the disorder. We tested the hypothesis that differences in olfactocentric paralimbic cortex structure are a morphological feature in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Subjects included 118 adolescents (41 with bipolar disorder and 77 healthy controls). Cortical grey matter volume differences between adolescents with and without bipolar disorder were assessed with voxel-based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Compared with healthy comparison adolescents, adolescents with bipolar disorder demonstrated significant volume decreases in olfactocentric paralimbic regions, including orbitofrontal, insular and temporopolar cortices. Findings in these regions survived small volume correction (P < 0.05, corrected). Volume decreases in adolescents with bipolar disorder were also noted in inferior prefrontal and superior temporal gyri and cerebellum. The findings suggest that abnormalities in the morphology of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex may contribute to the bipolar disorder phenotype that emerges in adolescence. The morphological development of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex has received little study. The importance of these cortices in emotional and social development, and support for a central role for these cortices in the development of bipolar disorder, suggest that study of the development of these cortices in health and in bipolar disorder is critically needed

  8. Olfactocentric paralimbic cortex morphology in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H; Womer, Fay Y; Edmiston, Erin E; Chepenik, Lara G; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2011-07-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together, these factors implicate a central role for the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex in the development of bipolar disorder and suggest that abnormalities in this cortex may be expressed by adolescence in the disorder. We tested the hypothesis that differences in olfactocentric paralimbic cortex structure are a morphological feature in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Subjects included 118 adolescents (41 with bipolar disorder and 77 healthy controls). Cortical grey matter volume differences between adolescents with and without bipolar disorder were assessed with voxel-based morphometry analyses of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Compared with healthy comparison adolescents, adolescents with bipolar disorder demonstrated significant volume decreases in olfactocentric paralimbic regions, including orbitofrontal, insular and temporopolar cortices. Findings in these regions survived small volume correction (P < 0.05, corrected). Volume decreases in adolescents with bipolar disorder were also noted in inferior prefrontal and superior temporal gyri and cerebellum. The findings suggest that abnormalities in the morphology of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex may contribute to the bipolar disorder phenotype that emerges in adolescence. The morphological development of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex has received little study. The importance of these cortices in emotional and social development, and support for a central role for these cortices in the development of bipolar disorder, suggest that study of the development of these cortices in health and in bipolar disorder is critically needed.

  9. Auditory and visual connectivity gradients in frontoparietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Peter J.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A frontoparietal network of brain regions is often implicated in both auditory and visual information processing. Although it is possible that the same set of multimodal regions subserves both modalities, there is increasing evidence that there is a differentiation of sensory function within frontoparietal cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans was used to investigate whether different frontoparietal regions showed intrinsic biases in connectivity with visual or auditory modalities. Structural connectivity was assessed with diffusion tractography and functional connectivity was tested using functional MRI. A dorsal–ventral gradient of function was observed, where connectivity with visual cortex dominates dorsal frontal and parietal connections, while connectivity with auditory cortex dominates ventral frontal and parietal regions. A gradient was also observed along the posterior–anterior axis, although in opposite directions in prefrontal and parietal cortices. The results suggest that the location of neural activity within frontoparietal cortex may be influenced by these intrinsic biases toward visual and auditory processing. Thus, the location of activity in frontoparietal cortex may be influenced as much by stimulus modality as the cognitive demands of a task. It was concluded that stimulus modality was spatially encoded throughout frontal and parietal cortices, and was speculated that such an arrangement allows for top–down modulation of modality‐specific information to occur within higher‐order cortex. This could provide a potentially faster and more efficient pathway by which top–down selection between sensory modalities could occur, by constraining modulations to within frontal and parietal regions, rather than long‐range connections to sensory cortices. Hum Brain Mapp 38:255–270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27571304

  10. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch

    PubMed Central

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch. PMID:28934203

  11. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  12. Engagement of the Rat Hindlimb Motor Cortex across Natural Locomotor Behaviors.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-10-05

    Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship

  13. Functional implications of orientation maps in primary visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Erin; Jin, Jianzhong; Alonso, Jose M.; Zaidi, Qasim

    2016-11-01

    Stimulus orientation in the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores is mapped as iso-orientation domains radiating from pinwheel centres, where orientation preferences of neighbouring cells change circularly. Whether this orientation map has a function is currently debated, because many mammals, such as rodents, do not have such maps. Here we show that two fundamental properties of visual cortical responses, contrast saturation and cross-orientation suppression, are stronger within cat iso-orientation domains than at pinwheel centres. These differences develop when excitation (not normalization) from neighbouring oriented neurons is applied to different cortical orientation domains and then balanced by inhibition from un-oriented neurons. The functions of the pinwheel mosaic emerge from these local intra-cortical computations: Narrower tuning, greater cross-orientation suppression and higher contrast gain of iso-orientation cells facilitate extraction of object contours from images, whereas broader tuning, greater linearity and less suppression of pinwheel cells generate selectivity for surface patterns and textures.

  14. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-14

    Studies Preparations for the setup to record from awake animals in a behavioral setting were initiated with the help of Dr. William Jenkins, our...temporal muscle over the right hemisphere was then retracted and the lateral cortex exposed by a craniotomy . The dura overlaying the middle ectosylvian...sites. For recording topographically identified single neurons, a wire mesh was placed over the craniotomy and the space between the grid and cortex was

  15. Visual Information Present in Infragranular Layers of Mouse Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Ryan J; Hasenstaub, Andrea R

    2018-03-14

    The cerebral cortex is a major hub for the convergence and integration of signals from across the sensory modalities; sensory cortices, including primary regions, are no exception. Here we show that visual stimuli influence neural firing in the auditory cortex of awake male and female mice, using multisite probes to sample single units across multiple cortical layers. We demonstrate that visual stimuli influence firing in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. We then determine the laminar location of recording sites through electrode track tracing with fluorescent dye and optogenetic identification using layer-specific markers. Spiking responses to visual stimulation occur deep in auditory cortex and are particularly prominent in layer 6. Visual modulation of firing rate occurs more frequently at areas with secondary-like auditory responses than those with primary-like responses. Auditory cortical responses to drifting visual gratings are not orientation-tuned, unlike visual cortex responses. The deepest cortical layers thus appear to be an important locus for cross-modal integration in auditory cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The deepest layers of the auditory cortex are often considered its most enigmatic, possessing a wide range of cell morphologies and atypical sensory responses. Here we show that, in mouse auditory cortex, these layers represent a locus of cross-modal convergence, containing many units responsive to visual stimuli. Our results suggest that this visual signal conveys the presence and timing of a stimulus rather than specifics about that stimulus, such as its orientation. These results shed light on both how and what types of cross-modal information is integrated at the earliest stages of sensory cortical processing. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/382854-09$15.00/0.

  16. Touch activates human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2006-05-01

    Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment.

  17. TMS activation of interhemispheric pathways between the posterior parietal cortex and the contralateral motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Giacomo; Ruge, Diane; Cheeran, Binith; Fernandez Del Olmo, Miguel; Pecchioli, Cristiano; Marconi, Barbara; Versace, Viviana; Lo Gerfo, Emanuele; Torriero, Sara; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Rothwell, John C

    2009-01-01

    Using a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (tc-TMS) approach we have previously demonstrated that facilitation may be detected in the primary motor cortex (M1) following stimulation over the ipsilateral caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS). Here we tested the interhemispheric interactions between the IPS and the contralateral motor cortex (M1). We found that conditioning the right cIPS facilitated contralateral M1 when the conditioning stimulus had an intensity of 90% resting motor threshold (RMT) but not at 70% or 110% RMT. Facilitation was maximal when the interstimulus interval (ISI) between cIPS and M1 was 6 or 12 ms. These facilitatory effects were mediated by interactions with specific groups of interneurons in the contralateral M1. In fact, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) was reduced following cIPS stimulation. Moreover, additional comparison of facilitation of responses evoked by anterior–posterior versus posterior–anterior stimulation of M1 suggested that facilitation was more effective on early I1/I2 circuits than on I3 circuits. In contrast to these effects, stimulation of anterior IPS (aIPS) at 90% RMT induced inhibition, instead of facilitation, of contralateral M1 at ISIs of 10–12 ms. Finally, we found similar facilitation between left cIPS and right M1 although the conditioning stimuli had to have a higher intensity compared with stimulation of right cIPS (110% instead of 90% RMT). These findings demonstrate that different subregions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in humans exert both facilitatory and inhibitory effects towards the contralateral primary motor cortex. These corticocortical projections could contribute to a variety of motor tasks such as bilateral manual coordination, movement planning in space and grasping. PMID:19622612

  18. Encoding model of temporal processing in human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-12-19

    How is temporal information processed in human visual cortex? Visual input is relayed to V1 through segregated transient and sustained channels in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). However, there is intense debate as to how sustained and transient temporal channels contribute to visual processing beyond V1. The prevailing view associates transient processing predominately with motion-sensitive regions and sustained processing with ventral stream regions, while the opposing view suggests that both temporal channels contribute to neural processing beyond V1. Using fMRI, we measured cortical responses to time-varying stimuli and then implemented a two temporal channel-encoding model to evaluate the contributions of each channel. Different from the general linear model of fMRI that predicts responses directly from the stimulus, the encoding approach first models neural responses to the stimulus from which fMRI responses are derived. This encoding approach not only predicts cortical responses to time-varying stimuli from milliseconds to seconds but also, reveals differential contributions of temporal channels across visual cortex. Consistent with the prevailing view, motion-sensitive regions and adjacent lateral occipitotemporal regions are dominated by transient responses. However, ventral occipitotemporal regions are driven by both sustained and transient channels, with transient responses exceeding the sustained. These findings propose a rethinking of temporal processing in the ventral stream and suggest that transient processing may contribute to rapid extraction of the content of the visual input. Importantly, our encoding approach has vast implications, because it can be applied with fMRI to decipher neural computations in millisecond resolution in any part of the brain. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral endplate and cortex fractures

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Fernando Ruiz; Deng, Min; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease, and vertebral fractures (VFs) are the most common osteoporotic fracture. A single atraumatic VF may lead to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Prevalent VFs increase the risk of future vertebral and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture independent of bone mineral density (BMD). The accurate and clear reporting of VF is essential to ensure patients with osteoporosis receive appropriate treatment. Radiologist has a vital role in the diagnosis of this disease. Several morphometrical and radiological methods for detecting osteoporotic VF have been proposed, but there is no consensus regarding the definition of osteoporotic VF. A vertebra may fracture yet not ever result in measurable changes in radiographic height or area. To overcome these difficulties, algorithm-based qualitative approach (ABQ) was developed with a focus on the identification of change in the vertebral endplate. Evidence of endplate fracture (rather than variation in vertebral shape) is the primary indicator of osteoporotic fracture according to ABQ criteria. Other changes that may mimic osteoporotic fractures should be systemically excluded. It is also possible that vertebral cortex fracture may not initially occur in endplate. Particularly, vertebral cortex fracture can occur in anterior vertebral cortex without gross vertebral deformity (VD), or fractures deform the anterior vertebral cortex without endplate disruption. This article aims to serve as a teaching material for physicians or researchers to identify vertebral endplate/cortex fracture (ECF). Emphasis is particularly dedicated to identifying ECF which may not be associated apparent vertebral body collapse. We believe a combined approach based on standardized radiologic evaluation by experts and morphometry measurement is the most appropriate approach to detect and classify VFs. PMID:29184768

  20. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K; Engineer, Navzer D; Rathbun, Daniel L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2005-05-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8-4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity.

  2. Background sounds contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Moucha, Raluca; Pandya, Pritesh K.; Engineer, Navzer D.; Rathbun, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system evolved to extract meaningful information from complex acoustic environments. Spectrotemporal selectivity of auditory neurons provides a potential mechanism to represent natural sounds. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms can remodel the spectrotemporal selectivity of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). Electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) enables plasticity in A1 that parallels natural learning and is specific to acoustic features associated with NB activity. In this study, we used NB stimulation to explore how cortical networks reorganize after experience with frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps, and how background stimuli contribute to spectrotemporal plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Pairing an 8–4 kHz FM sweep with NB stimulation 300 times per day for 20 days decreased tone thresholds, frequency selectivity, and response latency of A1 neurons in the region of the tonotopic map activated by the sound. In an attempt to modify neuronal response properties across all of A1 the same NB activation was paired in a second group of rats with five downward FM sweeps, each spanning a different octave. No changes in FM selectivity or receptive field (RF) structure were observed when the neural activation was distributed across the cortical surface. However, the addition of unpaired background sweeps of different rates or direction was sufficient to alter RF characteristics across the tonotopic map in a third group of rats. These results extend earlier observations that cortical neurons can develop stimulus specific plasticity and indicate that background conditions can strongly influence cortical plasticity PMID:15616812

  3. Perspectives on classical controversies about the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Mohsen; Kaufman, Matthew T; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G; Cheney, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    Primary motor cortex has been studied for more than a century, yet a consensus on its functional contribution to movement control is still out of reach. In particular, there remains controversy as to the level of control produced by motor cortex ("low-level" movement dynamics vs. "high-level" movement kinematics) and the role of sensory feedback. In this review, we present different perspectives on the two following questions: What does activity in motor cortex reflect? and How do planned motor commands interact with incoming sensory feedback during movement? The four authors each present their independent views on how they think the primary motor cortex (M1) controls movement. At the end, we present a dialogue in which the authors synthesize their views and suggest possibilities for moving the field forward. While there is not yet a consensus on the role of M1 or sensory feedback in the control of upper limb movements, such dialogues are essential to take us closer to one. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Managing competing goals - a key role for the frontopolar cortex.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Farshad Alizadeh; Koechlin, Etienne; Rosa, Marcello G P; Buckley, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    Humans are set apart from other animals by many elements of advanced cognition and behaviour, including language, judgement and reasoning. What is special about the human brain that gives rise to these abilities? Could the foremost part of the prefrontal cortex (the frontopolar cortex), which has become considerably enlarged in humans during evolution compared with other animals, be important in this regard, especially as, in primates, it contains a unique cytoarchitectural field, area 10? The first studies of the function of the frontopolar cortex in monkeys have now provided critical new insights about its precise role in monitoring the significance of current and alternative goals. In human evolution, the frontopolar cortex may have acquired a further role in enabling the monitoring of the significance of multiple goals in parallel, as well as switching between them. Here, we argue that many other forms of uniquely human behaviour may benefit from this cognitive ability mediated by the frontopolar cortex.

  5. Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis With 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae Toothpaste: A Randomized, Double-Masked Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P < 0.001). Compared to the baseline, the test group had reductions in GI and PI of 14.39% and 17.86%, respectively (both P < 0.001); the control group had reductions in GI and PI of 3.7% and 3.93%, respectively (both P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. The toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae was effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Exposure on Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression in the Neonatal Mouse Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Armoskus, Chris; Mota, Thomas; Moreira, Debbie; Tsai, Houng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using gene expression microarrays and reverse transcription with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we have recently identified several novel genes that are differentially expressed in the neonatal male versus female mouse cortex/hippocampus (Armoskus et al.). Since perinatal testosterone (T) secreted by the developing testes masculinizes cortical and hippocampal structures and the behaviors regulated by these brain regions, we hypothesized that sexually dimorphic expression of specific selected genes in these areas might be regulated by T during early development. Methods To test our hypothesis, we treated timed pregnant female mice daily with vehicle or testosterone propionate (TP) starting on embryonic day 16 until the day of birth. The cortex/hippocampus was collected from vehicle- and TP-treated, male and female neonatal pups. Total RNA was extracted from these brain tissues, followed by RT-qPCR to measure relative mRNA levels of seven sex chromosome genes and three autosomal genes that have previously showed sex differences. Results The effect of prenatal TP was confirmed as it stimulated Dhcr24 expression in the neonatal mouse cortex/hippocampus and increased the anogenital distance in females. We found a significant effect of sex, but not TP, on expression of three Y-linked (Ddx3y, Eif2s3y, and Kdm5d), four X-linked (Eif2s3x, Kdm6a, Mid1, and Xist), and one autosomal (Klk8) genes in the neonatal mouse cortex/hippocampus. Conclusion Although most of the selected genes are not directly regulated by prenatal T, their sexually dimorphic expression might play an important role in the control of sexually differentiated cognitive and social behaviors as well as in the etiology of sex-biased neurological disorders and mental illnesses. PMID:25411648

  7. An FPGA-Based Massively Parallel Neuromorphic Cortex Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Runchun M.; Thakur, Chetan S.; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a massively parallel and scalable neuromorphic cortex simulator designed for simulating large and structurally connected spiking neural networks, such as complex models of various areas of the cortex. The main novelty of this work is the abstraction of a neuromorphic architecture into clusters represented by minicolumns and hypercolumns, analogously to the fundamental structural units observed in neurobiology. Without this approach, simulating large-scale fully connected networks needs prohibitively large memory to store look-up tables for point-to-point connections. Instead, we use a novel architecture, based on the structural connectivity in the neocortex, such that all the required parameters and connections can be stored in on-chip memory. The cortex simulator can be easily reconfigured for simulating different neural networks without any change in hardware structure by programming the memory. A hierarchical communication scheme allows one neuron to have a fan-out of up to 200 k neurons. As a proof-of-concept, an implementation on one Altera Stratix V FPGA was able to simulate 20 million to 2.6 billion leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons in real time. We verified the system by emulating a simplified auditory cortex (with 100 million neurons). This cortex simulator achieved a low power dissipation of 1.62 μW per neuron. With the advent of commercially available FPGA boards, our system offers an accessible and scalable tool for the design, real-time simulation, and analysis of large-scale spiking neural networks. PMID:29692702

  8. An FPGA-Based Massively Parallel Neuromorphic Cortex Simulator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Runchun M; Thakur, Chetan S; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a massively parallel and scalable neuromorphic cortex simulator designed for simulating large and structurally connected spiking neural networks, such as complex models of various areas of the cortex. The main novelty of this work is the abstraction of a neuromorphic architecture into clusters represented by minicolumns and hypercolumns, analogously to the fundamental structural units observed in neurobiology. Without this approach, simulating large-scale fully connected networks needs prohibitively large memory to store look-up tables for point-to-point connections. Instead, we use a novel architecture, based on the structural connectivity in the neocortex, such that all the required parameters and connections can be stored in on-chip memory. The cortex simulator can be easily reconfigured for simulating different neural networks without any change in hardware structure by programming the memory. A hierarchical communication scheme allows one neuron to have a fan-out of up to 200 k neurons. As a proof-of-concept, an implementation on one Altera Stratix V FPGA was able to simulate 20 million to 2.6 billion leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons in real time. We verified the system by emulating a simplified auditory cortex (with 100 million neurons). This cortex simulator achieved a low power dissipation of 1.62 μW per neuron. With the advent of commercially available FPGA boards, our system offers an accessible and scalable tool for the design, real-time simulation, and analysis of large-scale spiking neural networks.

  9. Mapping visual cortex in monkeys and humans using surface-based atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Lewis, J. W.; Drury, H. A.; Hadjikhani, N.; Tootell, R. B.; Bakircioglu, M.; Miller, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used surface-based atlases of the cerebral cortex to analyze the functional organization of visual cortex in humans and macaque monkeys. The macaque atlas contains multiple partitioning schemes for visual cortex, including a probabilistic atlas of visual areas derived from a recent architectonic study, plus summary schemes that reflect a combination of physiological and anatomical evidence. The human atlas includes a probabilistic map of eight topographically organized visual areas recently mapped using functional MRI. To facilitate comparisons between species, we used surface-based warping to bring functional and geographic landmarks on the macaque map into register with corresponding landmarks on the human map. The results suggest that extrastriate visual cortex outside the known topographically organized areas is dramatically expanded in human compared to macaque cortex, particularly in the parietal lobe.

  10. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Helene; Gour, Anjali; Straehle, Jakob; Boergens, Kevin M.; Brecht, Michael; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2017-09-01

    Research on neuronal connectivity in the cerebral cortex has focused on the existence and strength of synapses between neurons, and their location on the cell bodies and dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The synaptic architecture of individual presynaptic axonal trees, however, remains largely unknown. Here we used dense reconstructions from three-dimensional electron microscopy in rats to study the synaptic organization of local presynaptic axons in layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex, the site of grid-like spatial representations. We observe path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting, such that axons of excitatory neurons sequentially target inhibitory neurons followed by excitatory neurons. Connectivity analysis revealed a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit involving wide, myelinated inhibitory axons and dendritic synapse clustering. Simulations show that this high-precision circuit can control the propagation of synchronized activity in the medial entorhinal cortex, which is known for temporally precise discharges.

  11. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  12. Pharmacognostical studies of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arce, E; Gattuso, M; Alvarado, R; Zárate, E; Agüero, J; Feria, I; Lozoya, X

    2007-09-25

    The bark of the Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminoseae) tree, known as tepescohuite in Mexico, is commonly used in this country and in Central America to elaborate different products for the treatment of skin burns and lesions. The cicatrizing properties of extracts obtained from this bark have been scientifically studied, attributing the main biological activity to its tannin and saponin content. Studies include clinical trials of phytodrugs based on Mimosae tenuiflora bark extracts for treatment of venous leg ulcerations. Recent commercialization of the plant drug Mimosae tenuiflorae cortex requires pharmacognostical information to develop quality-control methods for raw materials and extracts produced with this plant drug. The present paper reports a group of ethnobotanical, morphological, chemical, and molecular studies performed with Mimosae tenuiflora materials obtained by collection in the southeastern Mexican state of Chiapas. Macro- and micro-morphological parameters were established to authenticate the genuine drug that allowed detection of adulterants usually found in commercial samples of this plant material. These morphological characteristics can be used for rapid identification of the drug and are particularly useful in the case of powdered materials. The chemical studies performed demonstrated that tannins represent the major component group in the bark. Its content in genuine tepescohuite is 16% and is mainly composed of proanthocyanidins, a condition permitting a tannin-based chemical-control method for fingerprinting the plant drug. Contrariwise, the saponin concentration in Mimosae tenuiflora bark is extremely low, and its isolation and content evaluation represent a complex procedure that is unsuitable for routine control purposes. Finally, random amplified DNA (RAPD) analysis results a useful tool for obtaining DNA specific markers of Mimosae tenuiflora species which should be useful in future studies involving raw material

  13. Evolution of the cerebellar cortex: the selective expansion of prefrontal-projecting cerebellar lobules.

    PubMed

    Balsters, J H; Cussans, E; Diedrichsen, J; Phillips, K A; Preuss, T M; Rilling, J K; Ramnani, N

    2010-02-01

    It has been suggested that interconnected brain areas evolve in tandem because evolutionary pressures act on complete functional systems rather than on individual brain areas. The cerebellar cortex has reciprocal connections with both the prefrontal cortex and motor cortex, forming independent loops with each. Specifically, in capuchin monkeys cerebellar cortical lobules Crus I and Crus II connect with prefrontal cortex, whereas the primary motor cortex connects with cerebellar lobules V, VI, VIIb, and VIIIa. Comparisons of extant primate species suggest that the prefrontal cortex has expanded more than cortical motor areas in human evolution. Given the enlargement of the prefrontal cortex relative to motor cortex in humans, our hypothesis would predict corresponding volumetric increases in the parts of the cerebellum connected to the prefrontal cortex, relative to cerebellar lobules connected to the motor cortex. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the volumes of cerebellar lobules in structural MRI scans in capuchins, chimpanzees and humans. The fractions of cerebellar volume occupied by Crus I and Crus II were significantly larger in humans compared to chimpanzees and capuchins. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that in the cortico-cerebellar system, functionally related structures evolve in concert with each other. The evolutionary expansion of these prefrontal-projecting cerebellar territories might contribute to the evolution of the higher cognitive functions of humans. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Executive Control Over Cognition: Stronger and Earlier Rule-Based Modulation of Spatial Category Signals in Prefrontal Cortex Relative to Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Shikha J.; Blackman, Rachael K.; Sakellaridi, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition is characterized by flexibility, the ability to select not only which action but which cognitive process to engage to best achieve the current behavioral objective. The ability to tailor information processing in the brain to rules, goals, or context is typically referred to as executive control, and although there is consensus that prefrontal cortex is importantly involved, at present we have an incomplete understanding of how computational flexibility is implemented at the level of prefrontal neurons and networks. To better understand the neural mechanisms of computational flexibility, we simultaneously recorded the electrical activity of groups of single neurons within prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex of monkeys performing a task that required executive control of spatial cognitive processing. In this task, monkeys applied different spatial categorization rules to reassign the same set of visual stimuli to alternative categories on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that single neurons were activated to represent spatially defined categories in a manner that was rule dependent, providing a physiological signature of a cognitive process that was implemented under executive control. We found also that neural signals coding rule-dependent categories were distributed between the parietal and prefrontal cortex—however, not equally. Rule-dependent category signals were stronger, more powerfully modulated by the rule, and earlier to emerge in prefrontal cortex relative to parietal cortex. This suggests that prefrontal cortex may initiate the switch in neural representation at a network level that is important for computational flexibility. PMID:22399773

  15. Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Marlinski, Vladimir; Nilaweera, Wijitha U.; Zelenin, Pavel V.; Sirota, Mikhail G.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the motor cortex during locomotion is profoundly modulated in the rhythm of strides. The source of modulation is not known. In this study we examined the activity of one of the major sources of afferent input to the motor cortex, the ventrolateral thalamus (VL). Experiments were conducted in chronically implanted cats with an extracellular single-neuron recording technique. VL neurons projecting to the motor cortex were identified by antidromic responses. During locomotion, the activity of 92% of neurons was modulated in the rhythm of strides; 67% of cells discharged one activity burst per stride, a pattern typical for the motor cortex. The characteristics of these discharges in most VL neurons appeared to be well suited to contribute to the locomotion-related activity of the motor cortex. In addition to simple locomotion, we examined VL activity during walking on a horizontal ladder, a task that requires vision for correct foot placement. Upon transition from simple to ladder locomotion, the activity of most VL neurons exhibited the same changes that have been reported for the motor cortex, i.e., an increase in the strength of stride-related modulation and shortening of the discharge duration. Five modes of integration of simple and ladder locomotion-related information were recognized in the VL. We suggest that, in addition to contributing to the locomotion-related activity in the motor cortex during simple locomotion, the VL integrates and transmits signals needed for correct foot placement on a complex terrain to the motor cortex. PMID:21994259

  16. Excitatory neuronal connectivity in the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical areas are believed to be organized into vertical modules, the cortical columns, and the horizontal layers 1–6. In the somatosensory barrel cortex these columns are defined by the readily discernible barrel structure in layer 4. Information processing in the neocortex occurs along vertical and horizontal axes, thereby linking individual barrel-related columns via axons running through the different cortical layers of the barrel cortex. Long-range signaling occurs within the neocortical layers but also through axons projecting through the white matter to other neocortical areas and subcortical brain regions. Because of the ease of identification of barrel-related columns, the rodent barrel cortex has become a prototypical system to study the interactions between different neuronal connections within a sensory cortical area and between this area and other cortical as well subcortical regions. Such interactions will be discussed specifically for the feed-forward and feedback loops between the somatosensory and the somatomotor cortices as well as the different thalamic nuclei. In addition, recent advances concerning the morphological characteristics of excitatory neurons and their impact on the synaptic connectivity patterns and signaling properties of neuronal microcircuits in the whisker-related somatosensory cortex will be reviewed. In this context, their relationship between the structural properties of barrel-related columns and their function as a module in vertical synaptic signaling in the whisker-related cortical areas will be discussed. PMID:22798946

  17. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

    PubMed

    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Body Topography Parcellates Human Sensory and Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; Dinse, Juliane; Jakobsen, Estrid; Long, Xiangyu; Schäfer, Andreas; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Villringer, Arno; Sereno, Martin I; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    The cytoarchitectonic map as proposed by Brodmann currently dominates models of human sensorimotor cortical structure, function, and plasticity. According to this model, primary motor cortex, area 4, and primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are homogenous areas, with the major division lying between the two. Accumulating empirical and theoretical evidence, however, has begun to question the validity of the Brodmann map for various cortical areas. Here, we combined in vivo cortical myelin mapping with functional connectivity analyses and topographic mapping techniques to reassess the validity of the Brodmann map in human primary sensorimotor cortex. We provide empirical evidence that area 4 and area 3b are not homogenous, but are subdivided into distinct cortical fields, each representing a major body part (the hand and the face). Myelin reductions at the hand-face borders are cortical layer-specific, and coincide with intrinsic functional connectivity borders as defined using large-scale resting state analyses. Our data extend the Brodmann model in human sensorimotor cortex and suggest that body parts are an important organizing principle, similar to the distinction between sensory and motor processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Sounds activate visual cortex and improve visual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenfeng; Störmer, Viola S; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-07-16

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349817-08$15.00/0.

  1. Sounds Activate Visual Cortex and Improve Visual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Viola S.; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound. PMID:25031419

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases.

  3. Biosorption of heavy metals in polluted water, using different waste fruit cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Vargas, Kevin; Cerro-Lopez, Monica; Reyna-Tellez, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R.; Sanchez-Salas, Jose Luis

    The biosorption capacity of different cortex fruit wastes including banana (Musa paradisiaca), lemon (Citrus limonum) and orange (Citrus sinensis) peel were evaluated. In order to perform these experiments, grinded dried cortexes were used as package in 100 mm high, 10 mm i.d. columns. The grinded material was powdered in a mortar and passed through a screen in order to get two different particle sizes, 2 and 1 mm, for all powders. To estimate the biosorption capabilities of the tested materials, different heavy metals were passed through the columns and the elution filtrate reloaded different times to increase the retention of metals. The heavy metals used were prepared as synthetic samples at 10 mg/L of Pb(NO3)2, Cd(NO3)2, and Cu(NO3)2·6H2O using primary standards. In preliminary experiments using banana cortex, it was found that material with 1 mm of particle size showed higher retention capability (up to12%) than the material with 2 mm of particle size. Considering these results, 1 mm particle size material was used in further experiments with the other waste materials. It was found that for Pb and Cu removal, lemon and orange cortex showed better biosorption capability when compared with banana cortex (up to 15% less for Pb and 48% less for Cu). For Cd, banana cortex showed better biosorption capability 57% (67.2 mg/g of cortex) more than orange (28.8 mg/g of cortex), and 82% more than lemon (12 mg/g of cortex). Reload of the columns with the filtrate after passing through the column improved the removal capability of all the materials tested from 10% to 50% depending on the cortex and metal tested.

  4. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of "Green" Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.

  5. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  6. Salient sounds activate human visual cortex automatically.

    PubMed

    McDonald, John J; Störmer, Viola S; Martinez, Antigona; Feng, Wenfeng; Hillyard, Steven A

    2013-05-22

    Sudden changes in the acoustic environment enhance perceptual processing of subsequent visual stimuli that appear in close spatial proximity. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms by which salient sounds affect visual processing. In particular, it is unclear whether such sounds automatically activate visual cortex. To shed light on this issue, this study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that were triggered either by peripheral sounds that preceded task-relevant visual targets (Experiment 1) or were presented during purely auditory tasks (Experiments 2-4). In all experiments the sounds elicited a contralateral ERP over the occipital scalp that was localized to neural generators in extrastriate visual cortex of the ventral occipital lobe. The amplitude of this cross-modal ERP was predictive of perceptual judgments about the contrast of colocalized visual targets. These findings demonstrate that sudden, intrusive sounds reflexively activate human visual cortex in a spatially specific manner, even during purely auditory tasks when the sounds are not relevant to the ongoing task.

  7. Auditory spatial processing in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Nelli H; Tiitinen, Hannu; May, Patrick J C

    2012-12-01

    The auditory system codes spatial locations in a way that deviates from the spatial representations found in other modalities. This difference is especially striking in the cortex, where neurons form topographical maps of visual and tactile space but where auditory space is represented through a population rate code. In this hemifield code, sound source location is represented in the activity of two widely tuned opponent populations, one tuned to the right and the other to the left side of auditory space. Scientists are only beginning to uncover how this coding strategy adapts to various spatial processing demands. This review presents the current understanding of auditory spatial processing in the cortex. To this end, the authors consider how various implementations of the hemifield code may exist within the auditory cortex and how these may be modulated by the stimulation and task context. As a result, a coherent set of neural strategies for auditory spatial processing emerges.

  8. Neurotoxic lesions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex impair object-in-place scene memory

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles R E; Gaffan, David; Mitchell, Anna S; Baxter, Mark G

    2007-01-01

    Disconnection of the frontal lobe from the inferotemporal cortex produces deficits in a number of cognitive tasks that require the application of memory-dependent rules to visual stimuli. The specific regions of frontal cortex that interact with the temporal lobe in performance of these tasks remain undefined. One capacity that is impaired by frontal–temporal disconnection is rapid learning of new object-in-place scene problems, in which visual discriminations between two small typographic characters are learned in the context of different visually complex scenes. In the present study, we examined whether neurotoxic lesions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in one hemisphere, combined with ablation of inferior temporal cortex in the contralateral hemisphere, would impair learning of new object-in-place scene problems. Male macaque monkeys learned 10 or 20 new object-in-place problems in each daily test session. Unilateral neurotoxic lesions of ventrolateral prefrontal cortex produced by multiple injections of a mixture of ibotenate and N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect performance. However, when disconnection from inferotemporal cortex was completed by ablating this region contralateral to the neurotoxic prefrontal lesion, new learning was substantially impaired. Sham disconnection (injecting saline instead of neurotoxin contralateral to the inferotemporal lesion) did not affect performance. These findings support two conclusions: first, that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is a critical area within the frontal lobe for scene memory; and second, the effects of ablations of prefrontal cortex can be confidently attributed to the loss of cell bodies within the prefrontal cortex rather than to interruption of fibres of passage through the lesioned area. PMID:17445247

  9. UPLC-MS/MS determination and gender-related pharmacokinetic study of five active ingredients in rat plasma after oral administration of Eucommia cortex extract.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fangdi; An, Jing; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zijia; Chen, Wenxia; Wang, Changhong; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-07-01

    Eucommiae cortex (EC), the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., has been traditionally used to treat many diseases in China for more than 2000 years. The pharmacological effects are primarily attributed to the presence of lignans, iridoids and phenolics, which are main active ingredients in EC. First, to investigate the active ingredients that can be absorbed into the rat plasma according to which ingredients exhibit significant correlation of drug concentration-time curve. Second, to establish an efficient ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of ingredients absorbed in rat plasma. Finally, to investigate gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of the ingredients absorbed in male and female rats plasma after oral administration with EC extract. 18 ingredients from EC were detected by UPLC-MS/MS, 9 out of 18 ingredients were absorbed into rat plasma. And 5 ingredients exhibit significant correlation of drug concentration-time curve. They were pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The analytes were extracted from rat plasma via a simple protein precipitation procedure and osalmid was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.8μm) using a gradient elution program with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid water as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode in a positive ion mode via electrospray ionization (ESI). The transition monitored were /z 683.00[M+H](+)→235.10 for PDG, / z 389.00[M+H](+)→208.80 for GE, m/z 375.00[M+H](+)→194.79 for GA, m/z 364.00[M+NH4](+)→148.81 for AN, m/z 355.10[M+H](+)→162.84 for CA and m/z 230.03[M+H](+)→120.77 for internal standard. The developed method showed good

  10. Sample preparation for an optimized extraction of localized metabolites in lichens: Application to Pseudevernia furfuracea.

    PubMed

    Komaty, Sarah; Letertre, Marine; Dang, Huyen Duong; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Carrié, Daniel; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre; Gauffre, Fabienne; Tomasi, Sophie; Paquin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms known for producing unique secondary metabolites with attractive cosmetic and pharmacological properties. In this paper, we investigated three standard methods of preparation of Pseudevernia furfuracea (blender grinding, ball milling, pestle and mortar). The materials obtained were characterized by electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and compared from the point of view of extraction. Their microscopic structure is related to extraction efficiency. In addition, it is shown using thalline reactions and mass spectrometry mapping (TOF-SIMS) that these metabolites are not evenly distributed throughout the organism. Particularly, atranorin (a secondary metabolite of interest) is mainly present in the cortex of P. furfuracea. Finally, using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) we obtained evidence that an appropriate preparation can increase the extraction efficiency of atranorin by a factor of five. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The rat perirhinal cortex: A review of anatomy, physiology, plasticity, and function.

    PubMed

    Kealy, John; Commins, Sean

    2011-04-01

    The perirhinal cortex is located in a pivotal position to influence the flow of information into and out of the hippocampal formation. In this review, we examine the anatomical, physiological and functional properties of the rat perirhinal cortex. Firstly, we review the properties of the perirhinal cortex itself, we describe how it can be separated into two distinct subregions and consider how it differs from other neighbouring regions in terms of cell type, cellular organisation and its afferent and efferent projections. We review the forms of neurotransmission present in the perirhinal cortex and the morphological, electrophysiological and plastic properties of its neurons. Secondly, we review the perirhinal cortex in the context of its connections with other brain areas; focussing on the projections to cortical, subcortical and hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Particular attention is paid the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of these projections. Thirdly, we review the main functions of the perirhinal cortex; its roles in perception, recognition memory, spatial and contextual memory and fear conditioning are explored. Finally, we discuss the idea of anatomical, electrophysiological and functional segregation within the perirhinal cortex itself and as part of a hippocampal-parahippocampal network and suggest that understanding this segregation is of critical importance in understanding the role and contributions made by the perirhinal cortex in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual Hallucinations Are Associated With Hyperconnectivity Between the Amygdala and Visual Cortex in People With a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Palzes, Vanessa A.; Roach, Brian J.; Potkin, Steven G.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Calhoun, Vincent D.; Voyvodic, Jim; Belger, Aysenil; Bustillo, Juan; Vaidya, Jatin G.; Preda, Adrian; McEwen, Sarah C.; Mathalon, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: While auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia, people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) may also experience visual hallucinations (VH). In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of SZ and healthy controls (HC) studied as part of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN), we asked if SZ who endorsed experiencing VH during clinical interviews had greater connectivity between visual cortex and limbic structures than SZ who did not endorse experiencing VH. Methods: We analyzed resting state fMRI data from 162 SZ and 178 age- and gender-matched HC. SZ were sorted into groups according to clinical ratings on AH and VH: SZ with VH (VH-SZ; n = 45), SZ with AH but no VH (AH-SZ; n = 50), and SZ with neither AH nor VH (NoH-SZ; n = 67). Our primary analysis was seed based, extracting connectivity between visual cortex and the amygdala (because of its role in fear and negative emotion) and visual cortex and the hippocampus (because of its role in memory). Results: Compared with the other groups, VH-SZ showed hyperconnectivity between the amygdala and visual cortex, specifically BA18, with no differences in connectivity among the other groups. In a voxel-wise, whole brain analysis comparing VH-SZ with AH-SZ, the amygdala was hyperconnected to left temporal pole and inferior frontal gyrus in VH-SZ, likely due to their more severe thought broadcasting. Conclusions: VH-SZ have hyperconnectivity between subcortical areas subserving emotion and cortical areas subserving higher order visual processing, providing biological support for distressing VH in schizophrenia. PMID:24619536

  13. Three-dimensional visual feature representation in the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Moon, Chan-Hong; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-01-01

    In the cat primary visual cortex, it is accepted that neurons optimally responding to similar stimulus orientations are clustered in a column extending from the superficial to deep layers. The cerebral cortex is, however, folded inside a skull, which makes gyri and fundi. The primary visual area of cats, area 17, is located on the fold of the cortex called the lateral gyrus. These facts raise the question of how to reconcile the tangential arrangement of the orientation columns with the curvature of the gyrus. In the present study, we show a possible configuration of feature representation in the visual cortex using a three-dimensional (3D) self-organization model. We took into account preferred orientation, preferred direction, ocular dominance and retinotopy, assuming isotropic interaction. We performed computer simulation only in the middle layer at the beginning and expanded the range of simulation gradually to other layers, which was found to be a unique method in the present model for obtaining orientation columns spanning all the layers in the flat cortex. Vertical columns of preferred orientations were found in the flat parts of the model cortex. On the other hand, in the curved parts, preferred orientations were represented in wedge-like columns rather than straight columns, and preferred directions were frequently reversed in the deeper layers. Singularities associated with orientation representation appeared as warped lines in the 3D model cortex. Direction reversal appeared on the sheets that were delimited by orientation-singularity lines. These structures emerged from the balance between periodic arrangements of preferred orientations and vertical alignment of same orientations. Our theoretical predictions about orientation representation were confirmed by multi-slice, high-resolution functional MRI in the cat visual cortex. We obtained a close agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. The present study throws a doubt

  14. Three-dimensional visual feature representation in the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Moon, Chan-Hong; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-12-01

    In the cat primary visual cortex, it is accepted that neurons optimally responding to similar stimulus orientations are clustered in a column extending from the superficial to deep layers. The cerebral cortex is, however, folded inside a skull, which makes gyri and fundi. The primary visual area of cats, area 17, is located on the fold of the cortex called the lateral gyrus. These facts raise the question of how to reconcile the tangential arrangement of the orientation columns with the curvature of the gyrus. In the present study, we show a possible configuration of feature representation in the visual cortex using a three-dimensional (3D) self-organization model. We took into account preferred orientation, preferred direction, ocular dominance and retinotopy, assuming isotropic interaction. We performed computer simulation only in the middle layer at the beginning and expanded the range of simulation gradually to other layers, which was found to be a unique method in the present model for obtaining orientation columns spanning all the layers in the flat cortex. Vertical columns of preferred orientations were found in the flat parts of the model cortex. On the other hand, in the curved parts, preferred orientations were represented in wedge-like columns rather than straight columns, and preferred directions were frequently reversed in the deeper layers. Singularities associated with orientation representation appeared as warped lines in the 3D model cortex. Direction reversal appeared on the sheets that were delimited by orientation-singularity lines. These structures emerged from the balance between periodic arrangements of preferred orientations and vertical alignment of the same orientations. Our theoretical predictions about orientation representation were confirmed by multi-slice, high-resolution functional MRI in the cat visual cortex. We obtained a close agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. The present study throws a

  15. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  16. Dissecting the actin cortex density and membrane-cortex distance in living cells by super-resolution microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, M. P.; Colin-York, H.; Schneider, F.; Eggeling, C.; Fritzsche, M.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoscale spacing between the plasma membrane and the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton profoundly modulates cellular morphology, mechanics, and function. Measuring this distance has been a key challenge in cell biology. Current methods for dissecting the nanoscale spacing either limit themselves to complex survey design using fixed samples or rely on diffraction-limited fluorescence imaging whose spatial resolution is insufficient to quantify distances on the nanoscale. Using dual-color super-resolution STED (stimulated-emission-depletion) microscopy, we here overcome this challenge and accurately measure the density distribution of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and the distance between the actin cortex and the membrane in live Jurkat T-cells. We found an asymmetric cortical actin density distribution with a mean width of 230 (+105/-125) nm. The spatial distances measured between the maximum density peaks of the cortex and the membrane were bi-modally distributed with mean values of 50  ±  15 nm and 120  ±  40 nm, respectively. Taken together with the finite width of the cortex, our results suggest that in some regions the cortical actin is closer than 10 nm to the membrane and a maximum of 20 nm in others.

  17. Motor Cortex Stimulation for Pain Relief: Do Corollary Discharges Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Brasil-Neto, Joaquim P

    2016-01-01

    Both invasive and non-invasive motor cortex stimulation techniques have been successfully employed in the treatment of chronic pain, but the precise mechanism of action of such treatments is not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch of normal interaction between motor intention and sensory feedback may result in central pain. Sensory feedback may come from peripheral nerves, vision and also from corollary discharges originating from the motor cortex itself. Therefore, a possible mechanism of action of motor cortex stimulation might be corollary discharge reinforcement, which could counterbalance sensory feedback deficiency. In other instances, primary deficiency in the production of corollary discharges by the motor cortex might be the culprit and stimulation of cortical motor areas might then be beneficial by enhancing production of such discharges. Here we review evidence for a possible role of motor cortex corollary discharges upon both the pathophysiology and the response to motor cortex stimulation of different types of chronic pain. We further suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC), thought to constantly monitor incongruity between corollary discharges, vision and proprioception, might be an interesting target for non-invasive neuromodulation in cases of chronic neuropathic pain.

  18. Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Young Driver Behaviour: A fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Hannah J.; Runham, Patrick; Chapman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population. PMID:27227990

  19. Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-11-01

    Animal experiments provide evidence that learning to associate an auditory stimulus with a reward causes representational changes in auditory cortex. However, most studies did not investigate the temporal formation of learning-dependent plasticity during the task but rather compared auditory cortex receptive fields before and after conditioning. We here present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on learning-related plasticity in the human auditory cortex during operant appetitive conditioning. Participants had to learn to associate a specific category of frequency-modulated tones with a reward. Only participants who learned this association developed learning-dependent plasticity in left auditory cortex over the course of the experiment. No differential responses to reward predicting and nonreward predicting tones were found in auditory cortex in nonlearners. In addition, learners showed similar learning-induced differential responses to reward-predicting and nonreward-predicting tones in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two core regions of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. This may indicate a dopaminergic influence on the formation of learning-dependent plasticity in auditory cortex, as it has been suggested by previous animal studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Rapid tuning shifts in human auditory cortex enhance speech intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Holdgraf, Christopher R.; de Heer, Wendy; Pasley, Brian; Rieger, Jochem; Crone, Nathan; Lin, Jack J.; Knight, Robert T.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2016-01-01

    Experience shapes our perception of the world on a moment-to-moment basis. This robust perceptual effect of experience parallels a change in the neural representation of stimulus features, though the nature of this representation and its plasticity are not well-understood. Spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF) mapping describes the neural response to acoustic features, and has been used to study contextual effects on auditory receptive fields in animal models. We performed a STRF plasticity analysis on electrophysiological data from recordings obtained directly from the human auditory cortex. Here, we report rapid, automatic plasticity of the spectrotemporal response of recorded neural ensembles, driven by previous experience with acoustic and linguistic information, and with a neurophysiological effect in the sub-second range. This plasticity reflects increased sensitivity to spectrotemporal features, enhancing the extraction of more speech-like features from a degraded stimulus and providing the physiological basis for the observed ‘perceptual enhancement' in understanding speech. PMID:27996965

  1. Ventral anterior cingulate cortex and social decision-making.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Wittmann, Marco K

    2018-06-07

    Studies in the field of social neuroscience have recently made use of computational models of decision-making to provide new insights into how we learn about the self and others during social interactions. Importantly, these studies have increasingly drawn attention to brain areas outside of classical cortical "social brain" regions that may be critical for social processing. In particular, two portions of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, have been linked to social and self learning signals, respectively. Here we discuss the emerging parallels between these studies. Uncovering the function of vACC during social interactions could provide important new avenues to understand social decision-making in health and disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orosensory and Homeostatic Functions of the Insular Taste Cortex.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M

    2012-03-01

    The gustatory aspect of the insular cortex is part of the brain circuit that controls ingestive behaviors based on chemosensory inputs. However, the sensory properties of foods are not restricted to taste and should also include salient features such as odor, texture, temperature, and appearance. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that specialized circuits within the central taste pathways must be involved in representing several other oral sensory modalities in addition to taste. In this review, we evaluate current evidence indicating that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an integrative circuit, with taste-responsive regions also showing heightened sensitivity to olfactory, somatosensory, and even visual stimulation. We also review evidence for modulation of taste-responsive insular areas by changes in physiological state, with taste-elicited neuronal responses varying according to the nutritional state of the organism. We then examine experimental support for a functional map within the insular cortex that might reflect the various sensory and homeostatic roles associated with this region. Finally, we evaluate the potential role of the taste insular cortex in weight-gain susceptibility. Taken together, the current experimental evidence favors the view that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an orosensory integrative system that not only enables the formation of complex flavor representations but also mediates their modulation by the internal state of the body, playing therefore a central role in food intake regulation.

  3. Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Children Treated for Medulloblastoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liu, Arthur K.; Marcus, Karen J.; Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: Children with medulloblastoma undergo surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. After treatment, these children have numerous structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the thickness of the cerebral cortex in a group of medulloblastoma patients and a group of normally developing children. Methods and Materials: We obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and measured the cortical thickness in 9 children after treatment of medulloblastoma. The measurements from these children were compared with the measurements from age- and gender-matched normally developing children previously scanned. For additional comparison, the pattern of thickness change was compared with the cortical thickness maps from amore » larger group of 65 normally developing children. Results: In the left hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the perirolandic region and the parieto-occipital lobe. In the right hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the parietal lobe, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal lobe. These regions of cortical thinning overlapped with the regions of cortex that undergo normal age-related thinning. Conclusion: The spatial distribution of cortical thinning suggested that the areas of cortex that are undergoing development are more sensitive to the effects of treatment of medulloblastoma. Such quantitative methods may improve our understanding of the biologic effects that treatment has on the cerebral development and their neuropsychological implications.« less

  4. Arc restores juvenile plasticity in adult mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, Kyle R.; Kim, Taekeun; Pastuzyn, Elissa D.; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Taibi, Andrew V.; Bear, Mark F.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular basis for the decline in experience-dependent neural plasticity over age remains poorly understood. In visual cortex, the robust plasticity induced in juvenile mice by brief monocular deprivation during the critical period is abrogated by genetic deletion of Arc, an activity-dependent regulator of excitatory synaptic modification. Here, we report that augmenting Arc expression in adult mice prolongs juvenile-like plasticity in visual cortex, as assessed by recordings of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in vivo. A distinguishing characteristic of juvenile OD plasticity is the weakening of deprived-eye responses, believed to be accounted for by the mechanisms of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). Accordingly, we also found increased LTD in visual cortex of adult mice with augmented Arc expression and impaired LTD in visual cortex of juvenile mice that lack Arc or have been treated in vivo with a protein synthesis inhibitor. Further, we found that although activity-dependent expression of Arc mRNA does not change with age, expression of Arc protein is maximal during the critical period and declines in adulthood. Finally, we show that acute augmentation of Arc expression in wild-type adult mouse visual cortex is sufficient to restore juvenile-like plasticity. Together, our findings suggest a unifying molecular explanation for the age- and activity-dependent modulation of synaptic sensitivity to deprivation. PMID:28790183

  5. Peripheral Nerve Injury in Developing Rats Reorganizes Representation Pattern in Motor Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, John P.; Sanes, Jerome N.

    1987-02-01

    We investigated the effect of neonatal nerve lesions on cerebral motor cortex organization by comparing the cortical motor representation of normal adult rats with adult rats that had one forelimb removed on the day of birth. Mapping of cerebral neocortex with electrical stimulation revealed an altered relationship between the motor cortex and the remaining muscles. Whereas distal forelimb movements are normally elicited at the lowest threshold in the motor cortex forelimb area, the same stimuli activated shoulder and trunk muscles in experimental animals. In addition, an expanded cortical representation of intact body parts was present and there was an absence of a distinct portion of motor cortex. These data demonstrate that representation patterns in motor cortex can be altered by peripheral nerve injury during development.

  6. Cortico‐cortical connectivity within ferret auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bajo, Victoria M.; Nodal, Fernando R.; King, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite numerous studies of auditory cortical processing in the ferret (Mustela putorius), very little is known about the connections between the different regions of the auditory cortex that have been characterized cytoarchitectonically and physiologically. We examined the distribution of retrograde and anterograde labeling after injecting tracers into one or more regions of ferret auditory cortex. Injections of different tracers at frequency‐matched locations in the core areas, the primary auditory cortex (A1) and anterior auditory field (AAF), of the same animal revealed the presence of reciprocal connections with overlapping projections to and from discrete regions within the posterior pseudosylvian and suprasylvian fields (PPF and PSF), suggesting that these connections are frequency specific. In contrast, projections from the primary areas to the anterior dorsal field (ADF) on the anterior ectosylvian gyrus were scattered and non‐overlapping, consistent with the non‐tonotopic organization of this field. The relative strength of the projections originating in each of the primary fields differed, with A1 predominantly targeting the posterior bank fields PPF and PSF, which in turn project to the ventral posterior field, whereas AAF projects more heavily to the ADF, which then projects to the anteroventral field and the pseudosylvian sulcal cortex. These findings suggest that parallel anterior and posterior processing networks may exist, although the connections between different areas often overlap and interactions were present at all levels. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:2187–2210, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845831

  7. Lateral prefrontal cortex: architectonic and functional organization

    PubMed Central

    Petrides, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the architecture of the human prefrontal cortex with that of the macaque monkey showed a very similar architectonic organization in these two primate species. There is no doubt that the prefrontal cortical areas of the human brain have undergone considerable development, but it is equally clear that the basic architectonic organization is the same in the two species. Thus, a comparative approach to the study of the functional organization of the primate prefrontal cortex is more likely to reveal the essential aspects of the various complex control processes that are the domain of frontal function. The lateral frontal cortex appears to be functionally organized along both a rostral–caudal axis and a dorsal–ventral axis. The most caudal frontal region, the motor region on the precentral gyrus, is involved in fine motor control and direct sensorimotor mappings, whereas the caudal lateral prefrontal region is involved in higher order control processes that regulate the selection among multiple competing responses and stimuli based on conditional operations. Further rostrally, the mid-lateral prefrontal region plays an even more abstract role in cognitive control. The mid-lateral prefrontal region is itself organized along a dorsal–ventral axis of organization, with the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex being involved in the monitoring of information in working memory and the mid-ventrolateral prefrontal region being involved in active judgments on information held in posterior cortical association regions that are necessary for active retrieval and encoding of information. PMID:15937012

  8. Cortico-Cortical Connectivity Within Ferret Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bizley, Jennifer K; Bajo, Victoria M; Nodal, Fernando R; King, Andrew J

    2015-10-15

    Despite numerous studies of auditory cortical processing in the ferret (Mustela putorius), very little is known about the connections between the different regions of the auditory cortex that have been characterized cytoarchitectonically and physiologically. We examined the distribution of retrograde and anterograde labeling after injecting tracers into one or more regions of ferret auditory cortex. Injections of different tracers at frequency-matched locations in the core areas, the primary auditory cortex (A1) and anterior auditory field (AAF), of the same animal revealed the presence of reciprocal connections with overlapping projections to and from discrete regions within the posterior pseudosylvian and suprasylvian fields (PPF and PSF), suggesting that these connections are frequency specific. In contrast, projections from the primary areas to the anterior dorsal field (ADF) on the anterior ectosylvian gyrus were scattered and non-overlapping, consistent with the non-tonotopic organization of this field. The relative strength of the projections originating in each of the primary fields differed, with A1 predominantly targeting the posterior bank fields PPF and PSF, which in turn project to the ventral posterior field, whereas AAF projects more heavily to the ADF, which then projects to the anteroventral field and the pseudosylvian sulcal cortex. These findings suggest that parallel anterior and posterior processing networks may exist, although the connections between different areas often overlap and interactions were present at all levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  10. Control of Biosonar Behavior by the Auditory Cortex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-28

    TITLE (include Security Classification) Control of Biosonar Behavior by the Auditory Cortex 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Nobuo Suga and Stephen Gaioni 13a...NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES IS SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP1 SUB-GROUP - biosonar ; echolocation...SLesion experiments were conducted to examine whether the functional organization of the mustached bat’s auditory cortex is related to biosonar

  11. Automatic Semantic Facilitation in Anterior Temporal Cortex Revealed through Multimodal Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    A core property of human semantic processing is the rapid, facilitatory influence of prior input on extracting the meaning of what comes next, even under conditions of minimal awareness. Previous work has shown a number of neurophysiological indices of this facilitation, but the mapping between time course and localization—critical for separating automatic semantic facilitation from other mechanisms—has thus far been unclear. In the current study, we used a multimodal imaging approach to isolate early, bottom-up effects of context on semantic memory, acquiring a combination of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in the same individuals with a masked semantic priming paradigm. Across techniques, the results provide a strikingly convergent picture of early automatic semantic facilitation. Event-related potentials demonstrated early sensitivity to semantic association between 300 and 500 ms; MEG localized the differential neural response within this time window to the left anterior temporal cortex, and fMRI localized the effect more precisely to the left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region previously implicated in semantic associative processing. However, fMRI diverged from early EEG/MEG measures in revealing semantic enhancement effects within frontal and parietal regions, perhaps reflecting downstream attempts to consciously access the semantic features of the masked prime. Together, these results provide strong evidence that automatic associative semantic facilitation is realized as reduced activity within the left anterior superior temporal cortex between 300 and 500 ms after a word is presented, and emphasize the importance of multimodal neuroimaging approaches in distinguishing the contributions of multiple regions to semantic processing. PMID:24155321

  12. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  13. Characterization and profiling of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxian; Guan, Shuhong; Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Tian; Chen, Pei; Feng, Ruihong; Chen, Xin; Wu, Wanying; Yang, Min; Guo, De-An

    2015-01-01

    Cortex Lycii, the root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. or Lycium barbarum L., is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that phenolic amides are not only characteristic compounds but also abundant ones in this plant. In the present study, an effective method was developed for structural characterization of phenolic amides from Cortex Lycii by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation of 14 compounds including six cinnamic acid amides, six neolignanamides, and two lignanamides were studied systematically for the first time. It was found that, in the positive ion mode, neutral loss of the tyramide moiety (137 Da) or N-(4-aminobutyl)acetamide moiety (130 Da) were characteristic for these compounds. At least 54 phenolic amides were detected in the extract and 48 of them were characterized, among which 14 known compounds were identified unambiguously by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of reference compounds, and 34 components were tentatively identified based on the fragmentation patterns, exact mass, UV spectra, as well as retention time. Fifteen compounds were characterized as potential new ones. Additionally, the developed method was applied to analyze eight batches of samples collected from the northwest of China, and it was found that cinnamic acid amides were the main type of phenolic amides in Cortex Lycii. In conclusion, the identification of these chemicals provided essential data for further phytochemical studies, metabolites identification, and the quality control of Cortex Lycii.

  14. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified. PMID:28448453

  15. Decoding information about dynamically occluded objects in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Caplovitz, Gideon P.

    2016-01-01

    During dynamic occlusion, an object passes behind an occluding surface and then later reappears. Even when completely occluded from view, such objects are experienced as continuing to exist or persist behind the occluder, even though they are no longer visible. The contents and neural basis of this persistent representation remain poorly understood. Questions remain as to whether there is information maintained about the object itself (i.e. its shape or identity) or, non-object-specific information such as its position or velocity as it is tracked behind an occluder as well as which areas of visual cortex represent such information. Recent studies have found that early visual cortex is activated by “invisible” objects during visual imagery and by unstimulated regions along the path of apparent motion, suggesting that some properties of dynamically occluded objects may also be neurally represented in early visual cortex. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging in human subjects to examine the representation of information within visual cortex during dynamic occlusion. For gradually occluded, but not for instantly disappearing objects, there was an increase in activity in early visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3). This activity was spatially-specific, corresponding to the occluded location in the visual field. However, the activity did not encode enough information about object identity to discriminate between different kinds of occluded objects (circles vs. stars) using MVPA. In contrast, object identity could be decoded in spatially-specific subregions of higher-order, topographically organized areas such as ventral, lateral, and temporal occipital areas (VO, LO, and TO) as well as the functionally defined LOC and hMT+. These results suggest that early visual cortex may represent the dynamically occluded object’s position or motion path, while later visual areas represent object-specific information. PMID:27663987

  16. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  17. Simultaneous selection by object-based attention in visual and frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Poort, Jasper; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2014-01-01

    Models of visual attention hold that top-down signals from frontal cortex influence information processing in visual cortex. It is unknown whether situations exist in which visual cortex actively participates in attentional selection. To investigate this question, we simultaneously recorded neuronal activity in the frontal eye fields (FEF) and primary visual cortex (V1) during a curve-tracing task in which attention shifts are object-based. We found that accurate performance was associated with similar latencies of attentional selection in both areas and that the latency in both areas increased if the task was made more difficult. The amplitude of the attentional signals in V1 saturated early during a trial, whereas these selection signals kept increasing for a longer time in FEF, until the moment of an eye movement, as if FEF integrated attentional signals present in early visual cortex. In erroneous trials, we observed an interareal latency difference because FEF selected the wrong curve before V1 and imposed its erroneous decision onto visual cortex. The neuronal activity in visual and frontal cortices was correlated across trials, and this trial-to-trial coupling was strongest for the attended curve. These results imply that selective attention relies on reciprocal interactions within a large network of areas that includes V1 and FEF. PMID:24711379

  18. A highly resistant structure between cuticle and cortex of human hair.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the presence and properties of a unique structure which is located between the cuticle and cortex of human hair. Whole hair fibre and longitudinally split hair were used. Treated with a mixture of urea, reductant and alkaline, hair was split at the interface between cuticle and cortex. The residues in the solution were observed by microscope, and the distribution of lipids and protein was determined. From the treated longitudinally split hair, a membrane-like structure which was located at the interface between cuticle and cortex was obtained. This structure showed especially high resistance against chemical treatment and was thought to be the region into which the proximal roots of the cuticle cells are embedded. It was supposed that some steryl glucoside-like lipid, of which the presence in the cuticle and cortex interface was previously reported, is located in this structure. This study proposed the presence of a membrane-like structure, which is highly resistant against chemical treatment, at the region between cuticle and cortex of human hair. This may protect cortex from external stimuli more firmly than the surface part of cuticle. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasushi; Inoue, Tatsuro; Kawaminami, Satoshi; Fujita, Miho

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801). Effect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test. Scallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolamine-induced short-term memory impairment and partially reduced scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze test. Scallop shell extract suppressed scopolamine-induced elevation of acetylcholine esterase activity in the cerebral cortex. Treatment with scallop shell extract reversed the increase in locomotor activity induced by scopolamine. Scallop shell extract also suppressed the increase in locomotor activity induced by MK801. Our results provide initial evidence that scallop shell extract reduces scopolamine-induced memory impairment and suppresses MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Emir, Uzay E; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-09-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Coullon, Gaelle S. L.; Emir, Uzay E.; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. PMID:26180125

  2. Characterizing synaptic protein development in human visual cortex enables alignment of synaptic age with rat visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Joshua G. A.; Jones, David G.; Williams, C. Kate; Murphy, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Although many potential neuroplasticity based therapies have been developed in the lab, few have translated into established clinical treatments for human neurologic or neuropsychiatric diseases. Animal models, especially of the visual system, have shaped our understanding of neuroplasticity by characterizing the mechanisms that promote neural changes and defining timing of the sensitive period. The lack of knowledge about development of synaptic plasticity mechanisms in human cortex, and about alignment of synaptic age between animals and humans, has limited translation of neuroplasticity therapies. In this study, we quantified expression of a set of highly conserved pre- and post-synaptic proteins (Synapsin, Synaptophysin, PSD-95, Gephyrin) and found that synaptic development in human primary visual cortex (V1) continues into late childhood. Indeed, this is many years longer than suggested by neuroanatomical studies and points to a prolonged sensitive period for plasticity in human sensory cortex. In addition, during childhood we found waves of inter-individual variability that are different for the four proteins and include a stage during early development (<1 year) when only Gephyrin has high inter-individual variability. We also found that pre- and post-synaptic protein balances develop quickly, suggesting that maturation of certain synaptic functions happens within the 1 year or 2 of life. A multidimensional analysis (principle component analysis) showed that most of the variance was captured by the sum of the four synaptic proteins. We used that sum to compare development of human and rat visual cortex and identified a simple linear equation that provides robust alignment of synaptic age between humans and rats. Alignment of synaptic ages is important for age-appropriate targeting and effective translation of neuroplasticity therapies from the lab to the clinic. PMID:25729353

  3. Salient sounds activate human visual cortex automatically

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, John J.; Störmer, Viola S.; Martinez, Antigona; Feng, Wenfeng; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden changes in the acoustic environment enhance perceptual processing of subsequent visual stimuli that appear in close spatial proximity. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms by which salient sounds affect visual processing. In particular, it is unclear whether such sounds automatically activate visual cortex. To shed light on this issue, the present study examined event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that were triggered either by peripheral sounds that preceded task-relevant visual targets (Experiment 1) or were presented during purely auditory tasks (Experiments 2, 3, and 4). In all experiments the sounds elicited a contralateral ERP over the occipital scalp that was localized to neural generators in extrastriate visual cortex of the ventral occipital lobe. The amplitude of this cross-modal ERP was predictive of perceptual judgments about the contrast of co-localized visual targets. These findings demonstrate that sudden, intrusive sounds reflexively activate human visual cortex in a spatially specific manner, even during purely auditory tasks when the sounds are not relevant to the ongoing task. PMID:23699530

  4. Functional subregions of the human entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Anne; Berron, David; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06426.001 PMID:26052749

  5. Alteration in 5-HT₂C, NMDA receptor and IP3 in cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: restorative role of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Amee; Anju, T R; Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paulose, C S

    2015-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri is effective in stress management, brain function and a balanced mood. 5-HT2C receptors have been implicated in stress whereas NMDA receptors and mGlu5 play crucial role in memory and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of B. monnieri extract in ameliorating pilocarpine induced temporal lobe epilepsy through regulation of 5-HT2C and NMDA receptors in cerebral cortex. Our studies confirmed an increased 5-HT2C receptor function during epilepsy thereby facilitating IP3 release. We also observed an decreased NMDA receptor function with an elevated mGlu5 and GLAST gene expression in epileptic condition indicating the possibility for glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. These alterations lead to impaired behavioural functions as indicated by the Elevated Plus maze test. Carbamazepine and B. monnieri treatments to epileptic rats reversed the alterations in 5-HT2C, NMDA receptor functions and IP3 content thereby effectively managing the neurotransmitter balance in the cerebral cortex.

  6. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. was assessed on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, following administration for 7, 14 or 21 days. The effects induced by this extract (bacoside A content 82% +/- 0.5%), administered in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally, were compared with the effects induced by (-) deprenyl (2 mg/kg, p. o.) administered for the same time periods. Bacopa monniera (BM) induced a dose-related increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities, in all the brain regions investigated, after 14 and 21 days of drug administration. On the contrary, deprenyl induced an increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the frontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus, after treatment for 14 or 21 days. The results suggest that BM, like deprenyl, exhibits a significant antioxidant effect after subchronic administration which, unlike the latter, extends to the hippocampus as well. The results suggest that the increase in oxidative free radical scavenging activity by BM may explain, at least in part, the cognition- facilitating action of BM, recorded in Ayurvedic texts, and demonstrated experimentally and clinically. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Interaction of alcoholic extracts of hops with cocaine and paracetamol in mice.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Olga; Raskovic, Aleksandar; Jakovljevic, Vida; Sabo, Jan; Berenji, Janos

    2007-01-01

    This work describes a study of the interaction in the mouse model of alcoholic extracts of hops of Magnum, Aroma and wild genotypes with drugs that have excitatory effect on the cerebral cortex (cocaine) and analgesic action (paracetamol). Hop drying and preparation of the extracts were carried out according to standard pharmacological procedures for preparing total alcoholic extracts of dry herbs, consisting of one part of dry drug and two parts of 70% alcohol. The mice received four doses i.p. of 0.5% aqueous solutions of the above-mentioned extracts (10 ml/kg) 24, 16, 4 and 0.5 h prior to receiving cocaine (25 mg/kg) or paracetamol (80 mg/kg). The parameter investigated was the change in spontaneous motility of mice after combined treatment with the extracts and cocaine/paracetamol compared to control animals that received the same dose of the drug after treatment with physiological solution. Only the ethanolic extract of Magnum hops increased the spontaneous motility of mice, while none of the extracts showed analgesic action as measured by the hot-plate method. In the interaction with cocaine, the extract of Magnum hops suppressed almost completely the action of cocaine compared to controls. Extracts of the other hops also decreased the cocaine-induced locomotor activity of mice, but to a lesser extent. Hop extracts exhibited a significant pharmacological interaction with paracetamol, with the most pronounced increase in analgesic action being found for the ethanolic extract of Aroma hops and the tert-butanolic extract of wild hops.

  8. Anticipatory activity in primary motor cortex codes memorized movement sequences.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Ashe, James

    2005-03-24

    Movement sequences, defined both by the component movements and by the serial order in which they are produced, are fundamental building blocks of motor behavior. The serial order of sequence production is strongly encoded in medial motor areas. It is not known to what extent sequences are further elaborated or encoded in primary motor cortex. Here, we describe cells in the primary motor cortex of the monkey that show anticipatory activity exclusively related to a specific memorized sequence of upcoming movements. In addition, the injection of muscimol, a GABA agonist, into motor cortex resulted in an increase in the error rate during sequence production, without concomitant effects on nonsequenced motor performance. Our results challenge the role of medial motor areas in the control of well-practiced movement sequences and suggest that motor cortex contains a complete apparatus for the planning and production of this complex behavior.

  9. The onset of visual experience gates auditory cortex critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, Todd M.; Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems influence one another during development and deprivation can lead to cross-modal plasticity. As auditory function begins before vision, we investigate the effect of manipulating visual experience during auditory cortex critical periods (CPs) by assessing the influence of early, normal and delayed eyelid opening on hearing loss-induced changes to membrane and inhibitory synaptic properties. Early eyelid opening closes the auditory cortex CPs precociously and dark rearing prevents this effect. In contrast, delayed eyelid opening extends the auditory cortex CPs by several additional days. The CP for recovery from hearing loss is also closed prematurely by early eyelid opening and extended by delayed eyelid opening. Furthermore, when coupled with transient hearing loss that animals normally fully recover from, very early visual experience leads to inhibitory deficits that persist into adulthood. Finally, we demonstrate a functional projection from the visual to auditory cortex that could mediate these effects. PMID:26786281

  10. Theoretical Limitations on Functional Imaging Resolution in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Thomas L.; Watkins, Paul V.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging can reveal detailed organizational structure in cerebral cortical areas, but neuronal response features and local neural interconnectivity can influence the resulting images, possibly limiting the inferences that can be drawn about neural function. Discerning the fundamental principles of organizational structure in the auditory cortex of multiple species has been somewhat challenging historically both with functional imaging and with electrophysiology. A possible limitation affecting any methodology using pooled neuronal measures may be the relative distribution of response selectivity throughout the population of auditory cortex neurons. One neuronal response type inherited from the cochlea, for example, exhibits a receptive field that increases in size (i.e., decreases in selectivity) at higher stimulus intensities. Even though these neurons appear to represent a minority of auditory cortex neurons, they are likely to contribute disproportionately to the activity detected in functional images, especially if intense sounds are used for stimulation. To evaluate the potential influence of neuronal subpopulations upon functional images of primary auditory cortex, a model array representing cortical neurons was probed with virtual imaging experiments under various assumptions about the local circuit organization. As expected, different neuronal subpopulations were activated preferentially under different stimulus conditions. In fact, stimulus protocols that can preferentially excite selective neurons, resulting in a relatively sparse activation map, have the potential to improve the effective resolution of functional auditory cortical images. These experimental results also make predictions about auditory cortex organization that can be tested with refined functional imaging experiments. PMID:20079343

  11. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  12. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiye; Wang, Lishan; Endoh, Akira; Hummelke, Geoffrey; Hawks, Christina L; Hornsby, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells. The formation of DNA-protein complexes was studied using an element in the first intron of the type I and type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2). Using the element in the HSD3B2 gene as a probe, a complex (C1) was formed with extracts from ZF cells but was formed only at a low level with ZR cell extracts. Another pair of complexes (C2/C3) was formed with both ZF and ZR cell extracts. The ZF-specific protein forming C1 was enriched by column chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose. Oligonucleotide competition analysis on the enriched fraction gave results consistent with those obtained on the unfractionated material. A further enrichment was brought about by passing the protein over an oligonucleotide affinity column based on the HSD3B2 element. The protein bound to the column was identified as alpha-enolase by mass spectrometry. Although alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme, it binds to specific DNA sequences and has been found to be present in nuclei of various cell types. We performed immunohistochemistry on sections of adult human adrenal cortex and found alpha-enolase to be located in nuclei of ZF cells but to be predominantly cytoplasmic in ZR cells. Transfection of an alpha-enolase expression vector into NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells increased HSD3B2 promoter activity, suggesting a possible functional role for this protein in regulation of HSD3B2 expression.

  13. TMS measures of motor cortex function after stroke: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Stinear, Cathy M

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used to measure the effects of stroke on corticomotor excitability, intracortical function, and interhemispheric interactions. The interhemispheric inhibition model posits that recovery of motor function after stroke is linked to rebalancing of asymmetric interhemispheric inhibition and corticomotor excitability. This model forms the rationale for using neuromodulation techniques to suppress unaffected motor cortex excitability, and facilitate affected motor cortex excitability. However, the evidence base for using neuromodulation techniques to promote post-stroke motor recovery is inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare measures of corticomotor excitability, intracortical function, and interhemispheric inhibition, between the affected and unaffected hemispheres of people with stroke, and measures made in healthy adults. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that made TMS measures of the motor cortex in adult stroke patients. Two authors independently extracted data, and the quality of included studies was assessed. TMS measures were compared between the affected and unaffected hemispheres of stroke patients, between the affected hemisphere and healthy controls, and between the unaffected hemisphere and healthy controls. Analyses were carried out with data grouped according to the muscle from which responses were recorded, and separately according to time post-stroke (<3 months, and ≥6 months). Meta-analyses were carried out using a random effects model. There were 844 studies identified, and 112 studies included in the meta-analysis. Results were very similar across muscle groups. Affected hemisphere M1 excitability is lower than unaffected and healthy control M1 excitability after stroke. Affected hemisphere short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is lower than unaffected and healthy control SICI early after stroke, and not different in the chronic phase. There were no

  14. The Organization of Dorsal Frontal Cortex in Humans and Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Noonan, MaryAnn P.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Jbabdi, Saad; O'Reilly, Jill X.; Filippini, Nicola; Thomas, Adam G.; Rushworth, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    The human dorsal frontal cortex has been associated with the most sophisticated aspects of cognition, including those that are thought to be especially refined in humans. Here we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) in humans and macaques to infer and compare the organization of dorsal frontal cortex in the two species. Using DW-MRI tractography-based parcellation, we identified 10 dorsal frontal regions lying between the human inferior frontal sulcus and cingulate cortex. Patterns of functional coupling between each area and the rest of the brain were then estimated with fMRI and compared with functional coupling patterns in macaques. Areas in human medial frontal cortex, including areas associated with high-level social cognitive processes such as theory of mind, showed a surprising degree of similarity in their functional coupling patterns with the frontal pole, medial prefrontal, and dorsal prefrontal convexity in the macaque. We failed to find evidence for “new” regions in human medial frontal cortex. On the lateral surface, comparison of functional coupling patterns suggested correspondences in anatomical organization distinct from those that are widely assumed. A human region sometimes referred to as lateral frontal pole more closely resembled area 46, rather than the frontal pole, of the macaque. Overall the pattern of results suggest important similarities in frontal cortex organization in humans and other primates, even in the case of regions thought to carry out uniquely human functions. The patterns of interspecies correspondences are not, however, always those that are widely assumed. PMID:23884933

  15. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  16. Restoring auditory cortex plasticity in adult mice by restricting thalamic adenosine signaling

    DOE PAGES

    Blundon, Jay A.; Roy, Noah C.; Teubner, Brett J. W.; ...

    2017-06-30

    Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during an early postnatal critical period. The auditory cortex selectively expands neural representations of enriched acoustic stimuli, a process important for human language acquisition. Adults lack this plasticity. We show in the murine auditory cortex that juvenile plasticity can be reestablished in adulthood if acoustic stimuli are paired with disruption of ecto-5'-nucleotidase–dependent adenosine production or A1–adenosine receptor signaling in the auditory thalamus. This plasticity occurs at the level of cortical maps and individual neurons in the auditory cortex of awake adult mice and is associated with long-term improvement ofmore » tone-discrimination abilities. We determined that, in adult mice, disrupting adenosine signaling in the thalamus rejuvenates plasticity in the auditory cortex and improves auditory perception.« less

  17. Restoring auditory cortex plasticity in adult mice by restricting thalamic adenosine signaling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blundon, Jay A.; Roy, Noah C.; Teubner, Brett J. W.

    Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during an early postnatal critical period. The auditory cortex selectively expands neural representations of enriched acoustic stimuli, a process important for human language acquisition. Adults lack this plasticity. We show in the murine auditory cortex that juvenile plasticity can be reestablished in adulthood if acoustic stimuli are paired with disruption of ecto-5'-nucleotidase–dependent adenosine production or A1–adenosine receptor signaling in the auditory thalamus. This plasticity occurs at the level of cortical maps and individual neurons in the auditory cortex of awake adult mice and is associated with long-term improvement ofmore » tone-discrimination abilities. We determined that, in adult mice, disrupting adenosine signaling in the thalamus rejuvenates plasticity in the auditory cortex and improves auditory perception.« less

  18. Visual hallucinations are associated with hyperconnectivity between the amygdala and visual cortex in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Judith M; Palzes, Vanessa A; Roach, Brian J; Potkin, Steven G; van Erp, Theo G M; Turner, Jessica A; Mueller, Bryon A; Calhoun, Vincent D; Voyvodic, Jim; Belger, Aysenil; Bustillo, Juan; Vaidya, Jatin G; Preda, Adrian; McEwen, Sarah C; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    While auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia, people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) may also experience visual hallucinations (VH). In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of SZ and healthy controls (HC) studied as part of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Biomedical Informatics Research Network (FBIRN), we asked if SZ who endorsed experiencing VH during clinical interviews had greater connectivity between visual cortex and limbic structures than SZ who did not endorse experiencing VH. We analyzed resting state fMRI data from 162 SZ and 178 age- and gender-matched HC. SZ were sorted into groups according to clinical ratings on AH and VH: SZ with VH (VH-SZ; n = 45), SZ with AH but no VH (AH-SZ; n = 50), and SZ with neither AH nor VH (NoH-SZ; n = 67). Our primary analysis was seed based, extracting connectivity between visual cortex and the amygdala (because of its role in fear and negative emotion) and visual cortex and the hippocampus (because of its role in memory). Compared with the other groups, VH-SZ showed hyperconnectivity between the amygdala and visual cortex, specifically BA18, with no differences in connectivity among the other groups. In a voxel-wise, whole brain analysis comparing VH-SZ with AH-SZ, the amygdala was hyperconnected to left temporal pole and inferior frontal gyrus in VH-SZ, likely due to their more severe thought broadcasting. VH-SZ have hyperconnectivity between subcortical areas subserving emotion and cortical areas subserving higher order visual processing, providing biological support for distressing VH in schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relationship between cortex and pulvinar abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Kudo, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Ryoo; Dobashi, Yuichi; Kawabata, Yuichi; Ikeda, Shingo; Yokoyama, Mutsumi; Higashiyama, Yuichi; Doi, Hiroshi; Johkura, Ken; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in status epilepticus in terms of clinical characteristics. Participants comprised 106 patients with status epilepticus who were admitted to our hospital and underwent DWI. Forty-five patients (42.5 %) showed abnormal findings on DWI and were divided into two groups, comprising 26 patients (24.5 %) with cortex lesions alone and 19 patients (17.9 %) with cortex and pulvinar lesions in the same hemisphere. A long duration of status epilepticus (>120 min) tended to be more prevalent among patients with cortex and pulvinar lesions (57.9 %) than among patients with cortex lesions alone (30.8 %) by univariate and multivariate analyses. Todd's palsy tended to be more frequent in patients with abnormalities on DWI (24/45, 53.3 %) than in patients with normal DWI (21/61, 34.4 %). Six of the 26 patients with cortex lesions alone (23.1 %) had taken anti-epileptic drugs before the attack compared to none of the 19 patients with both cortex and pulvinar lesions. The trend toward a longer duration of status epilepticus in patients with both cortex and pulvinar lesions favors a spreading pattern of seizure discharge from cortex to pulvinar via cortico-pulvinar pathways, and anti-epileptic drugs might, to some extent, prevent spreading of seizure discharge from cortex to pulvinar. In addition, existence of high-intensity areas on DWI at the onset of epilepsy may be a predictive factor for the occurrence of Todd's palsy.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.

    PubMed

    Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

    2012-11-02

    Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  2. Determination of Betaine in Lycii Cortex by Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuewei; Liu, Haixing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the determination of betaine content in Lycii Cortex by high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method. The borax solution was chosen as buffer solution, and its concentration was 40 mmol at a constant voltage of 20kV and injecting pressure time of 10s at 14°C. Linearity was kept in the concent ration range of 0.0113∼1.45mg of betaine with correlation coefficient of 0.9. The content of betaine in Lycii Cortex was 61.9 mg/g (RSD = 13.4%) (n = 7). The recovery was in the range of 86.6% - 118.1% (n=4). This method is specific, simple and rapid and accurate, which is suitable for the detection of the content of betaine in Lycii Cortex.

  3. Principal components of hand kinematics and neurophysiological signals in motor cortex during reach to grasp movements

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vikram; Thakor, Nitish V.; Schieber, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    A few kinematic synergies identified by principal component analysis (PCA) account for most of the variance in the coordinated joint rotations of the fingers and wrist used for a wide variety of hand movements. To examine the possibility that motor cortex might control the hand through such synergies, we collected simultaneous kinematic and neurophysiological data from monkeys performing a reach-to-grasp task. We used PCA, jPCA and isomap to extract kinematic synergies from 18 joint angles in the fingers and wrist and analyzed the relationships of both single-unit and multiunit spike recordings, as well as local field potentials (LFPs), to these synergies. For most spike recordings, the maximal absolute cross-correlations of firing rates were somewhat stronger with an individual joint angle than with any principal component (PC), any jPC or any isomap dimension. In decoding analyses, where spikes and LFP power in the 100- to 170-Hz band each provided better decoding than other LFP-based signals, the first PC was decoded as well as the best decoded joint angle. But the remaining PCs and jPCs were predicted with lower accuracy than individual joint angles. Although PCs, jPCs or isomap dimensions might provide a more parsimonious description of kinematics, our findings indicate that the kinematic synergies identified with these techniques are not represented in motor cortex more strongly than the original joint angles. We suggest that the motor cortex might act to sculpt the synergies generated by subcortical centers, superimposing an ability to individuate finger movements and adapt the hand to grasp a wide variety of objects. PMID:24990564

  4. Experience-enabled enhancement of adult visual cortex function.

    PubMed

    Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Yee, Christopher W; Gorz, Mario; Douglas, Robert M; Sagdullaev, Botir; Prusky, Glen T

    2013-03-20

    We previously reported in adult mice that visuomotor experience during monocular deprivation (MD) augmented enhancement of visual-cortex-dependent behavior through the non-deprived eye (NDE) during deprivation, and enabled enhanced function to persist after MD. We investigated the physiological substrates of this experience-enabled form of adult cortical plasticity by measuring visual behavior and visually evoked potentials (VEPs) in binocular visual cortex of the same mice before, during, and after MD. MD on its own potentiated VEPs contralateral to the NDE during MD and shifted ocular dominance (OD) in favor of the NDE in both hemispheres. Whereas we expected visuomotor experience during MD to augment these effects, instead enhanced responses contralateral to the NDE, and the OD shift ipsilateral to the NDE were attenuated. However, in the same animals, we measured NMDA receptor-dependent VEP potentiation ipsilateral to the NDE during MD, which persisted after MD. The results indicate that visuomotor experience during adult MD leads to enduring enhancement of behavioral function, not simply by amplifying MD-induced changes in cortical OD, but through an independent process of increasing NDE drive in ipsilateral visual cortex. Because the plasticity is resident in the mature visual cortex and selectively effects gain of visual behavior through experiential means, it may have the therapeutic potential to target and non-invasively treat eye- or visual-field-specific cortical impairment.

  5. Hydrodynamic Aspects of Particle Clogging in Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    MAYS, DAVID C.; HUNT, JAMES R.

    2010-01-01

    Data from 6 filtration studies, representing 43 experiments, are analyzed with a simplified version of the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali clogging model. The model parameter displays a systematic dependence on fluid velocity, which was an independent variable in each study. A cake filtration model also explains the data from one filtration study by varying a single, velocity-dependent parameter, highlighting that clogging models, because they are empirical, are not unique. Limited experimental data indicate exponential depth dependence of particle accumulation, whose impact on clogging is quantified with an extended O’Melia and Ali model. The resulting two-parameter model successfully describes the increased clogging that is always observed in the top segment of a filter. However, even after accounting for particle penetration, the two-parameter model suggests that a velocity-dependent parameter representing deposit morphology must also be included to explain the data. Most of the experimental data are described by the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali model, and the model parameter is correlated to the collector Peclet number. PMID:15707058

  6. Preprocessing of emotional visual information in the human piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris

    2017-08-23

    This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.

  7. The motor cortex: a network tuned to 7-14 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    The neocortex or six layer cortex consists of at least 52 cytoarchitectonically distinct areas in humans, and similar areas can be distinguished in rodents. Each of these areas has a defining set of extrinsic connections, identifiable functional roles, a distinct laminar arrangement, etc. Thus, neocortex is extensively subdivided into areas of anatomical and functional specialization, but less is known about the specialization of cellular and network physiology across areas. The motor cortex appears to have a distinct propensity to oscillate in the 7–14 Hz frequency range. Augmenting responses, normal mu and beta oscillations, and abnormal oscillations or after discharges caused by enhancing excitation or suppressing inhibition are all expressed around this frequency range. The substrate for this activity may be an excitatory network that is unique to the motor cortex or that is more strongly suppressed in other areas, such as somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, augmenting responses are dependent on behavioral state. They are abolished during behavioral arousal. Here, I briefly review this evidence. PMID:23439785

  8. Infralimbic cortex controls core body temperature in a histamine dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Riveros, M E; Perdomo, G; Torrealba, F

    2014-04-10

    An increase in body temperature accelerates biochemical reactions and behavioral and physiological responses. A mechanism to actively increase body temperature would be beneficial during motivated behaviors. The prefrontal cortex is implicated in organizing motivated behavior; the infralimbic cortex, a subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex, has the necessary connectivity to serve the role of initiating such thermogenic mechanism at the beginning of the appetitive phase of motivated behavior; further, this cortex is active during motivated behavior and its disinhibition produces a marked behavioral and vegetative arousal increase, together with increases in histamine levels. We wanted to explore if this arousal was related to histaminergic activation after pharmacological infralimbic disinhibition and during the appetitive phase of motivated behavior. We measured core temperature and motor activity in response to picrotoxin injection in the infralimbic cortex, as well as during food-related appetitive behavior, evoked by enticing hungry rats with food. Pretreatment with the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine decreased thermal response to picrotoxin and enticement and completely blunted motor response to enticement. Motor and temperature responses to enticement were also completely abolished by infralimbic cortex inhibition with muscimol. To assess if this histamine dependent temperature increase was produced by an active sympathetic mediated thermogenic mechanism or was just a consequence of increased locomotor activity, we injected propranolol (i.p.), a β adrenergic receptor blocker, before picrotoxin injection into the infralimbic cortex. Propranolol reduced the temperature increase without affecting locomotor activity. Altogether, these results suggest that infralimbic activation is necessary for appetitive behavior by inducing a motor and a vegetative arousal increase mediated by central histamine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial attention increases high-frequency gamma synchronisation in human medial visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Loes; Rich, Anina N; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Singh, Krish D

    2013-10-01

    Visual information processing involves the integration of stimulus and goal-driven information, requiring neuronal communication. Gamma synchronisation is linked to neuronal communication, and is known to be modulated in visual cortex both by stimulus properties and voluntarily-directed attention. Stimulus-driven modulations of gamma activity are particularly associated with early visual areas such as V1, whereas attentional effects are generally localised to higher visual areas such as V4. The absence of a gamma increase in early visual cortex is at odds with robust attentional enhancements found with other measures of neuronal activity in this area. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to explore the effect of spatial attention on gamma activity in human early visual cortex using a highly effective gamma-inducing stimulus and strong attentional manipulation. In separate blocks, subjects tracked either a parafoveal grating patch that induced gamma activity in contralateral medial visual cortex, or a small line at fixation, effectively attending away from the gamma-inducing grating. Both items were always present, but rotated unpredictably and independently of each other. The rotating grating induced gamma synchronisation in medial visual cortex at 30-70 Hz, and in lateral visual cortex at 60-90 Hz, regardless of whether it was attended. Directing spatial attention to the grating increased gamma synchronisation in medial visual cortex, but only at 60-90 Hz. These results suggest that the generally found increase in gamma activity by spatial attention can be localised to early visual cortex in humans, and that stimulus and goal-driven modulations may be mediated at different frequencies within the gamma range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. "Visual" Cortex of Congenitally Blind Adults Responds to Syntactic Movement.

    PubMed

    Lane, Connor; Kanjlia, Shipra; Omaki, Akira; Bedny, Marina

    2015-09-16

    Human cortex is comprised of specialized networks that support functions, such as visual motion perception and language processing. How do genes and experience contribute to this specialization? Studies of plasticity offer unique insights into this question. In congenitally blind individuals, "visual" cortex responds to auditory and tactile stimuli. Remarkably, recent evidence suggests that occipital areas participate in language processing. We asked whether in blindness, occipital cortices: (1) develop domain-specific responses to language and (2) respond to a highly specialized aspect of language-syntactic movement. Nineteen congenitally blind and 18 sighted participants took part in two fMRI experiments. We report that in congenitally blind individuals, but not in sighted controls, "visual" cortex is more active during sentence comprehension than during a sequence memory task with nonwords, or a symbolic math task. This suggests that areas of occipital cortex become selective for language, relative to other similar higher-cognitive tasks. Crucially, we find that these occipital areas respond more to sentences with syntactic movement but do not respond to the difficulty of math equations. We conclude that regions within the visual cortex of blind adults are involved in syntactic processing. Our findings suggest that the cognitive function of human cortical areas is largely determined by input during development. Human cortex is made up of specialized regions that perform different functions, such as visual motion perception and language processing. How do genes and experience contribute to this specialization? Studies of plasticity show that cortical areas can change function from one sensory modality to another. Here we demonstrate that input during development can alter cortical function even more dramatically. In blindness a subset of "visual" areas becomes specialized for language processing. Crucially, we find that the same "visual" areas respond to a highly

  11. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex mediates rapid evaluations predicting the outcome of romantic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O’Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Humans frequently make real-world decisions based on rapid evaluations of minimal information – for example, should we talk to an attractive stranger at a party? Little is known, however, about how the brain makes rapid evaluations with real and immediate social consequences. To address this question, we scanned participants with FMRI while they viewed photos of individuals that they subsequently met at real-life “speed-dating” events. Neural activity in two areas of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, paracingulate cortex and rostromedial prefrontal cortex (RMPFC), was predictive of whether each individual would be ultimately pursued for a romantic relationship or rejected. Activity in these areas was attributable to two distinct components of romantic evaluation: either consensus judgments about physical beauty (paracingulate cortex) or individualized preferences based on a partner’s perceived personality (RMPFC). These data identify novel computational roles for these regions of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in even very rapid social evaluations. Even a first glance, then, can accurately predict romantic desire, but that glance involves a mix of physical and psychological judgments that depend on specific regions of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. PMID:23136406

  12. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mirror Neurons of Ventral Premotor Cortex Are Modulated by Social Cues Provided by Others' Gaze.

    PubMed

    Coudé, Gino; Festante, Fabrizia; Cilia, Adriana; Loiacono, Veronica; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Mirror neurons (MNs) in the inferior parietal lobule and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) can code the intentions of other individuals using contextual cues. Gaze direction is an important social cue that can be used for understanding the meaning of actions made by other individuals. Here we addressed the issue of whether PMv MNs are influenced by the gaze direction of another individual. We recorded single-unit activity in macaque PMv while the monkey was observing an experimenter performing a grasping action and orienting his gaze either toward (congruent gaze condition) or away (incongruent gaze condition) from a target object. The results showed that one-half of the recorded MNs were modulated by the gaze direction of the human agent. These gaze-modulated neurons were evenly distributed between those preferring a gaze direction congruent with the direction where the grasping action was performed and the others that preferred an incongruent gaze. Whereas the presence of congruent responses is in line with the usual coupling of hand and gaze in both executed and observed actions, the incongruent responses can be explained by the long exposure of the monkeys to this condition. Our results reveal that the representation of observed actions in PMv is influenced by contextual information not only extracted from physical cues, but also from cues endowed with biological or social value. In this study, we present the first evidence showing that social cues modulate MNs in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. These data suggest that there is an integrated representation of other's hand actions and gaze direction at the single neuron level in the ventral premotor cortex, and support the hypothesis of a functional role of MNs in decoding actions and understanding motor intentions. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363145-12$15.00/0.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of renal oxygen extraction fraction under the influence of respiratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, He; Zhao, Kai; Jin, Lixin; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Xiaoying; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of using a susceptibility-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring renal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) changes under the influence of carbogen (97% O2 , 3% CO2 ) breathing. Eight New Zealand White rabbits were included in this study with local animal care committee approval. For OEF measurement, an asymmetric spin echo (ASE) sequence was used to acquire source images and a susceptibility model was utilized for OEF estimation at 3.0T. Within-session and between-day tests were conducted to evaluate the reproducibility of this OEF measurement. OEF changes were measured under respiratory challenge with alternated air and carbogen (97% O2 , 3% CO2 ) breathing. For comparison, blood samples were collected for the measurement of pO2 . The within-session coefficients of variation (CVs) of renal OEF measurements were 6.62% in cortex and 5.92% in medulla, while between-day CVs were 7.52% in cortex and 8.03% in medulla. Under carbogen breathing, renal OEFs decreased significantly from 0.32 ± 0.03 to 0.28 ± 0.02 (P < 0.01) in cortex, and from 0.34 ± 0.04 to 0.31 ± 0.03 (P < 0.01) in medulla. No statistical difference of relative OEF change was seen between cortex and medulla (P = 0.93). In addition, negative correlation between renal OEF and blood pO2 was found (r = 0.68 (P < 0.05) in cortex, and r = 0.64 (P < 0.05) in medulla). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a susceptibility-based OEF measurement method for the evaluation of renal oxygenation changes induced by carbogen breathing. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:230-237. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perceptually relevant speech tracking in auditory and motor cortex reflects distinct linguistic features

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joachim; Kayser, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    During online speech processing, our brain tracks the acoustic fluctuations in speech at different timescales. Previous research has focused on generic timescales (for example, delta or theta bands) that are assumed to map onto linguistic features such as prosody or syllables. However, given the high intersubject variability in speaking patterns, such a generic association between the timescales of brain activity and speech properties can be ambiguous. Here, we analyse speech tracking in source-localised magnetoencephalographic data by directly focusing on timescales extracted from statistical regularities in our speech material. This revealed widespread significant tracking at the timescales of phrases (0.6–1.3 Hz), words (1.8–3 Hz), syllables (2.8–4.8 Hz), and phonemes (8–12.4 Hz). Importantly, when examining its perceptual relevance, we found stronger tracking for correctly comprehended trials in the left premotor (PM) cortex at the phrasal scale as well as in left middle temporal cortex at the word scale. Control analyses using generic bands confirmed that these effects were specific to the speech regularities in our stimuli. Furthermore, we found that the phase at the phrasal timescale coupled to power at beta frequency (13–30 Hz) in motor areas. This cross-frequency coupling presumably reflects top-down temporal prediction in ongoing speech perception. Together, our results reveal specific functional and perceptually relevant roles of distinct tracking and cross-frequency processes along the auditory–motor pathway. PMID:29529019

  16. Automatic Clustering and Thickness Measurement of Anatomical Variants of the Human Perirhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Long; Pluta, John; Wang, Hongzhi; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Dasha; Avants, Brian B.; Ding, Song-Lin; Wolk, David A.; Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (ERC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC) are subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that play important roles in episodic memory representations, as well as serving as a conduit between other neocortical areas and the hippocampus. They are also the sites where neuronal damage first occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The ability to automatically quantify the volume and thickness of the ERC and PRC is desirable because these localized measures can potentially serve as better imaging biomarkers for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, large anatomical variation in the PRC makes it a challenging area for analysis. In order to address this problem, we propose an automatic segmentation, clustering, and thickness measurement approach that explicitly accounts for anatomical variation. The approach is targeted to highly anisotropic (0.4×0.4×2.0mm3) T2-weighted MRI scans that are preferred by many authors for detailed imaging of the MTL, but which pose challenges for segmentation and shape analysis. After automatically labeling MTL substructures using multi-atlas segmentation, our method clusters subjects into groups based on the shape of the PRC, constructs unbiased population templates for each group, and uses the smooth surface representations obtained during template construction to extract regional thickness measurements in the space of each subject. The proposed thickness measures are evaluated in the context of discrimination between patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and normal controls (NC). PMID:25320785

  17. Similarities between GCS and human motor cortex: complex movement coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos

    2014-07-01

    The "Gran Telescopio de Canarias" (GTC1) is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). The GTC control system (GCS), the brain of the telescope, is is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. On the other hand, the Human motor cortex (HMC) is a region of the cerebrum responsible for the coordination of planning, control, and executing voluntary movements. If we analyze both systems, as far as the movement control of their mechanisms and body parts is concerned, we can find extraordinary similarities in their architectures. Both are structured in layers, and their functionalities are comparable from the movement conception until the movement action itself: In the GCS we can enumerate the Sequencer high level components, the Coordination libraries, the Control Kit library and the Device Driver library as the subsystems involved in the telescope movement control. If we look at the motor cortex, we can also enumerate the primary motor cortex, the secondary motor cortices, which include the posterior parietal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the motor units, the sensory organs and the basal ganglia. From all these components/areas we will analyze in depth the several subcortical regions, of the the motor cortex, that are involved in organizing motor programs for complex movements and the GCS coordination framework, which is composed by a set of classes that allow to the high level components to transparently control a group of mechanisms simultaneously.

  18. Decision-Making in the Ventral Premotor Cortex Harbinger of Action

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L.; Padron, Isabel; Fernandez-Rey, Jose; Acuña, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Although the premotor (PM) cortex was once viewed as the substrate of pure motor functions, soon it was realized that it was involved in higher brain functions. By this it is meant that the PM cortex functions would better be explained as motor set, preparation for limb movement, or sensory guidance of movement rather than solely by a fixed link to motor performance. These findings, together with a better knowledge of the PM cortex histology and hodology in human and non-human primates prompted quantitative studies of this area combining behavioral tasks with electrophysiological recordings. In addition, the exploration of the PM cortex neurons with qualitative methods also suggested its participation in higher functions. Behavioral choices frequently depend on temporal cues, which together with knowledge of previous outcomes and expectancies are combined to decide and choose a behavioral action. In decision-making the knowledge about the consequences of decisions, either correct or incorrect, is fundamental because they can be used to adapt future behavior. The neuronal correlates of a decision process have been described in several cortical areas of primates. Among them, there is evidence that the monkey ventral premotor (PMv) cortex, an anatomical and physiological well-differentiated area of the PM cortex, supports both perceptual decisions and performance monitoring. Here we review the evidence that the steps in a decision-making process are encoded in the firing rate of the PMv neurons. This provides compelling evidence suggesting that the PMv is involved in the use of recent and long-term sensory memory to decide, execute, and evaluate the outcomes of the subjects’ choices. PMID:21991249

  19. False memory for context activates the parahippocampal cortex.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex during true memory than false memory, which has been interpreted as reflecting greater sensory processing during true memory. However, in these studies, sensory detail and contextual information were confounded. In the present fMRI study, we employed a novel paradigm to dissociate these factors. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented in one of two contexts (i.e., moving or stationary). During retrieval, participants classified shapes as previously "moving" or "stationary." Critically, contextual processing was relatively greater during false memory ("moving" responses to stationary items), while sensory processing was relatively greater during true memory ("moving" responses to moving items). Within the medial temporal lobe, false memory versus true memory produced greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex, whereas true memory versus false memory produced greater activity in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that the parahippocampal cortex mediates contextual processing rather than sensory processing.

  20. Prefrontal cortex activity during swallowing in dysphagia patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Yamate, Chisato; Taira, Masato; Shinoda, Masamichi; Urata, Kentaro; Maruno, Mitsuru; Ito, Reio; Saito, Hiroto; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Iwata, Koichi

    2018-05-24

    Prefrontal cortex activity is modulated by flavor and taste stimuli and changes during swallowing. We hypothesized that changes in the modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by flavor and taste were associated with swallowing movement and evaluated brain activity during swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To evaluate prefrontal cortex activity in dysphagia patients during swallowing, change in oxidized hemoglobin (z-score) was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy while dysphagia patients and healthy controls swallowed sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly. Total z-scores were positive during swallowing of flavored/unsweetened jelly and negative during swallowing of unflavored/sweetened jelly in controls but negative during swallowing of sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly in dysphagia patients. These findings suggest that taste and flavor during food swallowing are associated with positive and negative z-scores, respectively. Change in negative and positive z-scores may be useful in evaluating brain activity of dysphagia patients during swallowing of sweetened and unsweetened food.

  1. Volition and conflict in human medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rees, Geraint; Parton, Andrew; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2005-01-26

    Controversy surrounds the role of human medial frontal cortex in controlling actions. Although damage to this area leads to severe difficulties in spontaneously initiating actions, the precise mechanisms underlying such "volitional" deficits remain to be established. Previous studies have implicated the medial frontal cortex in conflict monitoring and the control of voluntary action, suggesting that these key processes are functionally related or share neural substrates. Here, we combine a novel behavioral paradigm with functional imaging of the oculomotor system to reveal, for the first time, a functional subdivision of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) into anatomically distinct areas that respond exclusively to either volition or conflict. We also demonstrate that activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) distinguishes between success and failure in changing voluntary action plans during conflict, suggesting a role for the SEF in implementing the resolution of conflicting actions. We propose a functional architecture of human medial frontal cortex that incorporates the generation of action plans and the resolution of conflict.

  2. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    PubMed

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  3. Ethanolic extracts of Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monniera possess neuroleptic activity due to anti-dopaminergic effect

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Rajiv; Chowdary, K. Appana

    2014-01-01

    Background: An increased inclination has been observed for the use of herbal drugs in chronic and incurable diseases. Treatment of psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia is largely palliative and more importantly, a prominent adverse effect prevails with the majority of anti-psychotic drugs, which are the extrapyramidal motor disorders. Existing anti-psychotic drug therapy is not so promising, and their adverse effect is a matter of concern for continuing the therapy for long duration. Objective: This experimental study was done to evaluate the neuroleptic activity of the ethanolic extracts of two plants Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monnieri with different anti-psychotic animal models with a view that these plant extracts shall have no or at least reduced adverse effect so that it can be used for long duration. Materials and Methods: Two doses of both the extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) and also standard drug haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were administered to their respective groups once daily with 5 different animal models. After that, the concentration of the dopamine neurotransmitter was estimated in two different regions of the brain viz. frontal cortex and striatum. Results: The result of the study indicated a significant reduction of amphetamine-induced stereotype and conditioned avoidance response for both the extracts compared with the control group, but both did not have any significant effect in phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity and social interaction activity. However, both the extracts showed minor signs of catalepsy compared to the control group. The study also revealed that the neuroleptic effect was due to the reduction of the dopamine concentration in the frontal cortex region of the rat brain. The results largely pointed out the fact that both the extract may be having the property to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by reducing the dopamine levels of dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Conclusion: The estimation of dopamine in the

  4. Endogenously generated gamma-band oscillations in early visual cortex: A neurofeedback study.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Nina; Wibral, Michael; Bland, Gareth; Singer, Wolf

    2018-04-26

    Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal. We found that seven out of ten subjects were able to selectively increase the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the absence of visual stimulation. One subject however failed completely and two subjects succeeded to manipulate the feedback signal by contraction of muscles. In all subjects the attempts to enhance visual gamma oscillations were associated with an increase of beta oscillations over precentral/frontal regions. Only successful subjects exhibited an additional marked increase of theta oscillations over precentral/prefrontal and temporal regions whereas unsuccessful subjects showed an increase of alpha band oscillations over occipital regions. We argue that spatially confined networks in early visual cortex can be entrained to engage in narrow band gamma oscillations not only by visual stimuli but also by top down signals. We interpret the concomitant increase in beta oscillations as indication for an engagement of the fronto-parietal attention network and the increase of theta oscillations as a correlate of imagery. Our finding support the application of NFB in disease conditions associated with impaired gamma synchronization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul J; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V; Benton, Arthur L

    2004-06-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical profiles and real life developmental outcomes. Based on these cases, there is preliminary evidence to support distinctive developmental differences after: (1) dorsolateral, (2) mesial, and (3) orbital-polar prefrontal lesions, for more profound impairments after bilateral damage, and possibly for recovery differences after very early vs. later childhood lesion onset. Further case and group studies are needed to confirm reliable effects of specific lesion locations, the influence of age of lesion onset, and related experiential and treatment variables in determining adult outcomes. Rather than a single underlying deficit associated with early prefrontal cortex damage, we interpret the findings to suggest that it is the altered integration and interplay of cognitive, emotional, self-regulatory, and executive/metacognitive deficits that contribute to diverse developmental frontal lobe syndromes. The findings support the fundamental importance of prefrontal cortex maturation in protracted cognitive, social-emotional, and moral development.

  6. Cortex proliferation in the root is a protective mechanism against abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Although as an organ the root plays a pivotal role in nutrient and water uptake as well anchorage, individual cell types function distinctly. Cortex is regarded as the least differentiated cell type in the root, but little is known about its role in plant growth and physiology. In recent studies, we found that cortex proliferation can be induced by oxidative stress. Since all types of abiotic stress lead to oxidative stress, this finding suggests a role for cortex in coping with abiotic stress. This hypothesis was tested in this study using the spy mutant, which has an extra layer of cortex in the root. Interestingly, the spy mutant was shown to be hypersensitive to salt and oxidizing reagent applied to the leaves, but it was as tolerant as the wild type to these compounds in the soil. This result lends support to the notion that cortex has a protective role against abiotic stress arising from the soil.

  7. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Nan J.; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. Objective This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation. Design Eleven healthy women (age range 29–74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation – were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Results Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. Conclusion The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the ‘reward system’. In addition

  8. Activation of sensory cortex by imagined genital stimulation: an fMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Nan J; Frangos, Eleni; Komisaruk, Barry R

    2016-01-01

    During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions - imagined dildo self-stimulation and imagined speculum stimulation - were included to characterize the effects of erotic versus non-erotic imagery. Imagined and tactile self-stimulation of the nipple and clitoris each activated the paracentral lobule (the genital region of the primary sensory cortex) and the secondary somatosensory cortex. Imagined self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple resulted in greater activation of the frontal pole and orbital frontal cortex compared to tactile self-stimulation of these two bodily regions. Tactile self-stimulation of the clitoris and nipple activated the cerebellum, primary somatosensory cortex (hand region), and premotor cortex more than the imagined stimulation of these body regions. Imagining dildo stimulation generated extensive brain activation in the genital sensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula, nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex, whereas imagining speculum stimulation generated only minimal activation. The present findings provide evidence of the potency of imagined stimulation of the genitals and that the following brain regions may participate in erogenous experience: primary and secondary sensory cortices, sensory-motor integration areas, limbic structures, and components of the 'reward system'. In addition, these results suggest a mechanism by which some individuals may

  9. The processing of unexpected positive response outcomes in the mediofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta; Gehring, William J

    2012-08-29

    The human mediofrontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, is commonly assumed to contribute to higher cognitive functions like performance monitoring. How exactly this is achieved is currently the subject of lively debate but there is evidence that an event's valence and its expectancy play important roles. One prominent theory, the reinforcement learning theory by Holroyd and colleagues (2002, 2008), assigns a special role to feedback valence, while the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model by Alexander and Brown (2010, 2011) claims that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to unexpected events regardless of their valence. However, paradigms examining this issue have included confounds that fail to separate valence and expectancy. In the present study, we tested the two competing theories of performance monitoring by using an experimental task that separates valence and unexpectedness of performance feedback. The feedback-related negativity of the event-related potential, which is commonly assumed to be a reflection of mediofrontal cortex activity, was elicited not only by unexpected negative feedback, but also by unexpected positive feedback. This implies that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to the unexpectedness of events in general rather than their valence and by this supports the PRO model.

  10. Analgesia and hyperalgesia from GABA-mediated modulation of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, Luc; Rabkin, Samuel D; Granato, Alberto; Boudah, Abdennacer; Ohara, Peter T

    2003-07-17

    It is known that pain perception can be altered by mood, attention and cognition, or by direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex, but we know little of the neural mechanisms underlying the cortical modulation of pain. One of the few cortical areas consistently activated by painful stimuli is the rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC) where, as in other parts of the cortex, the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) robustly inhibits neuronal activity. Here we show that changes in GABA neurotransmission in the RAIC can raise or lower the pain threshold--producing analgesia or hyperalgesia, respectively--in freely moving rats. Locally increasing GABA, by using an enzyme inhibitor or gene transfer mediated by a viral vector, produces lasting analgesia by enhancing the descending inhibition of spinal nociceptive neurons. Selectively activating GABA(B)-receptor-bearing RAIC neurons produces hyperalgesia through projections to the amygdala, an area involved in pain and fear. Whereas most studies focus on the role of the cerebral cortex as the end point of nociceptive processing, we suggest that cerebral cortex activity can change the set-point of pain threshold in a top-down manner.

  11. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of “Green” Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, Franziska G.; Plant, Gordon T.; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d’Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength (“red”) and middle wavelength (“green”) regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient’s results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both “red/green” and “yellow/blue” directions in colour space, the subject’s lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in “red/green” thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the “green” region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of “green” but not “red” sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent. PMID:27956924

  12. Hemodynamic changes in the breast and frontal cortex of mothers during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Kimie; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Ogawa, Kayo; Kato, Ikuko; Ijichi, Sonoko; Mikami, Junko; Sobue, Ikuko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm physiological reactions in the breast and brain in mothers during breastfeeding and collect basic objective data, aiming at effective support for breastfeeding. Ten healthy women who were exclusively breastfeeding their babies participated in this study. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated Hb (oxyHb) and deoxygenated Hb in the breasts and frontal cortex of these women during breastfeeding lactation were measured using double-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Changes were measured in three conditions: (1) in both breasts; (2) the ipsilateral breast and frontal cortex; and (3) the contralateral breast and frontal cortex. OxyHb and total Hb (totalHb) levels in the bilateral breasts decreased significantly after the onset of breastfeeding in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. These two values repeatedly increased and decreased thereafter. In the frontal cortex, regardless of which breast was involved, oxyHb and totalHb levels increased significantly in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. Similar hemodynamic changes occurred simultaneously in the bilateral breasts during breastfeeding regardless of the feeding or nonfeeding side. Hemodynamic changes were also noted in the frontal cortex, but the reactions in the breast and prefrontal cortex were different and not synchronous, confirming that the physiological circulatory dynamics during breastfeeding vary among organs.

  13. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se.

    PubMed

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  15. Wrinkling of a spherical lipid interface induced by actomyosin cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Nishigami, Yukinori; Sonobe, Seiji; Ichikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    Actomyosin actively generates contractile forces that provide the plasma membrane with the deformation stresses essential to carry out biological processes. Although the contractile property of purified actomyosin has been extensively studied, to understand the physical contribution of the actomyosin contractile force on a deformable membrane is still a challenging problem and of great interest in the field of biophysics. Here, we reconstitute a model system with a cell-sized deformable interface that exhibits anomalous curvature-dependent wrinkling caused by the actomyosin cortex underneath the spherical closed interface. Through a shape analysis of the wrinkling deformation, we find that the dominant contributor to the wrinkled shape changes from bending elasticity to stretching elasticity of the reconstituted cortex upon increasing the droplet curvature radius of the order of the cell size, i.e., tens of micrometers. The observed curvature dependence is explained by the theoretical description of the cortex elasticity and contractility. Our present results provide a fundamental insight into the deformation of a curved membrane induced by the actomyosin cortex.

  16. Structured networks support sparse traveling waves in rodent somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Moldakarimov, Samat; Bazhenov, Maxim; Feldman, Daniel E; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2018-05-15

    Neurons responding to different whiskers are spatially intermixed in the superficial layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the rodent barrel cortex, where a single whisker deflection activates a sparse, distributed neuronal population that spans multiple cortical columns. How the superficial layer of the rodent barrel cortex is organized to support such distributed sensory representations is not clear. In a computer model, we tested the hypothesis that sensory representations in L2/3 of the rodent barrel cortex are formed by activity propagation horizontally within L2/3 from a site of initial activation. The model explained the observed properties of L2/3 neurons, including the low average response probability in the majority of responding L2/3 neurons, and the existence of a small subset of reliably responding L2/3 neurons. Sparsely propagating traveling waves similar to those observed in L2/3 of the rodent barrel cortex occurred in the model only when a subnetwork of strongly connected neurons was immersed in a much larger network of weakly connected neurons.

  17. Secondary damage in the spinal cord after motor cortex injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Nina; Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick; Fouad, Karim

    2010-08-01

    When neurons within the motor cortex are fatally injured, their axons, many of which project into the spinal cord, undergo wallerian degeneration. Pathological processes occurring downstream of the cortical damage have not been extensively studied. We created a focal forelimb motor cortex injury in rats and found that axons from cell bodies located in the hindlimb motor cortex (spared by the cortical injury) become secondarily damaged in the spinal cord. To assess axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, we quantified silver staining in the corticospinal tract (CST) at 1 week and 4 weeks after the injury. We found a significant increase in silver deposition at the thoracic spinal cord level at 4 weeks compared to 1 week post-injury. At both time points, no degenerating neurons could be found in the hindlimb motor cortex. In a separate experiment, we showed that direct injury of neurons within the hindlimb motor cortex caused marked silver deposition in the thoracic CST at 1 week post-injury, and declined thereafter. Therefore, delayed axonal degeneration in the thoracic spinal cord after a focal forelimb motor cortex injury is indicative of secondary damage at the spinal cord level. Furthermore, immunolabeling of spinal cord sections showed that a local inflammatory response dominated by partially activated Iba-1-positive microglia is mounted in the CST, a viable mechanism to cause the observed secondary degeneration of fibers. In conclusion, we demonstrate that following motor cortex injury, wallerian degeneration of axons in the spinal cord leads to secondary damage, which is likely mediated by inflammatory processes.

  18. Activity in Prelimbic Cortex Subserves Fear Memory Reconsolidation over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Cristina A. J.; Gazarini, Lucas; Vanvossen, Ana C.; Hames, Mayara S.; Bertoglio, Leandro J.

    2014-01-01

    The prelimbic cortex has been implicated in the consolidation of previously learned fear. Herein, we report that temporarily inactivating this medial prefrontal cortex subregion with the GABA [subscript A] agonist muscimol (4.0 nmol in 0.2 µL per hemisphere) was able to equally disrupt 1-, 7-, and 21-d-old contextual fear memories after their…

  19. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  20. Structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in euthymic females with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Syan, Sabrina K; Smith, Mara; Hall, Alexander; Hall, Geoffrey Bc; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-12-01

    Current evidence from neuroimaging data suggests possible dysfunction of the fronto-striatal-limbic circuits in individuals with bipolar disorder. Somatosensory cortical function has been implicated in emotional recognition, risk-taking and affective responses through sensory modalities. This study investigates anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in euthymic bipolar women. In total, 68 right-handed euthymic women (bipolar disorder = 32 and healthy controls = 36) between 16 and 45 years of age underwent high-resolution anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during the mid-follicular menstrual phase. The somatosensory cortex was used as a seed region for resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate somatosensory cortical gray matter volume between groups. We found increased resting-state functional connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and insular cortex, inferior prefrontal gyrus and frontal orbital cortex in euthymic bipolar disorder subjects compared to healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter in the left somatosensory cortex in the bipolar disorder group. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis controlled by age did not reveal any additional significant difference between groups. This study is the first to date to evaluate anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in a well-characterized sample of euthymic bipolar disorder females. Anatomical and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in this population might contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

  1. Amodal processing in human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Dux, Paul E; Tombu, Michael N; Asplund, Christopher L; Marois, René

    2013-07-10

    Information enters the cortex via modality-specific sensory regions, whereas actions are produced by modality-specific motor regions. Intervening central stages of information processing map sensation to behavior. Humans perform this central processing in a flexible, abstract manner such that sensory information in any modality can lead to response via any motor system. Cognitive theories account for such flexible behavior by positing amodal central information processing (e.g., "central executive," Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; "supervisory attentional system," Norman and Shallice, 1986; "response selection bottleneck," Pashler, 1994). However, the extent to which brain regions embodying central mechanisms of information processing are amodal remains unclear. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to compare response selection, a cognitive process widely believed to recruit an amodal central resource across sensory and motor modalities. We show that most frontal and parietal cortical areas known to activate across a wide variety of tasks code modality, casting doubt on the notion that these regions embody a central processor devoid of modality representation. Importantly, regions of anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex consistently failed to code modality across four experiments. However, these areas code at least one other task dimension, process (instantiated as response selection vs response execution), ensuring that failure to find coding of modality is not driven by insensitivity of multivariate pattern analysis in these regions. We conclude that abstract encoding of information modality is primarily a property of subregions of the prefrontal cortex.

  2. Perirhinal Cortex Lesions in Rats: Novelty Detection and Sensitivity to Interference

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions received multiple object recognition trials within a continuous session to examine whether they show false memories. Experiment 1 focused on exploration patterns during the first object recognition test postsurgery, in which each trial contained 1 novel and 1 familiar object. The perirhinal cortex lesions reduced time spent exploring novel objects, but did not affect overall time spent exploring the test objects (novel plus familiar). Replications with subsequent cohorts of rats (Experiments 2, 3, 4.1) repeated this pattern of results. When all recognition memory data were combined (Experiments 1–4), giving totals of 44 perirhinal lesion rats and 40 surgical sham controls, the perirhinal cortex lesions caused a marginal reduction in total exploration time. That decrease in time with novel objects was often compensated by increased exploration of familiar objects. Experiment 4 also assessed the impact of proactive interference on recognition memory. Evidence emerged that prior object experience could additionally impair recognition performance in rats with perirhinal cortex lesions. Experiment 5 examined exploration levels when rats were just given pairs of novel objects to explore. Despite their perirhinal cortex lesions, exploration levels were comparable with those of control rats. While the results of Experiment 4 support the notion that perirhinal lesions can increase sensitivity to proactive interference, the overall findings question whether rats lacking a perirhinal cortex typically behave as if novel objects are familiar, that is, show false recognition. Rather, the rats retain a signal of novelty but struggle to discriminate the identity of that signal. PMID:26030425

  3. Primary Generators of Visually Evoked Field Potentials Recorded in the Macaque Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Smiley, John F; Schroeder, Charles E

    2017-10-18

    Prior studies have reported "local" field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, although field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be "contaminated" by activity generated elsewhere in the brain. To determine whether face responses are indeed generated within macaque auditory cortex, we recorded FPs and concomitant multiunit activity with linear array multielectrodes across auditory cortex in three macaques (one female), and applied current source density (CSD) analysis to the laminar FP profile. CSD analysis revealed no appreciable local generator contribution to the visual FP in auditory cortex, although we did note an increase in the amplitude of visual FP with cortical depth, suggesting that their generators are located below auditory cortex. In the underlying inferotemporal cortex, we found polarity inversions of the main visual FP components accompanied by robust CSD responses and large-amplitude multiunit activity. These results indicate that face-evoked FP responses in auditory cortex are not generated locally but are volume-conducted from other face-responsive regions. In broader terms, our results underscore the caution that, unless far-field contamination is removed, LFPs in general may reflect such "far-field" activity, in addition to, or in absence of, local synaptic responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Field potentials (FPs) can index neuronal population activity that is not evident in action potentials. However, due to volume conduction, FPs may reflect activity in distant neurons superimposed upon that of neurons close to the recording electrode. This is problematic as the

  4. Primary Generators of Visually Evoked Field Potentials Recorded in the Macaque Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, John F.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have reported “local” field potential (LFP) responses to faces in the macaque auditory cortex and have suggested that such face-LFPs may be substrates of audiovisual integration. However, although field potentials (FPs) may reflect the synaptic currents of neurons near the recording electrode, due to the use of a distant reference electrode, they often reflect those of synaptic activity occurring in distant sites as well. Thus, FP recordings within a given brain region (e.g., auditory cortex) may be “contaminated” by activity generated elsewhere in the brain. To determine whether face responses are indeed generated within macaque auditory cortex, we recorded FPs and concomitant multiunit activity with linear array multielectrodes across auditory cortex in three macaques (one female), and applied current source density (CSD) analysis to the laminar FP profile. CSD analysis revealed no appreciable local generator contribution to the visual FP in auditory cortex, although we did note an increase in the amplitude of visual FP with cortical depth, suggesting that their generators are located below auditory cortex. In the underlying inferotemporal cortex, we found polarity inversions of the main visual FP components accompanied by robust CSD responses and large-amplitude multiunit activity. These results indicate that face-evoked FP responses in auditory cortex are not generated locally but are volume-conducted from other face-responsive regions. In broader terms, our results underscore the caution that, unless far-field contamination is removed, LFPs in general may reflect such “far-field” activity, in addition to, or in absence of, local synaptic responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Field potentials (FPs) can index neuronal population activity that is not evident in action potentials. However, due to volume conduction, FPs may reflect activity in distant neurons superimposed upon that of neurons close to the recording electrode. This is

  5. Viewing speech modulates activity in the left SI mouth cortex.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Järveläinen, Juha; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    The ability to internally simulate other persons' actions is important for social interaction. In monkeys, neurons in the premotor cortex are activated both when the monkey performs mouth or hand actions and when it views or listens to actions made by others. Neuronal circuits with similar "mirror-neuron" properties probably exist in the human Broca's area and primary motor cortex. Viewing other person's hand actions also modulates activity in the primary somatosensory cortex SI, suggesting that the SI cortex is related to the human mirror-neuron system. To study the selectivity of the SI activation during action viewing, we stimulated the lower lip (with tactile pulses) and the median nerves (with electric pulses) in eight subjects to activate their SI mouth and hand cortices while the subjects either rested, listened to other person's speech, viewed her articulatory gestures, or executed mouth movements. The 55-ms SI responses to lip stimuli were enhanced by 16% (P<0.01) in the left hemisphere during speech viewing whereas listening to speech did not modulate these responses. The 35-ms responses to median-nerve stimulation remained stable during speech viewing and listening. Own mouth movements suppressed responses to lip stimuli bilaterally by 74% (P<0.001), without any effect on responses to median-nerve stimuli. Our findings show that viewing another person's articulatory gestures activates the left SI cortex in a somatotopic manner. The results provide further evidence for the view that SI is involved in "mirroring" of other persons' actions.

  6. Impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits linked to increased volume and functional connectivity within prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Korponay, Cole; Pujara, Maia; Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. PMID:28402565

  7. Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Modulates Motor Cortex Oscillatory Activity in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, D.; Labyt, E.; Derambure, P.; Bourriez, J. L.; Cassim, F.; Reyns, N.; Blond, S.; Guieu, J. D.; Destee, A.; Defebvre, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, impaired motor preparation has been related to an increased latency in the appearance of movement-related desynchronization (MRD) throughout the contralateral primary sensorimotor (PSM) cortex. Internal globus pallidus (GPi) stimulation improved movement desynchronization over the PSM cortex during movement execution but…

  8. The Left Occipitotemporal Cortex Does Not Show Preferential Activity for Words

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2012-01-01

    Regions in left occipitotemporal (OT) cortex, including the putative visual word form area, are among the most commonly activated in imaging studies of single-word reading. It remains unclear whether this part of the brain is more precisely characterized as specialized for words and/or letters or contains more general-use visual regions having properties useful for processing word stimuli, among others. In Analysis 1, we found no evidence of greater activity in left OT regions for words or letter strings relative to other high–spatial frequency high-contrast stimuli, including line drawings and Amharic strings (which constitute the Ethiopian writing system). In Analysis 2, we further investigated processing characteristics of OT cortex potentially useful in reading. Analysis 2 showed that a specific part of OT cortex 1) is responsive to visual feature complexity, measured by the number of strokes forming groups of letters or Amharic strings and 2) processes learned combinations of characters, such as those in words and pseudowords, as groups but does not do so in consonant and Amharic strings. Together, these results indicate that while regions of left OT cortex are not specialized for words, at least part of OT cortex has properties particularly useful for processing words and letters. PMID:22235035

  9. Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory accuracy for self-referenced items

    PubMed Central

    Leshikar, Eric D.; Duarte, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Previous behavioral work suggests that processing information in relation to the self enhances subsequent item recognition. Neuroimaging evidence further suggests that regions along the cortical midline, particularly those of the medial prefrontal cortex, underlie this benefit. There has been little work to date, however, on the effects of self-referential encoding on source memory accuracy or whether the medial prefrontal cortex might contribute to source memory for self-referenced materials. In the current study, we used fMRI to measure neural activity while participants studied and subsequently retrieved pictures of common objects superimposed on one of two background scenes (sources) under either self-reference or self-external encoding instructions. Both item recognition and source recognition were better for objects encoded self-referentially than self-externally. Neural activity predictive of source accuracy was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA 10) at the time of study for self-referentially but not self-externally encoded objects. The results of this experiment suggest that processing information in relation to the self leads to a mnemonic benefit for source level features, and that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex contributes to this source memory benefit. This evidence expands the purported role that the medial prefrontal cortex plays in self-referencing. PMID:21936739

  10. Volition and conflict in human medial frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rees, Geraint; Parton, Andrew; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2009-01-01

    Summary Controversy surrounds the role of human medial frontal cortex in controlling actions[1-5]. Although damage to this area leads to severe difficulties in spontaneously initiating actions[6], the precise mechanisms underlying such ‘volitional’ deficits remain to be established. Previous studies have implicated the medial frontal cortex in conflict monitoring[7-10] and the control of voluntary action[11, 12], suggesting that these key processes are functionally related or share neural substrates. Here we combine a novel behavioural paradigm with functional imaging of the oculomotor system to reveal for the first time a functional subdivision of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) into anatomically distinct areas responding exclusively to volition or to conflict. We also demonstrate that activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) distinguishes between success and failure in changing voluntary action plans during conflict, suggesting a role for the SEF in implementing the resolution of conflicting actions. We propose a functional architecture of human medial frontal cortex that incorporates the generation of action plans and the resolution of conflict. PMID:15668167

  11. Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with a movement reorganizes primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Porter, Benjamin A; Khodaparast, Navid; Fayyaz, Tabbassum; Cheung, Ryan J; Ahmed, Syed S; Vrana, William A; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    Although sensory and motor systems support different functions, both systems exhibit experience-dependent cortical plasticity under similar conditions. If mechanisms regulating cortical plasticity are common to sensory and motor cortices, then methods generating plasticity in sensory cortex should be effective in motor cortex. Repeatedly pairing a tone with a brief period of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) increases the proportion of primary auditory cortex responding to the paired tone (Engineer ND, Riley JR, Seale JD, Vrana WA, Shetake J, Sudanagunta SP, Borland MS, Kilgard MP. 2011. Reversing pathological neural activity using targeted plasticity. Nature. 470:101-104). In this study, we predicted that repeatedly pairing VNS with a specific movement would result in an increased representation of that movement in primary motor cortex. To test this hypothesis, we paired VNS with movements of the distal or proximal forelimb in 2 groups of rats. After 5 days of VNS movement pairing, intracranial microstimulation was used to quantify the organization of primary motor cortex. Larger cortical areas were associated with movements paired with VNS. Rats receiving identical motor training without VNS pairing did not exhibit motor cortex map plasticity. These results suggest that pairing VNS with specific events may act as a general method for increasing cortical representations of those events. VNS movement pairing could provide a new approach for treating disorders associated with abnormal movement representations.

  12. Hemispherical map for the human brain cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosun, Duygu; Prince, Jerry L.

    2001-07-01

    Understanding the function of the human brain cortex is a primary goal in human brain mapping. Methods to unfold and flatten the cortical surface for visualization and measurement have been described in previous literature; but comparison across multiple subjects is still difficult because of the lack of a standard mapping technique. We describe a new approach that maps each hemisphere of the cortex to a portion of a sphere in a standard way, making comparison of anatomy and function across different subjects possible. Starting with a three-dimensional magnetic resonance image of the brain, the cortex is segmented and represented as a triangle mesh. Defining a cut around the corpus collosum identifies the left and right hemispheres. Together, the two hemispheres are mapped to the complex plane using a conformal mapping technique. A Mobius transformation, which is conformal, is used to transform the points on the complex plane so that a projective transformation maps each brain hemisphere onto a spherical segment comprising a sphere with a cap removed. We determined the best size of the spherical cap by minimizing the relative area distortion between hemispherical maps and original cortical surfaces. The relative area distortion between the hemispherical maps and the original cortical surfaces for fifteen human brains is analyzed.

  13. Distributed Fading Memory for Stimulus Properties in the Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Wolf; Maass, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    It is currently not known how distributed neuronal responses in early visual areas carry stimulus-related information. We made multielectrode recordings from cat primary visual cortex and applied methods from machine learning in order to analyze the temporal evolution of stimulus-related information in the spiking activity of large ensembles of around 100 neurons. We used sequences of up to three different visual stimuli (letters of the alphabet) presented for 100 ms and with intervals of 100 ms or larger. Most of the information about visual stimuli extractable by sophisticated methods of machine learning, i.e., support vector machines with nonlinear kernel functions, was also extractable by simple linear classification such as can be achieved by individual neurons. New stimuli did not erase information about previous stimuli. The responses to the most recent stimulus contained about equal amounts of information about both this and the preceding stimulus. This information was encoded both in the discharge rates (response amplitudes) of the ensemble of neurons and, when using short time constants for integration (e.g., 20 ms), in the precise timing of individual spikes (≤∼20 ms), and persisted for several 100 ms beyond the offset of stimuli. The results indicate that the network from which we recorded is endowed with fading memory and is capable of performing online computations utilizing information about temporally sequential stimuli. This result challenges models assuming frame-by-frame analyses of sequential inputs. PMID:20027205

  14. Functional asymmetry of left and right avian piriform cortex in homing pigeons' navigation.

    PubMed

    Gagliardo, Anna; Odetti, Francesca; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2005-07-01

    It has been shown that homing pigeons rely on olfactory cues to navigate over unfamiliar areas and that any kind of olfactory impairment produces a dramatic reduction of navigational performance from unfamiliar sites. The avian piriform cortex is the main projection field of olfactory bulbs and it is supposed to process olfactory information; not surprisingly bilateral lesions to this telencephalic region disrupt homing pigeon navigation. In the present study, we attempted to assess whether the left and right piriform cortex are differentially involved in the use of the olfactory navigational map. Therefore, we released from unfamiliar locations pigeons subjected, when adult, to unilateral ablation of the piriform cortex. After being released, the pigeons lesioned to the right piriform cortex orientated similarly to the intact controls. On the contrary, the left lesioned birds were significantly more scattered than controls, showing a crucial role of the left piriform cortex in processing the olfactory cues needed for determining the direction of displacement. However, both lesioned groups were significantly slower than controls in flying back to the home loft, showing that the integrity of both sides of the piriform cortex is necessary to accomplish the whole homing process.

  15. Multimap formation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rishabh; Millin, Rachel; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2015-01-01

    An extrastriate visual area such as V2 or V4 contains neurons selective for a multitude of complex shapes, all sharing a common topographic organization. Simultaneously developing multiple interdigitated maps—hereafter a “multimap”—is challenging in that neurons must compete to generate a diversity of response types locally, while cooperating with their dispersed same-type neighbors to achieve uniform visual field coverage for their response type at all orientations, scales, etc. Previously proposed map development schemes have relied on smooth spatial interaction functions to establish both topography and columnar organization, but by locally homogenizing cells' response properties, local smoothing mechanisms effectively rule out multimap formation. We found in computer simulations that the key requirements for multimap development are that neurons are enabled for plasticity only within highly active regions of cortex designated “learning eligibility regions” (LERs), but within an LER, each cell's learning rate is determined only by its activity level with no dependence on location. We show that a hybrid developmental rule that combines spatial and activity-dependent learning criteria in this way successfully produces multimaps when the input stream contains multiple distinct feature types, or in the degenerate case of a single feature type, produces a V1-like map with “salt-and-pepper” structure. Our results support the hypothesis that cortical maps containing a fine mixture of different response types, whether in monkey extrastriate cortex, mouse V1 or elsewhere in the cortex, rather than signaling a breakdown of map formation mechanisms at the fine scale, are a product of a generic cortical developmental scheme designed to map cells with a diversity of response properties across a shared topographic space. PMID:26641946

  16. Multivariate combination of magnetization transfer, T2* and B0 orientation to study the myelo-architecture of the in vivo human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Mangeat, G.; Govindarajan, S. T.; Mainero, C.; Cohen-Adad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, T2* imaging at 7 tesla (T) MRI was shown to reveal microstructural features of the cortical myeloarchitecture thanks to an increase in contrast-to-noise ratio. However, several confounds hamper the specificity of T2* measures (iron content, blood vessels, tissues orientation). Another metric, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), is known to also be sensitive to myelin content and thus would be an excellent complementary measure because its underlying contrast mechanisms are different than that from T2*. The goal of this study was thus to combine MTR and T2* using multivariate statistics in order to gain insights into cortical myelin content. Seven healthy subjects were scanned at 7T and 3T to obtain T2* and MTR data, respectively. A multivariate myelin estimation model (MMEM) was developed, and consists in (i) normalizing T2* and MTR values and (ii) extracting their shared information using independent component analysis (ICA). B0 orientation dependence and cortical thickness were also computed and included in the model. Results showed high correlation between MTR and T2* in the whole cortex (r=0.76, p<10−16), suggesting that both metrics are partly driven by a common source of contrast, here assumed to be the myelin. Average MTR and T2* were respectively 31.0 +/− 0.3% and 32.1 +/− 1.4 ms. Results of the MMEM spatial distribution showed similar trends to that from histological work stained for myelin (r=0.77, p<0.01). Significant right-left differences were detected in the primary motor cortex (p<0.05), the posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05) and the visual cortex (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that MTR and T2* are highly correlated in the cortex. The combination of MTR, T2*, CT and B0 orientation may be a useful means to study cortical myeloarchitecture with more specificity than using any of the individual methods. The MMEM framework is extendable to other contrasts such as T1 and diffusion MRI. PMID:26095090

  17. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  18. The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Jonathan S.; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency. PMID:24964917

  19. Evidence for pitch chroma mapping in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Briley, Paul M; Breakey, Charlotte; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-11-01

    Some areas in auditory cortex respond preferentially to sounds that elicit pitch, such as musical sounds or voiced speech. This study used human electroencephalography (EEG) with an adaptation paradigm to investigate how pitch is represented within these areas and, in particular, whether the representation reflects the physical or perceptual dimensions of pitch. Physically, pitch corresponds to a single monotonic dimension: the repetition rate of the stimulus waveform. Perceptually, however, pitch has to be described with 2 dimensions, a monotonic, "pitch height," and a cyclical, "pitch chroma," dimension, to account for the similarity of the cycle of notes (c, d, e, etc.) across different octaves. The EEG adaptation effect mirrored the cyclicality of the pitch chroma dimension, suggesting that auditory cortex contains a representation of pitch chroma. Source analysis indicated that the centroid of this pitch chroma representation lies somewhat anterior and lateral to primary auditory cortex.

  20. Optogenetic Assessment of Horizontal Interactions in Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoying; Elyada, Yishai M.; Bosking, William H.; Walker, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Columnar organization of orientation selectivity and clustered horizontal connections linking orientation columns are two of the distinctive organizational features of primary visual cortex in many mammalian species. However, the functional role of these connections has been harder to characterize. Here we examine the extent and nature of horizontal interactions in V1 of the tree shrew using optical imaging of intrinsic signals, optogenetic stimulation, and multi-unit recording. Surprisingly, we find the effects of optogenetic stimulation depend primarily on distance and not on the specific orientation domains or axes in the cortex, which are stimulated. In addition, across a wide range of variation in both visual and optogenetic stimulation we find linear addition of the two inputs. These results emphasize that the cortex provides a rich substrate for functional interactions that are not limited to the orientation-specific interactions predicted by the monosynaptic distribution of horizontal connections. PMID:24695715

  1. Spindle neurons of the human anterior cingulate cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Vogt, B. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding their precise distribution along both ventrodorsal and anteroposterior axes of the cingulate gyrus are still lacking. In the present study, morphological features and the anatomic distribution of this cell type were studied using computer-assisted mapping and immunocytochemical techniques. Spindle neurons are restricted to the subfields of the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 24), exhibiting a greater density in anterior portions of this area than in posterior portions, and tapering off in the transition zone between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, a majority of the spindle cells at any level is located in subarea 24b on the gyral surface. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the neurofilament protein triple was present in a large percentage of these neurons and that they did not contain calcium-binding proteins. Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons. Finally, spindle cells were consistently affected in Alzheimer's disease cases, with an overall loss of about 60%. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spindle cells of the human cingulate cortex represent a morphological subpopulation of pyramidal neurons whose restricted distribution may be associated with functionally distinct areas.

  2. Sensory convergence in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shinder, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular signals are pervasive throughout the central nervous system, including the cortex, where they likely play different roles than they do in the better studied brainstem. Little is known about the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), an area of the cortex with prominent vestibular inputs. Neural activity was recorded in the PIVC of rhesus macaques during combinations of head, body, and visual target rotations. Activity of many PIVC neurons was correlated with the motion of the head in space (vestibular), the twist of the neck (proprioceptive), and the motion of a visual target, but was not associated with eye movement. PIVC neurons responded most commonly to more than one stimulus, and responses to combined movements could often be approximated by a combination of the individual sensitivities to head, neck, and target motion. The pattern of visual, vestibular, and somatic sensitivities on PIVC neurons displayed a continuous range, with some cells strongly responding to one or two of the stimulus modalities while other cells responded to any type of motion equivalently. The PIVC contains multisensory convergence of self-motion cues with external visual object motion information, such that neurons do not represent a specific transformation of any one sensory input. Instead, the PIVC neuron population may define the movement of head, body, and external visual objects in space and relative to one another. This comparison of self and external movement is consistent with insular cortex functions related to monitoring and explains many disparate findings of previous studies. PMID:24671533

  3. Motor cortex embeds muscle-like commands in an untangled population response

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Abigail A.; Bittner, Sean R.; Perkins, Sean M.; Seely, Jeffrey S.; London, Brian M.; Lara, Antonio H.; Miri, Andrew; Marshall, Najja J.; Kohn, Adam; Jessell, Thomas M.; Abbott, Laurence F.; Cunningham, John P.; Churchland, Mark M.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Primate motor cortex projects to spinal interneurons and motor neurons, suggesting that motor cortex activity may be dominated by muscle-like commands. Extensive observations during reaching lend support to this view, but evidence remains ambiguous and much-debated. To provide a different perspective, we employed a novel behavioral paradigm that affords extensive comparison between time-evolving neural and muscle activity. We found that single motor cortex neurons displayed many muscle-like properties, but the structure of population activity was not muscle-like. Unlike muscle activity, neural activity was structured to avoid ‘tangling’: moments where similar activity patterns led to dissimilar future patterns. Avoidance of tangling was present across tasks and species. Network models revealed a potential reason for this consistent feature: low tangling confers noise robustness. Finally, we were able to predict motor cortex activity from muscle activity alone, by leveraging the hypothesis that muscle-like commands are embedded in additional structure that yields low tangling. PMID:29398358

  4. [Studies on HPLC chromatogram of phenolic constituents of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-hua; Guo, Bao-lin; Si, Jin-ping

    2005-07-01

    To study the chemical characteristic, to identify the different forms and to establish the new standard for the quality control of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. HPLC method was used with acetonitrile-water (63:37) as the mobile phase at room temperature. The chromatographic column was Lichrospher 100 RP-18e (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was 294 nm. The chromatograms of 45 individuals from 13 seed resources of Cortex Magnolia Officinalis were recorded. The chemical characteristics analysis and comparability' s calculation of seed resources were made. It was proposed that the area ratio of peak 5 to 6 (characteristic I) and the area ratio of peak 5 and 6 to the total peak areas (characteristic II) are the identification characteristics for different seed resources of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. This method can be used effectively to identify the high quality seed resource of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

  5. The Encoding of Sound Source Elevation in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Trapeau, Régis; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2018-03-28

    Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution fMRI, we measured voxelwise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. We changed the ear shape of participants (male and female) with silicone molds for several days. This manipulation reduced or abolished the ability to discriminate sound elevation and flattened cortical tuning curves. Tuning curves recovered their original shape as participants adapted to the modified ears and regained elevation perception over time. These findings suggest that the elevation tuning observed in low-level auditory cortex did not arise from the physical features of the stimuli but is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception. One explanation for this observation may be that the tuning in low-level auditory cortex underlies the subjective perception of sound elevation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study addresses two fundamental questions about the brain representation of sensory stimuli: how the vertical spatial axis of auditory space is represented in the auditory cortex and whether low-level sensory cortex represents physical stimulus features or subjective perceptual attributes. Using high-resolution fMRI, we show that vertical sound direction is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. In addition, we demonstrate that the shape of these tuning functions is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception, which may indicate that the

  6. Global dynamics of selective attention and its lapses in primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter; Barczak, Annamaria; Neymotin, Samuel A; McGinnis, Tammy; Ross, Deborah; Javitt, Daniel C; O'Connell, Monica Noelle

    2016-12-01

    Previous research demonstrated that while selectively attending to relevant aspects of the external world, the brain extracts pertinent information by aligning its neuronal oscillations to key time points of stimuli or their sampling by sensory organs. This alignment mechanism is termed oscillatory entrainment. We investigated the global, long-timescale dynamics of this mechanism in the primary auditory cortex of nonhuman primates, and hypothesized that lapses of entrainment would correspond to lapses of attention. By examining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we observed that besides the lack of entrainment by external stimuli, attentional lapses were also characterized by high-amplitude alpha oscillations, with alpha frequency structuring of neuronal ensemble and single-unit operations. Entrainment and alpha-oscillation-dominated periods were strongly anticorrelated and fluctuated rhythmically at an ultra-slow rate. Our results indicate that these two distinct brain states represent externally versus internally oriented computational resources engaged by large-scale task-positive and task-negative functional networks.

  7. Connectivity-based parcellation of human cingulate cortex and its relation to functional specialization.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Matthias; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2009-01-28

    Whole-brain neuroimaging studies have demonstrated regional variations in function within human cingulate cortex. At the same time, regional variations in cingulate anatomical connections have been found in animal models. It has, however, been difficult to estimate the relationship between connectivity and function throughout the whole cingulate cortex within the human brain. In this study, magnetic resonance diffusion tractography was used to investigate cingulate probabilistic connectivity in the human brain with two approaches. First, an algorithm was used to search for regional variations in the probabilistic connectivity profiles of all cingulate cortex voxels with the whole of the rest of the brain. Nine subregions with distinctive connectivity profiles were identified. It was possible to characterize several distinct areas in the dorsal cingulate sulcal region. Several distinct regions were also found in subgenual and perigenual cortex. Second, the probabilities of connection between cingulate cortex and 11 predefined target regions of interest were calculated. Cingulate voxels with a high probability of connection with the different targets formed separate clusters within cingulate cortex. Distinct connectivity fingerprints characterized the likelihood of connections between the extracingulate target regions and the nine cingulate subregions. Last, a meta-analysis of 171 functional studies reporting cingulate activation was performed. Seven different cognitive conditions were selected and peak activation coordinates were plotted to create maps of functional localization within the cingulate cortex. Regional functional specialization was found to be related to regional differences in probabilistic anatomical connectivity.

  8. Discriminability of Single and Multichannel Intracortical Microstimulation within Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Cynthia K.; Hellman, Randall B.; Ponce Wong, Ruben D.; Santos, Veronica J.; Helms Tillery, Stephen I.

    2016-01-01

    The addition of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to neuroprosthetic limbs is expected to significantly improve the control of these devices. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of somatosensory cortex is a promising method of delivering this sensory feedback. To date, the main focus of somatosensory ICMS studies has been to deliver discriminable signals, corresponding to varying intensity, to a single location in cortex. However, multiple independent and simultaneous streams of sensory information will need to be encoded by ICMS to provide functionally relevant feedback for a neuroprosthetic limb (e.g., encoding contact events and pressure on multiple digits). In this study, we evaluated the ability of an awake, behaving non-human primate (Macaca mulatta) to discriminate ICMS stimuli delivered on multiple electrodes spaced within somatosensory cortex. We delivered serial stimulation on single electrodes to evaluate the discriminability of sensations corresponding to ICMS of distinct cortical locations. Additionally, we delivered trains of multichannel stimulation, derived from a tactile sensor, synchronously across multiple electrodes. Our results indicate that discrimination of multiple ICMS stimuli is a challenging task, but that discriminable sensory percepts can be elicited by both single and multichannel ICMS on electrodes spaced within somatosensory cortex. PMID:27995126

  9. Discriminability of Single and Multichannel Intracortical Microstimulation within Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Cynthia K; Hellman, Randall B; Ponce Wong, Ruben D; Santos, Veronica J; Helms Tillery, Stephen I

    2016-01-01

    The addition of tactile and proprioceptive feedback to neuroprosthetic limbs is expected to significantly improve the control of these devices. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of somatosensory cortex is a promising method of delivering this sensory feedback. To date, the main focus of somatosensory ICMS studies has been to deliver discriminable signals, corresponding to varying intensity, to a single location in cortex. However, multiple independent and simultaneous streams of sensory information will need to be encoded by ICMS to provide functionally relevant feedback for a neuroprosthetic limb (e.g., encoding contact events and pressure on multiple digits). In this study, we evaluated the ability of an awake, behaving non-human primate ( Macaca mulatta ) to discriminate ICMS stimuli delivered on multiple electrodes spaced within somatosensory cortex. We delivered serial stimulation on single electrodes to evaluate the discriminability of sensations corresponding to ICMS of distinct cortical locations. Additionally, we delivered trains of multichannel stimulation, derived from a tactile sensor, synchronously across multiple electrodes. Our results indicate that discrimination of multiple ICMS stimuli is a challenging task, but that discriminable sensory percepts can be elicited by both single and multichannel ICMS on electrodes spaced within somatosensory cortex.

  10. Functional specialization of the primate frontal cortex during decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daeyeol; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Walton, Mark E; Watanabe, Masataka; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2007-08-01

    Economic theories of decision making are based on the principle of utility maximization, and reinforcement-learning theory provides computational algorithms that can be used to estimate the overall reward expected from alternative choices. These formal models not only account for a large range of behavioral observations in human and animal decision makers, but also provide useful tools for investigating the neural basis of decision making. Nevertheless, in reality, decision makers must combine different types of information about the costs and benefits associated with each available option, such as the quality and quantity of expected reward and required work. In this article, we put forward the hypothesis that different subdivisions of the primate frontal cortex may be specialized to focus on different aspects of dynamic decision-making processes. In this hypothesis, the lateral prefrontal cortex is primarily involved in maintaining the state representation necessary to identify optimal actions in a given environment. In contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be primarily involved in encoding and updating the utilities associated with different sensory stimuli and alternative actions, respectively. These cortical areas are also likely to contribute to decision making in a social context.

  11. Impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits linked to increased volume and functional connectivity within prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Korponay, Cole; Pujara, Maia; Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Critical Involvement of the Motor Cortex in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbach, David; Bishop, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the involvement of the motor cortex in Parkinson’s disease (PD), a debilitating movement disorder typified by degeneration of dopamine cells of the substantia nigra. While much of PD research has focused on the caudate/putamen, many aspects of motor cortex function are abnormal in PD patients and in animal models of PD, implicating motor cortex involvement in disease symptoms and their treatment. Herein, we discuss several lines of evidence to support this hypothesis. Dopamine depletion alters regional metabolism in the motor cortex and also reduces interneuron activity, causing a breakdown in intracortical inhibition. This leads to functional reorganization of motor maps and excessive corticostriatal synchrony when movement is initiated. Recent work suggests that electrical stimulation of the motor cortex provides a clinical benefit for PD patients. Based on extant research, we identify a number of unanswered questions regarding the motor cortex in PD and argue that a better understanding of the contribution of the motor cortex to PD symptoms will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24113323

  13. False memory for context and true memory for context similarly activate the parahippocampal cortex.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories. However, in previous studies, contextual details were also greater for true memories than false memories. Thus, such differential activity in the parahippocampal cortex may have reflected differences in contextual processing, which would challenge the visual-spatial processing view. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a source memory paradigm to investigate the functional role of the parahippocampal cortex during true memory and false memory for contextual information to distinguish between the visual-spatial processing view and the general contextual processing view. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants indicated whether each shape was previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure", "sure", or "very sure" confidence rating. The conjunction of confident true memories for context and confident false memories for context produced activity in the parahippocampal cortex, which indicates that this region is associated with contextual processing. Furthermore, the direct contrast of true memory and false memory produced activity in the visual cortex but did not produce activity in the parahippocampal cortex. The present

  14. Motor cortex is required for learning but not for executing a motor skill.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu L; Dhawale, Ashesh K; Kampff, Adam R; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2015-05-06

    Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, but its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex's established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in "tutoring" these circuits during learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. PMID:26084912

  17. Metabolic effects of perinatal asphyxia in the rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Souza, Samir Khal; Martins, Tiago Leal; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer; Silva, Roselis Silveira Martins da; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We reported previously that intrauterine asphyxia acutely affects the rat hippocampus. For this reason, the early effects of this injury were studied in the cerebral cortex, immediately after hysterectomy (acute condition) or following a recovery period at normoxia (recovery condition). Lactacidemia and glycemia were determined, as well as glycogen levels in the muscle, liver and cortex. Cortical tissue was also used to assay the ATP levels and glutamate uptake. Asphyxiated pups exhibited bluish coloring, loss of movement, sporadic gasping and hypertonia. However, the appearance of the controls and asphyxiated pups was similar at the end of the recovery period. Lactacidemia and glycemia were significantly increased by asphyxia in both the acute and recovery conditions. Concerning muscle and hepatic glycogen, the control group showed significantly higher levels than the asphyxic group in the acute condition and when compared with groups of the recovery period. In the recovery condition, the control and asphyxic groups showed similar glycogen levels. However, in the cortex, the control groups showed significantly higher glycogen levels than the asphyxic group, in both the acute and recovery conditions. In the cortical tissue, asphyxia reduced ATP levels by 70 % in the acute condition, but these levels increased significantly in asphyxic pups after the recovery period. Asphyxia did not affect glutamate transport in the cortex of both groups. Our results suggest that the cortex uses different energy resources to restore ATP after an asphyxia episode followed by a reperfusion period. This strategy could sustain the activity of essential energy-dependent mechanisms.

  18. Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Clark, L; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Aitken, M R F; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W

    2008-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear whether vmPFC is also necessary for decision-making under risk, when outcome probabilities are explicit. It is not known whether the effect of insular damage is analogous to the effect of vmPFC damage, or whether these regions contribute differentially to choice behaviour. Four groups of participants were compared on the Cambridge Gamble Task, a well-characterized measure of risky decision-making where outcome probabilities are presented explicitly, thus minimizing additional learning and working memory demands. Patients with focal, stable lesions to the vmPFC (n = 20) and the insular cortex (n = 13) were compared against healthy subjects (n = 41) and a group of lesion controls (n = 12) with damage predominantly affecting the dorsal and lateral frontal cortex. The vmPFC and insular cortex patients showed selective and distinctive disruptions of betting behaviour. VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk. In contrast, patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds of winning, consistent with a role of the insular cortex in signalling the probability of aversive outcomes. The insular group attained a lower point score on the task and experienced more 'bankruptcies'. There were no group differences in probability judgement. These data confirm the necessary role of the vmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk. Poor decision-making in clinical populations can arise via multiple routes, with functionally dissociable effects of vmPFC and

  19. Dysgranular Retrosplenial Cortex Lesions in Rats Disrupt Cross-Modal Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindley, Emma L.; Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Aggleton, John P.; Vann, Seralynne D.

    2014-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex supports navigation, with one role thought to be the integration of different spatial cue types. This hypothesis was extended by examining the integration of nonspatial cues. Rats with lesions in either the dysgranular subregion of retrosplenial cortex (area 30) or lesions in both the granular and dysgranular subregions…

  20. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.

    PubMed

    Miller, E K; Cohen, J D

    2001-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of activity along neural pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task. We review neurophysiological, neurobiological, neuroimaging, and computational studies that support this theory and discuss its implications as well as further issues to be addressed

  1. Social Distance Evaluation in Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. “close friends” “high lord”). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. PMID:19204791

  2. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex formore » each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical

  3. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex modulates fatigue after penetrating traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Matteo; Krueger, Frank; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in neurologic disorders including traumatic penetrating brain injury (PBI). Despite fatigue's prevalence and impact on quality of life, its pathophysiology is not understood. Studies on effort perception in healthy subjects, animal behavioral paradigms, and recent evidence in different clinical populations suggest that ventromedial prefrontal cortex could play a significant role in fatigue pathophysiology in neurologic conditions. Methods: We enrolled 97 PBI patients and 37 control subjects drawn from the Vietnam Head Injury Study registry. Fatigue was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and a clinician-rated instrument; lesion location and volume were evaluated on CT scans. PBI patients were divided in 3 groups according to lesion location: a nonfrontal lesion group, a ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesion (vmPFC) group, and a dorso/lateral prefrontal cortex (d/lPFC) group. Fatigue scores were compared among the 3 PBI groups and the healthy controls. Results: Individuals with vmPFC lesions were significantly more fatigued than individuals with d/lPFC lesions, individuals with nonfrontal lesions, and healthy controls, while these 3 latter groups were equally fatigued. VmPFC volume was correlated with fatigue scores, showing that the larger the lesion volume, the higher the fatigue scores. Conclusions: We demonstrated that ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesion (vmPFC) plays a critical role in penetrating brain injury–related fatigue, providing a rationale to link fatigue to different vmPFC functions such as effort and reward perception. The identification of the anatomic and cognitive basis of fatigue can contribute to developing pathophysiology-based treatments for this disabling symptom. GLOSSARY AAL = Automated Anatomic Labeling; ANOVA = analysis of variance; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; d/lPFC = dorso/lateral prefrontal cortex; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th

  4. Unravelling the development of the visual cortex: implications for plasticity and repair

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, James A

    2010-01-01

    The visual cortex comprises over 50 areas in the human, each with a specified role and distinct physiology, connectivity and cellular morphology. How these individual areas emerge during development still remains something of a mystery and, although much attention has been paid to the initial stages of the development of the visual cortex, especially its lamination, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the arealization and functional organization of this region of the brain. In recent years we have started to discover that it is the interplay of intrinsic (molecular) and extrinsic (afferent connections) cues that are responsible for the maturation of individual areas, and that there is a spatiotemporal sequence in the maturation of the primary visual cortex (striate cortex, V1) and the multiple extrastriate/association areas. Studies in both humans and non-human primates have started to highlight the specific neural underpinnings responsible for the maturation of the visual cortex, and how experience-dependent plasticity and perturbations to the visual system can impact upon its normal development. Furthermore, damage to specific nuclei of the visual cortex, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), is a common occurrence as a result of a stroke, neurotrauma, disease or hypoxia in both neonates and adults alike. However, the consequences of a focal injury differ between the immature and adult brain, with the immature brain demonstrating a higher level of functional resilience. With better techniques for examining specific molecular and connectional changes, we are now starting to uncover the mechanisms responsible for the increased neural plasticity that leads to significant recovery following injury during this early phase of life. Further advances in our understanding of postnatal development/maturation and plasticity observed during early life could offer new strategies to improve outcomes by recapitulating aspects of the developmental program

  5. What pharmacological interventions indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M.W.; Barker, G.R.I.; Aggleton, J.P.; Warburton, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Findings of pharmacological studies that have investigated the involvement of specific regions of the brain in recognition memory are reviewed. The particular emphasis of the review concerns what such studies indicate concerning the role of the perirhinal cortex in recognition memory. Most of the studies involve rats and most have investigated recognition memory for objects. Pharmacological studies provide a large body of evidence supporting the essential role of the perirhinal cortex in the acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of object recognition memory. Such studies provide increasingly detailed evidence concerning both the neurotransmitter systems and the underlying intracellular mechanisms involved in recognition memory processes. They have provided evidence in support of synaptic weakening as a major synaptic plastic process within perirhinal cortex underlying object recognition memory. They have also supplied confirmatory evidence that that there is more than one synaptic plastic process involved. The demonstrated necessity to long-term recognition memory of intracellular signalling mechanisms related to synaptic modification within perirhinal cortex establishes a central role for the region in the information storage underlying such memory. Perirhinal cortex is thereby established as an information storage site rather than solely a processing station. Pharmacological studies have also supplied new evidence concerning the detailed roles of other regions, including the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex in different types of recognition memory tasks that include a spatial or temporal component. In so doing, they have also further defined the contribution of perirhinal cortex to such tasks. To date it appears that the contribution of perirhinal cortex to associative and temporal order memory reflects that in simple object recognition memory, namely that perirhinal cortex provides information concerning objects and their prior occurrence (novelty

  6. Segregated and integrated coding of reward and punishment in the cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Juri; Tobler, Philippe N; Taira, Masato; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-06-01

    Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex. However, it is unclear whether the positive and negative affective values of monetary reward and punishment are processed by separate or common subregions of the cingulate cortex. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a free-choice task and compared cingulate activations for different levels of monetary gain and loss. Gain-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing gain, but no activation change in relation to loss) occurred mainly in the anterior part of the anterior cingulate and in the posterior cingulate cortex. Conversely, loss-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing loss, but no activation change in relation to gain) occurred between these areas, in the middle and posterior part of the anterior cingulate. Integrated coding of gain and loss (increasing activation throughout the full range, from biggest loss to biggest gain) occurred in the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate, at the border with the medial prefrontal cortex. Finally, unspecific activation increases to both gains and losses (increasing activation to increasing gains and increasing losses, possibly reflecting attention) occurred in dorsal and middle regions of the cingulate cortex. Together, these results suggest separate and common coding of monetary reward and punishment in distinct subregions of the cingulate cortex. Further meta-analysis suggested that the presently found reward- and punishment-specific areas overlapped with those processing positive and negative emotions, respectively.

  7. Task alters category representations in prefrontal but not high-level visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bugatus, Lior; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-07-15

    A central question in neuroscience is how cognitive tasks affect category representations across the human brain. Regions in lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLFPC) constitute the extended "what" pathway, which is considered instrumental for visual category processing. However, it is unknown (1) whether distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC explicitly represent category, task, or some combination of both, and (2) in what way representations across these subdivisions of the extended 'what' pathway may differ. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we scanned 12 participants using fMRI to test the effect of category and task on distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC. Results reveal that task and category modulate responses in both high-level visual regions, as well as prefrontal cortex. However, we found fundamentally different types of representations across the brain. Distributed responses in high-level visual regions are more strongly driven by category than task, and exhibit task-independent category representations. In contrast, distributed responses in prefrontal cortex are more strongly driven by task than category, and contain task-dependent category representations. Together, these findings of differential representations across the brain support a new idea that LOTC and VTC maintain stable category representations allowing efficient processing of visual information, while prefrontal cortex contains flexible representations in which category information may emerge only when relevant to the task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual cortex entrains to sign language.

    PubMed

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Lu, Jenny; Nusbaum, Howard C; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Casasanto, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality. Here, we test these proposals by examining cortical coherence to visual information in sign language. First, we develop a metric to quantify visual change over time. We find quasiperiodic fluctuations in sign language, characterized by lower frequencies than fluctuations in speech. Next, we test for entrainment of neural oscillations to visual change in sign language, using electroencephalography (EEG) in fluent speakers of American Sign Language (ASL) as they watch videos in ASL. We find significant cortical entrainment to visual oscillations in sign language <5 Hz, peaking at [Formula: see text]1 Hz. Coherence to sign is strongest over occipital and parietal cortex, in contrast to speech, where coherence is strongest over the auditory cortex. Nonsigners also show coherence to sign language, but entrainment at frontal sites is reduced relative to fluent signers. These results demonstrate that flexible cortical entrainment to language does not depend on neural processes that are specific to auditory speech perception. Low-frequency oscillatory entrainment may reflect a general cortical mechanism that maximizes sensitivity to informational peaks in time-varying signals.

  9. Numerosity processing in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Fornaciai, Michele; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G; Park, Joonkoo

    2017-08-15

    While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, we recently reported an event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrating selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortex in numerosity processing. However, which specific brain area underlies such early activation is not known. Here, we tested whether numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise specifically from the initial stages of visual cortex, aiming to localize the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the distinctive folding pattern of early occipital cortices around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are presented in the upper versus lower visual field. Dot arrays, including 8-32dots constructed systematically across various numerical and non-numerical visual attributes, were presented randomly in either the upper or lower visual hemifields. Our results show that neural responses at about 90ms post-stimulus were robustly sensitive to numerosity. Moreover, the peculiar pattern of polarity inversion of numerosity-sensitive activity at this stage suggested its generation primarily in V2 and V3. In contrast, numerosity-sensitive ERP activity at occipito-parietal channels later in the time course (210-230ms) did not show polarity inversion, indicating a subsequent processing stage in the dorsal stream. Overall, these results demonstrate that numerosity processing begins in one of the earliest stages of the cortical visual stream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is orbital volume associated with eyeball and visual cortex volume in humans?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Bridge, Holly

    2013-01-01

    In humans orbital volume increases linearly with absolute latitude. Scaling across mammals between visual system components suggests that these larger orbits should translate into larger eyes and visual cortices in high latitude humans. Larger eyes at high latitudes may be required to maintain adequate visual acuity and enhance visual sensitivity under lower light levels. To test the assumption that orbital volume can accurately index eyeball and visual cortex volumes specifically in humans. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques are employed to measure eye and orbit (n = 88) and brain and visual cortex (n = 99) volumes in living humans. Facial dimensions and foramen magnum area (a proxy for body mass) were also measured. A significant positive linear relationship was found between (i) orbital and eyeball volumes, (ii) eyeball and visual cortex grey matter volumes and (iii) different visual cortical areas, independently of overall brain volume. In humans the components of the visual system scale from orbit to eye to visual cortex volume independently of overall brain size. These findings indicate that orbit volume can index eye and visual cortex volume in humans, suggesting that larger high latitude orbits do translate into larger visual cortices.

  11. Role of motor cortex NMDA receptors in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity of behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Mazahir T.; Hernández-González, Samuel; Dogbevia, Godwin; Treviño, Mario; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex has an important role in the precise execution of learned motor responses. During motor learning, synaptic efficacy between sensory and primary motor cortical neurons is enhanced, possibly involving long-term potentiation and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-specific glutamate receptor function. To investigate whether NMDA receptor in the primary motor cortex can act as a coincidence detector for activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength and associative learning, here we generate mice with deletion of the Grin1 gene, encoding the essential NMDA receptor subunit 1 (GluN1), specifically in the primary motor cortex. The loss of NMDA receptor function impairs primary motor cortex long-term potentiation in vivo. Importantly, it impairs the synaptic efficacy between the primary somatosensory and primary motor cortices and significantly reduces classically conditioned eyeblink responses. Furthermore, compared with wild-type littermates, mice lacking primary motor cortex show slower learning in Skinner-box tasks. Thus, primary motor cortex NMDA receptors are necessary for activity-dependent synaptic strengthening and associative learning. PMID:23978820

  12. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Jarome, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The extinction of delay fear conditioning relies on a neural circuit that has received much attention and is relatively well defined. Whether this established circuit also supports the extinction of more complex associations, however, is unclear. Trace fear conditioning is a better model of complex relational learning, yet the circuit that supports extinction of this memory has received very little attention. Recent research has indicated that trace fear extinction requires a different neural circuit than delay extinction; trace extinction requires the participation of the retrosplenial cortex, but not the amygdala, as noted in a previous study. Here, we tested the roles of the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace and delay fear extinction by blocking NMDA receptors during extinction learning. We found that the prelimbic cortex is necessary for trace, but not for delay fear extinction, whereas the infralimbic cortex is involved in both types of extinction. These results are consistent with the idea that trace fear associations require plasticity in multiple cortical areas for successful extinction. Further, the infralimbic cortex appears to play a role in extinction regardless of whether the animal was initially trained in trace or delay conditioning. Together, our results provide new information about how the neural circuits supporting trace and delay fear extinction differ. PMID:25512576

  13. Diazepam reduces excitability of amygdala and further influences auditory cortex following sodium salicylate treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Liu, Junxiu; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-12-01

    Diazepam can reduce the excitability of lateral amygdala and eventually suppress the excitability of the auditory cortex in rats following salicylate treatment, indicating the regulating effect of lateral amygdala to the auditory cortex in the tinnitus procedure. To study the spontaneous firing rates (SFR) of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala regulated by diazepam in the tinnitus rat model induced by sodium salicylate. This study first created a tinnitus rat modal induced by sodium salicylate, and recorded SFR of both auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Then diazepam was intraperitoneally injected and the SFR changes of lateral amygdala recorded. Finally, diazepam was microinjected on lateral amygdala and the SFR changes of the auditory cortex recorded. Both SFRs of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala increased after salicylate treatment. SFR of lateral amygdala decreased after intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Microinjecting diazepam to lateral amygdala decreased SFR of the auditory cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally.

  14. Neural coding in barrel cortex during whisker-guided locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Sofroniew, Nicholas James; Vlasov, Yurii A; Hires, Samuel Andrew; Freeman, Jeremy; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Animals seek out relevant information by moving through a dynamic world, but sensory systems are usually studied under highly constrained and passive conditions that may not probe important dimensions of the neural code. Here, we explored neural coding in the barrel cortex of head-fixed mice that tracked walls with their whiskers in tactile virtual reality. Optogenetic manipulations revealed that barrel cortex plays a role in wall-tracking. Closed-loop optogenetic control of layer 4 neurons can substitute for whisker-object contact to guide behavior resembling wall tracking. We measured neural activity using two-photon calcium imaging and extracellular recordings. Neurons were tuned to the distance between the animal snout and the contralateral wall, with monotonic, unimodal, and multimodal tuning curves. This rich representation of object location in the barrel cortex could not be predicted based on simple stimulus-response relationships involving individual whiskers and likely emerges within cortical circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12559.001 PMID:26701910

  15. Adaptation to sensory input tunes visual cortex to criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Clawson, Wesley P.; Pobst, Jeff; Karimipanah, Yahya; Wright, Nathaniel C.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    A long-standing hypothesis at the interface of physics and neuroscience is that neural networks self-organize to the critical point of a phase transition, thereby optimizing aspects of sensory information processing. This idea is partially supported by strong evidence for critical dynamics observed in the cerebral cortex, but the impact of sensory input on these dynamics is largely unknown. Thus, the foundations of this hypothesis--the self-organization process and how it manifests during strong sensory input--remain unstudied experimentally. Here we show in visual cortex and in a computational model that strong sensory input initially elicits cortical network dynamics that are not critical, but adaptive changes in the network rapidly tune the system to criticality. This conclusion is based on observations of multifaceted scaling laws predicted to occur at criticality. Our findings establish sensory adaptation as a self-organizing mechanism that maintains criticality in visual cortex during sensory information processing.

  16. Oscillations in human orbitofrontal cortex during even chance gambling.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kevin; Kerr, Matthew S D; Park, Hyun-Joo; Thompson, Susan; Bulacio, Juan; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Sarma, Sridevi V; Gale, John

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating value and risk as well as comparing expected and actual outcomes is the crux of decision making and reinforcement based learning. In this study, we record from stereotactic electroencephalograph depth electrodes in a human subject in numerous areas in the brain. We focus on the lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex while they perform a gambling task involving betting on a high card. Preliminary time-frequency analysis shows modulations in the 5-15 Hz band that is well synced to the different events of the task. These oscillations increase in both high betting scenarios as well as in losing scenarios though their effects cannot be decoupled. However, the activity between lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex is a lot more homogenous than previously seen. Additionally, the timing of some of these oscillations occurs before even a response in the visual cortex. This evidence hints that these areas encode priors that influence our decision in future statistically ambiguous scenarios.

  17. Cholinergic neurons and fibres in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Parnavelas, J G; Kelly, W; Franke, E; Eckenstein, F

    1986-06-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, was localized immunocytochemically in neurons and fibres in the rat visual cortex using a monoclonal antibody. ChAT-labelled cells were non-pyramidal neurons, primarily of the bipolar form, distributed in layers II through VI but concentrated in layers II & III. Their perikarya contained a large nucleus and a small amount of perinuclear cytoplasm. The somata and dendrites of all labelled cells received Gray's type I and type II synapses. ChAT-stained axons formed a dense and diffuse network throughout the visual cortex and particularly in layer V. Electron microscopy revealed that the great majority formed type II synaptic contacts with dendrites of various sizes, unlabelled non-pyramidal somata and, on a few occasions, with ChAT-labelled cells. However, a very small number of terminals appeared to form type I synaptic contacts. This study describes the morphological organization of the cholinergic system in the visual cortex, the function of which has been under extensive investigation.

  18. Evidence for Pitch Chroma Mapping in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Briley, Paul M.; Breakey, Charlotte; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Some areas in auditory cortex respond preferentially to sounds that elicit pitch, such as musical sounds or voiced speech. This study used human electroencephalography (EEG) with an adaptation paradigm to investigate how pitch is represented within these areas and, in particular, whether the representation reflects the physical or perceptual dimensions of pitch. Physically, pitch corresponds to a single monotonic dimension: the repetition rate of the stimulus waveform. Perceptually, however, pitch has to be described with 2 dimensions, a monotonic, “pitch height,” and a cyclical, “pitch chroma,” dimension, to account for the similarity of the cycle of notes (c, d, e, etc.) across different octaves. The EEG adaptation effect mirrored the cyclicality of the pitch chroma dimension, suggesting that auditory cortex contains a representation of pitch chroma. Source analysis indicated that the centroid of this pitch chroma representation lies somewhat anterior and lateral to primary auditory cortex. PMID:22918980

  19. The Embryonic Septum and Ventral Pallium, New Sources of Olfactory Cortex Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Carlos, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory cortex is a complex structure located along the rostro-caudal extension of the ventrolateral prosencephalon, which is divided into several anatomically and functionally distinct areas: the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, amygdaloid olfactory nuclei, and the more caudal entorhinal cortex. Multiple forebrain progenitor domains contribute to the cellular diversity of the olfactory cortex, which is invaded simultaneously by cells originating in distinct germinal areas in the dorsal and ventral forebrain. Using a combination of dye labeling techniques, we identified two novel areas that contribute cells to the developing olfactory cortices, the septum and the ventral pallium, from which cells migrate along a radial and then a tangential path. We characterized these cell populations by comparing their expression of calretinin, calbindin, reelin and Tbr1 with that of other olfactory cell populations. PMID:22984546

  20. Serial and Parallel Processing in the Primate Auditory Cortex Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Recanzone, Gregg H.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2009-01-01

    Over a decade ago it was proposed that the primate auditory cortex is organized in a serial and parallel manner in which there is a dorsal stream processing spatial information and a ventral stream processing non-spatial information. This organization is similar to the “what”/“where” processing of the primate visual cortex. This review will examine several key studies, primarily electrophysiological, that have tested this hypothesis. We also review several human imaging studies that have attempted to define these processing streams in the human auditory cortex. While there is good evidence that spatial information is processed along a particular series of cortical areas, the support for a non-spatial processing stream is not as strong. Why this should be the case and how to better test this hypothesis is also discussed. PMID:19686779

  1. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  2. Increased glutamate-stimulated norepinephrine release from prefrontal cortex slices of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Russell, V A; Wiggins, T M

    2000-12-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have behavioral characteristics (hyperactivity, impulsiveness, poorly sustained attention) similar to the behavioral disturbances of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have previously shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems are disturbed in the prefrontal cortex of SHR compared to their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. It was of interest to determine whether the underlying neural circuits that use glutamate as a neurotransmitter function normally in the prefrontal cortex of SHR. An in vitro superfusion technique was used to demonstrate that glutamate caused a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]norepinephrine release from rat prefrontal cortex slices. Glutamate (100 microM and 1 mM) caused significantly greater release of norepinephrine from prefrontal cortex slices of SHR than from control slices. The effect of glutamate was not mediated by NMDA receptors, since NMDA (10 and 100 microM) did not exert any effect on norepinephrine release and MK-801 (10 microM) did not antagonize the effect of 100 microM glutamate. These results demonstrate that glutamate stimulates norepinephrine release from rat prefrontal cortex slices and that this increase is enhanced in SHR. The results are consistent with the suggestion that the noradrenergic system is overactive in prefrontal cortex of SHR, the animal model for ADHD.

  3. A Novel Role for the Rat Retrosplenial Cortex in Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Hindley, Emma L.; Haddon, Josephine E.; Vann, Seralynne D.; Aggleton, John P.

    2014-01-01

    By virtue of its frontal and hippocampal connections, the retrosplenial cortex is uniquely placed to support cognition. Here, we tested whether the retrosplenial cortex is required for frontal tasks analogous to the Stroop Test, i.e., for the ability to select between conflicting responses and inhibit responding to task-irrelevant cues. Rats first…

  4. Hippocampus, Perirhinal Cortex, and Complex Visual Discriminations in Rats and Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Jena B.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Velu, Priya D.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Structures in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, are known to be essential for the formation of long-term memory. Recent animal and human studies have investigated whether perirhinal cortex might also be important for visual perception. In our study, using a simultaneous oddity discrimination task, rats with…

  5. Default mode network in childhood autism: posteromedial cortex heterogeneity and relationship with social deficits.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Charles J; Uddin, Lucina Q; Supekar, Kaustubh; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Menon, Vinod

    2013-08-01

    The default mode network (DMN), a brain system anchored in the posteromedial cortex, has been identified as underconnected in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, to date there have been no attempts to characterize this network and its involvement in mediating social deficits in children with ASD. Furthermore, the functionally heterogeneous profile of the posteromedial cortex raises questions regarding how altered connectivity manifests in specific functional modules within this brain region in children with ASD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an anatomically informed approach were used to investigate the functional connectivity of the DMN in 20 children with ASD and 19 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. Multivariate regression analyses were used to test whether altered patterns of connectivity are predictive of social impairment severity. Compared with TD children, children with ASD demonstrated hyperconnectivity of the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices with predominately medial and anterolateral temporal cortex. In contrast, the precuneus in ASD children demonstrated hypoconnectivity with visual cortex, basal ganglia, and locally within the posteromedial cortex. Aberrant posterior cingulate cortex hyperconnectivity was linked with severity of social impairments in ASD, whereas precuneus hypoconnectivity was unrelated to social deficits. Consistent with previous work in healthy adults, a functionally heterogeneous profile of connectivity within the posteromedial cortex in both TD and ASD children was observed. This work links hyperconnectivity of DMN-related circuits to the core social deficits in young children with ASD and highlights fundamental aspects of posteromedial cortex heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cerebellar modulation of frontal cortex dopamine efflux in mice: relevance to autism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, Guy; Goldowitz, Daniel; Heck, Detlef H; Blaha, Charles D

    2008-07-01

    Cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies have been commonly reported in schizophrenia, autism, and other developmental disorders. Whether there is a relationship between prefrontal and cerebellar pathologies is unknown. Using fixed potential amperometry, dopamine (DA) efflux evoked by cerebellar or, dentate nucleus electrical stimulation (50 Hz, 200 muA) was recorded in prefrontal cortex of urethane anesthetized lurcher (Lc/+) mice with 100% loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and wildtype (+/+) control mice. Cerebellar stimulation with 25 and 100 pulses evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux in +/+ mice that persisted for 12 and 25 s poststimulation, respectively. In contrast, 25 pulse cerebellar stimulation failed to evoke prefrontal cortex DA efflux in Lc/+ mice indicating a dependency on cerebellar Purkinje cell outputs. Dentate nucleus stimulation (25 pulses) evoked a comparable but briefer (baseline recovery within 7 s) increase in prefrontal cortex DA efflux compared to similar cerebellar stimulation in +/+ mice. However, in Lc/+ mice 25 pulse dentate nucleus evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux was attenuated by 60% with baseline recovery within 4 s suggesting that dentate nucleus outputs to prefrontal cortex remain partially functional. DA reuptake blockade enhanced 100 pulse stimulation evoked prefrontal cortex responses, while serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake blockade were without effect indicating the specificity of the amperometric recordings to DA. Results provide neurochemical evidence that the cerebellum can modulate DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings may explain why cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies co-occur, and may provide a mechanism that accounts for the diversity of symptoms common to multiple developmental disorders.

  7. Cerebellar Modulation of Frontal Cortex Dopamine Efflux in Mice: Relevance to Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    MITTLEMAN, GUY; GOLDOWITZ, DANIEL; HECK, DETLEF H.; BLAHA, CHARLES D.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies have been commonly reported in schizophrenia, autism, and other developmental disorders. Whether there is a relationship between prefrontal and cerebellar pathologies is unknown. Using fixed potential amperometry, dopamine (DA) efflux evoked by cerebellar or, dentate nucleus electrical stimulation (50 Hz, 200 μA) was recorded in prefrontal cortex of urethane anesthetized lurcher (Lc/+) mice with 100% loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and wildtype (+/+) control mice. Cerebellar stimulation with 25 and 100 pulses evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux in +/+ mice that persisted for 12 and 25 s poststimulation, respectively. In contrast, 25 pulse cerebellar stimulation failed to evoke prefrontal cortex DA efflux in Lc/+ mice indicating a dependency on cerebellar Purkinje cell outputs. Dentate nucleus stimulation (25 pulses) evoked a comparable but briefer (baseline recovery within 7 s) increase in prefrontal cortex DA efflux compared to similar cerebellar stimulation in +/+ mice. However, in Lc/+ mice 25 pulse dentate nucleus evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux was attenuated by 60% with baseline recovery within 4 s suggesting that dentate nucleus outputs to prefrontal cortex remain partially functional. DA reuptake blockade enhanced 100 pulse stimulation evoked pre-frontal cortex responses, while serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake blockade were without effect indicating the specificity of the amperometric recordings to DA. Results provide neurochemical evidence that the cerebellum can modulate DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings may explain why cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies co-occur, and may provide a mechanism that accounts for the diversity of symptoms common to multiple developmental disorders. PMID:18435424

  8. Recognition Alters the Spatial Pattern of fMRI Activation in Early Retinotopic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vul, E.; Kanwisher, N.

    2010-01-01

    Early retinotopic cortex has traditionally been viewed as containing a veridical representation of the low-level properties of the image, not imbued by high-level interpretation and meaning. Yet several recent results indicate that neural representations in early retinotopic cortex reflect not just the sensory properties of the image, but also the perceived size and brightness of image regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging pattern analyses to ask whether the representation of an object in early retinotopic cortex changes when the object is recognized compared with when the same stimulus is presented but not recognized. Our data confirmed this hypothesis: the pattern of response in early retinotopic visual cortex to a two-tone “Mooney” image of an object was more similar to the response to the full grayscale photo version of the same image when observers knew what the two-tone image represented than when they did not. Further, in a second experiment, high-level interpretations actually overrode bottom-up stimulus information, such that the pattern of response in early retinotopic cortex to an identified two-tone image was more similar to the response to the photographic version of that stimulus than it was to the response to the identical two-tone image when it was not identified. Our findings are consistent with prior results indicating that perceived size and brightness affect representations in early retinotopic visual cortex and, further, show that even higher-level information—knowledge of object identity—also affects the representation of an object in early retinotopic cortex. PMID:20071627

  9. How do auditory cortex neurons represent communication sounds?

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Quentin; Huetz, Chloé; Gourévitch, Boris; Laudanski, Jonathan; Occelli, Florian; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    A major goal in auditory neuroscience is to characterize how communication sounds are represented at the cortical level. The present review aims at investigating the role of auditory cortex in the processing of speech, bird songs and other vocalizations, which all are spectrally and temporally highly structured sounds. Whereas earlier studies have simply looked for neurons exhibiting higher firing rates to particular conspecific vocalizations over their modified, artificially synthesized versions, more recent studies determined the coding capacity of temporal spike patterns, which are prominent in primary and non-primary areas (and also in non-auditory cortical areas). In several cases, this information seems to be correlated with the behavioral performance of human or animal subjects, suggesting that spike-timing based coding strategies might set the foundations of our perceptive abilities. Also, it is now clear that the responses of auditory cortex neurons are highly nonlinear and that their responses to natural stimuli cannot be predicted from their responses to artificial stimuli such as moving ripples and broadband noises. Since auditory cortex neurons cannot follow rapid fluctuations of the vocalizations envelope, they only respond at specific time points during communication sounds, which can serve as temporal markers for integrating the temporal and spectral processing taking place at subcortical relays. Thus, the temporal sparse code of auditory cortex neurons can be considered as a first step for generating high level representations of communication sounds independent of the acoustic characteristic of these sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    PubMed

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Evolution and development of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Zoltán; Kaas, Jon H; de Carlos, Juan A; Hevner, Robert F; Lein, Ed; Němec, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Comparative developmental studies of the mammalian brain can identify key changes that can generate the diverse structures and functions of the brain. We have studied how the neocortex of early mammals became organized into functionally distinct areas, and how the current level of cortical cellular and laminar specialization arose from the simpler premammalian cortex. We demonstrate the neocortical organization in early mammals, which helps to elucidate how the large, complex human brain evolved from a long line of ancestors. The radial and tangential enlargement of the cortex was driven by changes in the patterns of cortical neurogenesis, including alterations in the proportions of distinct progenitor types. Some cortical cell populations travel to the cortex through tangential migration whereas others migrate radially. A number of recent studies have begun to characterize the chick, mouse and human and nonhuman primate cortical transcriptome to help us understand how gene expression relates to the development and anatomical and functional organization of the adult neocortex. Although all mammalian forms share the basic layout of cortical areas, the areal proportions and distributions are driven by distinct evolutionary pressures acting on sensory and motor experiences during the individual ontogenies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects strategic decision-making.

    PubMed

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Kahn, René S; Sanfey, Alan G; Aleman, André

    2005-11-07

    Although decision-making is typically seen as a rational process, emotions play a role in tasks that include unfairness. Recently, activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during offers experienced as unfair in the Ultimatum Game was suggested to subserve goal maintenance in this task. This is restricted to correlational evidence, however, and it remains unclear whether the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is crucial for strategic decision-making. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in order to investigate the causal role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in strategic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. The results showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex resulted in an altered decision-making strategy compared with sham stimulation. We conclude that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is causally implicated in strategic decision-making in healthy human study participants.

  13. Distributed coding of actual and hypothetical outcomes in the orbital and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Lee, Daeyeol

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Knowledge about hypothetical outcomes from unchosen actions is beneficial only when such outcomes can be correctly attributed to specific actions. Here, we show that during a simulated rock-paper-scissors game, rhesus monkeys can adjust their choice behaviors according to both actual and hypothetical outcomes from their chosen and unchosen actions, respectively. In addition, neurons in both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex encoded the signals related to actual and hypothetical outcomes immediately after they were revealed to the animal. Moreover, compared to the neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex, those in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were more likely to change their activity according to the hypothetical outcomes from specific actions. Conjunctive and parallel coding of multiple actions and their outcomes in the prefrontal cortex might enhance the efficiency of reinforcement learning and also contribute to their context-dependent memory. PMID:21609828

  14. The right parietal cortex and time perception: back to Critchley and the Zeitraffer phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Iona; Cowey, Alan; Walsh, Vincent

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in time perception by temporarily disrupting normal functioning in this region, in subjects making prospective judgements of time or pitch. Disruption of the right posterior parietal cortex significantly slowed reaction times when making time, but not pitch, judgements. Similar interference with the left parietal cortex and control stimulation over the vertex did not significantly change performance on either pitch or time tasks. The results show that the information processing necessary for temporal judgements involves the parietal cortex, probably to optimise spatiotemporal accuracy in voluntary action. The results are in agreement with a recent neuroimaging study and are discussed with regard to a psychological model of temporal processing and a recent proposal that time is part of a parietal cortex system for encoding magnitude information relevant for action.

  15. Glucocorticoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex regulate stress-evoked dopamine efflux and aspects of executive function.

    PubMed

    Butts, Kelly A; Weinberg, Joanne; Young, Allan H; Phillips, Anthony G

    2011-11-08

    Enhanced dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex is a well-documented response to acute stress. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this response is unknown. Using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrate that blocking glucocorticoid receptors locally within the rat prefrontal cortex results in a reduction in stress-evoked dopamine efflux. In contrast, blocking glucocorticoid receptors in the ventral tegmental area did not affect stress-evoked dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, local administration of corticosterone into the prefrontal cortex increased prefrontal dopamine efflux. The functional impact of enhanced dopamine efflux evoked by acute stress was demonstrated using a cognitive task dependent on the prefrontal cortex and sensitive to impairment in working memory. Notably, stress-induced impairments in cognition were attenuated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these data demonstrate that glucocorticoids act locally within the prefrontal cortex to modulate mesocortical dopamine efflux leading to the cognitive impairments observed during acute stress.

  16. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  17. GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Nanoscale Patterned Sapphire Substrates with Void-Embedded Cortex-Like Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2011-09-01

    High-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emitting wavelength of 438 nm were demonstrated utilizing nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates with void-embedded cortex-like nanostructures (NPSS-VECN). Unlike the previous nanopatterned sapphire substrates, the presented substrate has a new morphology that can not only improve the crystalline quality of GaN epilayers but also generate a void-embedded nanostructural layer to enhance light extraction. Under a driving current of 20 mA, the external quantum efficiency of an LED with NPSS-VECN is enhanced by 2.4-fold compared with that of the conventional LED. Moreover, the output powers of two devices respectively are 33.1 and 13.9 mW.

  18. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Olulade, O A; Flowers, D L; Napoliello, E M; Eden, G F

    2015-01-01

    fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called "visual word form area", VWFA), is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009). Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007). Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009). Building on these studies, we here (1) investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2) compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3) examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We report absence

  19. Anterior Insular Cortex and Emotional Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Hof, Patrick R.; Friston, Karl J.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the foundation for a role of the human anterior insular cortex (AIC) in emotional awareness, defined as the conscious experience of emotions. We first introduce the neuroanatomical features of AIC and existing findings on emotional awareness. Using empathy, the awareness and understanding of other people’s emotional states, as a test case, we then present evidence to demonstrate: 1) AIC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are commonly coactivated as revealed by a meta-analysis, 2) AIC is functionally dissociable from ACC, 3) AIC integrates stimulus-driven and top-down information, and 4) AIC is necessary for emotional awareness. We propose a model in which AIC serves two major functions: integrating bottom-up interoceptive signals with top-down predictions to generate a current awareness state and providing descending predictions to visceral systems that provide a point of reference for autonomic reflexes. We argue that AIC is critical and necessary for emotional awareness. PMID:23749500

  20. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses

    PubMed Central

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category and feature selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. PMID:25102559

  1. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intracortical microstimulation of human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Flesher, Sharlene N; Collinger, Jennifer L; Foldes, Stephen T; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Downey, John E; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Bensmaia, Sliman J; Schwartz, Andrew B; Boninger, Michael L; Gaunt, Robert A

    2016-10-19

    Intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex offers the potential for creating a sensory neuroprosthesis to restore tactile sensation. Whereas animal studies have suggested that both cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts can be evoked using this approach, the perceptual quality of the stimuli cannot be measured in these experiments. We show that microstimulation within the hand area of the somatosensory cortex of a person with long-term spinal cord injury evokes tactile sensations perceived as originating from locations on the hand and that cortical stimulation sites are organized according to expected somatotopic principles. Many of these percepts exhibit naturalistic characteristics (including feelings of pressure), can be evoked at low stimulation amplitudes, and remain stable for months. Further, modulating the stimulus amplitude grades the perceptual intensity of the stimuli, suggesting that intracortical microstimulation could be used to convey information about the contact location and pressure necessary to perform dexterous hand movements associated with object manipulation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Reduced dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugman, André; Gadelha, Ary; Assunção, Idaiane; Sato, João; Ota, Vanessa K; Rocha, Deyvis L; Mari, Jair J; Belangero, Sintia I; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa; Jackowski, Andrea P

    2013-08-01

    Treatment resistance affects up to one third of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). A better understanding of its biological underlying processes could improve treatment. The aim of this study was to compare cortical thickness between non-resistant SCZ (NR-SCZ), treatment-resistant SCZ (TR-SCZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). Structural MRI scans were obtained from 3 groups of individuals: 61 treatment resistant SCZ individuals, 67 non-resistant SCZ and 80 healthy controls. Images were analyzed using cortical surface modelling (implemented in freesurfer package) to identify group differences in cortical thickness. Statistical significant differences were identified using Monte-Carlo simulation method with a corrected p-cluster<0.01. Patients in the TR-SCZ group showed a widespread reduction in cortical thickness in frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions bilaterally. NR-SCZ group had reduced cortex in two regions (left superior frontal cortex and left caudal middle frontal cortex). TR-SCZ group also showed decreased thickness in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when compared with patients from NR-SCZ group. The reduction in cortical thickness in DLPFC indicates a more severe form of the disease or a specific finding for this group. Alterations in this region should be explored as a putative marker for treatment resistance. Prospective studies, with individuals being followed from first episode psychosis until refractoriness is diagnosed, are needed to clarify these hypotheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Patrick; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  5. Cocaine cue–induced dopamine release in the human prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Michele S.; Fotros, Aryandokht; Gravel, Paul; Casey, Kevin F.; Larcher, Kevin; Verhaeghe, Jeroen A.J.; Cox, Sylvia M.L.; Reader, Andrew J.; Dagher, Alain; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that drug-related cues can induce dopamine (DA) release in the striatum of substance abusers. Whether these same cues provoke DA release in the human prefrontal cortex remains unknown. Methods We used high-resolution positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride to measure cortical and striatal DA D2/3 receptor availability in the presence versus absence of drug-related cues in volunteers with current cocaine dependence. Results Twelve individuals participated in our study. Among participants reporting a craving response (9 of 12), exposure to the cocaine cues significantly decreased [18F]fallypride binding potential (BPND) values in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. In all 12 participants, individual differences in the magnitude of craving correlated with BPND changes in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and striatum. Consistent with the presence of autoreceptors on mesostriatal but not mesocortical DA cell bodies, midbrain BPND values were significantly correlated with changes in BPND within the striatum but not the cortex. The lower the midbrain D2 receptor levels, the greater the striatal change in BPND and self-reported craving. Limitations Limitations of this study include its modest sample size, with only 2 female participants. Newer tracers might have greater sensitivity to cortical DA release. Conclusion In people with cocaine use disorders, the presentation of drug-related cues induces DA release within cortical and striatal regions. Both effects are associated with craving, but only the latter is regulated by midbrain autoreceptors. Together, the results suggest that cortical and subcortical DA responses might both influence drug-focused incentive motivational states, but with separate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26900792

  6. Cocaine cue-induced dopamine release in the human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Milella, Michele S; Fotros, Aryandokht; Gravel, Paul; Casey, Kevin F; Larcher, Kevin; Verhaeghe, Jeroen A J; Cox, Sylvia M L; Reader, Andrew J; Dagher, Alain; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that drug-related cues can induce dopamine (DA) release in the striatum of substance abusers. Whether these same cues provoke DA release in the human prefrontal cortex remains unknown. We used high-resolution positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride to measure cortical and striatal DA D2/3 receptor availability in the presence versus absence of drug-related cues in volunteers with current cocaine dependence. Twelve individuals participated in our study. Among participants reporting a craving response (9 of 12), exposure to the cocaine cues significantly decreased [18F]fallypride binding potential (BPND) values in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. In all 12 participants, individual differences in the magnitude of craving correlated with BPND changes in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and striatum. Consistent with the presence of autoreceptors on mesostriatal but not mesocortical DA cell bodies, midbrain BPND values were significantly correlated with changes in BPND within the striatum but not the cortex. The lower the midbrain D2 receptor levels, the greater the striatal change in BPND and self-reported craving. Limitations of this study include its modest sample size, with only 2 female participants. Newer tracers might have greater sensitivity to cortical DA release. In people with cocaine use disorders, the presentation of drug-related cues induces DA release within cortical and striatal regions. Both effects are associated with craving, but only the latter is regulated by midbrain autoreceptors. Together, the results suggest that cortical and subcortical DA responses might both influence drug-focused incentive motivational states, but with separate regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Task-specific reorganization of the auditory cortex in deaf humans

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Łukasz; Zimmermann, Maria; Mostowski, Piotr; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The principles that guide large-scale cortical reorganization remain unclear. In the blind, several visual regions preserve their task specificity; ventral visual areas, for example, become engaged in auditory and tactile object-recognition tasks. It remains open whether task-specific reorganization is unique to the visual cortex or, alternatively, whether this kind of plasticity is a general principle applying to other cortical areas. Auditory areas can become recruited for visual and tactile input in the deaf. Although nonhuman data suggest that this reorganization might be task specific, human evidence has been lacking. Here we enrolled 15 deaf and 15 hearing adults into an functional MRI experiment during which they discriminated between temporally complex sequences of stimuli (rhythms). Both deaf and hearing subjects performed the task visually, in the central visual field. In addition, hearing subjects performed the same task in the auditory modality. We found that the visual task robustly activated the auditory cortex in deaf subjects, peaking in the posterior–lateral part of high-level auditory areas. This activation pattern was strikingly similar to the pattern found in hearing subjects performing the auditory version of the task. Although performing the visual task in deaf subjects induced an increase in functional connectivity between the auditory cortex and the dorsal visual cortex, no such effect was found in hearing subjects. We conclude that in deaf humans the high-level auditory cortex switches its input modality from sound to vision but preserves its task-specific activation pattern independent of input modality. Task-specific reorganization thus might be a general principle that guides cortical plasticity in the brain. PMID:28069964

  8. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schiffler, Patrick; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner. PMID:28729829

  9. Bipolar electrocoagulation on cortex after AVMs lesionectomy for seizure control.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yong; Wang, Rong; Yang, Lijun; Bai, Qin; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong

    2011-01-01

    The findings of previous studies remain controversial on the optimal management required for effective seizure control after surgical excision of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We evaluated the efficacy of additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the electrically positive cortex guided by intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) for controlling cerebral AVMs-related epilepsy. Sixty consecutive patients with seizure due to cerebral AVMs, who underwent surgical excision of cerebral AVMs and intraoperative ECoG, were assessed. The AVMs and surrounding hemosiderin stained tissue were completely removed, and bipolar electrocoagulation was applied on the surrounding cerebral cortex where epileptic discharges were monitored via intraoperative ECoG. Patients were followed up at three to six months after the surgery and then annually. We evaluated seizure outcome by using Engel's classification and postoperative complications. Forty-nine patients (81.6%) were detected of epileptic discharges before and after AVMs excision. These patients underwent the removal of AVMs plus bipolar electrocoagulation on spike-positive site cortex. After electrocoagulation, 45 patients' epileptic discharges disappeared, while four obviously diminished. Fifty-five of 60 patients (91.7%) had follow-up lasting at least 22 months (mean 51.1 months; range 22-93 months). Determined by the Engel Seizure Outcome Scale, 39 patients (70.9%) were Class I, seven (12.7%) Class II, five (9.0%) Class III, and four (7.2%) Class IV. Even after the complete removal of AVM and surrounding gliotic and hemosiderin stained tissue, a high-frequency residual spike remained on the surrounding cerebral cortex. Effective surgical seizure control can be achieved by carrying out additional bipolar electrocoagulation on the cortex guided by the intraoperative ECoG.

  10. Task-specific reorganization of the auditory cortex in deaf humans.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Zimmermann, Maria; Mostowski, Piotr; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-24

    The principles that guide large-scale cortical reorganization remain unclear. In the blind, several visual regions preserve their task specificity; ventral visual areas, for example, become engaged in auditory and tactile object-recognition tasks. It remains open whether task-specific reorganization is unique to the visual cortex or, alternatively, whether this kind of plasticity is a general principle applying to other cortical areas. Auditory areas can become recruited for visual and tactile input in the deaf. Although nonhuman data suggest that this reorganization might be task specific, human evidence has been lacking. Here we enrolled 15 deaf and 15 hearing adults into an functional MRI experiment during which they discriminated between temporally complex sequences of stimuli (rhythms). Both deaf and hearing subjects performed the task visually, in the central visual field. In addition, hearing subjects performed the same task in the auditory modality. We found that the visual task robustly activated the auditory cortex in deaf subjects, peaking in the posterior-lateral part of high-level auditory areas. This activation pattern was strikingly similar to the pattern found in hearing subjects performing the auditory version of the task. Although performing the visual task in deaf subjects induced an increase in functional connectivity between the auditory cortex and the dorsal visual cortex, no such effect was found in hearing subjects. We conclude that in deaf humans the high-level auditory cortex switches its input modality from sound to vision but preserves its task-specific activation pattern independent of input modality. Task-specific reorganization thus might be a general principle that guides cortical plasticity in the brain.

  11. Evaluating the Role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Parietal Cortex in Memory-Guided Attention With Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Ping; Wan, Chaoyang; Jin, Zhenlan; Zhang, Junjun; Li, Ling

    2018-01-01

    The contents of working memory (WM) can affect the subsequent visual search performance, resulting in either beneficial or cost effects, when the visual search target is included in or spatially dissociated from the memorized contents, respectively. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) have been suggested to be associated with the congruence/incongruence effects of the WM content and the visual search target. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the PPC in controlling the interaction between WM and attention during a visual search, using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Subjects maintained a color in WM while performing a search task. The color cue contained the target (valid), the distractor (invalid) or did not reappear in the search display (neutral). Concurrent stimulation with the search onset showed that relative to rTMS over the vertex, rTMS over rPPC and rDLPFC further decreased the search reaction time, when the memory cue contained the search target. The results suggest that the rDLPFC and the rPPC are critical for controlling WM biases in human visual attention.

  12. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Language networks in anophthalmia: maintained hierarchy of processing in 'visual' cortex.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate E; Cowey, Alan; Alexander, Iona; Filippini, Nicola; Kennedy, James M; Smith, Stephen M; Ragge, Nicola; Bridge, Holly

    2012-05-01

    Imaging studies in blind subjects have consistently shown that sensory and cognitive tasks evoke activity in the occipital cortex, which is normally visual. The precise areas involved and degree of activation are dependent upon the cause and age of onset of blindness. Here, we investigated the cortical language network at rest and during an auditory covert naming task in five bilaterally anophthalmic subjects, who have never received visual input. When listening to auditory definitions and covertly retrieving words, these subjects activated lateral occipital cortex bilaterally in addition to the language areas activated in sighted controls. This activity was significantly greater than that present in a control condition of listening to reversed speech. The lateral occipital cortex was also recruited into a left-lateralized resting-state network that usually comprises anterior and posterior language areas. Levels of activation to the auditory naming and reversed speech conditions did not differ in the calcarine (striate) cortex. This primary 'visual' cortex was not recruited to the left-lateralized resting-state network and showed high interhemispheric correlation of activity at rest, as is typically seen in unimodal cortical areas. In contrast, the interhemispheric correlation of resting activity in extrastriate areas was reduced in anophthalmia to the level of cortical areas that are heteromodal, such as the inferior frontal gyrus. Previous imaging studies in the congenitally blind show that primary visual cortex is activated in higher-order tasks, such as language and memory to a greater extent than during more basic sensory processing, resulting in a reversal of the normal hierarchy of functional organization across 'visual' areas. Our data do not support such a pattern of organization in anophthalmia. Instead, the patterns of activity during task and the functional connectivity at rest are consistent with the known hierarchy of processing in these areas

  14. Columnar Segregation of Magnocellular and Parvocellular Streams in Human Extrastriate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Magnocellular versus parvocellular (M-P) streams are fundamental to the organization of macaque visual cortex. Segregated, paired M-P streams extend from retina through LGN into V1. The M stream extends further into area V5/MT, and parts of V2. However, elsewhere in visual cortex, it remains unclear whether M-P-derived information (1) becomes intermixed or (2) remains segregated in M-P-dominated columns and neurons. Here we tested whether M-P streams exist in extrastriate cortical columns, in 8 human subjects (4 female). We acquired high-resolution fMRI at high field (7T), testing for M- and P-influenced columns within each of four cortical areas (V2, V3, V3A, and V4), based on known functional distinctions in M-P streams in macaque: (1) color versus luminance, (2) binocular disparity, (3) luminance contrast sensitivity, (4) peak spatial frequency, and (5) color/spatial interactions. Additional measurements of resting state activity (eyes closed) tested for segregated functional connections between these columns. We found M- and P-like functions and connections within and between segregated cortical columns in V2, V3, and (in most experiments) area V4. Area V3A was dominated by the M stream, without significant influence from the P stream. These results suggest that M-P streams exist, and extend through, specific columns in early/middle stages of human extrastriate cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The magnocellular and parvocellular (M-P) streams are fundamental components of primate visual cortical organization. These streams segregate both anatomical and functional properties in parallel, from retina through primary visual cortex. However, in most higher-order cortical sites, it is unknown whether such M-P streams exist and/or what form those streams would take. Moreover, it is unknown whether M-P streams exist in human cortex. Here, fMRI evidence measured at high field (7T) and high resolution revealed segregated M-P streams in four areas of human extrastriate

  15. Bupropion Administration Increases Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Dorso-Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Ewelina; Dean, Zola; McCabe, Ciara

    2017-06-01

    Patients on the selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors like citalopram report emotional blunting. We showed previously that citalopram reduces resting-state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers in a number of brain regions, including the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, which may be related to its clinical effects. Bupropion is a dopaminergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor and is not reported to cause emotional blunting. However, how bupropion affects resting-state functional connectivity in healthy controls remains unknown. Using a within-subjects, repeated-measures, double-blind, crossover design, we examined 17 healthy volunteers (9 female, 8 male). Volunteers received 7 days of bupropion (150 mg/d) and 7 days of placebo treatment and underwent resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. We selected seed regions in the salience network (amygdala and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex) and the central executive network (dorsal medial prefrontal cortex). Mood and anhedonia measures were also recorded and examined in relation to resting-state functional connectivity. Relative to placebo, bupropion increased resting-state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers between the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex seed region and the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus cortex, key parts of the default mode network. These results are opposite to that which we found with 7 days treatment of citalopram in healthy volunteers. These results reflect a different mechanism of action of bupropion compared with selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors. These results help explain the apparent lack of emotional blunting caused by bupropion in depressed patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  16. Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Hua; Huberman, Andrew D; Scanziani, Massimo

    2016-10-20

    The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours.

  17. Prefrontal Cortex, Emotion, and Approach/Withdrawal Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Miller, Gregory A.; Heller, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a selective review of the literature and current theories regarding the role of prefrontal cortex, along with some other critical brain regions, in emotion and motivation. Seemingly contradictory findings have often appeared in this literature. Research attempting to resolve these contradictions has been the basis of new areas of growth and has led to more sophisticated understandings of emotional and motivational processes as well as neural networks associated with these processes. Progress has, in part, depended on methodological advances that allow for increased resolution in brain imaging. A number of issues are currently in play, among them the role of prefrontal cortex in emotional or motivational processes. This debate fosters research that will likely lead to further refinement of conceptualizations of emotion, motivation, and the neural processes associated with them. PMID:20574551

  18. Prefrontal Cortex, Emotion, and Approach/Withdrawal Motivation.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Levin, Rebecca L; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a selective review of the literature and current theories regarding the role of prefrontal cortex, along with some other critical brain regions, in emotion and motivation. Seemingly contradictory findings have often appeared in this literature. Research attempting to resolve these contradictions has been the basis of new areas of growth and has led to more sophisticated understandings of emotional and motivational processes as well as neural networks associated with these processes. Progress has, in part, depended on methodological advances that allow for increased resolution in brain imaging. A number of issues are currently in play, among them the role of prefrontal cortex in emotional or motivational processes. This debate fosters research that will likely lead to further refinement of conceptualizations of emotion, motivation, and the neural processes associated with them.

  19. Characterization of postsynaptic calcium signals in the pyramidal neurons of anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu-Hui; Song, Qian; Chen, Tao; Zhuo, Min

    2017-01-01

    Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons. Single and multi-action potentials evoked significant suprathreshold Ca2+ increases in somas and spines. Both NMDA receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels contributed to this increase. Postsynaptic Ca2+signals were induced by puff-application of glutamate, and a NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 blocked these signals in both somas and spines. Finally, long-term potentiation inducing protocols triggered postsynaptic Ca2+ influx, and these influx were NMDA receptor dependent. Our results provide the first study of calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex and demonstrate that NMDA receptors play important roles in postsynaptic calcium signals in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons. PMID:28726541

  20. Age-Group Differences in Medial Cortex Activity Associated with Thinking About Self-Relevant Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Raye, Carol L.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Tubridy, Shannon M.; Frankel, Hillary; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared young and older adults’ brain activity as they thought about motivationally self-relevant agendas (hopes and aspirations, duties and obligations) and concrete control items (e.g., shape of USA). Young adults’ activity replicated a double dissociation (Johnson et al., 2006): an area of medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex was most active during hopes and aspirations trials and an area of medial posterior cortex, primarily posterior cingulate, was most active during duties and obligations trials. Compared to young adults, older adults showed attenuated responses in medial cortex, especially in medial prefrontal cortex, with both less activity during self-relevant trials and less deactivation during control trials. The fMRI data, together with post-scan reports and the behavioral literature on age-group differences in motivational orientation, suggest that the differences in medial cortex seen in this study reflect young and older adults’ focus on different information during motivationally self-relevant thought. Differences also may be related to an age-associated deficit in controlled cognitive processes that are engaged by complex self-reflection and mediated by prefrontal cortex. PMID:19485660

  1. Evidence for unlimited capacity processing of simple features in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    White, Alex L.; Runeson, Erik; Palmer, John; Ernst, Zachary R.; Boynton, Geoffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Performance in many visual tasks is impaired when observers attempt to divide spatial attention across multiple visual field locations. Correspondingly, neuronal response magnitudes in visual cortex are often reduced during divided compared with focused spatial attention. This suggests that early visual cortex is the site of capacity limits, where finite processing resources must be divided among attended stimuli. However, behavioral research demonstrates that not all visual tasks suffer such capacity limits: The costs of divided attention are minimal when the task and stimulus are simple, such as when searching for a target defined by orientation or contrast. To date, however, every neuroimaging study of divided attention has used more complex tasks and found large reductions in response magnitude. We bridged that gap by using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure responses in the human visual cortex during simple feature detection. The first experiment used a visual search task: Observers detected a low-contrast Gabor patch within one or four potentially relevant locations. The second experiment used a dual-task design, in which observers made independent judgments of Gabor presence in patches of dynamic noise at two locations. In both experiments, blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signals in the retinotopic cortex were significantly lower for ignored than attended stimuli. However, when observers divided attention between multiple stimuli, BOLD signals were not reliably reduced and behavioral performance was unimpaired. These results suggest that processing of simple features in early visual cortex has unlimited capacity. PMID:28654964

  2. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  3. Is orbital volume associated with eyeball and visual cortex volume in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned; Bridge, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Background In humans orbital volume increases linearly with absolute latitude. Scaling across mammals between visual system components suggests that these larger orbits should translate into larger eyes and visual cortices in high latitude humans. Larger eyes at high latitudes may be required to maintain adequate visual acuity and enhance visual sensitivity under lower light levels. Aim To test the assumption that orbital volume can accurately index eyeball and visual cortex volumes specifically in humans. Subjects & Methods Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques are employed to measure eye and orbit (N=88), and brain and visual cortex (N=99) volumes in living humans. Facial dimensions and foramen magnum area (a proxy for body mass) were also measured. Results A significant positive linear relationship was found between (i) orbital and eyeball volumes, (ii) eyeball and visual cortex grey matter volumes, (iii) different visual cortical areas, independently of overall brain volume. Conclusion In humans the components of the visual system scale from orbit to eye to visual cortex volume independently of overall brain size. These findings indicate that orbit volume can index eye and visual cortex volume in humans, suggesting that larger high latitude orbits do translate into larger visual cortices. PMID:23879766

  4. Regional microstructural organization of the cerebral cortex is affected by preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Bouyssi-Kobar, Marine; Brossard-Racine, Marie; Jacobs, Marni; Murnick, Jonathan; Chang, Taeun; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex. ANCOVA analyses were performed controlling for sex and postmenstrual age at MRI. We studied 91 preterm infants at TEA and 69 full-term controls. Preterm infants demonstrated significantly higher diffusivity in the prefrontal, parietal, motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices suggesting delayed maturation of these cortical areas. Additionally, postnatal hydrocortisone treatment was related to accelerated microstructural organization in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices. Preterm birth alters regional microstructural organization of the cerebral cortex in both neurocognitive brain regions and areas with primary sensory/motor functions. We also report for the first time a potential protective effect of postnatal hydrocortisone administration on cerebral cortical development in preterm infants.

  5. Associative Recognition Memory Awareness Improved by Theta-Burst Stimulation of Frontopolar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Anthony J.; Rogers, Lynn M.; Gross, Evan Z.; Polnaszek, Kelly L.; Voss, Joel L.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have implicated specific prefrontal cortex locations in subjective memory awareness. Based on this evidence, a rostrocaudal organization has been proposed whereby increasingly anterior prefrontal regions are increasingly involved in memory awareness. We used theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) to temporarily modulate dorsolateral versus frontopolar prefrontal cortex to test for distinct causal roles in memory awareness. In three sessions, participants received TBS bilaterally to frontopolar cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or a control location prior to performing an associative-recognition task involving judgments of memory awareness. Objective memory performance (i.e., accuracy) did not differ based on stimulation location. In contrast, frontopolar stimulation significantly influenced several measures of memory awareness. During study, judgments of learning were more accurate such that lower ratings were given to items that were subsequently forgotten selectively following frontopolar TBS. Confidence ratings during test were also higher for correct trials following frontopolar TBS. Finally, trial-by-trial correspondence between overt performance and subjective awareness during study demonstrated a linear increase across control, dorsolateral, and frontopolar TBS locations, supporting a rostrocaudal hierarchy of prefrontal contributions to memory awareness. These findings indicate that frontopolar cortex contributes causally to memory awareness, which was improved selectively by anatomically targeted TBS. PMID:25577574

  6. The Cortex Transform as an image preprocessor for sparse distributed memory: An initial study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olshausen, Bruno; Watson, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is described which was designed to evaluate the use of the Cortex Transform as an image processor for Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). In the experiment, a set of images were injected with Gaussian noise, preprocessed with the Cortex Transform, and then encoded into bit patterns. The various spatial frequency bands of the Cortex Transform were encoded separately so that they could be evaluated based on their ability to properly cluster patterns belonging to the same class. The results of this study indicate that by simply encoding the low pass band of the Cortex Transform, a very suitable input representation for the SDM can be achieved.

  7. Responses of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex to bird chirps: effects of temporal and spectral context.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yosef, Omer; Rotman, Yaron; Nelken, Israel

    2002-10-01

    The responses of neurons to natural sounds and simplified natural sounds were recorded in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of halothane-anesthetized cats. Bird chirps were used as the base natural stimuli. They were first presented within the original acoustic context (at least 250 msec of sounds before and after each chirp). The first simplification step consisted of extracting a short segment containing just the chirp from the longer segment. For the second step, the chirp was cleaned of its accompanying background noise. Finally, each chirp was replaced by an artificial version that had approximately the same frequency trajectory but with constant amplitude. Neurons had a wide range of different response patterns to these stimuli, and many neurons had late response components in addition, or instead of, their onset responses. In general, every simplification step had a substantial influence on the responses. Neither the extracted chirp nor the clean chirp evoked a similar response to the chirp presented within its acoustic context. The extracted chirp evoked different responses than its clean version. The artificial chirps evoked stronger responses with a shorter latency than the corresponding clean chirp because of envelope differences. These results illustrate the sensitivity of neurons in AI to small perturbations of their acoustic input. In particular, they pose a challenge to models based on linear summation of energy within a spectrotemporal receptive field.

  8. Reduced Global Functional Connectivity of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Murrough, James W.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Anticevic, Alan; Collins, Katherine A.; Geha, Paul; Averill, Lynnette A.; Schwartz, Jaclyn; DeWilde, Kaitlin E.; Averill, Christopher; Yang, Genevieve Jia-wei; Wong, Edmund; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Krystal, John H.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Charney, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a disabling neuropsychiatric condition that is associated with disrupted functional connectivity across brain networks. The precise nature of altered connectivity, however, remains incompletely understood. The current study was designed to examine the coherence of large-scale connectivity in depression using a recently developed technique termed global brain connectivity. Methods A total of 82 subjects, including medication-free patients with major depression (n=57) and healthy volunteers (n=25) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with resting data acquisition for functional connectivity analysis. Global brain connectivity was computed as the mean of each voxel’s time series correlation with every other voxel and compared between study groups. Relationships between global connectivity and depressive symptom severity measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale were examined by means of linear correlation. Results Relative to the healthy group, patients with depression evidenced reduced global connectivity bilaterally within multiple regions of medial and lateral prefrontal cortex. The largest between-group difference was observed within the right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, extending into ventromedial prefrontal cortex bilaterally (Hedges’ g = −1.48, p<0.000001). Within the depressed group, patients with the lowest connectivity evidenced the highest symptom severity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (r = −0.47, p=0.0005). Conclusions Patients with major depressive evidenced abnormal large-scale functional coherence in the brain that was centered within the subgenual cingulate cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex more broadly. These data extend prior studies of connectivity in depression and demonstrate that functional disconnection of the medial prefrontal cortex is a key pathological feature of the disorder. PMID:27144347

  9. Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Bechara, A.; Damasio, H.; Aitken, M. R. F.; Sahakian, B. J.; Robbins, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear whether vmPFC is also necessary for decision-making under risk, when outcome probabilities are explicit. It is not known whether the effect of insular damage is analogous to the effect of vmPFC damage, or whether these regions contribute differentially to choice behaviour. Four groups of participants were compared on the Cambridge Gamble Task, a well-characterized measure of risky decision-making where outcome probabilities are presented explicitly, thus minimizing additional learning and working memory demands. Patients with focal, stable lesions to the vmPFC (n = 20) and the insular cortex (n = 13) were compared against healthy subjects (n = 41) and a group of lesion controls (n = 12) with damage predominantly affecting the dorsal and lateral frontal cortex. The vmPFC and insular cortex patients showed selective and distinctive disruptions of betting behaviour. VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk. In contrast, patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds of winning, consistent with a role of the insular cortex in signalling the probability of aversive outcomes. The insular group attained a lower point score on the task and experienced more ‘bankruptcies’. There were no group differences in probability judgement. These data confirm the necessary role of the vmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk. Poor decision-making in clinical populations can arise via multiple routes, with functionally dissociable effects of vm

  10. High-Resolution 7T MR Imaging of the Motor Cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cosottini, M; Donatelli, G; Costagli, M; Caldarazzo Ienco, E; Frosini, D; Pesaresi, I; Biagi, L; Siciliano, G; Tosetti, M

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive motor neuron disorder that involves degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic studies and ex vivo high-resolution MR imaging at ultra-high field strength revealed the co-localization of iron and activated microglia distributed in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex. The aims of the study were to measure the cortical thickness and evaluate the distribution of iron-related signal changes in the primary motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as possible in vivo biomarkers of upper motor neuron impairment. Twenty-two patients with definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 14 healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution 2D multiecho gradient-recalled sequence targeted on the primary motor cortex by using a 7T scanner. Image analysis consisted of the visual evaluation and quantitative measurement of signal intensity and cortical thickness of the primary motor cortex in patients and controls. Qualitative and quantitative MR imaging parameters were correlated with electrophysiologic and laboratory data and with clinical scores. Ultra-high field MR imaging revealed atrophy and signal hypointensity in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a diagnostic accuracy of 71%. Signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex correlated with upper motor neuron impairment (r = -0.47; P < .001) and with disease progression rate (r = -0.60; P = .009). The combined high spatial resolution and sensitivity to paramagnetic substances of 7T MR imaging demonstrate in vivo signal changes of the cerebral motor cortex that resemble the distribution of activated microglia within the cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical thinning and signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex could constitute a marker of upper motor neuron

  11. Dual streams of auditory afferents target multiple domains in the primate prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Romanski, L. M.; Tian, B.; Fritz, J.; Mishkin, M.; Goldman-Rakic, P. S.; Rauschecker, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    ‘What’ and ‘where’ visual streams define ventrolateral object and dorsolateral spatial processing domains in the prefrontal cortex of nonhuman primates. We looked for similar streams for auditory–prefrontal connections in rhesus macaques by combining microelectrode recording with anatomical tract-tracing. Injection of multiple tracers into physiologically mapped regions AL, ML and CL of the auditory belt cortex revealed that anterior belt cortex was reciprocally connected with the frontal pole (area 10), rostral principal sulcus (area 46) and ventral prefrontal regions (areas 12 and 45), whereas the caudal belt was mainly connected with the caudal principal sulcus (area 46) and frontal eye fields (area 8a). Thus separate auditory streams originate in caudal and rostral auditory cortex and target spatial and non-spatial domains of the frontal lobe, respectively. PMID:10570492

  12. Motor cortex is required for learning but not executing a motor skill

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Risa; Markman, Timothy; Poddar, Rajesh; Ko, Raymond; Fantana, Antoniu; Dhawale, Ashesh; Kampff, Adam R.; Ölveczky, Bence P.

    2018-01-01

    Motor cortex is widely believed to underlie the acquisition and execution of motor skills, yet its contributions to these processes are not fully understood. One reason is that studies on motor skills often conflate motor cortex’s established role in dexterous control with roles in learning and producing task-specific motor sequences. To dissociate these aspects, we developed a motor task for rats that trains spatiotemporally precise movement patterns without requirements for dexterity. Remarkably, motor cortex lesions had no discernible effect on the acquired skills, which were expressed in their distinct pre-lesion forms on the very first day of post-lesion training. Motor cortex lesions prior to training, however, rendered rats unable to acquire the stereotyped motor sequences required for the task. These results suggest a remarkable capacity of subcortical motor circuits to execute learned skills and a previously unappreciated role for motor cortex in ‘tutoring’ these circuits during learning. PMID:25892304

  13. Cerebral morphology and functional sparing after prenatal frontal cortex lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kolb, B; Cioe, J; Muirhead, D

    1998-03-01

    Rats were given suction lesions of the presumptive frontal cortex on embryonic day 18 (E18) and subsequently tested, as adults, on tests of spatial navigation (Morris water task, radial arm maze), motor tasks (Whishaw reaching task, beam walking), and locomotor activity. Frontal cortical lesions at E18 affected cerebral morphogenesis, producing unusual morphological structures including abnormal patches of neurons in the cortex and white matter as well as neuronal bridges between the hemispheres. A small sample of E18 operates also had hydrocephaly. The animals with E18 lesions without hydrocephalus were behaviorally indistinguishable from littermate controls. The results demonstrate that animals with focal lesions of the presumptive frontal cortex have gross abnormalities in cerebral morphology but the lesions leave the functions normally subserved by the frontal cortex in adult rats unaffected. The results are discussed in the context of a hypothesis regarding the optimal times for functional recovery from cortical injury.

  14. Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds

  15. Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Rigosa, J; Panarese, A; Dominici, N; Friedli, L; van den Brand, R; Carpaneto, J; DiGiovanna, J; Courtine, G; Micera, S

    2015-10-01

    Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds, are likely to provide more robust control

  16. Self responses along cingulate cortex reveal quantitative neural phenotype for high functioning autism

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Pearl H.; Kayali, M. Amin; Kishida, Kenneth T.; Tomlin, Damon; Klinger, Laura G.; Klinger, Mark R.; Montague, P. Read

    2014-01-01

    Summary Attributing behavioral outcomes correctly to oneself or to other agents is essential for all productive social exchange. We approach this issue in high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using two separate fMRI paradigms. First, using a visual imagery task, we extract a basis set for responses along the cingulate cortex of control subjects that reveals an agent-specific eigenvector (self eigenmode) associated with imagining oneself executing a specific motor act. Second, we show that the same self eigenmode arises during one's own decision (the self phase) in an interpersonal exchange game (iterated trust game). Third, using this exchange game, we show that ASD males exhibit a severely diminished self eigenmode when playing the game with a human partner. This diminished response covaries parametrically with their behaviorally assessed symptom severity suggesting its value as an objective endophenotype. These findings may provide a quantitative assessment tool for high functioning ASD. PMID:18255038

  17. Neuronal integration in visual cortex elevates face category tuning to conscious face perception

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Snijders, Tineke M.; Heinen, Klaartje; van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H. Steven; Lamme, Victor A. F.

    2012-01-01

    The human brain has the extraordinary capability to transform cluttered sensory input into distinct object representations. For example, it is able to rapidly and seemingly without effort detect object categories in complex natural scenes. Surprisingly, category tuning is not sufficient to achieve conscious recognition of objects. What neural process beyond category extraction might elevate neural representations to the level where objects are consciously perceived? Here we show that visible and invisible faces produce similar category-selective responses in the ventral visual cortex. The pattern of neural activity evoked by visible faces could be used to decode the presence of invisible faces and vice versa. However, only visible faces caused extensive response enhancements and changes in neural oscillatory synchronization, as well as increased functional connectivity between higher and lower visual areas. We conclude that conscious face perception is more tightly linked to neural processes of sustained information integration and binding than to processes accommodating face category tuning. PMID:23236162

  18. A little more conversation, a little less action - candidate roles for motor cortex in speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The motor theory of speech perception assumes that activation of the motor system is essential in the perception of speech. However, deficits in speech perception and comprehension do not arise from damage that is restricted to the motor cortex, few functional imaging studies reveal activity in motor cortex during speech perception, and the motor cortex is strongly activated by many different sound categories. Here, we evaluate alternative roles for the motor cortex in spoken communication and suggest a specific role in sensorimotor processing in conversation. We argue that motor-cortex activation it is essential in joint speech, particularly for the timing of turn-taking. PMID:19277052

  19. Intraoperative Mapping of Expressive Language Cortex Using Passive Real-Time Electrocorticography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-26

    lsev ie r .com/ locate /ebcrCase ReportIntraoperative mapping of expressive language cortex using passive real-time electrocorticographyAmiLyn M...case report, we investigated the utility and practicality of passive intraoperative functional mapping of expressive language cortex using high...expressive lan- guage regions. In preparation of tumor resection, the patient underwent multiple functional language mapping procedures. We examined

  20. Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Philippe N.; Christopoulos, George I.; O'Doherty, John P.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Schultz, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    When making choices under uncertainty, people usually consider both the expected value and risk of each option, and choose the one with the higher utility. Expected value increases the expected utility of an option for all individuals. Risk increases the utility of an option for risk-seeking individuals, but decreases it for risk averse individuals. In 2 separate experiments, one involving imperative (no-choice), the other choice situations, we investigated how predicted risk and expected value aggregate into a common reward signal in the human brain. Blood oxygen level dependent responses in lateral regions of the prefrontal cortex increased monotonically with increasing reward value in the absence of risk in both experiments. Risk enhanced these responses in risk-seeking participants, but reduced them in risk-averse participants. The aggregate value and risk responses in lateral prefrontal cortex contrasted with pure value signals independent of risk in the striatum. These results demonstrate an aggregate risk and value signal in the prefrontal cortex that would be compatible with basic assumptions underlying the mean-variance approach to utility. PMID:19369207

  1. Capturing the temporal evolution of choice across prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Laurence T; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Hosokawa, Takayuki; Wallis, Jonathan D; Kennerley, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been richly described using economic models of choice. Yet such descriptions fail to capture the dynamics of decision formation. Describing dynamic neural processes has proven challenging due to the problem of indexing the internal state of PFC and its trial-by-trial variation. Using primate neurophysiology and human magnetoencephalography, we here recover a single-trial index of PFC internal states from multiple simultaneously recorded PFC subregions. This index can explain the origins of neural representations of economic variables in PFC. It describes the relationship between neural dynamics and behaviour in both human and monkey PFC, directly bridging between human neuroimaging data and underlying neuronal activity. Moreover, it reveals a functionally dissociable interaction between orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral PFC in guiding cost-benefit decisions. We cast our observations in terms of a recurrent neural network model of choice, providing formal links to mechanistic dynamical accounts of decision-making. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11945.001 PMID:26653139

  2. Transformation of Cortex-wide Emergent Properties during Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Makino, Hiroshi; Ren, Chi; Liu, Haixin; Kim, An Na; Kondapaneni, Neehar; Liu, Xin; Kuzum, Duygu; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-05-17

    Learning involves a transformation of brain-wide operation dynamics. However, our understanding of learning-related changes in macroscopic dynamics is limited. Here, we monitored cortex-wide activity of the mouse brain using wide-field calcium imaging while the mouse learned a motor task over weeks. Over learning, the sequential activity across cortical modules became temporally more compressed, and its trial-by-trial variability decreased. Moreover, a new flow of activity emerged during learning, originating from premotor cortex (M2), and M2 became predictive of the activity of many other modules. Inactivation experiments showed that M2 is critical for the post-learning dynamics in the cortex-wide activity. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging revealed that M2 ensemble activity also showed earlier activity onset and reduced variability with learning, which was accompanied by changes in the activity-movement relationship. These results reveal newly emergent properties of macroscopic cortical dynamics during motor learning and highlight the importance of M2 in controlling learned movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coevolution of radial glial cells and the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    De Juan Romero, Camino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Radial glia cells play fundamental roles in the development of the cerebral cortex, acting both as the primary stem and progenitor cells, as well as the guides for neuronal migration and lamination. These critical functions of radial glia cells in cortical development have been discovered mostly during the last 15 years and, more recently, seminal studies have demonstrated the existence of a remarkable diversity of additional cortical progenitor cell types, including a variety of basal radial glia cells with key roles in cortical expansion and folding, both in ontogeny and phylogeny. In this review, we summarize the main cellular and molecular mechanisms known to be involved in cerebral cortex development in mouse, as the currently preferred animal model, and then compare these with known mechanisms in other vertebrates, both mammal and nonmammal, including human. This allows us to present a global picture of how radial glia cells and the cerebral cortex seem to have coevolved, from reptiles to primates, leading to the remarkable diversity of vertebrate cortical phenotypes. GLIA 2015;63:1303–1319 PMID:25808466

  4. Laryngeal Motor Cortex and Control of Speech in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex and rapid motor behaviors and involves a precise coordination of over 100 laryngeal, orofacial and respiratory muscles. Yet, we lack a complete understanding of laryngeal motor cortical control during production of speech and other voluntary laryngeal behaviors. In recent years, a number of studies have confirmed the laryngeal motor cortical representation in humans and provided some information about its interactions with other cortical and subcortical regions that are principally involved in vocal motor control of speech production. In this review, we discuss the organization of the peripheral and central laryngeal control based on neuroimaging and electrical stimulation studies in humans and neuroanatomical tracing studies in non-human primates. We hypothesize that the location of the laryngeal motor cortex in the primary motor cortex and its direct connections with the brainstem laryngeal motoneurons in humans, as oppose to its location in the premotor cortex with only indirect connections to the laryngeal motoneurons in non-human primates, may represent one of the major evolutionary developments in humans towards the ability to speak and vocalize voluntarily. PMID:21362688

  5. Integrating Information from Different Senses in the Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrew J.; Walker, Kerry M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration was once thought to be the domain of brain areas high in the cortical hierarchy, with early sensory cortical fields devoted to unisensory processing of inputs from their given set of sensory receptors. More recently, a wealth of evidence documenting visual and somatosensory responses in auditory cortex, even as early as the primary fields, has changed this view of cortical processing. These multisensory inputs may serve to enhance responses to sounds that are accompanied by other sensory cues, effectively making them easier to hear, but may also act more selectively to shape the receptive field properties of auditory cortical neurons to the location or identity of these events. We discuss the new, converging evidence that multiplexing of neural signals may play a key role in informatively encoding and integrating signals in auditory cortex across multiple sensory modalities. We highlight some of the many open research questions that exist about the neural mechanisms that give rise to multisensory integration in auditory cortex, which should be addressed in future experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:22798035

  6. Decoding Visual Location From Neural Patterns in the Auditory Cortex of the Congenitally Deaf

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jorge; He, Dongjun; Chen, Quanjing; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Zhang, Fan; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Fang, Fang; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    Sensory cortices of individuals who are congenitally deprived of a sense can exhibit considerable plasticity and be recruited to process information from the senses that remain intact. Here, we explored whether the auditory cortex of congenitally deaf individuals represents visual field location of a stimulus—a dimension that is represented in early visual areas. We used functional MRI to measure neural activity in auditory and visual cortices of congenitally deaf and hearing humans while they observed stimuli typically used for mapping visual field preferences in visual cortex. We found that the location of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the patterns of neural activity in auditory cortex of congenitally deaf but not hearing individuals. This is particularly true for locations within the horizontal plane and within peripheral vision. These data show that the representations stored within neuroplastically changed auditory cortex can align with dimensions that are typically represented in visual cortex. PMID:26423461

  7. Plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions. PMID:25691857

  8. A General Role for Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Event Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-11

    anterior cingulate cortex modulates attentional response: combined fMRI and ERP evidence. J. Cogn . Neurosci . 18, 766–780. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.5.766...losses in the anterior cingulate cortex. Cogn . Affect. Behav. Neurosci . 7, 327–336. doi: 10.3758/cabn.7.4.327 Shima, K., and Tanji, J. (1998). Role of...COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 11 July 2014 doi: 10.3389/fncom.2014.00069 A general role for medial prefrontal

  9. Motor Cortex Stimulation Reverses Maladaptive Plasticity Following Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    pp 74–85. Austin: Landes Biosciences. 3. Abstracts o Mechanisms of Pain Relief Following Motor Cortex Stimulation: An fMRI Study. Society for...Neuroscience Meeting. Washington, DC. 2012. o Resting State fMRI in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury Neuropathic Pain: A Longitudinal Study. Society...2601–2610. 16. Stefanacci L, Reber P, Costanza J, Wong E, Buxton R, Zola S, Squire L, Albright T. fMRI of monkey visual cortex. Neuron 1998;20:1051

  10. The Roles of Orbital Frontal Cortex in the Modulation of Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, R. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers potential roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is suggested that orbital frontal cortex is directly involved in the modulation of…

  11. Double dissociation of 'what' and 'where' processing in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Lomber, Stephen G; Malhotra, Shveta

    2008-05-01

    Studies of cortical connections or neuronal function in different cerebral areas support the hypothesis that parallel cortical processing streams, similar to those identified in visual cortex, may exist in the auditory system. However, this model has not yet been behaviorally tested. We used reversible cooling deactivation to investigate whether the individual regions in cat nonprimary auditory cortex that are responsible for processing the pattern of an acoustic stimulus or localizing a sound in space could be doubly dissociated in the same animal. We found that bilateral deactivation of the posterior auditory field resulted in deficits in a sound-localization task, whereas bilateral deactivation of the anterior auditory field resulted in deficits in a pattern-discrimination task, but not vice versa. These findings support a model of cortical organization that proposes that identifying an acoustic stimulus ('what') and its spatial location ('where') are processed in separate streams in auditory cortex.

  12. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Targeted to Premotor Cortex Followed by Primary Motor Cortex Modulates Excitability Differently Than Premotor Cortex or Primary Motor Cortex Stimulation Alone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Deng, Huiqiong; Schmidt, Rebekah L; Kimberley, Teresa J

    2015-12-01

    The excitability of primary motor cortex (M1) can be modulated by applying low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over M1 or premotor cortex (PMC). A comparison of inhibitory effect between the two locations has been reported with inconsistent results. This study compared the response secondary to rTMS applied over M1, PMC, and a combined PMC + M1 stimulation approach which first targets stimulation over PMC then M1. Ten healthy participants were recruited for a randomized, cross-over design with a one-week washout between visits. Each visit consisted of a pretest, an rTMS intervention, and a post-test. Outcome measures included short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF), and cortical silent period (CSP). Participants received one of the three interventions in random order at each visit including: 1-Hz rTMS at 90% of resting motor threshold to: M1 (1200 pulses), PMC (1200 pulses), and PMC + M1 (600 pulses each, 1200 total). PMC + M1 stimulation resulted in significantly greater inhibition than the other locations for ICF (P = 0.005) and CSP (P < 0.001); for SICI, increased inhibition (group effect) was not observed after any of the three interventions, and there was no significant difference between the three interventions. The results indicate that PMC + M1 stimulation may modulate brain excitability differently from PMC or M1 alone. CSP was the assessment measure most sensitive to changes in inhibition and was able to distinguish between different inhibitory protocols. This work presents a novel procedure that may have positive implications for therapeutic interventions. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brimijoin, W. Owen; Bizley, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    A key function of the brain is to provide a stable representation of an object’s location in the world. In hearing, sound azimuth and elevation are encoded by neurons throughout the auditory system, and auditory cortex is necessary for sound localization. However, the coordinate frame in which neurons represent sound space remains undefined: classical spatial receptive fields in head-fixed subjects can be explained either by sensitivity to sound source location relative to the head (egocentric) or relative to the world (allocentric encoding). This coordinate frame ambiguity can be resolved by studying freely moving subjects; here we recorded spatial receptive fields in the auditory cortex of freely moving ferrets. We found that most spatially tuned neurons represented sound source location relative to the head across changes in head position and direction. In addition, we also recorded a small number of neurons in which sound location was represented in a world-centered coordinate frame. We used measurements of spatial tuning across changes in head position and direction to explore the influence of sound source distance and speed of head movement on auditory cortical activity and spatial tuning. Modulation depth of spatial tuning increased with distance for egocentric but not allocentric units, whereas, for both populations, modulation was stronger at faster movement speeds. Our findings suggest that early auditory cortex primarily represents sound source location relative to ourselves but that a minority of cells can represent sound location in the world independent of our own position. PMID:28617796

  14. From the motor cortex to the movement and back again.

    PubMed

    Teka, Wondimu W; Hamade, Khaldoun C; Barnett, William H; Kim, Taegyo; Markin, Sergey N; Rybak, Ilya A; Molkov, Yaroslav I

    2017-01-01

    The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements. In this model, the arm consists of two joints (shoulder and elbow), whose movements are actuated by six muscles (4 single-joint and 2 double-joint flexors and extensors). The muscles provide afferent feedback to the spinal cord circuits. Cortical neurons are defined as cortical "controllers" that solve an inverse problem based on a proposed straight-line trajectory to a target position and a predefined bell-shaped velocity profile. Thus, the controller generates a motor program that produces a task-specific activation of low-level spinal circuits that in turn induce the muscle activation realizing the intended reaching movement. Using the model, we describe the mechanisms of correlation between cortical and motoneuronal activities and movement direction and other movement parameters. We show that the directional modulation of neuronal activity in the motor cortex and the spinal cord may result from direction-specific dynamics of muscle lengths. Our model suggests that directional modulation first emerges at the level of muscle forces, augments at the motoneuron level, and further increases at the level of the motor cortex due to the dependence of frictional forces in the joints, contractility of the muscles and afferent feedback on muscle lengths and/or velocities.

  15. Neural dynamics and information representation in microcircuits of motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsubo, Yasuhiro; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Fukai, Tomoki

    2013-01-01

    The brain has to analyze and respond to external events that can change rapidly from time to time, suggesting that information processing by the brain may be essentially dynamic rather than static. The dynamical features of neural computation are of significant importance in motor cortex that governs the process of movement generation and learning. In this paper, we discuss these features based primarily on our recent findings on neural dynamics and information coding in the microcircuit of rat motor cortex. In fact, cortical neurons show a variety of dynamical behavior from rhythmic activity in various frequency bands to highly irregular spike firing. Of particular interest are the similarity and dissimilarity of the neuronal response properties in different layers of motor cortex. By conducting electrophysiological recordings in slice preparation, we report the phase response curves (PRCs) of neurons in different cortical layers to demonstrate their layer-dependent synchronization properties. We then study how motor cortex recruits task-related neurons in different layers for voluntary arm movements by simultaneous juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from behaving rats. The results suggest an interesting difference in the spectrum of functional activity between the superficial and deep layers. Furthermore, the task-related activities recorded from various layers exhibited power law distributions of inter-spike intervals (ISIs), in contrast to a general belief that ISIs obey Poisson or Gamma distributions in cortical neurons. We present a theoretical argument that this power law of in vivo neurons may represent the maximization of the entropy of firing rate with limited energy consumption of spike generation. Though further studies are required to fully clarify the functional implications of this coding principle, it may shed new light on information representations by neurons and circuits in motor cortex.

  16. Cortico-fugal output from visual cortex promotes plasticity of innate motor behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bao-hua; Huberman, Andrew D.; Scanziani, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections1. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood1–4. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system3,5,6, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision5. The OKR is plastic, allowing the amplitude of this reflex to be adaptively adjusted relative to other oculomotor reflexes and thereby ensuring image stability throughout life7–11. Although the plasticity of the OKR is thought to involve subcortical structures such as the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei10–13, cortical lesions have suggested that the visual cortex might also be involved9,14,15. Here we show that projections from the mouse visual cortex to the accessory optic system promote the adaptive plasticity of the OKR. OKR potentiation, a compensatory plastic increase in the amplitude of the OKR in response to vestibular impairment11,16–18, is diminished by silencing visual cortex. Furthermore, targeted ablation of a sparse population of cortico-fugal neurons that specifically project to the accessory optic system severely impairs OKR potentiation. Finally, OKR potentiation results from an enhanced drive exerted by the visual cortex onto the accessory optic system. Thus, cortico-fugal projections to the brainstem enable the visual cortex, an area that has been principally studied for its sensory processing function19, to plastically adapt the execution of innate motor behaviours. PMID:27732573

  17. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    PubMed

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  18. The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Cant, Jonathan S; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cognitive functions of the posterior parietal cortex: top-down and bottom-up attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Shomstein, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Although much less is known about human parietal cortex than that of homologous monkey cortex, recent studies, employing neuroimaging, and neuropsychological methods, have begun to elucidate increasingly fine-grained functional and structural distinctions. This review is focused on recent neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies elucidating the cognitive roles of dorsal and ventral regions of parietal cortex in top-down and bottom-up attentional orienting, and on the interaction between the two attentional allocation mechanisms. Evidence is reviewed arguing that regions along the dorsal areas of the parietal cortex, including the superior parietal lobule (SPL) are involved in top-down attentional orienting, while ventral regions including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are involved in bottom-up attentional orienting. PMID:22783174

  20. Serial functional imaging poststroke reveals visual cortex reorganization.

    PubMed

    Brodtmann, Amy; Puce, Aina; Darby, David; Donnan, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Visual cortical reorganization following injury remains poorly understood. The authors performed serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on patients with visual cortex infarction to evaluate early and late striate, ventral, and dorsal extrastriate cortical activation. Patients were studied with fMRI within 10 days and at 6 months. The authors used a high-level visual activation task designed to activate the ventral extrastriate cortex. These data were compared to those of age-appropriate healthy control participants. The results from 24 healthy control individuals (mean age 65.7 +/- SE 3.6 years, range 32-89) were compared to those from 5 stroke patients (mean age 73.8 +/- SE 7 years, range 49-86). Patients had infarcts involving the striate and ventral extrastriate cortex. Patient activation patterns were markedly different to controls. Bilateral striate and ventral extrastriate activation was reduced at both sessions, but dorsal extrastriate activated voxel counts remained comparable to controls. Conversely, mean percent magnetic resonance signal change increased in dorsal sites. These data provide strong evidence of bilateral poststroke functional depression of striate and ventral extrastriate cortices. Possible utilization or surrogacy of the dorsal visual system was demonstrated following stroke. This activity could provide a target for novel visual rehabilitation therapies.

  1. Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, and the human prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Erik; Ramchandran, Kanchna; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective The psychological processes of doubting and skepticism have recently become topics of neuroscientific investigation. In this context, we developed the False Tagging Theory, a neurobiological model of the belief and doubt process, which proposes that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt regarding properly comprehended cognitive representations. Here, we put our theory to an empirical test, hypothesizing that patients with prefrontal cortex damage would have a doubt deficit that would manifest as higher authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism. Method Ten patients with bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ten patients with damage to areas outside the vmPFC, and sixteen medical comparison patients, who experienced life-threatening (but non-neurological) medical events, completed a series of scales measuring authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, and specific religious beliefs. Results VMPFC patients reported significantly higher authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism than the other groups. The degrees of authoritarianism and religious fundamentalism in the vmPFC group were significantly higher than normative values, as well; by contrast, the comparison groups did not differ from normative values. Moreover, vmPFC patients reported increased specific religious beliefs after brain injury. Conclusions The findings support the False Tagging Theory, and suggest that the vmPFC is critical for psychological doubt and resistance to authoritarian persuasion. PMID:22612576

  2. Multimodal investigation of epileptic networks: The case of insular cortex epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Y; Ghaziri, J; Nguyen, D K

    2016-01-01

    The insula is a deep cortical structure sharing extensive synaptic connections with a variety of brain regions, including several frontal, temporal, and parietal structures. The identification of the insular connectivity network is obviously valuable for understanding a number of cognitive processes, but also for understanding epilepsy since insular seizures involve a number of remote brain regions. Ultimately, knowledge of the structure and causal relationships within the epileptic networks associated with insular cortex epilepsy can offer deeper insights into this relatively neglected type of epilepsy enabling the refining of the clinical approach in managing patients affected by it. In the present chapter, we first review the multimodal noninvasive tests performed during the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients with drug refractory focal epilepsy, with particular emphasis on their value for the detection of insular cortex epilepsy. Second, we review the emerging multimodal investigation techniques in the field of epilepsy, that aim to (1) enhance the detection of insular cortex epilepsy and (2) unveil the architecture and causal relationships within epileptic networks. We summarize the results of these approaches with emphasis on the specific case of insular cortex epilepsy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  4. Beta-band activity and connectivity in sensorimotor and parietal cortex are important for accurate motor performance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae W; Ofori, Edward; Misra, Gaurav; Hess, Christopher W; Vaillancourt, David E

    2017-01-01

    Accurate motor performance may depend on the scaling of distinct oscillatory activity within the motor cortex and effective neural communication between the motor cortex and other brain areas. Oscillatory activity within the beta-band (13-30Hz) has been suggested to provide distinct functional roles for attention and sensorimotor control, yet it remains unclear how beta-band and other oscillatory activity within and between cortical regions is coordinated to enhance motor performance. We explore this open issue by simultaneously measuring high-density cortical activity and elbow flexor and extensor neuromuscular activity during ballistic movements, and manipulating error using high and low visual gain across three target distances. Compared with low visual gain, high visual gain decreased movement errors at each distance. Group analyses in 3D source-space revealed increased theta-, alpha-, and beta-band desynchronization of the contralateral motor cortex and medial parietal cortex in high visual gain conditions and this corresponded to reduced movement error. Dynamic causal modeling was used to compute connectivity between motor cortex and parietal cortex. Analyses revealed that gain affected the directionally-specific connectivity across broadband frequencies from parietal to sensorimotor cortex but not from sensorimotor cortex to parietal cortex. These new findings provide support for the interpretation that broad-band oscillations in theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands within sensorimotor and parietal cortex coordinate to facilitate accurate upper limb movement. Our findings establish a link between sensorimotor oscillations in the context of online motor performance in common source space across subjects. Specifically, the extent and distinct role of medial parietal cortex to sensorimotor beta connectivity and local domain broadband activity combine in a time and frequency manner to assist ballistic movements. These findings can serve as a model to examine

  5. Individual variation in the propensity for prospective thought is associated with functional integration between visual and retrosplenial cortex.

    PubMed

    Villena-Gonzalez, Mario; Wang, Hao-Ting; Sormaz, Mladen; Mollo, Giovanna; Margulies, Daniel S; Jefferies, Elizabeth A; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought. We found that strong intrinsic communication between visual and retrosplenial cortex was correlated with the degree of social thoughts about the future. Using an independent dataset, we show that the same region of retrosplenial cortex is functionally coupled to regions of primary visual cortex as well as core regions that make up the DMN. Finally, we compared the functional connectivity of the retrosplenial cortex, with a region of medial prefrontal cortex implicated in the integration of information from regions of the temporal lobe associated with future thought in a prior study. This analysis shows that the retrosplenial cortex is preferentially coupled to medial occipital, temporal lobe regions and the angular gyrus, areas linked to episodic memory, scene construction and navigation. In contrast, the medial prefrontal cortex shows preferential connectivity with motor cortex and lateral temporal and prefrontal regions implicated in language, motor processes and working memory. Together these findings suggest that integrating neural information from visual cortex into retrosplenial cortex may be important for imagining the future and may do so by creating a mental scene in which prospective simulations play out. We speculate that the role of the DMN in imagination may emerge from its capacity to bind together distributed representations from across the cortex in a

  6. [The role of the somatosensory cortex in the development of reflex analgesia].

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, M L; Reshetniak, V K; Durinian, R A

    1986-06-01

    The effects of reflex stimulation on the changes of nociception thresholds in animals before and after ablation of the somatosensory cortex were studied in behavioural experiments on adult cats. Electroacupuncture stimulation (EAP) was shown to increase nociception thresholds at all levels of the conventional scale. The ablation of both the first (S1) and the second (S2) somatosensory cortex led to EAP inefficiency at the side opposite to the ablation. Partial lesion of the lateral and suprasylvian gyri, used as control, did not affect the efficiency of reflex analgesia. It is concluded that somatosensory areas of the cortex, especially 2, are involved in reflex analgesia.

  7. Impairments in prehension produced by early postnatal sensory motor cortex activity blockade.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Donarummo, L; Hacking, A

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of blocking neural activity in sensory motor cortex during early postnatal development on prehension. We infused muscimol, either unilaterally or bilaterally, into the sensory motor cortex of cats to block activity continuously between postnatal weeks 3-7. After stopping infusion, we trained animals to reach and grasp a cube of meat and tested behavior thereafter. Animals that had not received muscimol infusion (unilateral saline infusion; age-matched) reached for the meat accurately with small end-point errors. They grasped the me