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Sample records for mellitus systematic review

  1. Bariatric Surgery in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mahawar, Kamal K; De Alwis, Nimantha; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is recognised as an effective treatment strategy for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also suffer with obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities but the role of bariatric and metabolic surgery in this group of patients is unclear. This systematic review investigates published English language scientific literature to understand the results of bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found that these patients can experience significant weight loss and comorbidity resolution with bariatric surgery. Though most patients also see a decline in total insulin requirement, glycaemic control remains difficult. Most of the patients reported in literature have undergone gastric bypass but data is insufficient to recommend any particular procedure.

  2. Oral manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Obradors, E; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Jané-Salas, E; Viñas, M; López-López, J

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus has become a global epidemic and presents many complications, usually proportional to the degree and duration of hyperglycemia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the different oral manifestations associated with Diabetes Mellitus. A MEDLINE search for "Diabetes Mellitus and oral manifestations" was performed. A further search was conducted for "diabetes" and its individual oral manifestation. Inclusion criteria were as follows: human clinical studies with a minimum of 30 patients; studies published in relevant scientific journals between January 1998 and January 2016. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed, assessing the strength of scientific evidence according to recommendations made by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford (OCEBM), which permits adequate assessment of prevalence studies. A total 3,712 patients (2,084 diabetics) were included in the studies reviewed. Of the 19 studies analyzed, 4 were longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional studies. Periodontal disease, periapical lesions, xerostomia and taste disturbance were more prevalent among diabetic patients. An association between diabetes and caries and mucosal lesions proved positive in 5 out of 10 studies. Despite multiple oral manifestations associated with DM, awareness of the associations between diabetes, oral health, and general health is inadequate. It is necessary for doctors and dentists to be aware of the various oral manifestations of diabetes in order to make an early diagnosis.

  3. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Huang, Edgar; Gao, Sujuan

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a major subtype of diabetes and is usually diagnosed at a young age with insulin deficiency. The life expectancy of T1DM patients has increased substantially in comparison with that three decades ago due to the availability of exogenous insulin, though it is still shorter than that of healthy people. However, the relation remains unclear between T1DM and dementia as an aging-related disease. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature on T1DM and cognition impairments by carrying out searches in electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We restricted our review to studies involving only human subjects and excluded studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-classified diabetes. A meta-analysis was first performed on the relationship between T1DM and cognitive changes in youths and adults respectively. Then the review focused on the cognitive complications of T1DM and their relation with the characteristics of T1DM, glycemic control, diabetic complications, comorbidities, and others. First, age at onset, disease duration, and glycemic dysregulation were delineated for their association with cognitive changes. Then diabetic ketoacidosis, angiopathy, and neuropathy were examined as diabetic complications for their involvement in cognitive impairments. Lastly, body mass index and blood pressure were discussed for their relations with the cognitive changes. Future studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of T1DM-related cognitive impairments or dementia.

  4. Gymnema sylvestre for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J

    2007-11-01

    Across the globe, there are an estimated 150 million people suffering from diabetes mellitus. Each of these people is at increased risk of developing a number of complications, each of which are associated with a reduction in quality of life and an increase in individual morbidity and mortality. However, despite these psychosocial implications, as well as the financial burden associated with the management of the disease, existing treatment options are costly, and have limited, palliative effects. One treatment that is emerging as a potential panacea for the management of diabetes is Gymnema sylvestre. Yet, what evidence is there to support the use of this extract? In order to answer this question, a systematic review of the literature and a discussion of the best available evidence on gymnema are needed. The findings of such a review are presented in this paper.

  5. Systematic review A systematic review of metabolite profiling in gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Jennifer; Xiong, Grace; Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes during, as well as subsequent to, pregnancy, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Because of the importance of early risk stratification in preventing these complications, improved first-trimester biomarker determination for diagnosing gestational diabetes would enhance our ability to optimise both maternal and fetal health. Metabolomic profiling, the systematic study of small molecule products of biochemical pathways, has shown promise in the identification of key metabolites associated with the pathogenesis of several metabolic diseases, including gestational diabetes. This article provides a systematic review of the current state of research on biomarkers and gestational diabetes and discusses the clinical relevance of metabolomics in the prediction, diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes. Methods We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE (PubMed) up to the end of February 2014 using the key term combinations of ‘metabolomics,’ ‘metabonomics,’ ‘nuclear magnetic spectroscopy,’ ‘mass spectrometry,’ ‘metabolic profiling’ and ‘amino acid profile’ combined (AND) with ‘gestational diabetes’. Additional articles were identified through searching the reference lists from included studies. Quality assessment of included articles was conducted through the use of QUADOMICS. Results This systematic review included 17 articles. The biomarkers most consistently associated with gestational diabetes were asymmetric dimethylarginine and NEFAs. After QUADOMICS analysis, 13 of the 17 included studies were classified as ‘high quality’. Conclusions/interpretation Existing metabolomic studies of gestational diabetes present inconsistent findings regarding metabolite profile characteristics. Further studies are needed in larger, more racially/ethnically diverse populations. PMID:25193282

  6. Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Júnia Maria Geraldo; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2017-03-01

    In this systematic review we analyzed studies that assessed serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or lipopolysacharide-binding protein (LBP) in diabetic patients compared with healthy people. Articles were selected using PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were endotoxemia, endotoxins, LPS, LBP, diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), insulin resistance, humans, epidemiologic studies, population-based, survey, representative, cross-sectional, case-control studies, observational, and clinical trials. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. There was a great variability in the estimates of metabolic endotoxemia among the studies. Most of the studies observed higher LPS or LBP concentrations in diabetic subjects than in healthy controls. T1DM and T2DM subjects presented higher mean fasting LPS of 235.7% and 66.4% compared with non-diabetic subjects, respectively. Advanced complications (e.g. macroalbuminuria) and disease onset exacerbate endotoxemia. Antidiabetic medications decrease fasting LPS concentrations. Among these medications, rosiglitazone and insulin present higher and lower effects, respectively, compared with other treatments. T1DM and T2DM seem to increase metabolic endotoxemia. However, some confounders such as diet, age, medication, smoking and obesity influence both diabetes and endotoxemia manifestation. A better understanding of the interaction of these factors is still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing diabetes mellitus using information technology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Riazi, H; Larijani, B; Langarizadeh, M; Shahmoradi, L

    2015-01-01

    To review published evidences about using information technology interventions in diabetes care and determine their effects on managing diabetes. Systematic review of information technology based interventions. MEDLINE®/PubMed were electronically searched for articles published between 2004/07/01 and 2014/07/01. A comprehensive, electronic search strategy was used to identify eligible articles. Inclusion criteria were defined based on type of study and effect of information technology based intervention in relation to glucose control and other clinical outcomes in diabetic patients. Studies must have used a controlled design to evaluate an information technology based intervention. A total of 3613 articles were identified based on the searches conducted in MEDLINE from PubMed. After excluding duplicates (n = 6), we screened titles and abstracts of 3607 articles based on inclusion criteria. The remaining articles matched with inclusion criteria (n = 277) were reviewed in full text, and 210 articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria. Finally, 67 articles complied with our eligibility criteria and were included in this study. In this study, the effect of various information technology based interventions on clinical outcomes in diabetic patients extracted and measured from selected articles is described and compared to each other. Information technology based interventions combined with the usual care are associated with improved glycemic control with different efficacy on various clinical outcomes in diabetic patients.

  8. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Lower Circulating Irisin Level in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, X-L; Jiang, W-X; Lv, Z-T

    2016-09-01

    Studies measuring circulating irisin levels in patients with insulin resistance conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have achieved controversial results. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the circulating irisin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI were searched to identify observational studies of circulating irisin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Two reviewers independently searched the databases and screened studies according to the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized collection form. Meta-analysis was performed. A total of 23 studies (17 cross-sectional and 6 case control) involving 1 745 diabetic patients and 1 337 non-diabetic controls were selected. Compared with non-diabetic controls, circulating irisin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with T2DM (SMD -1.72, 95%CI -2.49, -0.96; p<0.00001) and GDM (SMD -0.76, 95CI -1.31, -0.22; p=0.006), but 30 percent higher in patients with T1DM. Circulating irisin in Asian diabetic patients decreased more than European patients. The findings of our current review suggest that circulating irisin levels were decreased in patients with T2DM and GDM, but not in patients with T1DM.

  10. Exercise improves glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anne L; Shields, Nora; Taylor, Nicholas F; Frawley, Helena C

    2016-10-01

    Does exercise improve postprandial glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus? A systematic review of randomised trials. Pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Exercise, performed more than once a week, sufficient to achieve an aerobic effect or changes in muscle metabolism. Postprandial blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, requirement for insulin, adverse events and adherence. This systematic review identified eight randomised, controlled trials involving 588 participants; seven trials (544 participants) had data that were suitable for meta-analysis. Five trials scored ≥ 6 on the PEDro scale, indicating a relatively low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that exercise, as an adjunct to standard care, significantly improved postprandial glycaemic control (MD -0.33mmol/L, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.17) and lowered fasting blood glucose (MD -0.31 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.05) when compared with standard care alone, with no increase in adverse events. Effects of similar magnitude were found for aerobic and resistance exercise programs, if performed at a moderate intensity or greater, for 20 to 30minutes, three to four times per week. Meta-analysis did not show that exercise significantly reduced the requirement for insulin. All studies reported that complications or other adverse events were either similar or reduced with exercise. Aerobic or resistance exercise, performed at a moderate intensity at least three times per week, safely helps to control postprandial blood glucose levels and other measures of glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. PROSPERO CRD42015019106. [Harrison AL, Shields N, Taylor NF, Frawley HC (2016) Exercise improves glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 188-196]. Copyright © 2016 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Efficacy of probiotic supplement for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiajia; Pan, Qiangwei; Chen, Yumei; Zhang, Hongping; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-09-19

    Probiotic supplement might be beneficial for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome were fasting serum insulin and fasting plasma glucose. Meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effect or random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 830 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting serum insulin (Std. mean difference = -0.95; 95% CI = -1.73 to -0.17; p < .00001) and HOMA-IR (Std. mean difference = -1.12; 95% CI = -2.05 to -0.18; p = .02), but showed no substantial impact on fasting plasma glucose (Std. mean difference = -0.49; 95% CI = -1.05-0.08; p = .09), gestational age (Std. mean difference = 0.07; 95% CI = -0.20-0.34; p = .63), and gestational weight (Std. mean difference = -0.11; 95% CI = -0.38-0.16; p = .43). Compared with control intervention in gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotic supplementation was found to significantly reduce insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting serum insulin, but had no substantial influence on fasting plasma glucose, gestational age and gestational weight.

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Poorer Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Gang; Wang, Peng; Wang, Bin; Fu, Zheng-Ju; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Yan, Sheng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that diabetes mellitus was associated with cancer risk and prognosis, but studies investigating the relationship between diabetes mellitus and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) reported inconsistent findings. To derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic role of diabetes mellitus in HCC, we systematically reviewed published studies and carried out a meta-analysis. Methods Eligible articles were identified in electronic databases from their inception through September 16, 2013. To evaluate the correlation between diabetes mellitus and prognosis in HCC, the pooled hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poorer overall and disease-free survivals were calculated by standard meta-analysis techniques with fixed-effects or random-effects models. Results 21 studies with a total of 9,767 HCC patients stratifying overall survival and/or disease-free survival in HCC patients by diabetes mellitus status were eligible for meta-analysis. 20 studies with a total of 9,727 HCC cases investigated the overall survival, and 10 studies with a total of 2,412 HCC patients investigated the disease-free survival. The pooled HRs for overall survival and disease-free survival were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.66; P<0.001) and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.05; P = 0.001), respectively. The adjusted HRs for overall survival and disease-free survival were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.91; P<0.001) and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.63; P<0.001), respectively. In addition, for patients receiving hepatic resection, diabetes mellitus was associated with both poorer overall survival and poorer disease-free survival, and for patients receiving non-surgical treatment or patients receiving radiofrequency ablation, diabetes mellitus was associated with poorer overall survival. There was no evidence for publication bias. Conclusion Diabetes mellitus is independently associated with both poorer overall survival and poorer disease

  13. [Increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Hopmans, Tara-Eileen J P; van Houten, Chantal B; Kasius, Annemieke; Kouznetsova, Ouliana I; Nguyen, Ly A; Rooijmans, Sanne V; Voormolen, Daphne N; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Franx, Arie; Koster, M P H Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the long-term risk of developing type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two search strategies were used in PubMed and Embase to determine the long-term risks of developing T2D and CVD after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. After critical appraisal of the papers found, 11 papers were included, involving a total of 328,423 patients. Absolute and relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Eight studies (n=276,829) reported on the long-term risk of T2D and 4 (n=141,048) on the long-term risk of CVD. Follow-up ranged from 3.5 to 11.5 years for T2D and from 1.2 to 74.0 years for CVD. Women with gestational diabetes had a risk of T2D varying between 9.5% and 37.0% and a risk of CVD of between 0.28% and 15.5%. Women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of T2D (weighted RR: 13.2; 95% CI: 8.5-20.7) and CVD (weighted RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) compared to women without gestational diabetes. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus have a significantly increased risk of developing T2D and CVD. It is very important that gestational diabetes is recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor in daily practice. It would be desirable to screen this group of women for the presence of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is required to be able to specify the long-term risk of T2D and CVD and to demonstrate whether such screening is cost-effective.

  14. Therapeutic Chinese exercises (Qigong) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freire, Marcos Dantas Moraes; Alves, Cresio

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines have been increasingly used as a co adjuvant treatment of chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. However, very little is known, especially in western countries, about its effects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this review was to summarize and critically evaluate clinical evidences regarding the effect of Chinese therapeutic exercises (Qigong) in the treatment of T2DM. A systematic literature review, from January 1992 up to July 2011, searched articles indexed in the MEDLINE, LILACS and QIGONG databases, published in English and Portuguese. Terms combined in a Boolean search were "Qigong", "Chikung" "qi-gong" "diabetes" and "glycemic control". Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Out of 30 English written articles, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Their results suggested favorable effects of Qigong in reducing C-peptide and fasting blood glucose levels in addition of improving insulin resistance and glycosilated hemoglobin. The few studies, written in English, available on this subject had a somewhat limited methodological quality preventing definitive conclusions about the efficacy of Qigong Chinese exercises in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a need of large randomized clinical trials to prove the effectiveness of this modality of therapy, as well as the need for more research papers written in English in order to disseminate and expand the potential benefit of this therapy in the management of T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto-Segura, P; Eiris-Salvado, N; González-Lara, L; Queiro-Silva, R; Martinez-Camblor, P; Maldonado-Seral, C; García-García, B; Palacios-García, L; Gomez-Bernal, S; Santos-Juanes, J; Coto, E

    2013-10-01

    Several observational studies have assessed the association between psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, with inconclusive results. We set out to investigate the association between psoriasis, PsA and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Observational studies assessing the relationship between psoriasis or PsA and type 2 diabetes mellitus up to December 2012 were identified by electronic and hand searches in Medline, Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar. For each study we collected the first author's last name, publication year, country of origin, study design, characteristics of participants (sample size, age and sex), the variables incorporated into the multivariable analyses, and the odds ratios (ORs) of psoriasis associated with diabetes along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). From the data provided in each article, the crude OR was also calculated. Forty-four observational studies (in 37 articles) were identified for the final analysis. The pooled OR from random-effects analysis was determined to be 1·76 (95% CI 1·59-1·96). The highest risk was for patients suffering from PsA (OR 2·18, 95% CI 1·36-3·50). We also observed a dose effect in the risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, as patients considered as having severe psoriasis had higher risk (OR 2·10, 95% CI 1·73-2·55) than the pooled OR. We perform meta-regression and sensitivity analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity among the studies and to determine how they would influence the estimates, and found no significant influence in the results of the meta-analyses. The findings support the association between psoriasis, PsA and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some caution must be taken in the interpretation of these results because there may be heterogeneity between studies.

  16. Influence of exercise intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Wang, H; Ren, M

    2017-04-12

    Exercise intervention might be a promising approach to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effect of exercise intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of exercise intervention on gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome was the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, and gestational age at birth. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Five RCTs involving 1872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention, exercise intervention was found to significantly reduce the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (std. mean difference 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.89; P = 0.01), but demonstrated no influence on preterm birth (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.44-1.99; P = 0.86), gestational age at birth (std. mean difference -0.03; 95% CI -0.12 to 0.07; P = 0.60), glucose 2-h post-OGTT (std. mean difference -1.02; 95% CI -2.75 to 0.71; P = 0.25), birth weight (std. mean difference -0.10; 95% CI -0.25 to 0.04; P = 0.16), Apgar score less than 7 (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.21-2.91; P = 0.71), and preeclampsia (OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.53-2.07; P = 0.88). Compared to control intervention, exercise intervention was found to significantly reduce the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, but had no significant influence on preterm birth, gestational age at birth, glucose 2-h post-OGTT, birth weight, Apgar score less than 7, and preeclampsia.

  17. Effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) on metabolic parameters in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Javad; Namazi, Nazli

    2015-04-01

    Current evidence indicated beneficial effects of some medicinal herbs on metabolic parameters. Nigella sativa is an example of herbs which can ameliorate metabolic factors in diabetes mellitus. Despite several narrative review studies on medicinal properties of NS, it seems that there is no systematic review to summarize effects of NS on glucose homoeostasis and lipid profile in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the aim of present study was to review effects of N. sativa on metabolic parameters in diabetes mellitus. Pubmed, Science Direct, Google scholar and Springer databases were searched from 1995 till January 2014. Key words were included: N. sativa, black seed, diabetes, glucose level, lipid and insulin. Searching was limited to articles with English language. Review articles, case reports, abstract in symposium and congress, studies on N. sativa mixed with other plants were excluded. Based on critically appraise, eligibility of included articles were evaluated. Finally 19 eligible articles (2 human trials, 14 animal models and 3 in vivo/in vitro studies) were selected. They indicated that N. sativa can modulate hyperglycemia and lipid profile dysfunction with various potential mechanisms including its antioxidant characteristics and effects on insulin secretion, glucose absorption, gluconeogenesis and gene expression. Some studies compared effects of various types (extract, oil, powdered) of N. sativa with each other and they reported different characteristics with various types of black seed. N. sativa can improve glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes models. However, more clinical trials are necessary to clarify beneficial effects of N. sativa, its effective type and dosage for diabetes management and its complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association Between Periodontitis and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Esteves Lima, Rafael Paschoal; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; de Carvalho Dutra, Bernardo; Oliveira da Silveira, Juliana; Martins, Carolina Castro; Miranda Cota, Luis Otávio; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no systematic review of the potential association between periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the current literature. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to search for scientific evidence regarding the association between periodontitis and GDM. The present study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and registered (CRD2014010728) with PROSPERO (International prospective register for systematic reviews, University of York, York, UK). A search was conducted in three electronic databases without restrictions regarding language or date of publication. From 190 studies selected, 15 underwent full-text analysis. Eight studies were eligible (five cross-sectional and three case-control studies), and seven were entered in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed with tests for sensitivity and statistical heterogeneity. Summary effect measures were calculated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was a significant association between periodontitis and GDM in the meta-analyses of four cross-sectional studies (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.32) and two case-control studies (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.65). However, sensitivity tests for case-control studies showed a lack of consistency in data; when including one case-control study, the significance was null (meta-analysis of three case-control studies: OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.21). There was substantial clinical, methodologic, and statistical heterogeneity among the studies. The scientific evidence cannot affirm a positive association between periodontitis and GDM. Future studies with different designs in distinct populations should be conducted to investigate this association.

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus comorbidity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-01-01

    The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review. Data were extracted using standardized excel form and pilot tested. Median with interquartile range (IQR) was used to estimate prevalence of TBDM comorbidity. Associated/risk factors that were identified from individual studies were thematically analyzed and described. The prevalence of DM among TB patients ranged from 1.9% to 45%. The overall median global prevalence was 16% (IQR 9.0%-25.3%) Similarly, the prevalence of TB among DM patients ranged from 0.38% to 14% and the overall median global prevalence was 4.1% (IQR 1.8%-6.2%). The highest prevalence of DM among TB patients is observed in the studied countries of Asia, North America and Oceania. On the contrary, the prevalence of TB among DM patients is low globally, but relatively higher in the studied countries of Asia and the African continents. Sex, older age, urban residence, tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyle, poor glycemic control, having family history of DM and TB illness were among the variables identified as associated/risk factors for TBDM comorbidity. This systematic review revealed that there is a high burden of DM among TB patients at global level. On the contrary, the global prevalence of TB among DM patients is low. Assessing the magnitude and risk/associated factors of TBDM comorbidity at country/local level is crucial before making decisions to undertake TBDM integrated services.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus comorbidity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. Methods Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review. Data were extracted using standardized excel form and pilot tested. Median with interquartile range (IQR) was used to estimate prevalence of TBDM comorbidity. Associated/risk factors that were identified from individual studies were thematically analyzed and described. Results The prevalence of DM among TB patients ranged from 1.9% to 45%. The overall median global prevalence was 16% (IQR 9.0%-25.3%) Similarly, the prevalence of TB among DM patients ranged from 0.38% to 14% and the overall median global prevalence was 4.1% (IQR 1.8%-6.2%). The highest prevalence of DM among TB patients is observed in the studied countries of Asia, North America and Oceania. On the contrary, the prevalence of TB among DM patients is low globally, but relatively higher in the studied countries of Asia and the African continents. Sex, older age, urban residence, tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyle, poor glycemic control, having family history of DM and TB illness were among the variables identified as associated/risk factors for TBDM comorbidity. Conclusion This systematic review revealed that there is a high burden of DM among TB patients at global level. On the contrary, the global prevalence of TB among DM patients is low. Assessing the magnitude and risk/associated factors of TBDM comorbidity at country/local level is crucial before making decisions to undertake TBDM integrated services. PMID:28430796

  1. The Utility of Brief Cognitive Tests for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Dong, YanHong; Kua, Zhong Jie; Khoo, Eric Yin Hao; Koo, Edward H; Merchant, Reshma A

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in both middle-aged and older individuals. Brief cognitive tests can potentially serve as a reliable and cost effective approach to detect for cognitive decrements in clinical practice. This systematic review examined the utility of brief cognitive tests in studies with patients with T2DM. This systematic review was conducted according to guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. "PubMed," "PsychINFO," "ScienceDirect," and "ProQuest" electronic databases were searched to identify articles published from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2015. The search yielded 22 studies, with only 8 using brief tests as a cognitive screening tool, whereas the majority using these tests as a measure of global cognitive functions. In regard to cognitive screening studies, most had failed to fulfil the standard reporting of diagnostic test accuracy criteria such as Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy for dementia and cognitive impairment. Moreover, few studies reported discriminant indices such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of brief cognitive tests in detecting cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM. Among studies which used brief cognitive tests as a measure of global cognitive function, patients with diabetes tended to perform worse than patients without diabetes. Processing speed appeared to be particularly impaired among patients with diabetes, therefore, measures of processing speed such as the Digit Symbol Substitution Test may add value to brief cognitive tests such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment supplemented by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test indicate initial promise in screening for cognitive impairment in T2DM. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Zinc and type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis – a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pushparani, D S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing rapidly worldwide, making it a huge health pressure on society in both the developed and developing countries. During the last thirty years, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia is proving itself to be fatal. Periodontitis was considered as one of the main, oral health problems encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. There exists a direct relation between the risk of complications of diabetes and periodontitis over time. The present review gives an outline of the features that govern the interrelationship between zinc and diabetes mellitus with periodontal disease, including the physiologic mechanisms and clinical studies, and presents scientific evidences. The disturbance in the zinc micronutrient and increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes may bring about insulin resistance and the creation of diabetic complications. The progression of diabetes mellitus may bring about perturbation in micronutrient metabolism and status.

  3. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Danna, Sofia M; Graham, Eva; Burns, Rachel J; Deschênes, Sonya S; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone. Searches were run in CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed (MEDLINE) with no time or language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were of any quantitative study design, included participants aged 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus of which some must have presented with current depression, and measured cognition as an outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool was used for quality assessment of each study and its collected outcome. Fifteen articles were included in the final analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity in exposures, outcomes, and participant characteristics precluded a meta-analysis of any of the studies, and the risk of bias observed in these studies limits the strength of the evidence. Nonetheless, this review found the presence of comorbid depression was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes than for persons with diabetes alone. While large-scale preventive efforts must address epidemic levels of diabetes and its comorbidities, on the patient level healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the added difficulties that depression poses to patients and the extra support required to management diabetes in these cases. This systematic review is registered with the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination under registration number 2015:CRD42015025122.

  4. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Danna, Sofia M.; Graham, Eva; Burns, Rachel J.; Deschênes, Sonya S.; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone. Searches were run in CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed (MEDLINE) with no time or language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were of any quantitative study design, included participants aged 18 years or older with diabetes mellitus of which some must have presented with current depression, and measured cognition as an outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies–of Interventions tool was used for quality assessment of each study and its collected outcome. Fifteen articles were included in the final analysis. The high degree of heterogeneity in exposures, outcomes, and participant characteristics precluded a meta-analysis of any of the studies, and the risk of bias observed in these studies limits the strength of the evidence. Nonetheless, this review found the presence of comorbid depression was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes than for persons with diabetes alone. While large-scale preventive efforts must address epidemic levels of diabetes and its comorbidities, on the patient level healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the added difficulties that depression poses to patients and the extra support required to management diabetes in these cases. This systematic review is registered with the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination under registration number 2015:CRD42015025122. PMID:27526176

  5. Fructosamine measurement for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Balti, Eric V; Sobngwi, Eugène; Kengne, André Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fructosamine is a marker of glucose control reflecting the average glycaemic level over the preceding 2–3 weeks. Fructosamine has not gained as much popularity as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for diabetes mellitus (DM) control monitoring, and the related underlying reasons remain unclear. We aim to search for and summarise available evidence on the accuracy of fructosamine measurements to diagnose and monitor DM. Methods and analysis This systematic review will include randomised control trials, controlled before-and-after studies, time series designs, cohort studies, case–control studies and cross-sectional surveys reporting the diagnosis and/or monitoring of DM (type 1 DM, type 2 DM and gestational DM) with fructosamine compared with other measures of glycaemia (fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, random glucose, HbA1c), without any language restriction. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, supplemented with manual searches. Articles published from 1 January 1980 to 30 June 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. Two authors will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias with discrepancies resolved by consensus. We will assess clinical heterogeneity by examining the types of interventions and outcomes in each study, and pool studies judged to be clinically homogeneous. We will also assess statistical heterogeneity using the χ2 test of homogeneity and quantify it using the I2 statistic. Absolute accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity) will be pooled in a bivariate random-effects model, allowing for intersetting variability. Negative and positive predictive values will be computed for fructosamine, compared with another measure of glycaemia from the pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity, using Bayes’ theorem. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will use data from published studies and does not require ethics approval

  6. Exercise training and cardiac autonomic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bhati, Pooja; Shenoy, Shweta; Hussain, M Ejaz

    2017-09-06

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been found to independently predict all cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. It remains unclear whether exercise training could improve autonomic control in T2DM patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic function in T2DM patients. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, PEDro, Scopus and Web of science) were systematically searched to retrieve relevant evidence. Clinical trials administering exercise training for at least 4 weeks and examining either heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate recovery (HRR) as outcome measures were eligible. Eighteen articles were found to be relevant and were then assessed for characteristics and quality. Fifteen studies out of 18 found that exercise training leads to positive improvements in autonomic function of T2DM patients. Exercise participation enhances cardiac autonomic function of type 2 diabetics and therefore should be implemented in their management programs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotics for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Samah, Syamimi; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Lim, Siong Meng; Neoh, Chin Fen

    2016-08-01

    To systematically review evidence of probiotic interventions against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and analyse the effects of probiotics on glycaemic control among T2DM patients. Electronic search using five electronic databases was performed until October 2015. Relevant studies were identified, extracted and assessed for risk of bias. The primary outcomes of this review were glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and malondialdehyde, were identified as the secondary outcomes. Mean differences (MD) between probiotics and control groups for all outcomes were pooled using either Fixed- or Random-Effect Model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using I(2) and Chi(2) tests. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review, whereas only five were included in meta-analysis. Most RCTs were presented with low or unclear risk of bias. When compared to placebo, FBG was significantly lower with probiotic consumption (MD=-0.98mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.17, 0.78, p<0.00001), with moderate but insignificant heterogeneity noted. Insignificant changes between the groups were also noted for HbA1c and other secondary outcomes. A moderate hypoglycaemic effect of probiotics, with a significantly lower FBG was noted. Findings on HbA1c, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of probiotics in the clinical setting, however, remain inconsistent. The findings imply the need for well-designed clinical studies to further assess the potential beneficial effects of probiotics in management of T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential protective effect of lactation against incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanase-Nakao, Kanako; Arata, Naoko; Kawasaki, Maki; Yasuhi, Ichiro; Sone, Hirohito; Mori, Rintaro; Ota, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Lactation may protect women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the results of existing studies are inconsistent, ranging from null to beneficial. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to gather available evidence. Databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, and EMBASE were searched on December 15, 2015, without restriction of language or publication year. A manual search was also conducted. We included observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort study) with information on lactation and type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence among women with previous GDM. We excluded case studies without control data. Data synthesis was conducted by random-effect meta-analysis. Fourteen reports of 9 studies were included. Overall risk of bias using RoBANS ranged from low to unclear. Longer lactation for more than 4 to 12 weeks postpartum had risk reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with shorter lactation (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.01-55.86; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89; OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.36; type 2 diabetes mellitus evaluation time < 2 y, 2-5 y, and >5 y, respectively). Exclusive lactation for more than 6 to 9 weeks postpartum also had lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with exclusive formula (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.81). The findings support the evidence that longer and exclusive lactation may be beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention in women with previous GDM. However, the evidence relies only on observational studies. Therefore, further studies are required to address the true causal effect. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Elevated iron status and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cao, José C; Aranda, Núria; Ribot, Blanca; Tous, Mònica; Arija, Victoria

    2016-12-14

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to assess the relationship between elevated iron status, measured as hemoglobin and ferritin levels, and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study was recorded in PROSPERO (2013:CRD42013005717). The selected studies were identified through a systematic review of scientific literature published in The Cochrane Library and PubMed/MEDLINE databases from their inception until March 10, 2016, in addition to citation tracking and hand-searches. The search strategy of original articles combined several terms for hemoglobin, ferritin, pregnancy, and GDM. OR and 95% CI of the selected studies were used to identify associations between hemoglobin and/or ferritin levels with the risk of GDM. Summary estimates were calculated by combining inverse-variance using fixed-effects model. 2468 abstracts were initially found during the search. Of these, 11 with hemoglobin and/or ferritin data were selected for the meta-analyses. We observed that high hemoglobin (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.23-1.88), as well as ferritin (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.48-2.96) levels were linked to an increased risk of GDM. Low heterogeneity was observed in hemoglobin (I(2)  = 33.3%, P = 0.151) and ferritin (I(2)  = 0.7%, P = 0.418) meta-analyses, respectively. Publication bias was not appreciated. High hemoglobin or ferritin levels increase the risk of GDM by more than 50% and more than double, respectively, in the first and third trimester. Therefore, determining of hemoglobin or ferritin concentration in early pregnancy might be a useful tool for recognizing pregnant women at risk of GDM.

  10. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, R; Ranasinghe, P; Galappatthy, P; Malkanthi, Rldk; Constantine, Gr; Katulanda, P

    2012-04-19

    The number of people with diabetes and pre-diabetes are exponentially increasing. Studies on humans have shown the beneficial effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes. The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and meta-analyze the effects of Zinc supplementation on diabetes. A systematic review of published studies reporting the effects of Zinc supplementations on diabetes mellitus was undertaken. The literature search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of Zinc supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes was performed. The total number of articles included in the present review is 25, which included 3 studies on type-1 diabetes and 22 studies on type-2 diabetes. There were 12 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference in fasting blood glucose between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 18.13mg/dl (95%CI:33.85,2.41; p<0.05). 2-h post-prandial blood sugar also shows a similar distinct reduction in (34.87mg/dl [95%CI:75.44; 5.69]) the Zinc treated group. The reduction in HbA1c was 0.54% (95%CI:0.86;0.21) in the Zinc treated group. There were 8 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on lipid parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 32.37mg/dl (95%CI:57.39,7.35; p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed a similar distinct reduction in the Zinc treated group, the pooled mean difference from random effects analysis was 11.19mg/dl (95%CI:21.14,1.25; p<0.05). Studies have also shown a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after Zinc supplementation. This first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of Zinc

  11. Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes and pre-diabetes are exponentially increasing. Studies on humans have shown the beneficial effects of Zinc supplementation in patients with diabetes. The present study aims to systematically evaluate the literature and meta-analyze the effects of Zinc supplementation on diabetes. A systematic review of published studies reporting the effects of Zinc supplementations on diabetes mellitus was undertaken. The literature search was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus. A meta-analysis of studies examining the effects of Zinc supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in patients with diabetes was performed. The total number of articles included in the present review is 25, which included 3 studies on type-1 diabetes and 22 studies on type-2 diabetes. There were 12 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on fasting blood glucose in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference in fasting blood glucose between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 18.13mg/dl (95%CI:33.85,2.41; p<0.05). 2-h post-prandial blood sugar also shows a similar distinct reduction in (34.87mg/dl [95%CI:75.44; 5.69]) the Zinc treated group. The reduction in HbA1c was 0.54% (95%CI:0.86;0.21) in the Zinc treated group. There were 8 studies comparing the effects of Zinc supplementation on lipid parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. The pooled mean difference for total cholesterol between Zinc supplemented and placebo groups was 32.37mg/dl (95%CI:57.39,7.35; p<0.05). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed a similar distinct reduction in the Zinc treated group, the pooled mean difference from random effects analysis was 11.19mg/dl (95%CI:21.14,1.25; p<0.05). Studies have also shown a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressures after Zinc supplementation. This first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of Zinc

  12. A systematic review of foot ulcer in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. I: prevention.

    PubMed

    Mason, J; O'Keeffe, C; McIntosh, A; Hutchinson, A; Booth, A; Young, R J

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the role of preventative strategies in reducing foot ulcers in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, both in the general population and those identified to be at a raised risk. A systematic review of interventions to prevent diabetic foot ulcers. Available studies are generally unsatisfactory in their ability to answer the important questions relating to prevention. However, where people with diabetes receive well-organized and regular care with rapid referral to appropriate specialist multidisciplinary teams when problems (or their precursors) occur, ulcer morbidity can be substantially reduced. Foot ulcers are common in people with diabetes and are costly in terms of both patient morbidity and the use of healthcare resources. Although it is nearly a decade since the St Vincent Declaration called for a marked reduction in morbidity to be achieved through better patient management, available evidence suggests that the process of care in Britain is still very variable in quality. Foot care for people with diabetes must be organized to provide monitoring, education and referral in a manner acceptable to patients and realistic for local healthcare providers.

  13. Quality of Life in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fulcheri, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective. Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) could significantly increase the likelihood of health problems concerning both potential risks for the mother, fetus, and child's development and negative effects on maternal mental health above all in terms of a diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The current systematic review study is aimed at further contributing to an advancement of knowledge about the clinical link between GDM and QoL. Methods. According to PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies aimed at evaluating and/or improving levels of QoL in women diagnosed with GDM. Results. Fifteen research studies were identified and qualitatively analyzed by summarizing results according to the following two topics: GDM and QoL and interventions on QoL in patients with GDM. Studies showed that, in women with GDM, QoL is significantly worse in both the short term and long term. However, improvements on QoL can be achieved through different intervention programs by enhancing positive diabetes-related self-management behaviors. Conclusion. Future studies are strongly recommended to further examine the impact of integrative programs, including telemedicine and educational interventions, on QoL of GDM patients by promoting their illness acceptance and healthy lifestyle behaviors. PMID:28326332

  14. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Mirgafourvand, Mozhgan; Yaghoubi, Sina; Shahrisa, Elham; Farshbaf-Khalili, Azizeh

    2016-01-01

    Context One of the most common complications of pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is increasing worldwide. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may decrease the risk of various diseases such as diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil supplementation on the prevention and treatment of GDM. Evidence Acquisition This systematic review was performed by searching several databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Science Direct SID, Magiran and IranMedex since 1983. The researchers also searched for references in reviewed clinical trial articles in which fish oil supplementation was compared with placebo or no supplementation. Results Only two published and in-press articles are included in this review. Based on these studies, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (800 mg/d) had no effect on prevention of GDM [0.97 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.27)]. Furthermore, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation containing 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120 mg DHA had beneficial effects on insulin resistance in women with GDM (change from baseline: 1.5 ± 7.5 vs ‏3.5 ± 8.5 mIU/mL, P = 0.02) but did not influence fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment-Beta cell function (HOMA-B), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), or lipid profiles (P > 0.05). Conclusions There is not enough evidence to support or refute the routine use of fish oil supplements during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of diabetes. It is suggested that further randomized controlled trials be conducted to evaluate the role of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy. PMID:28191333

  15. Circulating Betatrophin Levels and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Chen, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Jia-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective The association between circulating betatrophin levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically review available literature linking betatrophin to GDM for a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating betatrophin levels and GDM in human. Methods PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Medline and CNKI were searched for studies published up to August 2016. Manual searches of references of the relevant original studies were conducted. Pooled estimates were measured using the fixed or random effect model. Overall effect was reported in a standard mean difference (SMD). All data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 12.0. Results Of 25 references reviewed, 8 studies met our inclusion criteria and contributed to meta-analysis. All the studies were used to evaluate the relationship between betatrophin levels in blood and GDM. Betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with GDM compared with those without GDM (SMD = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.41–1.68, P = 0.001). This evidence was more consistent among women with betatrophin blood draw during the third trimester (SMD = 1.3, 95% CI: 1–1.61, P < 0.001) and for women BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 (SMD = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.30–1.75, P < 0.001). Conclusions The evidences from this meta-analysis indicated that the levels of circulating betatrophin were significantly elevated among women with GDM compared with women with normal glucose tolerance, especially with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 and in the third trimester. PMID:28081192

  16. Association between Genetic Variants and Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Populations: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh; Enayati, Samaneh; Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Amoli, Mahsa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes mellitus as the most prevalent metabolic disease is a multifactorial disease which is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. In this systematic review, we assessed the association between genetic variants and diabetes/its complications in studies with Iranian populations. Methods. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Persian web databases were systematically searched up to January 2014. The search terms were “gene,” “polymorphism,” “diabetes,” and “diabetic complications”; nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, foot ulcer, and CAD (coronary artery diseases); and Persian equivalents. Animal studies, letters to editor, and in vitro studies were excluded. Results. Out of overall 3029 eligible articles, 88 articles were included. We found significant association between CTLA-4, IL-18, VDR, TAP2, IL-12, and CD4 genes and T1DM, HNFα and MODY, haptoglobin, paraoxonase, leptin, TCF7L2, calreticulin, ERα, PPAR-γ2, CXCL5, calpain-10, IRS-1 and 2, GSTM1, KCNJ11, eNOS, VDR, INSR, ACE, apoA-I, apo E, adiponectin, PTPN1, CETP, AT1R, resistin, MMP-3, BChE K, AT2R, SUMO4, IL-10, VEGF, MTHFR, and GSTM1 with T2DM or its complications. Discussion. We found some controversial results due to heterogeneity in ethnicity and genetic background. We thought genome wide association studies on large number of samples will be helpful in identifying diabetes susceptible genes as an alternative to studying individual candidate genes in Iranian populations. PMID:26587547

  17. International migration and gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; McDermott, Sarah; Rigol-Chachamovich, Juliana; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Stewart, Donna

    2011-11-01

    Influxes of migrant women of childbearing age to receiving countries have made their perinatal health status a key priority for many governments. The international research collaboration Reproductive Outcomes And Migration (ROAM) reviewed published studies to assess whether migrants in countries of resettlement have a greater risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than women in receiving countries. A systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL from 1990 to 2009 included studies of migrant women and GDM. Studies were excluded if there was no cross-border movement or comparison group or if the receiving country was not the country of resettlement. Studies were assessed for quality, analysed descriptively and meta-analysed. Twenty-four reports (representing >120,000 migrants) met our inclusion criteria. Migrants were described primarily by geographic origin; other relevant aspects (e.g. time in country, language fluency) were rarely studied. Migrants' results for GDM were worse than those for receiving-country women in 79% of all studies. Meta-analyses showed that, compared with receiving-country women, Caribbean, African, European and Northern European women were at greater risk of GDM, while North Africans and North Americans had risks similar to receiving-country women. Although results of the 31 comparisons of Asians, East Africans or non-Australian Oceanians were too heterogeneous to provide a single GDM risk estimate for migrant women, only one comparison was below the receiving-country comparison group, all others presented a higher risk estimate. The majority of women migrants to resettlement countries are at greater risk for GDM than women resident in receiving countries. Research using clear, specific migrant definitions, adjusting for relevant risk factors and including other aspects of migration experiences is needed to confirm and understand these findings.

  18. Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Karl; Koch, Klaus; Jeitler, Klaus; Matyas, Eva; Bender, Ralf; Bastian, Hilda; Lange, Stefan; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    To summarise the benefits and harms of treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Embase, Medline, AMED, BIOSIS, CCMed, CDMS, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, DARE, HTA, NHS EED, Heclinet, SciSearch, several publishers' databases, and reference lists of relevant secondary literature up to October 2009. Review methods Included studies were randomised controlled trials of specific treatment for gestational diabetes compared with usual care or "intensified" compared with "less intensified" specific treatment. Five randomised controlled trials matched the inclusion criteria for specific versus usual treatment. All studies used a two step approach with a 50 g glucose challenge test or screening for risk factors, or both, and a subsequent 75 g or 100 g oral glucose tolerance test. Meta-analyses did not show significant differences for most single end points judged to be of direct clinical importance. In women specifically treated for gestational diabetes, shoulder dystocia was significantly less common (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.75), and one randomised controlled trial reported a significant reduction of pre-eclampsia (2.5 v 5.5%, P=0.02). For the surrogate end point of large for gestational age infants, the odds ratio was 0.48 (0.38 to 0.62). In the 13 randomised controlled trials of different intensities of specific treatments, meta-analysis showed a significant reduction of shoulder dystocia in women with more intensive treatment (0.31, 0.14 to 0.70). Treatment for gestational diabetes, consisting of treatment to lower blood glucose concentration alone or with special obstetric care, seems to lower the risk for some perinatal complications. Decisions regarding treatment should take into account that the evidence of benefit is derived from trials for which women were selected with a two step strategy (glucose challenge test/screening for risk factors and oral glucose

  19. Effect of exercise during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Xie, Rongrong; Shen, Cainuo; Shu, Lianting

    2017-05-14

    Exercise showed some potential in preventing gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of exercise during pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of exercise during pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcome was the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Six RCTs involving 2164 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control intervention, exercise intervention was associated with significantly decreased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (Std. mean difference = 0.59; 95%CI = 0.39-.88; p = .01), but had no effect on gestational age at birth (Std. mean difference = -0.03; 95%CI = -0.12 to 0.07; p = .60), the number of preterm birth (OR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.43-1.66; p = .63), glucose 2-h post-OGTT (Std. mean difference = -1.02; 95%CI = -2.75 to 0.71; p = .25), birth weight (Std. mean difference = -0.13; 95%CI = -0.26 to 0.01; p = .06), and Apgar score less than 7 (OR = .78; 95%CI = 0.21-2.91; p = .71). Compared to control intervention, exercise intervention could significantly decrease the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, but showed no impact on gestational age at birth, preterm birth, glucose 2-h post-OGTT, birth weight, and Apgar score less than 7.

  20. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137

  1. Metabolic effects of L-carnitine on type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, A; Burgos-Peláez, R; Martínez-Faedo, C; Calvo-Gracia, F; Valero-Zanuy, M Á; Luengo-Pérez, L M; Cuerda-Compés, C

    2013-04-01

    Carnitine is an endogenous metabolite and exogenous nutrient with a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. Plasma levels of carnitine are reduced in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The aim was to evaluate the metabolic effects of the administration of L-carnitine in T2DM. A systematic review was performed. Relevant randomized, controlled-trials trials were searched in Pubmed, Trip Database and Cochrane Library, and selected when they had enough methodological quality assessed with the Jadad scale. Article search strategy included "Carnitine" OR "L-carnitine" AND "Diabetes -Mellitus" OR "Diabetes mellitus, type 2" OR "Noninsulindependent-diabetes mellitus". Meta-analysis was performed, and the difference of means calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the Q statistic. The systematic review included 4 trials with 284 patients. Oral L-carnitine lowered fasting plasma glucose [-14.3 mg/dl (CI95% - 23.2 to -5.4); p=0,002], total cholesterol [-7.8 mg/dL (95%CI -15.5 to -0.1); p=0.09], low density lipoprotein [-8.8 mg/dl (CI95% -12.2 to -8.5), p<0.0001], apolipoprotein-B100 [-7.6 mg/dl (CI95% -13.6 to -1.6); p=0.013] and apolipoprotein-A1 [-6.0 mg/dl (CI95% -10.5 a -1.5); p=0.523]. There was no significant heterogeneity. The changes in triglycerides, lipoprotein (a) or HbA(1c) were not significant. The administration of L-carnitine in type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an improvement in glycaemia and plasma lipids. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Klaus; Jeitler, Klaus; Matyas, Eva; Bender, Ralf; Bastian, Hilda; Lange, Stefan; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Objective To summarise the benefits and harms of treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Embase, Medline, AMED, BIOSIS, CCMed, CDMS, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, DARE, HTA, NHS EED, Heclinet, SciSearch, several publishers’ databases, and reference lists of relevant secondary literature up to October 2009. Review methods Included studies were randomised controlled trials of specific treatment for gestational diabetes compared with usual care or “intensified” compared with “less intensified” specific treatment. Results Five randomised controlled trials matched the inclusion criteria for specific versus usual treatment. All studies used a two step approach with a 50 g glucose challenge test or screening for risk factors, or both, and a subsequent 75 g or 100 g oral glucose tolerance test. Meta-analyses did not show significant differences for most single end points judged to be of direct clinical importance. In women specifically treated for gestational diabetes, shoulder dystocia was significantly less common (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.75), and one randomised controlled trial reported a significant reduction of pre-eclampsia (2.5 v 5.5%, P=0.02). For the surrogate end point of large for gestational age infants, the odds ratio was 0.48 (0.38 to 0.62). In the 13 randomised controlled trials of different intensities of specific treatments, meta-analysis showed a significant reduction of shoulder dystocia in women with more intensive treatment (0.31, 0.14 to 0.70). Conclusions Treatment for gestational diabetes, consisting of treatment to lower blood glucose concentration alone or with special obstetric care, seems to lower the risk for some perinatal complications. Decisions regarding treatment should take into account that the evidence of benefit is derived from trials for which women were selected with a two step strategy (glucose

  3. Periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Abariga, Samuel A; Whitcomb, Brian W

    2016-11-08

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance with first onset during pregnancy and is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. The etiology of GDM is not well understood, but systemic inflammation effects on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism is suspected. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that induces local and host immune responses and has been evaluated for a potential role in development of GDM. Results from studies evaluating the association between periodontitis and GDM are mixed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available data regarding the association between periodontitis and GDM. Twelve electronic databases were searched for observational studies of the association between periodontitis and GDM through March 2016. Eligible studies were assessed for quality and heterogeneity. Random effects models were used to estimate summary measures of association. We identified 44 articles from 115 potentially relevant reports of which 10 studies met our eligibility criteria. Clinical diagnostic criteria for periodontitis and GDM varied widely among studies, and moderate heterogeneity was observed. Random effects meta-analysis of all included studies with a total of 5724 participants including 624 cases, showed that periodontitis is associated with an increased risk of GDM by 66 %, (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI: 1.17 to 2.36; p < 0.05), I(2) = 50.5 %. Similar results were seen in sub-analysis restricted to data from methodologically high quality case-control studies including 1176 participants including 380 cases, (OR = 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.03 to 3.32); p < 0.05), I(2) = 68.4 %. Meta-analysis of studies that adjusted for potential confounders estimated more than 2-fold increased odds of GDM among women with periodontitis (aOR = 2.08, 95 % CI: 1.21 to 3.58, p = 0.009, I(2) = 36.9 %). Meta-analysis suggests that periodontitis is associated with a

  4. Combined exercise for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, César; Simões, Mário; Carvalho, Joana; Ribeiro, José

    2012-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major non-communicable chronic diseases in many countries. The importance of exercise in the prevention and management of this disease is evident. This paper briefly reviews the effects of combining aerobic and resistance exercises on glycemic control, and details the training and characteristics of various interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Literature searches were performed using electronic databases between the 1st of January 1950 and the 15th of September 2011. Of the 403 articles retrieved, 28 studies met our inclusion criteria. Combined exercise protocols seem to improve glycemic control to a greater extent than isolated forms of exercise. Nevertheless, length, duration, intensity, mode, number of exercises, sets and repetitions varied markedly among studies. Supervised training sessions, recommended structured exercises, and splitting aerobic and resistance training in separate sessions may be relevant for best results. Future studies should analyze the effects of different aerobic and resistance training modes, different training and progression methods, and whether one type of exercise is optimal, as these issues are likely to convey greater knowledge on type 2 diabetes mellitus management through combined exercise.

  5. Improving the adherence of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with pharmacy care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-07-07

    Oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetes care and is associated with a high level self-care behavior and self-management. However, poor adherence to diabetes treatment is common which causes severe health complications and increased mortality. Barriers to adherence may consist of complex treatment regimens often along with long-term multi-therapies, side effects due to the medication as well as insufficient, incomprehensible or confusing information or instructions provided by the health care provider. Multidisciplinary approaches can support adherence success and can enable a more effective management of diabetes care. One approach in diabetes care can be the involvement of a pharmacist. The aim was to analyze the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing pharmacist interventions for oral medication in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 491 hits, six publications were included. Two studies mainly examining educational interventions showed a significant improvement in adherence. Moreover, the quality of the included studies was deficient. Although pharmacist interventions might potentially improve adherence to type 2 diabetes mellitus medication, high-quality studies are needed to assess effectiveness.

  6. A Systematic Review: Family Support Integrated with Diabetes Self-Management among Uncontrolled Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2017-09-15

    The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were "type 2 diabetes," "self-management," "diabetes self-management education (DSME)," "family support," "social support," and "uncontrolled glycaemia." Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.

  7. A systematic review of the role of renin angiotensin aldosterone system genes in diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a vital role in regulating glucose metabolism and blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the association of the RAAS genes with diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications of retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: The relevant English-language studies were identified using the key words of DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), T2DM, renin angiotensin aldosterone polymorphisms or genotypes and RAAS from the search engines of MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus from January 1, 1995 to July 30, 2014. Inclusion criteria for selecting relevant studies were reporting the role of RAAS gene variants in the pathogenesis of T1DM or T2DM, diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic neuropathy and cardiovascular complication of DM. Results: The reviewers identified 204 studies of which 73 were eligible for inclusion in the present systematic review. The review indicates the angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphism might not affect the risk of DM. The role of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R) A1166C polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of DM could not be established. Studies indicate the absence of an association between three polymorphisms of AGT M235T, ACE I/D and AT1R A1166C and DR in DM patients. A protective role for ACE II genotype against diabetic peripheral neuropathy has been suggested. Also, the ACE I/D polymorphism might be associated with the risk of CVD in DM patients. Conclusion: More studies with adequate sample size that investigate the influence of all RAAS gene variants together on the risk of DM and its complications are necessary to provide a more clear picture of the RAAS genes polymorphisms involvement in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. PMID:25657757

  8. Systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.

  9. Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on Cognitive Decline in Patients with Alzheimer Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Cesari, Matteo; Liu, Fei; Dong, Birong; Vellas, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Basic and clinical research support a link between diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the relationship with AD progression is unclear. This review focuses on the association between diabetes and cognitive decline in patients with AD. The literature published through May 2015 was searched in 3 databases: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. Studies evaluating the effects of diabetes on patients with AD or cognitive decline were included, and extracted data were analyzed. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria for review. The results of these studies were inconsistent in terms of the association between diabetes and cognitive decline. Only 2 studies demonstrated that the presence of diabetes was independently related to the progression of cognitive decline in the patients with AD, and 3 studies suggested that histories of diabetes were not correlated with the changes in cognitive function in patients with AD. Half of the included studies even indicated that histories of diabetes were associated with lesser declines in cognitive function in patients with AD. Current evidence indicates that the link between diabetes and cognitive decline in patients with AD is uncertain. Further clinical studies are needed, with larger samples, long-term follow up and an extended battery of cognitive assessments.

  10. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Diabetes Mellitus in Europe and North America: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Ikenna C.; Hemkens, Lars G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Schikowski, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is hypothesized to be a risk factor for diabetes. Epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives We systematically reviewed epidemiological evidence on the association between air pollution and diabetes, and synthesized results of studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods We systematically searched electronic literature databases (last search, 29 April 2014) for studies reporting the association between air pollution (particle concentration or traffic exposure) and diabetes (type 1, type 2, or gestational). We systematically evaluated risk of bias and role of potential confounders in all studies. We synthesized reported associations with T2DM in meta-analyses using random-effects models and conducted various sensitivity analyses. Results We included 13 studies (8 on T2DM, 2 on type 1, 3 on gestational diabetes), all conducted in Europe or North America. Five studies were longitudinal, 5 cross-sectional, 2 case–control, and 1 ecologic. Risk of bias, air pollution assessment, and confounder control varied across studies. Dose–response effects were not reported. Meta-analyses of 3 studies on PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter) and 4 studies on NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) showed increased risk of T2DM by 8–10% per 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure [PM2.5: 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18); NO2: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.17)]. Associations were stronger in females. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Conclusion Existing evidence indicates a positive association of air pollution and T2DM risk, albeit there is high risk of bias. High-quality studies assessing dose–response effects are needed. Research should be expanded to developing countries where outdoor and indoor air pollution are high. Citation Eze IC, Hemkens LG, Bucher HC, Hoffmann B, Schindler C, Künzli N, Schilowski T, Probst-Hensch NM. 2015. Association between ambient air pollution and diabetes mellitus in Europe

  11. Oral health of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ahmad Faisal; McGrath, Colman Patrick; Yiu, Cynthia K Y

    2015-06-01

    This systematic review investigated the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS and EMBASE. The search included all studies published from inception of database to January 2014. A total of 1179 abstracts were analyzed for selection in 2 phases. The first phase selection was based on the title and abstracts alone. The selected abstracts were then included for second phase, where full articles were obtained. The selection was carried out by 2 independent reviewers (Kappa value=0.809). Only 37 articles were included for final analysis in this review. There is conflicting evidence in the caries experience between children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children. For periodontal health, most studies reported significantly greater plaque accumulation and higher gingival index in children with type 1 diabetes. Cohort studies reported no significant differences in perioodontal parameters over time. There is conflicting evidence regarding the caries experience of children with type 1 diabetes, but they exhibit poorer periodontal health status with greater plaque accumulation compared to healthy children. Further studies are warranted to assess the oral health status of children with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifestyle of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Guedes, Maria de Fatima Santos; Sá, Letícia Marques; Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review was to verify data concerning the relationship between the existent lifestyle and glycemic control in patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1). The methods applied included the literature search strategy, selection of studies by means of inclusion and exclusion strategies, according to the characteristics of the studies. The search was conducted in the Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, Cochrame, SciELO and IBECS databases between in the period between 2005 and 2014. The articles selected were studies in humans, investing lifestyle, physical activities and glycemic levels. Of the 1798 studies initially identified, 11 met the eligibility criteria. Among the studies analyzed, 1 cohort; 1 longitudinal prospective, 1 case control and 8 transversal studies that approached the proposed theme were related. Regular physical activity was the variable that presented greatest relationship with the improvement in glycemic levels. Healthy active life, balanced diet, physical activities and education in diabetes improved the glycemic control of the DM1 patient. The results allowed the authors to conclude that a lifestyle based on physical activities interfered directly in the health of patients with DM1, in addition to contributing the glycemic control.

  13. Behavioral Programs for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Jennifer; Armstrong, Marni J; Butalia, Sonia; Donovan, Lois E; Sigal, Ronald J; Chordiya, Pritam; Dhakal, Sanjaya; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa; Nuspl, Megan; Featherstone, Robin; Dryden, Donna M

    2015-12-01

    Whether behavioral approaches for self-management programs benefit individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus is unclear. To determine the effects of behavioral programs for patients with type 1 diabetes on behavioral, clinical, and health outcomes and to investigate factors that might moderate effect. 6 electronic databases (1993 to June 2015), trial registries and conference proceedings (2011 to 2014), and reference lists. 36 prospective, controlled studies involving participants of any age group that compared behavioral programs with usual care, active controls, or other programs. One reviewer extracted and another verified data. Two reviewers assessed quality and strength of evidence (SOE). Moderate SOE showed reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6 months after the intervention compared with usual care (mean difference, -0.29 [95% CI, -0.45 to -0.13] percentage points) and compared with active controls (-0.44 [CI, -0.69 to -0.19] percentage points). At the end of the intervention and 12-month follow-up or longer, there were no statistically significant differences in HbA1c (low SOE) for comparisons with usual care or active control. Compared with usual care, generic quality of life at program completion did not differ (moderate SOE). Other outcomes had low or insufficient SOE. Adults appeared to benefit more for glycemic control at program completion (-0.28 [CI, -0.57 to 0.01] percentage points) than did youth (-0.12 [CI, -0.43 to 0.19] percentage points). Program intensity appeared not to influence effectiveness; some individual delivery appears beneficial. All studies had medium or high risk of bias. There was scarce evidence for many outcomes. Behavioral programs for type 1 diabetes offer some benefit for glycemic control, at least at short-term follow-up, but improvement for other outcomes has not been shown. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014010515). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERD registration number: CRD42014010515).

  14. A systematic review of studies of web portals for patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Williams, Lovoria B; Hatzigeorgiou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Patient web portals are password-protected online websites that offer patients 24-hour access to personal health information from anywhere with an Internet connection. Due to advances in health information technologies, there has been increasing interest among providers and researchers in patient web portals for use by patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions. This article, which is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed, reviews web portals for patients with diabetes mellitus including patient web portals tethered to electronic medical records and web portals developed specifically for patients with diabetes. Twelve studies of the impact of patient web portals on the management of diabetes patients were identified. Three had a cross-sectional design, 1 employed mixed-methods, one had a matched-control design, 3 had a retrospective cohort design, and 5 were randomized controlled trials. Six (50%) of the studies examined web portals tethered to electronic medical records and the remainder were web portals developed specifically for diabetes patients. The results of this review suggest that secure messaging between adult diabetic patients and their clinician is associated with improved glycemic control. However, results from observational studies indicate that many diabetic patients do not take advantage of web portal features such as secure messaging, perhaps because of a lack of internet access or lack of experience in navigating web portal resources. Although results from randomized controlled trials provide stronger evidence of the efficacy of web portal use in improving glycemic control among diabetic patients, the number of trials is small and results from the trials have been mixed. Studies suggest that secure messaging between adult diabetic patients and their clinician is associated with improved glycemic control, but negative findings have also been reported. The number of randomized controlled trials that have examined the efficacy of web

  15. Prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in Northern Africa, a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major chronic disease burden all over the world. This requires a shift in healthcare priorities and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in all regions of the world to help plan and prioritize health programs. We systematically reviewed the literature on diabetes prevalence and its complications in the UN sub region of Northern Africa including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan and Western Sahara. Methods A systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes prevalence and complications in North Africa from January 1990 to July 2012. Literature searches were conducted using electronic databases. Results Diabetes prevalence ranged from 2.6% in rural Sudan to 20.0% in urban Egypt. Diabetes prevalence was significantly higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Undiagnosed diabetes is common in Northern Africa with a prevalence ranging from 18% to 75%. The prevalence of chronic diabetes complications ranged from 8.1% to 41.5% for retinopathy, 21% to 22% for albuminuria, 6.7% to 46.3% for nephropathy and 21.9% to 60% for neuropathy. Conclusions Diabetes is an important and common health problem in Northern Africa. Variations in prevalence of diabetes between individual countries are observed. Chronic complications of diabetes are common. Urgent measures are needed to prevent diabetes and its related complications in Northern Africa. PMID:23617762

  16. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Rizwana; Agarwal, Nidhi Bharal; Kaushal, Neelam; Mali, Ghanshyam; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Currently available antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs), despite being effective, do not provide adequate glycemic control in some cases and are associated with side effects. A sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, is a newer AHA, which acts by decreasing the reabsorption of filtered glucose thereby elevating the urinary glucose excretion in diabetics. This systematic review was completed to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of canagliflozin in T2DM. A literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted for randomized clinical trials of canagliflozin as an AHA by applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total 13 studies were included in the systematic review. The main outcomes assessed were change in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose. Canagliflozin monotherapy or combination therapy has the potential to decrease inadequately controlled hyperglycemia in T2DM. It acts by a novel insulin independent mechanism which complements the action of the existing AHA and improves glycemic control and decreases the body weight. Safety profile of canagliflozin indicates lower number of hypoglycemic episodes. Some manageable adverse events include genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, osmotic diuresis-related events etc. These findings affirm the utility of canagliflozin in T2DM; however, data on long-term safety and efficacy are needed.

  17. Probiotics as beneficial agents in the management of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Razmpoosh, Elham; Javadi, Maryam; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to play an important role in the management of diabetes. We conducted a systematic review on the role of probiotics in modulating parameters related to diabetes in animal and human experiments. We searched Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane central until June 2014, concerning the effects of probiotics on hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and their anti-diabetic efficacies by modulating the activities of proinflammatory and antioxidant factors. Our initial search retrieved 1120 reports. After screening titles and abstracts, 72 full-text articles were reviewed for eligibility. Ultimately, 33 articles met our inclusion criteria consisting of five human and twenty eight animal reports. Lactobacillus strains were, in particular, used in all studies with or without other strains. We found that probiotics have beneficial effects on glycemic controls, as all human studies showed significant reductions in at least one of the primary outcome endpoints which were the levels of fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, insulin resistance and onset of diabetes; similarly, all the animal reports, except for two, documented significant changes in these parameters. Regarding secondary outcome measures, that is, lipid profiles, pro-inflammatory and anti-oxidant factors, only one human and one animal study failed to show any significant changes in any of these parameters. This systematic review generally demonstrated beneficial effects of the probiotic administration, especially Lactobacillus sub-strains, on the management of diabetes-related blood parameters, although, more evidence, especially from human trials, is needed to confirm these effects and also to conduct a meta-analysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Depression in diabetes mellitus-A comprehensive systematic review of literature from an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Naskar, Subrata; Victor, Robin; Nath, Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes and depression are rapidly growing chronic health conditions that have significant negative impact upon the physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning, quality of life and often leads to socio-economic burden. Presence of both these comorbid diseases results in various short term and long term complications and increases the mortality as compared to those with depression or diabetes alone. Systematic review of the epidemiological data, risk factors and relationship between depression and glycaemic control among the Indian studies. We searched Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Google Scholar and Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ) databases to identify relevant Indian studies. Substantial variation in the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes was found across the 41 selected studies; according to this review the range is 2% to 84% (T1DM - 2-7%; T2DM - 8%-84%). Correlates of depression in diabetic patients are advancing age, female gender, low literacy rate, burden of being from a lower socioeconomic status, rural domicile, marriage and duration of diabetes of >2years, diabetes related complications and poor glycaemic control. Sedentary life without adequate physical activities, lack of self-care are often the factors that precipitates depression in a T2DM patient and vice versa. According to this review, among Indian population there is a significant association between depression and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic evaluations of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Yeo, Q Q; Ko, Y

    2016-04-01

    To review and evaluate the most recent literature on the economic outcomes of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Although pharmacist-managed services have been shown to improve people's health outcomes, the economic impact of these programmes remains unclear. A systematic review was conducted of six databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) original research; (2) evaluation of pharmacist-managed services in people with diabetes; (3) an economic evaluation; (4) English-language publication; and (5) full-text, published between January 2006 and December 2014. The quality of the full economic evaluations reviewed was evaluated using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist. A total of 2204 articles were screened and 25 studies were selected. These studies were conducted in a community pharmacy (n = 10), a clinic- /hospital-based outpatient facility (n = 8), or others. Pharmacist-managed services included targeted education (n = 24), general pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (n = 21), health screening or laboratory testing services (n = 9), immunization services (n = 2) and pharmacokinetic monitoring (n = 1). Compared with usual care, pharmacist-managed services resulted in cost savings that varied from $7 to $65,000 ($8 to $85,000 in 2014 US dollars) per person per year, and generated higher quality-adjusted life years with lower costs. Benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 1:1 to 8.5:1. Among the 25 studies reviewed, 11 were full economic evaluations of moderate quality. Pharmacist-managed services had a positive return in terms of economic viability. With the expanding role of pharmacists in the healthcare sector, alongside increasing health expenditure, future economic studies of high quality are needed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of these services. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  20. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Diabetes mellitus, a state of low bone turnover - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hygum, Katrine; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Harsløf, Torben; Vestergaard, Peter; Langdahl, Bente L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the differences in bone turnover between diabetic patients and controls. A systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted using the databases Medline at PubMed and EMBASE. The free text search terms 'diabetes mellitus' and 'bone turnover', 'sclerostin', 'RANKL', 'osteoprotegerin', 'tartrate-resistant acid' and 'TRAP' were used. Studies were eligible if they investigated bone turnover markers in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Data were extracted by two reviewers. A total of 2881 papers were identified of which 66 studies were included. Serum levels of the bone resorption marker C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (-0.10 ng/mL (-0.12, -0.08)) and the bone formation markers osteocalcin (-2.51 ng/mL (-3.01, -2.01)) and procollagen type 1 amino terminal propeptide (-10.80 ng/mL (-12.83, -8.77)) were all lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Furthermore, s-tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes (-0.31 U/L (-0.56, -0.05)) compared with controls. S-sclerostin was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (14.92 pmol/L (3.12, 26.72)) and patients with type 1 diabetes (3.24 pmol/L (1.52, 4.96)) compared with controls. Also, s-osteoprotegerin was increased among patients with diabetes compared with controls (2.67 pmol/L (0.21, 5.14)). Markers of both bone formation and bone resorption are decreased in patients with diabetes. This suggests that diabetes mellitus is a state of low bone turnover, which in turn may lead to more fragile bone. Altered levels of sclerostin and osteoprotegerin may be responsible for this. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Telemedicine interventions for gestational diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rasekaba, Tshepo M; Furler, John; Blackberry, Irene; Tacey, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Lim, Kwang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of telemedicine on GDM service and maternal, and foetal outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) of telemedicine interventions for GDM was conducted. We searched English publications from 01/01/1990 to 31/08/2013, with further new publication tracking to June 2015 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry electronic databases. Findings are presented as standardised mean difference (SMD) and odds ratios (OR) or narrative and quantitative description of findings where meta-analysis was not possible. Our search yielded 721 abstracts. Four met the inclusion criteria; two publications arose from the same study, resulting in three studies for review. All studies compared telemedicine to usual care. Telemedicine was associated with significantly fewer unscheduled GDM clinic visits, SMD. Quality of life, glycaemic control (HbA1c, pre and postprandial blood glucose level (BGL)), and caesarean section rate were similar between the telemedicine and usual care groups. None of the studies evaluated costs. Telemedicine has the potential to streamline GDM service utilisation without compromising maternal and foetal outcomes. Its advantage may lie in the convenience of reducing face-to-face and unscheduled consultations. Studies are limited and more trials that include cost evaluation are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shared medical appointments for patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Edelman, David; Gierisch, Jennifer M; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Oddone, Eugene; Williams, John W

    2015-01-01

    Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are an increasingly used system-redesign strategy for improving access to and quality of chronic illness care. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature on SMA interventions for patients with diabetes in order to understand their impact on outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from January 1996 through April 2012. PubMed search updated June 2013. English-language peer-reviewed publications of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nonrandomized cluster controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, or interrupted time-series designs conducted among adult patients with diabetes. Two independent reviewers used prespecified criteria to screen titles and abstracts for full text review. Two different reviewers abstracted data and rated study quality and strength of evidence. When possible, we used random-effects models to synthesize the effects quantitatively, reporting by a weighted difference of the means when the same scale was used across studies, and a standardized mean difference when the scales differed. We measured heterogeneity in study effects using Forest Plots, Cochran's Q, and I(2), and explored heterogeneity by using subgroup analyses for categorical variables and meta-regression analyses for continuous or discrete variables. Outcomes not suitable to meta-analysis were summarized qualitatively. Twenty-five articles representing 17 unique studies compared SMA interventions with usual care. Among patients with diabetes, SMAs improved hemoglobin A1c (∆ = -0.55 percentage points [95 % CI, -0.11 to -0.99]); improved systolic blood pressure (∆ = -5.2 mmHg [95 % CI, -3.0 to -7.4]); and did not improve LDL cholesterol (∆ = -6.6 mg/dl [95 % CI, 2.8 to -16.1]). Nonbiophysical outcomes, including economic outcomes, were reported too infrequently to meta-analyze, or to draw conclusions from. The A1c result had significant heterogeneity among studies, likely secondary to the

  3. Safety, Efficacy, and Bioavailability of Fixed-Dose Combinations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Updated Review.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Thangavel Mahalingam; Jayram, Jayasutha; Meghana Cheekireddy, Vishnu; Himaja, Dasari; Dharma Teja, Yalamanchili; Narayanasamy, Damodharan

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease characterized by insulin resistance. As time progresses, monotherapy often does not provide effective glycemic control, generating the need for an add-on therapy. Hence, multiple oral hypoglycemic agents formulated as a single-dose form called fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) play an essential role in glycemic control. The purpose of this systematic review is to appraise the recently published evidence on the safety, efficacy, and bioavailability of FDCs. A comprehensive literature search of PUBMED, Scopus, ScienceDirect.com, ProQuest, SpringerLink, clintrials.gov, Embase, and EBSCO using the key words FDCs, combination therapy, T2DM management, and add-on therapy was conducted. Studies on the safety profile/tolerability, efficacy, and bioavailability of various FDCs of oral hypoglycemic agents were preferred. The systematic review of all the publications suggests that FDCs of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) significantly reduce HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values, thereby efficiently reducing hyperglycemia in patients in whom monotherapy fails. FDCs are the bioequivalent of the concomitant drugs administered as individual components. Improved adherence to FDCs and the absence of serious adverse drug reactions compared with dual therapy play an important role in decreasing the incidence of hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM. From this updated review, it was found that metformin was the most widely used component of FDCs with other OHAs. Studies on the safety and efficacy of newly approved OHAs such as sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors were limited. An increasing number of randomized trials on the safety and efficacy of newly emerging FDCs suggests that they would be better treatment options for T2DM patients.

  4. Association of diabetes mellitus and structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Qavam, Soqra Ebrahimi; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and academic performance have been of great interest to researchers during the year to date. Many studies have been conducted to discover this relationship during three recent decades. But, evaluation of the structural changes of brain in the context of diabetes is of paramount importance especially in children and adolescents. This study is a systematic review conducted to investigate the structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents living with diabetes. Among about 500 papers published in this area in Pubmed and SCOPUS, 13 articles in the field of assessing structural changes in the central nervous system in children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus were entered into the evaluation process. As can be seen in these studies, a huge proportion of structures of the central nervous system have been affected by diabetes that include different areas of gray and white matters. In the majority of these studies, it has become clear that high glycemic changes, especially recurrent hyperglycemic attacks are very seriously associated with structural changes in the brain. It seems the findings of this review can positively aid other researchers to develop medical guidelines to prevent or resolve the brain changes in central nervous structure and consequently cognitive impairments in children and adolescents.

  5. Effect of diabetes mellitus on walking distance parameters after supervised exercise therapy for intermittent claudication: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hageman, David; Gommans, Lindy Nm; Scheltinga, Marc Rm; Teijink, Joep Aw

    2017-02-01

    Some believe that certain patients with intermittent claudication may be unsuitable for supervised exercise therapy (SET), based on the presence of comorbidities and the possibly increased risks. We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL) to summarize evidence on the potential influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the response to SET. Randomized and nonrandomized studies that investigated the effect of DM on walking distance after SET in patients with IC were included. Considered outcome measures were maximal, pain-free and functional walking distance (MWD, PFWD and FWD). Three articles met the inclusion criteria ( n = 845). In one study, MWD was 111 meters (128%) longer in the non-DM group compared to the DM group after 3 months of follow-up ( p = 0.056). In a second study, the non-DM group demonstrated a significant increase in PFWD (114 meters, p ⩽ 0.05) after 3 months of follow-up, whereas there was no statistically significant increase for the DM group (54 meters). On the contrary, the largest study of this review did not demonstrate any adverse effect of DM on MWD and FWD after SET. In conclusion, the data evaluating the effects of DM on SET were inadequate to determine if DM impairs the exercise response. While trends in the data do not suggest an impairment, they are not conclusive. Practitioners should consider this limitation when making clinical decisions.

  6. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2015-05-21

    To provide a quantitative assessment of the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Systematic review was conducted thorough MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of knowledge databases till 31(st) January 2014. This meta-analysis included the cohort studies that illustrated relative risk (RR) or odds ratio estimates with 95%CI for the predictive risk of CRC by T2DM. Summary relative risks with 95%CI were analyzed by using an effects summary ratio model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed by the Cochran's Q and I (2) statistics. The meta analysis of 8 finally selected studies showed a positive correlation of T2DM with the risk of CRC as depicted by effects summary RR of 1.21 (95%CI: 1.02-1.42). Diabetic women showed greater risk of developing CRC as their effect summary RR of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.01-49) with significant overall Z test at 5% level of significance was higher than the effect summary RR of 1.17 (95%CI: 1.00-1.37) of men showing insignificant Z test. The effect summary RR of 1.19 with 95%CI of 1.07-1.33 indicate a positive relationship between DM and increased risk of CRC with significant heterogeneity (I (2) = 92% and P-value < 0.05). Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis report that diabetic people have an increased risk of CRC as compared to non-diabetics.

  7. Systematic review: continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion with implantable insulin pumps for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Spaan, Nienke; Teplova, Alina; Stam, Gerrit; Spaan, Jos; Lucas, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with implantable insulin pumps (IIPs) is a treatment option for diabetes, which is not widely utilized nor freely accessible in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to summarize available evidence on use of IIPs for CIPII for diabetes treatment, since its introduction to clinical use on the following outcomes: HbA1c, hypoglycaemic events, and complications of treatment. complications of diabetes and treatment satisfaction. Following the procedure for a systematic review this paper may contribute to a balanced evaluation of the need and effectiveness of IIPs. A pre-specified, registered protocol (CRD42012002150) was followed. Studies investigating all diabetes populations and types of IIPs were considered eligible. The sensitive search strategy was developed in collaboration with a clinical librarian and contents experts. PUBMED, MEDLINE, CENTRAL EMBASE, trial registries, and other databases were searched. References were screened independently by two authors, and decisions on study selection were recorded. Of the 1,703 references screened, 362 were assessed as potentially eligible. Ninety-four were identified as studies using IIPs. Fifteen papers, together reporting on four-randomized trials, and eight cohorts were included. Narrative analysis is provided, and data tables are available. CIPII by way of IIPs is effective in lowering HbA1c levels and reducing hypoglycaemic events. Superiority of IIP treatment is likely related to patient characteristics, one subgroup being patients unable to acquire satisfactory glycaemic control with subcutaneous insulin treatment. Higher treatment satisfaction was also reported for this subgroup. For these patients, risk of morbidity may be considered acceptable. Patients' perspectives, influence on quality of life, and possible other outcomes should also be considered important factors in weighing individual benefits and risks. A more uniform method of reporting would

  8. Is there an association between tendinopathy and diabetes mellitus? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Tom A; Wong, Andrea M Y; Cook, Jill L; Gaida, Jamie E

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms limit adherence to exercise interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes may be susceptible to tendinopathy due to chronically elevated blood glucose levels. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this potential association by systematically reviewing and meta-analysing case-control, cross-sectional, and studies that considered both of these conditions. Nine medical databases and hand searching methods were used without year limits to identify all relevant English language articles that considered diabetes and tendinopathy. Two authors applied exclusion criteria and one author extracted data with verification by a second author. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model. Results were expressed as odds ratio (OR), mean difference or standardised mean difference with a confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by I(2). 31 studies were included in the final analysis of which 26 recruited people with diabetes and five recruited people with tendinopathy. Tendinopathy was more prevalent in people with diabetes (17 studies, OR 3·67, 95% CI 2·71 to 4·97), diabetes was more prevalent in people with tendinopathy (5 studies, OR 1·28, 95% CI 1·10 to 1·49), people with diabetes and tendinopathy had a longer duration of diabetes than people with diabetes only (6 studies, mean difference 5·26 years, 95% CI 4·15 to 6·36) and people with diabetes had thicker tendons than controls (9 studies, standardised mean difference 0·79 95% CI 0·47 to 1·12). These findings provide strong evidence that diabetes is associated with higher risk of tendinopathy. This is clinically relevant as tendinopathy may affect adherence to exercise interventions for diabetes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p < 0.0001; serum Cu MD = 4.06 μmol/L, p = 0.005; plasma and serum Cu MD = 2.67 μmol/L, p = 0.006). Stratification based on the type of diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  10. Zinc Status and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-A Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Chu, Anna; Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2016-11-05

    Zinc is an essential trace element with proposed therapeutic effects in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), however, the associations between zinc status and the prospective risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Type 2 DM have not been evaluated. The current systematic review aims to determine the relationships between zinc intake or plasma/serum zinc levels and prospective incidence of CVD and Type 2 DM. Fourteen papers describing prospective cohort studies were included, reporting either CVD (n = 91,708) and/or Type 2 DM (n = 334,387) outcomes. Primary analyses from four out of five studies reported no association between zinc intake and CVD events, when adjusted for multiple variables. Higher serum zinc level was associated with lower risk of CVD in three out of five studies; pronounced effects were observed in vulnerable populations, specifically those with Type 2 DM and patients referred to coronary angiography. The limited evidence available suggests no association between zinc status and Type 2 DM risk. Further investigations into the mechanisms of zinc's action on the pathogenesis of chronic diseases and additional evidence from observational studies are required to establish a recommendation for dietary zinc in relation to the prevention of CVD and Type 2 DM.

  11. Specific skin signs as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Rewend Salman; Wasim, Daanyaal; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Bygum, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state are associated with a number of skin manifestations. This study is a systematic review of the following manifestations: acanthosis nigricans (AN), skin tags (ST), diabetic dermopathy (DD), rubeosis faciei (RF), pruritus (PR), granuloma annulare (GA), necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), scleroedema diabeticorum (SD) and bullosis diabeticorum (BD). These conditions possibly relate to underlying diabetogenic mechanisms. Our aim was to determine whether skin signs are feasible as cutaneous markers for the prediabetic or diabetic state. Data were collected from the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. Articles were excluded if the populations presented with comorbidities or received treatment with drugs affecting the skin. Also, animal studies, studies with poor methodology and pilot studies were excluded. Among the 34 included original articles, an association with diabetes was shown as follows: in eight articles with AN, five articles with ST, three articles with GA, two articles with NL, PR and SD respectively and in one article with RF. Three papers indirectly showed an association of DD with diabetes. Association between bullous skin lesions and diabetes was only documented by case reports and case series. The results indicate a benefit of diabetes screening in individuals presenting with AN, ST or BD. Further studies are required to enlighten a possible association with RF, GA, SD or NL. Until such studies are available, it is advisable to screen individuals with the skin lesions presented by measuring their glycated haemoglobin.

  12. Silymarin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Voroneanu, Luminita; Nistor, Ionut; Dumea, Raluca; Apetrii, Mugurel; Covic, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and nephropathy—now the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and dialysis in Europe and the United States. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. Silymarin, an herbal drug with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve glycemic control and prevent the progression of the complications. In a systematic review and meta-analysis including five randomized controlled trials and 270 patients, routine silymarin administration determines a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels (−26.86 mg/dL; 95% CI −35.42–18.30) and HbA1c levels (−1.07; 95% CI −1.73–0.40) and has no effect on lipid profile. Benefits for silymarin on proteinuria and CKD progressions are reported in only one small study and are uncertain. However, being aware of the low quality of the available evidence and elevated heterogeneity of these studies, no recommendation can be made and further studies are needed. PMID:27340676

  13. Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus--systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Schoulda, Jennifer A; Smoliga, James M

    2015-01-01

    The red wine polyphenol, resveratrol, is highly effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal models, but there is no consensus regarding its efficacy in humans. We conducted a systematic review, which included searches in nine scholarly databases and six clinical trial registries, and identified randomized controlled clinical trials whereby resveratrol was used as an adjunct to pharmaceutical interventions in T2DM. Meta-analysis on clinical parameters was performed for available data. Of 764 articles originally identified, data from six unique datasets, examining a total of 196 T2DM patients (104 resveratrol, 92 control/placebo) ultimately met inclusion criteria. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) positive effects, indicating that resveratrol supplementation was more effective than placebo/control, were identified for systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, and creatinine, but not for fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, triglycerides, LDL, or HDL cholesterol. No major adverse events were reported and side effects of resveratrol were not different than placebo/control. Though limitations in sample size and treatment duration preclude definitive changes in clinical practice, significant improvements in multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers and an excellent safety profile support resveratrol as a leading candidate as an adjunct to pharmacological management of T2DM.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between mumps during childhood and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saad, Hafi Anwer; Patterson, Chris C; Cardwell, Chris R

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between mumps and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Literature searches were conducted using Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science including studies published before February 2014. Crude and, where available, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted from the published reports of each included study. Combined OR estimates and tests of heterogeneity were obtained using meta-analysis techniques. The analysis was repeated in subgroups of studies on the basis of quality defined by the score on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). In total, 18 articles met the eligibility criteria, and overall there was some evidence of a weak association between clinically diagnosed mumps and T1DM (OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.51; p=0.05) but marked heterogeneity between studies (I2=49%; p for heterogeneity=0.01). Restricting analyses to 13 high quality studies, there was little evidence of association between clinically diagnosed mumps and T1DM (OR=1.11, 95% CI 0.91-1.35; p=0.29) and there was much less heterogeneity (I2=26%; p for heterogeneity=0.18). Overall there was little evidence of any strong association between mumps infection and T1DM.

  15. An association of type 1 diabetes mellitus with auditory dysfunction: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhi‐Pan; Tian, Rui; Xing, Fen‐Li; Tang, Hui; Xu, Jin‐Jing; Zhang, Bing‐Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish the relationship between the presence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and auditory dysfunction in clinical settings by a systematic review and meta‐analysis of currently available published data. Data Sources and Review Methods The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang Data were searched for eligible relevant studies up to May 2016, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were used for additional manual search. All the articles included in this pooled analysis were determined according to the preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta‐analysis of pooled data was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results A total of 15 studies were included for further combined analysis. The results showed that patients with type 1 diabetes had a significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss than controls (odds ratio = 49.08, 95% confidence interval = 12.03–200.31, P < 0.00001); standardized mean of differences (SMD) of pure tone audiometry at 4,000 Hz between diabetes and controls was 0.87 (Z = 2.22, P = 0.03, I2 = 95%); SMD of the latency time was 0.54 (Z = 2.69, P = 0.007, I2 = 78%) for waves III and 0.61 (Z = 2.38, P = 0.02, I2 = 86%) for wave V, respectively; and SMD of the interpeak latency time was 0.41 (Z = 2.84, P = 0.005, I2 = 39%) for waves I to III and 0.61 (Z = 2.67, P = 0.008, I2 = 81%) for waves I to V, respectively, between diabetics and controls. Conclusion Our study reveals that there is relationship between the presence of type 1 DM and an increased risk for developing mild and subclinical hearing impairment. Level of Evidence NA. Laryngoscope, 127:1689–1697, 2017 PMID:27714821

  16. A systematic review on the impact of diabetes mellitus on the ocular surface.

    PubMed

    Shih, K Co; Lam, K S-L; Tong, L

    2017-03-20

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with extensive morbidity and mortality in any human community. It is well understood that the burden of diabetes is attributed to chronic progressive damage in major end-organs, but it is underappreciated that the most superficial and transparent organ affected by diabetes is the cornea. Different corneal components (epithelium, nerves, immune cells and endothelium) underpin specific systemic complications of diabetes. Just as diabetic retinopathy is a marker of more generalized microvascular disease, corneal nerve changes can predict peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, providing a window of opportunity for early treatment. In addition, alterations of immune cells in corneas suggest an inflammatory component in diabetic complications. Furthermore, impaired corneal epithelial wound healing may also imply more widespread disease. The non-invasiveness and improvement in imaging technology facilitates the emergence of new screening tools. Systemic control of diabetes can improve ocular surface health, possibly aided by anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective agents.

  17. Clinical outcomes of patients with and without diabetes mellitus after hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Lv, Yi; Wu, Rongqian

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical data regarding the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy are conflicting. To determine the impact of DM on the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy, we systematically reviewed published studies and carried out a meta-analysis. Methods A systematic literature search of Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Database was conducted from their inception through February 2, 2016. The combined relative risk (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was calculated. Results A total of 16 observational studies with 15710 subjects were eligible for meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that DM significantly increased the risk of overall postoperative complications (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.19–1.51; P<0.001), DM-associated complications (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.29–2.53; P<0.001), liver failure (RR 2.21; 95% CI 1.3–3.76; P = 0.028) and post-operative infections (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.01–2.5; P = 0.045). In addition, DM was also found to be significantly associated with unfavorable overall survival and disease free survival after liver resection. The pooled HR was 1.63 (95% CI 1.33–1.99; P<0.001) for overall survival and 1.55 (95% CI 1.07–2.25; P = 0.019) for disease free survival. Conclusion DM is associated with poor outcomes in patients undergoing hepatectomy. DM should be taken into account cautiously in the management of patients undergoing hepatectomy. Further prospective studies are warranted to explore effective interventions to improve the poor outcomes of diabetic patients undergoing hepatectomy. PMID:28182632

  18. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent and control diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Barker, Lawrence E; Chowdhury, Farah M; Zhang, Xuanping

    2010-08-01

    To synthesize the cost-effectiveness (CE) of interventions to prevent and control diabetes, its complications, and comorbidities. We conducted a systematic review of literature on the CE of diabetes interventions recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and published between January 1985 and May 2008. We categorized the strength of evidence about the CE of an intervention as strong, supportive, or uncertain. CEs were classified as cost saving (more health benefit at a lower cost), very cost-effective ($100,000 per LYG or QALY). The CE classification of an intervention was reported separately by country setting (U.S. or other developed countries) if CE varied by where the intervention was implemented. Costs were measured in 2007 U.S. dollars. Fifty-six studies from 20 countries met the inclusion criteria. A large majority of the ADA recommended interventions are cost-effective. We found strong evidence to classify the following interventions as cost saving or very cost-effective: (I) Cost saving- 1) ACE inhibitor (ACEI) therapy for intensive hypertension control compared with standard hypertension control; 2) ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy to prevent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with no ACEI or ARB treatment; 3) early irbesartan therapy (at the microalbuminuria stage) to prevent ESRD compared with later treatment (at the macroalbuminuria stage); 4) comprehensive foot care to prevent ulcers compared with usual care; 5) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control and early detection of complications compared with conventional insulin therapy for persons with type 1 diabetes; and 6) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control and early detection of complications compared

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent and Control Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Barker, Lawrence E.; Chowdhury, Farah M.; Zhang, Xuanping

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To synthesize the cost-effectiveness (CE) of interventions to prevent and control diabetes, its complications, and comorbidities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a systematic review of literature on the CE of diabetes interventions recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and published between January 1985 and May 2008. We categorized the strength of evidence about the CE of an intervention as strong, supportive, or uncertain. CEs were classified as cost saving (more health benefit at a lower cost), very cost-effective (≤$25,000 per life year gained [LYG] or quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), cost-effective ($25,001 to $50,000 per LYG or QALY), marginally cost-effective ($50,001 to $100,000 per LYG or QALY), or not cost-effective (>$100,000 per LYG or QALY). The CE classification of an intervention was reported separately by country setting (U.S. or other developed countries) if CE varied by where the intervention was implemented. Costs were measured in 2007 U.S. dollars. RESULTS Fifty-six studies from 20 countries met the inclusion criteria. A large majority of the ADA recommended interventions are cost-effective. We found strong evidence to classify the following interventions as cost saving or very cost-effective: (I) Cost saving— 1) ACE inhibitor (ACEI) therapy for intensive hypertension control compared with standard hypertension control; 2) ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy to prevent end-stage renal disease (ESRD) compared with no ACEI or ARB treatment; 3) early irbesartan therapy (at the microalbuminuria stage) to prevent ESRD compared with later treatment (at the macroalbuminuria stage); 4) comprehensive foot care to prevent ulcers compared with usual care; 5) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control and early detection of complications compared with conventional insulin therapy for persons with type 1 diabetes; and 6) multi-component interventions for diabetic risk factor control

  20. Basal insulin treatment intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive systematic review of current options.

    PubMed

    Raccah, D

    2017-04-01

    As type 2 diabetes mellitus progresses, most patients require treatment with basal insulin in combination with another agent to achieve recommended glycaemic targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence supporting the use of the available add-on treatments [rapid-acting insulin (RAI), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors] to basal insulin. MEDLINE, EMBASE and EBSCOhost were searched for English-language articles, and all those captured were original articles (case studies and narrative reviews were omitted). Data on study design, population demographics, interventions and outcomes were tabulated. The extracted outcome data included changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), as well as body weight and safety data. A total of 88 publications were deemed relevant. All treatments reduced HbA1c and FPG. The most pronounced reductions in PPG, an unmet need in patients not controlled by basal insulin, were seen following administration of RAIs and short-acting GLP-1 RAs, although data for this outcome are generally lacking. Body weight benefits were observed with GLP-1 RAs and SGLT-2 inhibitors. However, as only articles in English were included, the result was a possible publication bias, while the diversity of study designs and drug combinations limited comparisons between studies. The evidence supports effectiveness of the available add-on treatments to basal insulin. However, other factors, such as potential body-weight increases, convenience/compliance and adverse events, particularly hypoglycaemia, should be considered on a patient-by-patient basis to optimalize treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Intrauterine Device in Women with Diabetes Mellitus Type I and II: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D.; Steyn, Petrus S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Women with diabetes mellitus type I and type II need effective contraception for personal and medical reasons. Long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are among the most efficient and cost-effective methods. Study Design. We searched the Popline, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1961 to March 2013 for studies on the efficacy of the IUD in diabetic women and the possible changes it may produce in laboratory parameters. Studies of at least 30 subjects with DM1 or DM2 who were studied for 6 to 12 months depending on the method of analysis were eligible. Results. The search produced seven articles which gave event rate efficacy evaluable results and three which evaluated the effect of the IUD on laboratory parameters. One of the earlier efficacy studies showed an abnormally high pregnancy rate which sparked a controversy which is discussed in the Introduction section. The remaining 6 studies produced acceptable pregnancy rates. The three laboratory studies showed that the copper and levonorgestrel releasing IUD/IUS do not affect the diabetic state in any way. Conclusions. The copper bearing and levonorgestrel releasing IUDs are safe and effective in women with diabetes type I and diabetes type II although the evidence in the latter is limited. PMID:24396605

  2. Association between metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus and oncological outcomes of bladder cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cantiello, Francesco; Cicione, Antonio; Salonia, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Capogrosso, Paolo; Damiano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several metabolic abnormalities, its prevalence is increasing worldwide. To summarize the most recent evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome, its components and the oncological outcomes in bladder cancer patients, a National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed search for relevant articles either published or e-published up to March 2014 was carried out by combining the following Patient population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome terms: metabolic syndrome, obesity, body mass index, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, bladder cancer, risk, mortality, cancer specific survival, disease recurrence and progression. Metabolic syndrome is a complex, highly prevalent disorder, and central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension are its main components. Published findings would suggest that metabolic syndrome per se might be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in male patients, but it did not seem to confer a risk of worse prognosis. Considering the primary components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia), available data are uncertain, and it is no possible to reach a conclusion yet on either a direct or an indirect association with bladder cancer risk and prognosis. Only with regard to type 2 diabetes mellitus, available data would suggest a potential negative correlation. However, as the evaluation of bladder cancer risk and prognosis in patients with metabolic disorders is certainly complex, further studies are urgently required to better assess the actual role of these metabolic disorders.

  3. [MATERNAL DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS IMPACT ON CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT; SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Baena García, Laura; Rodríguez Blanque, Raquel; Latorre García, Julio; Mur Villar, Norma; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: en la actualidad, la diabetes se ha convertido en un problema de salud mundial. Las consecuencias que conlleva, tanto a corto como a largo plazo, hacen necesarios más estudios y conocimientos para su detección, control y tratamiento. Además, su prevalencia va en aumento, tanto en la población general como en las mujeres embarazadas. Se han descrito numerosos efectos en los bebés de madres diabéticas, tales como macrosomía fetal, hipoglucemia y un riesgo mayor de desarrollar obesidad en el futuro. Esta patología puede tener efectos negativos en el desarrollo neurológico del niño, pudiendo afectar a su capacidad intelectual, aumentando así las alteraciones cognitivas. Objetivo: analizar los estudios que han investigado la relación existente entre la diabetes mellitus durante el embarazo y su influencia en el neurodesarrollo del niño a corto y largo plazo. Métodos: se lleva a cabo una búsqueda sistemática y se seleccionan 20 artículos específicos sobre el tema, siguiendo las directrices PRISMA. Resultados: en los estudios consultados cabe destacar una gran variedad metodológica, tanto en los instrumentos y escalas de valoración cognitiva como en la edad en la que se estudia la muestra. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los investigadores concluyen que la diabetes materna puede tener consecuencias en el niño, tanto a corto como a largo plazo. También se describe una mayor tasa de obesidad, intolerancia a la glucosa, trastornos cardiovasculares y metabólicos y afectación del neurodesarrollo, pues aumentan los trastornos neuroconductuales y la discapacidad intelectual. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los estudios consultados coinciden en describir alteraciones del desarrollo neurológico en los hijos de madres diabéticas, tanto en la capacidad cognitiva como en las áreas concretas relacionadas con el lenguaje expresivo, las relaciones sociales, las habilidades gráficas y el desarrollo psicomotor. Asimismo, otros trabajos de investigaci

  4. Retinal microvascular calibre and risk of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and participant-level meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Lye, Weng Kit; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan E; Selvin, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Wong, Tien Y

    2015-11-01

    The calibre of the retinal vessels has been linked to diabetes mellitus but studies have not shown consistent results. We conducted a participant-level meta-analysis to evaluate the association between retinal arteriolar and venular calibre and diabetes. We performed a systematic review on MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published up to December 2014. We identified five population-based prospective cohort studies that provided individual-level data on 18,771 diabetes-free participants. We used discrete time proportional hazards models to estimate pooled HRs of diabetes associated with 1 SD (20 μm) change in retinal vascular calibre. We identified 2,581 incident cases of diabetes over a median follow-up period of 10 years (interquartile interval of 3.4-15.8 years). After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors, retinal venular calibre was significantly associated with incident diabetes (pooled HR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02, 1.15] per SD increase in venular calibre). This association persisted in analyses excluding individuals with <5 years of follow-up (1.07 [1.0, 1.12]) or those with impaired fasting glucose at baseline (1.10 [1.03, 1.17]); in subgroup analyses, the association was stronger in men than in women but was consistent across subgroups of race/ethnicity, smoking status, hypertension and BMI categories. Retinal arteriolar calibre was not associated with diabetes (0.95 [0.86, 1.06] per SD decrease in arteriolar calibre). Wider retinal venules but not narrower retinal arterioles were associated with a modestly increased risk for diabetes. Knowledge of pathological mechanisms underlying wider retinal venule may provide further insights concerning microvascular alterations in diabetes.

  5. Preventing the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults at high risk: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, John W; Khunti, Kamlesh; Harvey, Rebecca; Johnson, Maxine; Preston, Louise; Woods, Helen Buckley; Davies, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have an increased risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review was to quantify the effectiveness of lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical interventions in reducing the progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with IFG or IGT. A systematic review was carried out. A network meta-analysis (NMA) of log-hazard ratios was performed. Results are presented as hazard ratios and the probabilities of treatment rankings. 30 studies were included in the NMA. There was a reduced hazard of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with all interventions versus standard lifestyle advice; glipizide, diet plus pioglitazone, diet plus exercise plus metformin plus rosiglitazone, diet plus exercise plus orlistat, diet plus exercise plus pedometer, rosiglitazone, orlistat and diet plus exercise plus voglibose produced the greatest effects. Lifestyle and some pharmacological interventions are beneficial in reducing the risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle interventions require significant behaviour changes that may be achieved through incentives such as the use of pedometers. Adverse events and cost of pharmacological interventions should be taken into account when considering potential risks and benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Walther, Guillaume; Pérez-Martin, Antonia; Vicente-Salar, Nestor; Roche, Enrique; Vinet, Agnès

    2013-10-01

    In type 2 diabetes, in contrast to the well-documented endothelial dysfunction, studies assessing vascular smooth muscle (VSM) function have yielded discrepant results over the last two decades. We therefore sought to determine whether or not VSM function is impaired in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases, from their respective inceptions until December 2012, for articles evaluating VSM function in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis was performed to compare the standardised mean difference (SMD) in VSM function between individuals with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were used to identify sources of heterogeneity. Twenty-seven articles (1,042 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 601 control subjects) were included in this analysis. VSM function was significantly impaired in diabetic compared with control subjects (SMD -0.68, 95% CI -0.84, -0.52; p < 0.001). Although moderate heterogeneity among studies was found (I (2) = 52%), no significant publication bias was detected. Subgroup analyses showed a further decline in VSM function assessed in the microcirculation compared with the macrocirculation of individuals with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.009). In meta-regression, VSM function in the microcirculation was inversely associated with BMI and triacylglycerols and was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In addition to the endothelium, the VSM is a source of vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. An exacerbation of VSM function in the microcirculation may be a distinctive feature in type 2 diabetes.

  7. Incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HIV infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prioreschi, A; Munthali, R J; Soepnel, L; Goldstein, J A; Micklesfield, L K; Aronoff, D M; Norris, S A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with HIV infection in African populations. Setting Only studies reporting data from Africa were included. Participants A systematic search was conducted using four databases for articles referring to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, and T2DM in Africa. Articles were excluded if they reported data on children, animals or type 1 diabetes exclusively. Main outcome measures Incidence of T2DM and prevalence of T2DM. Risk ratios were generated for pooled data using random effects models. Bias was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool. Results Of 1056 references that were screened, only 20 were selected for inclusion. Seven reported the incidence of T2DM in patients with HIV infection, eight reported the prevalence of T2DM in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals and five reported prevalence of T2DM in HIV-treated versus untreated patients. Incidence rates ranged from 4 to 59 per 1000 person years. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between T2DM prevalence in HIV-infected individuals versus uninfected individuals (risk ratio (RR) =1.61, 95% CI 0.62 to 4.21, p=0.33), or between HIV-treated patients versus untreated patients (RR=1.38, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.87, p=0.39), and heterogeneity was high in both meta-analyses (I2=87% and 52%, respectively). Conclusions Meta-analysis showed no association between T2DM prevalence and HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy; however, these results are limited by the high heterogeneity of the included studies and moderate-to-high risk of bias, as well as, the small number of studies included. There is a need for well-designed prospective longitudinal studies with larger population sizes to better assess incidence and prevalence of T2DM in African patients with HIV. Furthermore, screening for T2DM using gold standard methods in this population is necessary

  8. Tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis update

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Mao, Qun-Xia; Xu, Hong-Xia; Ma, Xu; Zeng, Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tea has been suggested to decrease blood glucose levels and protect pancreatic β cells in diabetic mice. However, human epidemiological studies showed inconsistent results for the association between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to further explore the association between tea consumption and incidence of T2DM. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We performed a systematic literature search up to 30 August 2013 in PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Wanfang Database and CNKI database. Pooling relative risks (RRs) were estimated by random-effect models. Two kinds of subgroup analyses (according to sex and regions) were performed. Sensitive analyses were performed according to types of tea. Results Overall, no statistically significant relationship between tea consumption and risk of T2DM was found based on 12 eligible studies (pooling RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.03). Compared with the lowest/non-tea group, daily tea consumption (≥3 cups/day) was associated with a lower T2DM risk (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.97). Subgroup analyses showed a difference between men and women. Overall, the RRs (95% CI) were 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) for men, and 1.00 (0.96 to 1.05) for women, respectively. Tea consumption of ≥3 cups/day was associated with decreased T2DM risk in women (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). Overall, the RRs (95% CIs) were 0.84 (0.71 to 1.00) for Asians, and 1.00 (0.97 to 1.04) for Americans and Europeans, respectively. No obvious change was found in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions The results suggest that daily tea consumption (≥3 cups/day) is associated with a lower T2DM risk. However, further studies are needed to enrich related evidence, especially with regard to types of tea or sex. PMID:25052177

  9. Context, mechanisms and outcomes of integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien Ger; Elissen, Arianne Mathilda Josephus; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-15

    Integrated care interventions for chronic conditions can lead to improved outcomes, but it is not clear when and why this is the case. This study aims to answer the following two research questions: First, what are the context, mechanisms and outcomes of integrated care for people with type 2 diabetes? Second, what are the relationships between context, mechanisms and outcomes of integrated care for people with type 2 diabetes? A systematic literature search was conducted for the period 2003-2013 in Cochrane and PubMed. Articles were included when they focussed on integrated care and type 2 diabetes, and concerned empirical research analysing the implementation of an intervention. Data extraction was performed using a common data extraction table. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The CMO model (context + mechanism = outcome) was used to study the relationship between context factors (described by the barriers and facilitators encountered in the implementation process and categorised at the six levels of the Implementation Model), mechanisms (defined as intervention types and described by their number of Chronic Care Model (sub-)components) and outcomes (the intentional and unintentional effects triggered by mechanism and context). Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Most reported barriers to the implementation process were found at the organisational context level and most facilitators at the social context level. Due to the low number of articles reporting comparable quantitative outcome measures or in-depth qualitative information, it was not possible to make statements about the relationship between context, mechanisms and outcomes. Efficient resource allocation should entail increased investments at the organisational context level where most barriers are expected to occur. It is likely that investments at the social context level will also help to decrease the development of barriers at the

  10. The Experience of Hypoglycaemia and Strategies Used For Its Management by Community-Dwelling Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pamela, Tan Shu-Xian; Hui-Chen, Chen; Taylor, Beverley Joan; Hegney, Desley Gail

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia, a common complication of diabetes drug therapy, has been reported to influence therapy adherence and the quality of life of people with diabetes mellitus. No systematic reviews on the experience of hypoglycaemia have been undertaken. The extant literature has taken a medical model perspective focusing on the causes, prevalence, and impact of hypoglycaemia. To understand the meaningfulness of hypoglycaemia and how this condition impacts on a person with diabetes mellitus, a systematic review was undertaken exploring the experiences of hypoglycaemia in community-dwelling people with diabetes mellitus. This review aimed to synthesise evidence on the experience of hypoglycaemia, and the strategies used to control it in community-dwelling adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type of Participants - Community-dwelling adults (18 years of age and over) who had experienced hypoglycaemia from type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or who had used self-management strategies for hypoglycaemia were included.Phenomena of Interest - The experiences of hypoglycaemia in community-dwelling adults with diabetes mellitus and the strategies they used to self-manage hypoglycaemia were included.Type of Studies - Qualitative studies including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were included. Published and unpublished studies in English from January 2000 to August 2010 were gathered using a three-step search strategy. An initial limited search was conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify keywords and index terms, which were then used in a second search across the CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, JSTOR, EMBASE and MEDNAR databases. Additionally, the reference list of all studies was hand-searched for additional studies. Two reviewers independently assessed the retrieved studies for methodological validity, using standardised Joanna Briggs

  11. Family history of diabetes and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Asemi, Zatollah; Lankarani, Kamran B; Tabrizi, Reza; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Reza; Khatibi, Seyed Reza; Afshari, Mahdi; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Akbari, Maryam

    2016-12-13

    Gestational diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disorder being firstly diagnosed during pregnancy. The relationship between the family history of diabetes and the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been investigated in several primary studies with a number of contradictions in the results. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between the GDM and the family history of diabetes using the meta-analysis method. All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched with some specific keywords to find the related studies between 2000 and 2016. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in analysis for each study using a random-effect and Mantel-Haenzel method. We also determined heterogeneity among these 33 articles and their publication bias. We entered 33 relevant studies of 2516 articles into the meta-analysis process including 2697 women with family history of diabetes mellitus as well as 29134 women without. Of them, 954 and 4372 subjects developed GDM respectively. Combining the results of the primary studies using the meta-analysis method, the overall odds ratio of family history for developing GDM was estimated as of 3.46 (95% CI: 2.80-4.27). This meta-analysis study revealed that the family history of diabetes is an important risk factor for the gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Rishab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients with diabetes mellitus frequently experience erectile dysfunction. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to find efficacy and tolerability of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in patients with diabetes mellitus experiencing erectile dysfunction. Methodology: Electronic searches were carried out to identify English language peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which reported clinical efficacy of any PDE5 inhibitor in patients with diabetes mellitus having erectile dysfunction. Effect sizes were computed using Cohen's d, and I2-test was used to assess heterogeneity. Pooled mean effect sizes were computed using random-effects model. Number needed to treat (NNT), and the adverse event rates were computed. Results: The systematic review included a total of 17 studies yielding 25 comparisons. Three studies were open RCTs while others were double-blind RCTs. The pooled mean effect size of any PDE5 inhibitor over placebo was 0.926 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.864-0.987; I2 =26.3). The pooled mean effect size for sildenafil was 1.198 (CI: 1.039-1.357; I2 =0), for tadalafil was 0.910 (CI: 0.838-0.981; I2 =33.6), and for vardenafil was 0.678 (CI: 0.627-0.729; I2 =0). In pooled analysis, the NNT for sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil and any PDE5 inhibitor was 2.4, 2.6, 4.1 and 3.0 respectively. The most common side effects were headache, flushing, and nasal congestion. Conclusions: PDE5 inhibitors are effective and safe medications for the treatment of sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus experiencing erectile dysfunction. PMID:26180759

  13. Adverse peri-operative outcomes following elective total hip replacement in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tsang, S-T J; Gaston, P

    2013-11-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) has been shown to be a cost-effective procedure. However, it is not risk-free. Certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, are thought to increase the risk of complications. In this study we have evaluated the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing THR and the associated risk of adverse operative outcomes. A meta-analysis and systematic review were conducted according to the guidelines of the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology. Inclusion criteria were observational studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in the study population, accompanied by reports of at least one of the following outcomes: venous thromboembolic events; acute coronary events; infections of the urinary tract, lower respiratory tract or surgical site; or requirement for revision arthroplasty. Altman and Bland's methods were used to calculate differences in relative risks. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was found to be 5.0% among patients undergoing THR, and was associated with an increased risk of established surgical site infection (odds ratio (OR) 2.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 2.76)), urinary infection (OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.55)) and lower respiratory tract infections (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.26)). Diabetes mellitus is a relatively common comorbidity encountered in THR. Diabetic patients have a higher rate of developing both surgical site and non-surgical site infections following THR.

  14. The influence of diabetes mellitus on the post-operative outcome of elective primary total knee replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Liu, H; Xie, X; Tan, Z; Qin, T; Kang, P

    2014-12-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective method of treating end-stage arthritis of the knee. It is not, however, a procedure without risk due to a number of factors, one of which is diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to estimate the general prevalence of diabetes in patients about to undergo primary TKR and to determine whether diabetes mellitus adversely affects the outcome. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. The Odds Ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) were used to represent the estimate of risk of a specific outcome. Our results showed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among patients undergoing TKR was 12.2%. Patients with diabetes mellitus had an increased risk of deep infection (OR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.38 to 1.88), deep vein thrombosis (in Asia, OR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.58 to 4.20), periprosthetic fracture (OR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.45), aseptic loosening (OR = 9.36, 95% CI, 4.63 to 18.90), and a poorer Knee Society function subscore (MD = -5.86, 95% CI, -10.27 to -1.46). Surgeons should advise patients specifically about these increased risks when obtaining informed consent and be meticulous about their peri-operative care.

  15. [The methods within the evaluation of disease management programmes in control-group designs using the example of diabetes mellitus - a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Drabik, A; Sawicki, P T; Müller, D; Passon, A; Stock, S

    2012-08-01

    Disease management programmes (DMPs) were implemented in Germany in 2002. Their evaluation is required by law. Beyond the mandatory evaluation, a growing number of published studies evaluate the DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 in a control-group design. As patients opt into the programme on a voluntary basis it is necessary to adjust the inherent selection bias between groups. The aim of this study is to review published studies which evaluate the diabetes DMP using a control-group design with respect to the methods used. A systematic literature review of electronic databases (PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDPILOT) and a hand search of reference lists of the relevant publications was conducted to identify studies evaluating the DMP diabetes mellitus in a control-group design. 8 studies were included in the systematic literature review. 4 studies gathered retrospective claims data from sickness funds, one from physician's records, one study used prospective data from ambulatory care, and 2 studies were based on one patient survey. Methods used for adjustment of selection bias included exact matching, matching using propensity score methods, age-adjusted and sex-separated analysis, and adjustment in a regression model/analysis of covariance. One study did not apply adjustment methods. The intervention period ranged from 1 day to 4 years. Considered outcomes of studies (surrogate parameter, diabetes complications, mortality, quality of life, and claim data) depended on the database. In the evaluation of the DMP diabetes mellitus based on a control-group design neither the database nor the methods used for selection bias adjustment were consistent in the available studies. Effectiveness of DMPs cannot be judged based on this review due to heterogeneity of study designs. To allow for a comprehensive programme evaluation standardised minimum requirements for the evaluation of DMPs in the control group design are required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New

  16. Correlation between periodontal disease management and metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, F-L; Jané-Salas, E; Sabater-Recolons, M-M; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Segura-Egea, J-J; López-López, J

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes and periodontal disease share common features in terms of inflammatory responses. Current scientific evidence suggests that treatment of periodontal disease might contribute to glycemic control. The objective of the study is a review of the last three years. A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scopus databases, for articles published between 01-01-2013 and 30-06-2015, applying the key terms "periodontal disease" AND "diabetes mellitus". The review analyzed clinical trials of humans published in English and Spanish. Thirteen clinical trials were reviewed, representing a total of 1,912 patients. Three of them had samples of <40 patients, making a total of 108 patients and the remaining ten samples had >40 patients, representing a total of 1,804. Only one article achieved a Jadad score of five. Seven articles (998 patients, 52.3% total), presented a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c (p<0.05) as a result of periodontal treatment. In the six remaining articles (representing 914 patients, 47.8% of the total), the decrease in HbA1c was not significant. Patient follow-up varied between 3 to 12 months. In three articles, the follow-up was of 3, 4, and 9 months, in two 6 and 12 months. The majority of clinical trials showed that radicular curettage and smoothing, whether associated with antibiotics or not, can improve periodontal conditions in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, few studies suggest that this periodontal treatment improves metabolic control. However, there is no clear evidence of a relation between periodontal treatment and improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Experience of hypoglycaemia and strategies used for its management by community-dwelling adults with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Pamela; Chen, Hui-Chen; Taylor, Beverley; Hegney, Desley

    2012-09-01

    To synthesise the evidence on how community-dwelling adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus experience hypoglycaemia and the strategies they use to control it. Using a three-step search strategy, all published and unpublished qualitative studies in English from January 2000 to August 2010 were retrieved. Participants diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, experienced in self-managing their hypoglycaemia, and who lived independently in the community and attended primary care or outpatient clinics were included. An initial limited search was conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL to identify keywords and index terms, which were then used in a second search across the CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, JSTOR, EMBASE and MEDNAR databases. Additionally, the reference lists of all retrieved papers were hand-searched for additional studies. Retrieved studies were assessed for methodological validity using the standardised Joanna Briggs Institute-Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data, in terms of research findings, were extracted from included studies using the standardised JBI-QARI data extraction tool. Five studies (six papers) were included in the review. The 20 findings from the six papers were grouped into three categories, which were then synthesised into one overall finding - that is 'People with diabetes mellitus can self-manage their diabetes and thus prevent hypoglycaemic episodes more effectively when health professionals provide psychological, physiological and spiritual support, and an individually targeted education programme'. Within the constraints of this review, it appears that the patient-identified priority is to maintain normality in blood glucose self-management. There is also evidence that some people lack the knowledge to identify and self-manage hypoglycaemia. To enable community-dwelling adults with diabetes mellitus to self-manage hypoglycaemia, healthcare professionals should

  18. Pharmacist Interventions in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Pousinho, Sarah; Morgado, Manuel; Falcão, Amílcar; Alves, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem that is growing rapidly worldwide. A collaborative and integrated team approach in which pharmacists can play a pivotal role should be sought when managing patients with diabetes. To identify and summarize the main outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the management of type 2 diabetes. PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of any pharmacist intervention directed at patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with usual care. Outcome measures of interest included glycosylated hemoglobin (Alc), blood glucose, blood pressure, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, medication adherence, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and economic outcomes. The risk of bias in included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Thirty-six studies were included in this systematic review, involving 5,761 participants. The studies evaluated the effects of several pharmacist interventions carried out in various countries and in different health care facilities, such as community pharmacies, primary care clinics, and hospitals. The number of studies reporting each outcome of interest varied. Alc was evaluated in 26 studies, of which 24 reported a greater reduction in this outcome in the intervention group compared with the control group, with the difference in change between groups ranging from -0.18% to -2.1%. Eighteen studies assessed change in systolic blood pressure, of which 17 studies reported a greater improvement in this outcome in the intervention group, with the difference in change between groups varying between -3.3 mmHg and -23.05 mmHg. For diastolic blood pressure, a greater effect was also observed in the intervention group in 14 out of 15 studies, with the difference in change between groups varying between -0.21 mmHg and -9.1 mmHg. Thirteen studies

  19. Impact of diabetes mellitus on clinical outcomes of pancreatic cancer after surgical resection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yufang; Wu, Lupeng; Zhou, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer but its impact on postoperative outcomes and long-term survival after cancer resection remains controversial. A meta-analysis of published studies was conducted to address this issue. Methods An extensive electronic search of four databases was performed for relevant articles. Data were processed for meta-analysis using Review Manager version 5.1. Results Seventeen observational studies involving 5407 patients were subjected to the analysis. Overall morbidity or any type of complications and mortality were comparable between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Overall DM has a significant negative impact on survival (risk ratio [RR], 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.45; P = 0.01). Stratification by the type of DM revealed that new-onset DM (<2 years duration, RR, 1.54, 95% CI, 1.24–1.91; P <0.001) but not long-standing DM (≥2 years duration, RR, 1.74, 95% CI, 0.86–3.52; P = 0.12) was associated with reduced survival. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus does not affect perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer. However, new-onset DM confers a negative impact on survival of pancreatic cancer in patients undergoing surgical resection. PMID:28158300

  20. Association between -308G/A TNFA Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mauro Niskier

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a worldwide epidemic disease and its type 2 form comprises more than 95% of all cases. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine. Its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The control of expression of this cytokine is associated with insulin resistance and has a strong genetic influence. In order to understand this relationship, the literature from all case-control studies since 2000 to date was reviewed. The genotypes frequency results presented in ten publications with different ethnicities were compared. The correlation between the TNFA promoter genotypes and the risk of developing T2DM remains controversial due to the many discrepancies between the different studies available. Ethnic differences may play a role in these conflicting results, since the distribution of TNFA promoter polymorphisms is distinctive between individuals of dissimilar racial origin. Hence, although the relationship between T2DM incidence and presence of polymorphisms at position -308 of the TNFA gene is not entirely clear, the results of these studies suggest the need for further investigation. PMID:27822481

  1. Correlation between periodontal disease management and metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Losada, Flor-de-Liz; Jané-Salas, Enric; Sabater-Recolons, María-del-Mar; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Segura-Egea, Juan-José

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes and periodontal disease share common features in terms of inflammatory responses. Current scientific evidence suggests that treatment of periodontal disease might contribute to glycemic control. The objective of the study is a review of the last three years. Material and Methods A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scopus databases, for articles published between 01-01-2013 and 30-06-2015, applying the key terms “periodontal disease” AND “diabetes mellitus”. The review analyzed clinical trials of humans published in English and Spanish. Results Thirteen clinical trials were reviewed, representing a total of 1,912 patients. Three of them had samples of <40 patients, making a total of 108 patients and the remaining ten samples had >40 patients, representing a total of 1,804. Only one article achieved a Jadad score of five. Seven articles (998 patients, 52.3% total), presented a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c (p< 0.05) as a result of periodontal treatment. In the six remaining articles (representing 914 patients, 47.8% of the total), the decrease in HbA1c was not significant. Patient follow-up varied between 3 to 12 months. In three articles, the follow-up was of 3, 4, and 9 months, in two 6 and 12 months. Conclusions The majority of clinical trials showed that radicular curettage and smoothing, whether associated with antibiotics or not, can improve periodontal conditions in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, few studies suggest that this periodontal treatment improves metabolic control. However, there is no clear evidence of a relation between periodontal treatment and improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Key words:Diabetes, periodontal disease, HbA1c, metabolic control. PMID:26827070

  2. Prevalence and future prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A systematic review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-06-01

    To highlight the prevalence and future projections of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The systematic analytic study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from Dec 2014 to April 2015. Systematic bibliographic search of scientific databases including ISI-web of science, PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted with key words of "diabetes mellitus" "prevalence", "incidence". Total 46 peer reviewed papers were selected and examined. All the experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia were included. There was no restriction on publication prestige and language of the publication. Finally, we included 21 publications and remaining 25 papers were excluded. The future predicted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was calculated on the results of the published studies by regressing the 33 years (1982-2015) of prevalence rate of diabetes against the time period. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia is 32.8%. However, the predicted prevalence will be 35.37% in 2020; 40.37% in 2025 and 45.36% in the year 2030. The coefficient on time factor indicated that prevalence rate has increased during 1982-2015. Saudi Arabia has a highest prevalence (32.8%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We forecast that the incidence of type 2 diabetes will increase from 32.8% in 2015 to 45.36% in 2030. Saudi Arabia should include diabetes preventive measures on a war footing basis in their national health policy to minimize the burden of the disease.

  3. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women of childbearing age in Africa during 2000–2016: protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Werfalli; Magodoro, Itai; Kengne, Andre P; Norris, Shane A; Levitt, Naomi S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction African women of childbearing age are increasingly being exposed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), most particularly obesity. A differentiating feature of diabetes in women of childbearing age is that the disease may affect the mother and the developing fetus. Apart from mapping the extent of the problem, understanding the prevalence of T2DM in African women of childbearing age can help to galvanise targeted interventions for reducing the burden of T2DM. This is a protocol for a systematic review aiming to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for T2DM in women of childbearing age (15–49 years) in Africa. Methods and analyses We will carry out a comprehensive literature search among a number of databases, using appropriate adaptations of the African search filter to identify diabetes prevalence studies, published from 2000 to 2016, among African women of childbearing age (15–49 years) according to the WHO definition. Full copies of articles identified through searches and considered to meet the inclusion criteria will be obtained for data extraction and synthesis. The analysis of the primary outcome (prevalent diabetes) will include two steps: (1) identification of data sources and documenting estimates and (2) application of the random-effects meta-analysis model to aggregate prevalence estimates and account for between-study variability in calculating the overall pooled estimates and 95% CI for diabetes prevalence. We will assess heterogeneity and publication bias using established methods. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for this study, given that this is a protocol for a systematic review, which utilises published data. The findings of this study will be widely disseminated through peer reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial

  4. Patient Perspectives on Quality of Life With Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanstone, Meredith; Rewegan, Alex; Brundisini, Francesca; Dejean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus may be candidates for pancreatic islet cell transplantation. This report synthesizes qualitative research on how patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes perceive their quality of life. Objective The objective of this analysis was to examine the perceptions of patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes on how it affects their lived experience and quality of life. Data Sources This report synthesizes 31 primary qualitative studies to examine quality of life from the perspectives of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their families or partners. Review Methods We performed a qualitative meta-synthesis to integrate findings across primary research studies. Results Long- and short-term negative consequences of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes affect all aspects of patients’ lives: physical, emotional, practical, and social. The effect on each domain is far-reaching, and effects interact across domains. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels lead to substantial psychological distress, negative moods, cognitive difficulties, irritable or aggressive behaviour, and closely associated problems with relationships, self-image, and confidence. Emotional distress is pervasive and under-addressed by health care providers. Patients live in fear of complications from diabetes over the long term. In the shorter term, they are anxious about the personal, social, and professional consequences of hypoglycemic episodes (e.g., injury, humiliation), and may curtail normal activities such as driving or socializing because they are worried about having an episode. The quality of life for patients’ family members is also negatively impacted by uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. Conclusions Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes has significant negative impacts on the quality of life of both people with the disease and their families. PMID:26649106

  5. A systematic review of qualitative research on the contributory factors leading to medicine-related problems from the perspectives of adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, A; Ghaleb, M; Aljadhey, H; Aslanpour, Z

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To synthesise contributing factors leading to medicine-related problems (MRPs) in adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or diabetes mellitus from their perspectives. Design A systematic literature review of qualitative studies regarding the contributory factors leading to MRPs, medication errors and non-adherence, followed by a thematic synthesis of the studies. Data sources We screened Pubmed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycInfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstract and PsycExtra for qualitative studies (interviews, focus groups and questionnaires of a qualitative nature). Review methods Thematic synthesis was achieved by coding and developing themes from the findings of qualitative studies. Results The synthesis yielded 21 studies that satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three themes emerged that involved contributing factors to MRPs: patient-related factors including socioeconomic factors (beliefs, feeling victimised, history of the condition, lack of finance, lack of motivation and low self-esteem) and lifestyle factors (diet, lack of exercise/time to see the doctor, obesity, smoking and stress), medicine-related factors (belief in natural remedies, fear of medicine, lack of belief in medicines, lack of knowledge, non-adherence and polypharmacy) and condition-related factors (lack of knowledge/understanding, fear of condition and its complications, and lack of control). Conclusions MRPs represent a major health threat, especially among adult patients with cardiovascular diseases and/or diabetes mellitus. The patients’ perspectives uncovered hidden factors that could cause and/or contribute to MRPs in these groups of patients. PMID:25239295

  6. Is chronic toxoplasmosis a risk factor for diabetes mellitus? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Dalvand, Sahar; Daryani, Ahmad; Galvan-Ramirez, Ma de la Luz; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    The global protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, infects many warm-blooded animals and humans by employing different transmission routes. There have been some recent studies on the probable relevance of infectious agents and diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the possible association between chronic toxoplasmosis and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Nine English literature databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, IngentaConnect, and Wiley Online Library) were searched, up to January 2016. Random effects model was used to determine odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Our review resulted in a total of seven publications meeting the inclusion criteria. Because of significant heterogeneity, we estimated a common OR by a random effects model at 1.10 (95% CI=0.13-9.57) with p=0.929 and 2.39 (95% CI=1.20-4.75) with p=0.013 for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Despite the limitations such as low number of studies, this meta-analysis suggests chronic toxoplasmosis as a possible risk factor for type 2 DM. However, based on random effects model no statistically significant association was observed between T. gondii and type 1 DM. It is highly recommended for researchers to carry out more accurate studies aiming to better understand this association. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Teresa A; Vesco, Kimberly K; Pedula, Kathryn L; Beil, Tracy L; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Pettitt, David J

    2008-05-20

    In 2003, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concluded that evidence was insufficient to advise for or against routinely screening all pregnant women for gestational diabetes mellitus. To review evidence about the benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes. Databases (MEDLINE, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, National Institute for Health and Clinical Effectiveness, and Cochrane Library) were searched for reports published from January 2000 to 15 November 2007 (and from 1966 to 1999 for additional studies on screening at less than 24 weeks' gestation), citations in the 2003 evidence report, and studies identified through consultation of experts and searches of bibliographies. English-language studies that used standard 1- or 2-step testing for gestational diabetes and that evaluated at least 1 of the following outcomes: neonatal mortality; brachial plexus injury; clavicular fracture; admission to a neonatal intensive care unit for hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or the respiratory distress syndrome; maternal mortality; and preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. 2 reviewers evaluated 1607 abstracts, critically appraised 288 articles, and qualitatively synthesized 13 studies. No randomized, controlled trials that directly evaluated the risks and benefits of gestational diabetes screening were found. One good-quality randomized, controlled trial of treatment of mild gestational diabetes in a screening-detected population supported a reduction in serious neonatal complications and showed that gestational diabetes treatment also reduced the risk for gestational hypertension. Very limited evidence was found to evaluate early screening for gestational diabetes (before 24 weeks' gestation). Limited evidence suggests that serious maternal hypoglycemia is rare with treatment and that overall quality of life is not worse among women receiving gestational diabetes treatment compared with women not

  8. Cardiovascular Effect of Incretin-Based Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Je-Yon; Yang, Seungwon; Lee, Jangik I.; Chang, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the cardiovascular (CV) risk associated with the use of incretin-based therapy in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) primary prevention group with low CV risks. Methods The clinical studies on incretin-based therapy published in medical journals until August 2014 were comprehensively searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL with no language restriction. The studies were systemically reviewed and evaluated for CV risks using a meta-analysis approach and where they meet the following criteria: clinical trial, incidence of predefined CV disease, T2DM with no comorbidities, age > 18 years old, duration of at least 12 weeks, incretin-based therapy compared with other antihyperglycaemic agents or placebo. Statistical analyses were performed using a Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) test. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated and displayed for comparison. Results A total of 75 studies comprising 45,648 patients with T2DM were selected. The pooled estimate demonstrated no significance in decreased CV risk with incretin-based therapy versus control (M-H OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81–1.00). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that incretin-based therapy show no significant protective effect on CV events in T2DM primary prevention group with low CV risks. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the results of this analysis. PMID:27078018

  9. Changes of regulatory T cells, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong-Chao; Shen, Jian; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Liang, Ling; Bo, Chao-Sheng; Sui, Yi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T lymphocyte cells (Treg) associated with interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) have implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), yet the existing evidence remains unclear. Hereby we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the changes in T1DM patients. A total of 1407 T1DM patients and 1373 healthy controls from 40 case-control studies were eventually included in the pooling analysis. Compared with the controls, T1DM patients had decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg (p=0.0003), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg (p=0.020), and the level of TGF-β (p=0.030). Decrease in IL-10 (p=0.14) was not significant. All the changes remained significant when the studies with low NOS scores and publication bias were excluded. In conclusion, peripheral Treg and serum TGF-β are reduced in type 1 diabetes mellitus whereas changes in serum IL-10 are not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schopman, J E; Simon, A C R; Hoefnagel, S J M; Hoekstra, J B L; Scholten, R J P M; Holleman, F

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using sulfonylurea derivatives or insulin may experience hypoglycaemia. However, recent data regarding the incidence of hypoglycaemia are scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that experience hypoglycaemia when treated with sulfonylurea or insulin. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials that compared incretin-based drugs to sulfonylureas or insulin and assessed hypoglycaemia incidence in the latter therapies. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to study possible associations with potential risk factors for hypoglycaemia. Data of 25 studies were extracted, 22 for sulfonylurea and 3 for insulin. Hypoglycaemia with glucose ≤3.1 mmol/L or ≤2.8 mmol/L was experienced by 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3-13.8%] and 5.9% (95% CI 2.5-13.4%) of patients with any sulfonylurea treatment. Severe hypoglycaemia was experienced by 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3%) of patients. Hypoglycaemia with glucose ≤3.1 mmol/L and severe hypoglycaemia occurred least frequently with gliclazide: in 1.4% (95% CI 0.8-2.4%) and 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.7%) of patients, respectively. None of the risk factors were significant in a stepwise multivariate meta-regression analysis. Too few studies had insulin as comparator, so these data could not be meta-analysed. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on sulfonylurea therapy in clinical trials remain free of any relevant hypoglycaemia. Gliclazide was associated with the lowest risk of hypoglycaemia. Because participants in randomized controlled trials differ from the general population, care should be taken when translating these data into clinical practice.

  11. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Likar, Nishkarsh; Dang, Amit; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in combination therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control. Methods: Two review authors independently searched for the relevant randomized controlled clinical trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, IndMed, LILACS, and clinical trials registry www.clinicaltrials.gov. Primary outcomes for this review included: change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and risk of occurrence of genital mycotic infections at 26 weeks. We combined results using mean difference (MD) for continuous data, and risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data. Results: Of the 124 identified reports, five RCTs with 3565 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. All included studies had compared canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg once daily with placebo or sitagliptin 100 mg once daily. We judged that most of the studies had low risk of bias or unclear risk of bias in five major domains. Canagliflozin 300 mg once daily led to a significant decrease in HbA1c levels (IV Fixed -0.77, 95% CI [-0.90, -0.64] P < 0.00001) and FPG levels (IV Fixed -2.08; 95% CI [-2.32, -1.84], P <0.00001), body weight, systolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels after 26 weeks as compared to placebo. There was a also a significant difference in the efficacy of canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg once daily in favour of canagliflozin. Both doses of canagliflozin led to genital mycotic infections among males and females, urinary tract infections, pollakiuria, polyuria and postural dizziness. Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly decreases HbA1c and FPG levels and body weight as compared to placebo among patients with inadequate glycemic control with an earlier regime of glucose lowering agents. Long term safety studies are required to evaluate the incidence of adverse events. PMID:26693420

  12. Reporting and handling of missing data in predictive research for prevalent undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Masconi, Katya L; Matsha, Tandi E; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    Missing values are common in health research and omitting participants with missing data often leads to loss of statistical power, biased estimates and, consequently, inaccurate inferences. We critically reviewed the challenges posed by missing data in medical research and approaches to address them. To achieve this more efficiently, these issues were analyzed and illustrated through a systematic review on the reporting of missing data and imputation methods (prediction of missing values through relationships within and between variables) undertaken in risk prediction studies of undiagnosed diabetes. Prevalent diabetes risk models were selected based on a recent comprehensive systematic review, supplemented by an updated search of English-language studies published between 1997 and 2014. Reporting of missing data has been limited in studies of prevalent diabetes prediction. Of the 48 articles identified, 62.5% (n = 30) did not report any information on missing data or handling techniques. In 21 (43.8%) studies, researchers opted out of imputation, completing case-wise deletion of participants missing any predictor values. Although imputation methods are encouraged to handle missing data and ensure the accuracy of inferences, this has seldom been the case in studies of diabetes risk prediction. Hence, we elaborated on the various types and patterns of missing data, the limitations of case-wise deletion and state-of the-art methods of imputations and their challenges. This review highlights the inexperience or disregard of investigators of the effect of missing data in risk prediction research. Formal guidelines may enhance the reporting and appropriate handling of missing data in scientific journals.

  13. Physical activity and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Henriksen, Tore; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity has been inconsistently associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in epidemiological studies, and questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the two. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomized trials on physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus. PubMed, Embase and Ovid databases were searched for cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials of physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, up to August 5th 2015. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model. Twenty-five studies (26 publications) were included. For total physical activity the summary RR for high versus low activity was 0.62 (95 % CI 0.41-0.94, I(2) = 0 %, n = 4) before pregnancy, and 0.66 (95 % CI 0.36-1.21, I(2) = 0 %, n = 3) during pregnancy. For leisure-time physical activity the respective summary RRs for high versus low activity was 0.78 (95 % CI 0.61-1.00, I(2) = 47 %, n = 8) before pregnancy, and it was 0.80 (95 % CI 0.64-1.00, I(2) = 17 %, n = 17) during pregnancy. The summary RR for pre-pregnancy activity was 0.70 (95 % CI 0.49-1.01, I(2) = 72.6 %, n = 3) per increment of 5 h/week and for activity during pregnancy was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.87-1.09, I(2) = 0 %, n = 3) per 5 h/week. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between physical activity before pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, pnonlinearity = 0.005, with a slightly steeper association at lower levels of activity although further reductions in risk were observed up to 10 h/week. There was also evidence of nonlinearity for physical activity in early pregnancy, pnonlinearity = 0.008, with no further reduction in risk above 8 h/week. There was some indication of inverse associations between walking (before and during pregnancy) and vigorous activity (before pregnancy) and the risk of

  14. Role of yoga for patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Jagannathan, Aarti; Philip, Mariamma; Thulasi, Arun; Angadi, Praveen; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2016-04-01

    To understand the role and efficacy of yoga in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic data bases searched were PubMed/Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, IndMED, CENTRAL, Cochrane library, CamQuest and CamBase till December 17, 2014. Eligible outcomes were fasting blood sugar (FBS), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1C). Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials were eligible. Studies focussing only on relaxation or meditation or multimodal intervention were not included. A total of 17 RCTs were included for review. Data from research articles on patients, methods, interventions- control and results were extracted. Mean and standard deviations were utilized for calculating standardized mean difference with 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity was assessed with the help of I(2) statistics. χ(2) was used to rule out the effects of heterogeneity due to chance alone. Beneficial effects of yoga as an add-on intervention to standard treatment in comparison to standard treatment were observed for FBS [Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) -1.40, 95%CI -1.90 to -0.90, p˂0.00001]; PPBS [SMD -0.91, 95%CI -1.34 to -0.48, p˂0.0001] as well as HBA1C [SMD -0.64, 95%CI -0.97 to -0.30, p˂0.0002]. But risk of bias was overall high for included studies. With this available evidence, yoga can be considered as add-on intervention for management of diabetes.

  15. Metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Tian, Ye; Wu, Tao; Cao, Chen-Xi; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at assessing the metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers retrieved articles and evaluated the study quality using an appropriate scoring method. Outcomes including glucose metabolism, lipid parameters, body fat and blood pressure were pooled using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.2 software for statistical analysis. Five RCTs including 351 participants with a mean follow-up time of 6.5-months were identified that strictly met our eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis of the extractable data showed that testosterone reduced fasting plasma glucose levels (mean difference (MD): −1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−1.88, −0.31)), fasting serum insulin levels (MD: −2.73; 95% CI (−3.62, −1.84)), HbA1c % (MD: −0.87; 95% CI (−1.32, −0.42)) and triglyceride levels (MD: −0.35; 95% CI (−0.62, −0.07)). The testosterone and control groups demonstrated no significant difference for other outcomes. In conclusion, we found that TRT can improve glycemic control and decrease triglyceride levels of hypogonadal men with T2DM. Considering the limited number of participants and the confounding factors in our systematic review; additional large, well-designed RCTs are needed to address the metabolic effects of TRT and its long-term influence on hypogonadal men with T2DM. PMID:24369149

  16. Metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Tian, Ye; Wu, Tao; Cao, Chen-Xi; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at assessing the metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers retrieved articles and evaluated the study quality using an appropriate scoring method. Outcomes including glucose metabolism, lipid parameters, body fat and blood pressure were pooled using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.2 software for statistical analysis. Five RCTs including 351 participants with a mean follow-up time of 6.5-months were identified that strictly met our eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis of the extractable data showed that testosterone reduced fasting plasma glucose levels (mean difference (MD): -1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-1.88, -0.31)), fasting serum insulin levels (MD: -2.73; 95% CI (-3.62, -1.84)), HbA1c % (MD: -0.87; 95% CI (-1.32, -0.42)) and triglyceride levels (MD: -0.35; 95% CI (-0.62, -0.07)). The testosterone and control groups demonstrated no significant difference for other outcomes. In conclusion, we found that TRT can improve glycemic control and decrease triglyceride levels of hypogonadal men with T2DM. Considering the limited number of participants and the confounding factors in our systematic review; additional large, well-designed RCTs are needed to address the metabolic effects of TRT and its long-term influence on hypogonadal men with T2DM.

  17. Systematic review of the evidence for a liberalized diet in the management of diabetes mellitus in older adults residing in aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Olivia; Yaxley, Alison; Walton, Karen; Healy, Erin; Miller, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to review and evaluate the evidence supporting a liberalized diet for the management of diabetes mellitus in aged care homes and examine the effect of this on glycaemia, nutritional status and diabetes comorbidity risk factors. A 3 step search of eight databases followed by independent data extraction and quality assessment by two authors was undertaken. Studies which compared therapeutic diets to a liberalized diet or observation studies reviewing the effects of therapeutic diets on glycaemia and nutritional status were included. Of the 546 studies identified, six met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of the studies was rated poor and the majority concluded no statistically significant change in diabetes management outcomes with a liberalized diet, but modest increases in glycaemia were observed. Inadequate data was available to determine effects of diet change on nutritional status or diabetes risk factors. Overall studies were in support of a liberalized diet but due to the low quality of the evidence and a lack of significant findings it may not be appropriate to extrapolate these conclusions to inform dietetic practice.

  18. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-11-24

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15-1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20-1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (≤ 2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83-1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (> 2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes.

  19. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04–1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15–1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89–1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20–1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (≤2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83–1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (>2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes. PMID:26598798

  20. Trends in prevalence of diabetes mellitus and mean fasting glucose in Portugal (1987-2009): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Carreira, H; Lunet, N; Azevedo, A

    2014-03-01

    To assess time trends of the prevalence of diabetes and mean blood glucose in Portuguese adults. Systematic review. The search strategy included Pubmed search and screening of bibliographic references of the review articles. Sex-specific linear regression models, with survey year and participants' age as independent variables, were used to predict prevalence estimates of self-reported diabetes and mean fasting glucose. Twenty-seven eligible studies were identified. Time trends of objectively defined diabetes could not be quantified due to the heterogeneity of the diagnostic criteria. Between 1987 and 2009, the prevalence of self-reported diabetes remained approximately constant in young adults, while it increased in middle-aged and older adults, more than two-fold among women and three-fold among men. In the same period, mean fasting glucose increased 7 mg/dL among women and 8 mg/dL among men. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes and mean fasting glucose increased in the last two decades, demanding for effective strategies to reverse this tendency and to manage the increasing number of people with diabetes in the Portuguese population. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Rong, Shi Song; Xu, Qihua; Tang, Fang Yao; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Hong; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Chen, Li Jia; Brelén, Mårten E.; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00–1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00–1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44–1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13–1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11–1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96–1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44–1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11–1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association. PMID:25238063

  2. Diabetes mellitus and risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Rong, Shi Song; Xu, Qihua; Tang, Fang Yao; Liu, Yuan; Gu, Hong; Tam, Pancy O S; Chen, Li Jia; Brelén, Mårten E; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of severe vision loss in elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder with serious consequences, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the main ophthalmic complication. DR and AMD are different diseases and we seek to explore the relationship between diabetes and AMD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for potentially eligible studies. Studies based on longitudinal cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control associations, reporting evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Reports of relative risks (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratio (ORs), or evaluation data of diabetes as an independent factor for AMD were included. Review Manager and STATA were used for the meta-analysis. Twenty four articles involving 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. In 7 cohort studies, diabetes was shown to be a risk factor for AMD (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). Results of 9 cross-sectional studies revealed consistent association of diabetes with AMD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45), especially for late AMD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.44-1.51). Similar association was also detected for AMD (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.49) and late AMD (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11-1.21) in 11 case-control studies. The pooled ORs for risk of neovascular AMD (nAMD) were 1.10 (95% CI, 0.96-1.26), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.44-1.51), and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11-1.21) from cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies, respectively. No obvious divergence existed among different ethnic groups. Therefore, we find diabetes a risk factor for AMD, stronger for late AMD than earlier stages. However, most of the included studies only adjusted for age and sex; we thus cannot rule out confounding as a potential explanation for the association. More well-designed prospective cohort studies are still warranted to further examine the association.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and arthritis: is it a risk factor or comorbidity?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Liu, Hua; Yang, Daren; Zhang, Yunyan

    2017-05-01

    Investigators have explored the association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis for a long time; however, there are uncertainties and inconsistencies among various studies. In this study, we tried to explore the relationship between diabetes mellitus and the overall risk of arthritis, as well as the potential modifiers for this relationship. We conducted a comprehensive literature search through PubMed and identified 36 eligible studies. The overall analyses, subgroup analyses, as well as sensitivity analyses, were conducted to illustrate the association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All statistical analyses were conducted using STATA SE version 13.0. In our study, 36 eligible studies were identified and involved in the meta-analysis. The overall association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis is 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.28, P = .007). The association exists only in nongouty arthritis, where we observed the estimated odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67, P < .001). The opposite point estimates from different types of diabetes may indicate possible different associations for type I (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.18-5.39, P = .985) or type II diabetes (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.88-1.84, P = .194). Diabetes mellitus performs more likely as a comorbidity of arthritis rather than a risk factor; however, more studies will be helpful to increase the confidence of identifying the association between diabetes and arthritis.

  4. Psychological Interventions for the Management of Glycemic and Psychological Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Anna; Liu, Shuo; Merkouris, Stephanie; Enticott, Joanne C; Yang, Hui; Browning, Colette J; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    China has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases globally, and T2DM management has become a critical public health issue in China. Individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, psychological disturbances, and functional problems associated with living with their condition. Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that, generally, psychological interventions are effective in the management of T2DM-related outcomes; however, these reviews have predominantly included studies conducted within English-speaking countries and have not determined the efficacy of the varying types of psychological interventions. As such, this paper aims to synthesize evidence and quantify the efficacy of psychological therapies for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of T2DM in China, relative to control conditions. A systematic search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wangfang Data) for all years to December 2014 identified all available literature. Eligibility criteria included: peer-reviewed journal articles, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of a psychological therapy for the management of T2DM, adult participants (≥18 years) diagnosed with T2DM or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and Chinese speaking participants only (in mainland China). Outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose concentration, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Negative effect sizes corresponded to positive outcomes favoring the intervention. Forty-five RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) were more effective than the control condition in the reduction of glycated hemoglobin [CBT: -0.97 (95% CI -1.37 to -0.57); MI: -0.71 (95% CI -1.00 to -0.43)]. CBT and client

  5. Metformin therapy and risk of colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Yan, Lijing; Wang, Zhan; Lu, Yuanan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiangyu; Liu, Yisi; Rui, Dongsheng; Nie, Shaofa; Xiang, Hao

    2017-02-28

    Recent evidence indicates that metformin therapy may be associated with a decreased colorectal adenoma/colorectal cancer risk in type 2 diabetes patients. However, results are not consistent. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between metformin therapy and risk of colorectal adenomas/colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We searched the literature published before Aug 31, 2016 in four databases: PubMed, Embase database, CNKI and VIP Library of Chinese Journal. Summary risk estimates (adjusted OR/adjusted RR/adjusted HR) with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained using a random effects model. Twenty studies (including 12 cohort studies, 7 case-control studies and 1 randomized controlled trial study) were selected in terms of data of colorectal adenomas or colorectal cancer incidence. Metformin therapy was found to be associated with a decreased incidence of colorectal adenomas (unadjusted OR=0.80, 95% CI: 0.71-0.90, p=0.0002). When the adjusted data were analyzed, the summary estimate decreased to 25% reduction in colorectal adenomas risk (adjusted OR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.97, p=0.03). Besides, a significant reduction of colorectal cancer risk was also observed (unadjusted OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.62-0.86, p=0.0002). And when the adjusted data were analyzed, colorectal cancer risk for metformin users was decreased with a reduction of 22%, compared with non-metformin users and other treatment users (adjusted OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.87, p<0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggested that metformin therapy may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  6. Empirically derived dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis on prospective observational studies.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Ghiasvand, Reza; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2016-02-01

    To systematically review prospective cohort studies about the association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence, and to quantify the effects using a meta-analysis. Databases such as PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Google Scholar were searched up to 15 January 2015. Cohort studies which tried to examine the association between empirically derived dietary patterns and incident T2DM were selected. The relative risks (RR) and their 95 % confidence intervals for diabetes among participants with highest v. lowest adherence to derived dietary patterns were incorporated into meta-analysis using random-effects models. Ten studies (n 404 528) were enrolled in the systematic review and meta-analysis; our analysis revealed that adherence to the 'healthy' dietary patterns significantly reduced the risk of T2DM (RR=0·86; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·90), while the 'unhealthy' dietary patterns adversely affected diabetes risk (RR=1·30; 95 % CI 1·18, 1·43). Subgroup analysis showed that unhealthy dietary patterns in which foods with high phytochemical content were also loaded did not significantly increase T2DM risk (RR=1·06; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·30). 'Healthy' dietary patterns containing vegetables, fruits and whole grains can lower diabetes risk by 14 %. Consuming higher amounts of red and processed meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains in the context of 'unhealthy' dietary patterns will increase diabetes risk by 30 %; while including foods with high phytochemical content in these patterns can modify this effect.

  7. Targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kähler, Pernille; Grevstad, Berit; Almdal, Thomas; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Vaag, Allan; Hemmingsen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefits and harms of targeting intensive versus conventional glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Design A systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. Data sources The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and LILACS to January 2013. Study selection Randomised clinical trials that prespecified different targets of glycaemic control in participants at any age with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 18 randomised clinical trials included 2254 participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus. All trials had high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control on all-cause mortality (risk ratio 1.16, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.08) or cardiovascular mortality (0.49, 0.19 to 1.24). Targeting intensive glycaemic control reduced the relative risks for the composite macrovascular outcome (0.63, 0.41 to 0.96; p=0.03), and nephropathy (0.37, 0.27 to 0.50; p<0.00001. The effect estimates of retinopathy, ketoacidosis and retinal photocoagulation were not consistently statistically significant between random and fixed effects models. The risk of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly increased with intensive glycaemic targets (1.40, 1.01 to 1.94). Trial sequential analyses showed that the amount of data needed to demonstrate a relative risk reduction of 10% were, in general, inadequate. Conclusions There was no significant effect towards improved all-cause mortality when targeting intensive glycaemic control compared with conventional glycaemic control. However, there may be beneficial effects of targeting intensive glycaemic control on the composite macrovascular outcome and on nephropathy, and detrimental effects on severe hypoglycaemia. Notably, the data for retinopathy and ketoacidosis were inconsistent

  8. Depression and Risk of Mortality in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Dooren, Fleur E. P.; Nefs, Giesje; Schram, Miranda T.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Denollet, Johan; Pouwer, François

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes by systematically reviewing the literature and carrying out a meta-analysis of relevant longitudinal studies. Research Design and Methods PUBMED and PSYCINFO were searched for articles assessing mortality risk associated with depression in diabetes up until August 16, 2012. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. Results Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which were pooled in an overall all-cause mortality estimate, and five in a cardiovascular mortality estimate. After adjustment for demographic variables and micro- and macrovascular complications, depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.29–1.66), and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11–1.73). Heterogeneity across studies was high for all-cause mortality and relatively low for cardiovascular mortality, with an I-squared of respectively 78.6% and 39.6%. Subgroup analyses showed that the association between depression and mortality not significantly change when excluding three articles presenting odds ratios, yet this decreased heterogeneity substantially (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.39–1.61, I-squared = 15.1%). A comparison between type 1 and type 2 diabetes could not be undertaken, as only one study reported on type 1 diabetes specifically. Conclusions Depression is associated with an almost 1.5-fold increased risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Research should focus on both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death associated with depression, and determine the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may explain this association. PMID:23472075

  9. RESILIENCE IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Pesantes, M. Amalia; Lazo-Porras, María; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Avila-Ramirez, Jaime R.; Caycho, Maria; Villamonte, Georgina Y.; Sanchez-Perez, Grecia P.; Málaga, Germán; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic conditions and limited access to healthcare experience stressful challenges due to the burden of managing both their conditions and their daily life demands. Resilience provides a mechanism of adapting to stressful experiences. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence about interventions to enhance resiliency in managing hypertension or type-2 diabetes in vulnerable populations, and to assess the efficacy of these interventions on clinical outcomes. Methods We searched multiple databases from early inception through February 2015 including randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with type-2 diabetes or hypertension. All interventions that targeted resilience in vulnerable populations were included. Data were synthesized to describe the characteristics and efficacy of resilience interventions. We pooled the total effects by calculating standardized mean difference using the random-effects model. Results The final search yielded seventeen studies. All studies were conducted in the United States and generally targeted minority participants. Resiliency interventions used diverse strategies; discussion groups or workshops were the most common approach. Conclusions Interventions aimed at enhancing the resiliency of patients from vulnerable groups are diverse. Outcomes were not fully conclusive. There was some evidence that resilience interventions had a positive effect on HbA1c levels, but not blood pressure. The incorporation of resiliency-oriented interventions into the arsenal of prevention and management of chronic conditions appears to be an opportunity that remains to be better investigated and exploited, and there is need to pursue further understanding of the core components of any intervention that claims to enhance resilience. PMID:26239007

  10. The Type 2 Deiodinase Thr92Ala Polymorphism Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Han, Wenqing; Peng, Shiqiao; Shan, Zhongyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3. The Thr92Ala polymorphism has been shown related to an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study is to assess the association between this polymorphism and glycemic control in T2DM patients as marked by the HbA1C levels. Design and Methods. The terms “rs225014,” “thr92ala,” “T92A,” or “dio2 a/g” were used to search for eligible studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and Google Scholar. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies including both polymorphism testing and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) assays were performed. Results. Four studies were selected, totaling 2190 subjects. The pooled mean difference of the studies was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.18–0.77%), indicating that type 2 diabetics homozygous for the Dio2 Thr92Ala polymorphism had higher HbA1C levels. Conclusions. Homozygosity for the Dio2 Thr92Ala polymorphism is associated with higher HbA1C levels in T2DM patients. To confirm this conclusion, more studies of larger populations are needed. PMID:27777960

  11. Exercise interventions for the improvement of falls-related outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Anna; Meyer, Claudia; Renehan, Emma; Hill, Keith D; Browning, Colette J

    2017-03-01

    Falls as a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) can have a major impact on the health of older adults. Previous reviews have demonstrated that certain exercise interventions are effective at reducing falls in older people; however, no studies have quantified the effectiveness of exercise interventions on falls-related outcomes among older adults with DM. A systematic search for all years to September 2015 identified available literature. Eligibility criteria included: appropriate exercise intervention/s; assessed falls-related outcomes; older adults with DM. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Positive effect sizes favoured the intervention. Ten RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Exercise interventions were more effective than the control condition for static balance (0.53, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.93), lower-limb strength (0.63, 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.18), and gait (0.59, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.96). No RCTs assessed falls-risk; one RCT reported 12month falls-rate, with no differential treatment effect observed. Exercise interventions can improve certain falls-related outcomes among older adults with DM. Substantial heterogeneity and limited numbers of studies should be considered when interpreting results. Among older adults, where DM burden is increasing, exercise interventions may provide promising approaches to assist the improvement of falls-related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Glycemic Control for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Concert, Catherine M; Burke, Robert E; Eusebio, Anny M; Slavin, Eileen A; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions (including adaptions of motivational interviewing [AMIs]) on the improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Worldwide, 346 million people have diabetes. With the growing prevalence of diabetes, controlling modifiable risk factors is essential to preventing complications and disease progression. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to be double the present rate and by the year 2034 nearly 44 million Americans will have this preventable disease. In the United States (US), nearly 13 percent of adults aged 20 years and older have diabetes; this includes 25.8 million people, adults and children . Type 2 diabetes is more common in ethnic groups inclusive of African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Diabetes is especially common in the elderly, 10.9 million or 26.9% of those aged 65 years and older have the disease. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 26% of US adults have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of 100-125mg/dl and that 34% of adults meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome. An additional 35 % of adults have pre-diabetes, a condition marked by elevated blood sugar that is not yet in the diabetic range.Type 2 diabetes occurs when people have insulin resistance and insulin cannot be appropriately utilized for blood sugar regulation. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired glucose tolerance. It can be defined by the criteria derived from the World Health Organization [WHO] that uses a single fasting glucose value of ≥ 126mg/dl or a single two hour glucose value of ≥ 200mg/dl. A laboratory blood test examining levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HgbA1c) provides an estimated average blood glucose level over the past two-three months. An HbA1C level of 6.5% or higher can indicate

  13. Longer term safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gooßen, K; Gräber, S

    2012-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents that hold the potential of slowing the progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Their long-term safety is still a subject of debate. A systematic review of randomized, controlled trials was undertaken to comprehensively profile the safety of chronic treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with DPP-4 inhibitors. We searched data sources including MEDLINE, CENTRAL, publishers' and manufacturers' databases. Eligible trials were double-blind, randomized, placebo or active-controlled trials with ≥18 weeks duration in patients with type 2 diabetes reporting safety outcomes. Meta-analysis was performed separately for trials in which the control group received placebo (44 studies), another gliptin (3 studies) and any other antidiabetic drug (20 studies). Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model for general safety outcomes, hypoglycaemia and adverse events by system organ class. Of 307 publications retrieved, 67 randomized, controlled trials met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review (4 alogliptin, 8 linagliptin, 8 saxagliptin, 20 sitagliptin, and 27 vildagliptin trials). Adverse events with gliptin treatment were at placebo level (relative risk (RR) 1.02 [0.99, 1.04]). No increased risk of infections was detectable (RR 0.98 [0.93, 1.05] compared to placebo and 1.02 [0.97, 1.07] compared to other antidiabetic drugs). Asthenia (RR 1.57 [1.09, 2.27]) as well as cardiac (RR 1.37 [1.00, 1.89]) and vascular disorders (RR 1.74 [1.05, 2.86] for linagliptin) emerged as adverse events associated with DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. The risk of hypoglycaemia was low with DPP-4 inhibitor treatment (RR 0.92 [0.74, 1.15] compared to placebo, RR 0.20 [0.17, 0.24] compared to sulphonylureas) in the absence of sulphonylurea or insulin co-therapy, but significantly elevated for combination therapy of sulphonylurea or insulin with sitagliptin or

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of peer-based intervention in managing type I diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Sepideh; Parvizy, Soroor; Atlasi, Rasha; Baradaran, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 1 diabetes is one of the chronic metabolic disorders among children and adolescents. Peers are also important units in diabetes management through adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer-based intervention in managing type 1 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents. Methods: Searching articles published prior to December 2013 in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Science Direct, Google scholar, CINAHL and Scopus, we found 8,548 publications. The first reviewer critically appraised the retrieved articles, using the CONSORT and the TREND checklists and then the second-assessor checked them. All abstracts were screened, and only eight full text articles remained for evaluation based on inclusion criteria Results: Eight studies, including five randomized controlled trials, one controlled trial, and two pre-post trials were critically appraised based on CONSORT and the TREND checklists. The outcomes of these studies were as follows: knowledge (three studies), attitude (two studies), performance (one study), clinical parameters— exclusively HbA1c—(four studies), and psychosocial parameters—such as quality of life, coping, self-care, selfconfidence, satisfaction with the perceived social support, social skills, and diabetes-related conflicts Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review revealed that peer-based interventions could help to manage diabetes. While there is a lack of professional or family-based interventions and education, peers can be involved in the process of patient education. As there are few studies in the area of peer-based diabetes management, conducting further interventional studies with robust methodology is highly recommended. PMID:28210607

  15. The effect of adding metformin to insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Khalifah, Reem A; Alnhdi, Abdulrahman; Alghar, Hassan; Alanazi, Mohammad; Florez, Ivan D

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to assess the effectiveness of adding metformin to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children for improving metabolic outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on children age 6 to 19 years who are diagnosed with T1DM, and examined the effect of adding Metformin to standard insulin therapy. We performed literature searches on Ovid Midline, Ovid Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from the date of inception of the database to February 15, 2016. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts independently, assessed full text eligibility, and extracted information from eligible trials. The primary outcome is glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and the secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, total insulin daily dose, hypoglycaemia, and diabetes ketoacidosis. We screened 736 studies, and included 6 RCTs with 325 patients. All RCTs were of low risk of bias, and included adolescents (mean age 15 years). The meta-analysis showed that the addition of Metformin resulted in decreased total insulin daily dose (TIDD) (unit/kg/d) (mean difference [MD] = -0.15, 95%CI, -0.24, -0.06), and reduced BMI kg/m(2) (MD -1.46, 95%CI -2.54, 0.38), and BMI z-score (MD= - 0.11, 95%CI -0.21, -0.01), and similar HbA1c (%) (MD= - 0.05, 95%CI, -0.19, 0.29). The overall evidence quality was high to moderate. Current evidence does not support use of Metformin in T1DM adolescents to improve HbA1c. However, Metformin may provide modest reduction in TIDD and BMI.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of peer-based intervention in managing type I diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Sepideh; Parvizy, Soroor; Atlasi, Rasha; Baradaran, Hamid R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 1 diabetes is one of the chronic metabolic disorders among children and adolescents. Peers are also important units in diabetes management through adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer-based intervention in managing type 1 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents. Methods: Searching articles published prior to December 2013 in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Science Direct, Google scholar, CINAHL and Scopus, we found 8,548 publications. The first reviewer critically appraised the retrieved articles, using the CONSORT and the TREND checklists and then the second-assessor checked them. All abstracts were screened, and only eight full text articles remained for evaluation based on inclusion criteria Results: Eight studies, including five randomized controlled trials, one controlled trial, and two pre-post trials were critically appraised based on CONSORT and the TREND checklists. The outcomes of these studies were as follows: knowledge (three studies), attitude (two studies), performance (one study), clinical parameters- exclusively HbA1c-(four studies), and psychosocial parameters-such as quality of life, coping, self-care, selfconfidence, satisfaction with the perceived social support, social skills, and diabetes-related conflicts Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review revealed that peer-based interventions could help to manage diabetes. While there is a lack of professional or family-based interventions and education, peers can be involved in the process of patient education. As there are few studies in the area of peer-based diabetes management, conducting further interventional studies with robust methodology is highly recommended.

  17. The Effect of Regular Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Way, Kimberley L; Hackett, Daniel A; Baker, Michael K; Johnson, Nathan A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of regular exercise training on insulin sensitivity in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the pooled data available from randomised controlled trials. In addition, we sought to determine whether short-term periods of physical inactivity diminish the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity. Eligible trials included exercise interventions that involved ≥3 exercise sessions, and reported a dynamic measurement of insulin sensitivity. There was a significant pooled effect size (ES) for the effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity (ES, -0.588; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.816 to -0.359; P<0.001). Of the 14 studies included for meta-analyses, nine studies reported the time of data collection from the last exercise bout. There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity in favour of exercise versus control between 48 and 72 hours after exercise (ES, -0.702; 95% CI, -1.392 to -0.012; P=0.046); and this persisted when insulin sensitivity was measured more than 72 hours after the last exercise session (ES, -0.890; 95% CI, -1.675 to -0.105; P=0.026). Regular exercise has a significant benefit on insulin sensitivity in adults with T2DM and this may persist beyond 72 hours after the last exercise session.

  18. Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and possible risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Ardeshir; Mohamadpour, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shirzadpour, Ehsan; Mohamadpour, Safoura; Amraei, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Aim Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of bone fractures. A variable increase in fracture risk has been reported depending on skeletal site, diabetes duration, study design, insulin use, and so on. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between T2DM with fracture risk and possible risk factors. Methods Different databases including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information, and Scopus were searched up to May 2016. All epidemiologic studies on the association between T2DM and fracture risk were included. The relevant data obtained from these papers were analyzed by a random effects model and publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. All analyses were done by R software (version 3.2.1) and STATA (version 11.1). Results Thirty eligible studies were selected for the meta-analysis. We found a statistically significant positive association between T2DM and hip, vertebral, or foot fractures and no association between T2DM and wrist, proximal humerus, or ankle fractures. Overall, T2DM was associated with an increased risk of any fracture (summary relative risk =1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.06) and increased with age, duration of diabetes, and insulin therapy. Conclusion Our findings strongly support an association between T2DM and increased risk of overall fracture. These findings emphasize the need for fracture prevention strategies in patients with diabetes. PMID:28442913

  19. The Effect of Regular Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Daniel A.; Baker, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of regular exercise training on insulin sensitivity in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the pooled data available from randomised controlled trials. In addition, we sought to determine whether short-term periods of physical inactivity diminish the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity. Eligible trials included exercise interventions that involved ≥3 exercise sessions, and reported a dynamic measurement of insulin sensitivity. There was a significant pooled effect size (ES) for the effect of exercise on insulin sensitivity (ES, –0.588; 95% confidence interval [CI], –0.816 to –0.359; P<0.001). Of the 14 studies included for meta-analyses, nine studies reported the time of data collection from the last exercise bout. There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity in favour of exercise versus control between 48 and 72 hours after exercise (ES, –0.702; 95% CI, –1.392 to –0.012; P=0.046); and this persisted when insulin sensitivity was measured more than 72 hours after the last exercise session (ES, –0.890; 95% CI, –1.675 to –0.105; P=0.026). Regular exercise has a significant benefit on insulin sensitivity in adults with T2DM and this may persist beyond 72 hours after the last exercise session. PMID:27535644

  20. Efficacy of Mobile Apps to Support the Care of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Bonoto, Bráulio Cezar; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Godói, Isabella Piassi; de Lemos, Lívia Lovato Pires; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; Junior, Augusto Afonso Guerra

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that is considered a global public health problem. Education and self-monitoring by diabetic patients help to optimize and make possible a satisfactory metabolic control enabling improved management and reduced morbidity and mortality. The global growth in the use of mobile phones makes them a powerful platform to help provide tailored health, delivered conveniently to patients through health apps. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of mobile apps through a systematic review and meta-analysis to assist DM patients in treatment. We conducted searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE (Pubmed), Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), including manual search in references of publications that included systematic reviews, specialized journals, and gray literature. We considered eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted after 2008 with participants of all ages, patients with DM, and users of apps to help manage the disease. The meta-analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was performed in Review Manager software version 5.3. The literature search identified 1236 publications. Of these, 13 studies were included that evaluated 1263 patients. In 6 RCTs, there were a statistical significant reduction (P<.05) of HbA1c at the end of studies in the intervention group. The HbA1c data were evaluated by meta-analysis with the following results (mean difference, MD -0.44; CI: -0.59 to -0.29; P<.001; I²=32%).The evaluation favored the treatment in patients who used apps without significant heterogeneity. The use of apps by diabetic patients could help improve the control of HbA1c. In addition, the apps seem to strengthen the perception of self-care by contributing better information and health education to patients. Patients also become more self-confident to deal with their diabetes, mainly by reducing their fear of not knowing

  1. Efficacy of Mobile Apps to Support the Care of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Godói, Isabella Piassi; de Lemos, Lívia Lovato Pires; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; Junior, Augusto Afonso Guerra

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that is considered a global public health problem. Education and self-monitoring by diabetic patients help to optimize and make possible a satisfactory metabolic control enabling improved management and reduced morbidity and mortality. The global growth in the use of mobile phones makes them a powerful platform to help provide tailored health, delivered conveniently to patients through health apps. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of mobile apps through a systematic review and meta-analysis to assist DM patients in treatment. Methods We conducted searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE (Pubmed), Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), including manual search in references of publications that included systematic reviews, specialized journals, and gray literature. We considered eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted after 2008 with participants of all ages, patients with DM, and users of apps to help manage the disease. The meta-analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was performed in Review Manager software version 5.3. Results The literature search identified 1236 publications. Of these, 13 studies were included that evaluated 1263 patients. In 6 RCTs, there were a statistical significant reduction (P<.05) of HbA1c at the end of studies in the intervention group. The HbA1c data were evaluated by meta-analysis with the following results (mean difference, MD −0.44; CI: −0.59 to −0.29; P<.001; I²=32%).The evaluation favored the treatment in patients who used apps without significant heterogeneity. Conclusions The use of apps by diabetic patients could help improve the control of HbA1c. In addition, the apps seem to strengthen the perception of self-care by contributing better information and health education to patients. Patients also become more self-confident to deal with their

  2. Physical activity interventions in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Russo, Lindsey M; Nobles, Carrie; Ertel, Karen A; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Whitcomb, Brian W

    2015-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy associated with an increased incidence of pregnancy complications, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and fetal risks of chronic health conditions later in life. Physical activity has been proposed to reduce the risk of GDM and is supported by observational studies, but experimental research assessing its effectiveness is limited and conflicting. We aimed to use meta-analysis to synthesize existing randomized controlled studies of physical activity and GDM. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov for eligible studies. The following combination of keywords was used: (pregnant or pregnancy or gestation or gestate or gestational or maternity or maternal or prenatal) AND (exercise or locomotion or activity or training or sports) AND (diabetes or insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance) AND (random* or trial). Eligibility was restricted to studies that randomized participants to an exercise-only-based intervention (ie, separate from dietary interventions) and presented data regarding GDM risk. Two authors performed the database search, assessment of eligibility, and abstraction of data from included studies, and a third resolved any discrepancies. A total of 469 studies was retrieved, of which 10 met inclusion criteria and could be used for analysis (3,401 participants). Fixed-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and I to assess heterogeneity. There was a 28% reduced risk (95% CI 9-42%) in the intervention group compared with the control group (RR 0.72, P=.005). Heterogeneity was low (I=12%) and nonsignificant (P=.33). The results from this meta-analysis suggest that physical activity in pregnancy provides a slight protective effect against the development of GDM. Studies evaluating type, timing, duration, and compliance of physical activity regimens are warranted to best inform

  3. Clinical- and cost-effectiveness of telemedicine in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yun-kai; Zhu, Wei-jun; Cai, Yan-ling; Sun, Dong-xu; Zhao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Emerging telemedicine programs offer potential low-cost solutions to the management of chronic disease. We sought to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of telemedicine approaches on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using terms related to type 2 diabetes and telemedicine, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus were searched to identify relevant studies published through February 28, 2014. Data from identified clinical trials were pooled according to telemedicine approach, and evaluated using conventional meta-analytical methods. We identified 47 articles, from 35 randomized controlled trials, reporting quantitative outcomes for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Twelve of the 35 studies provided intervention via telephone, either in the form of a call or a text message; 19 studies tested internet-based programs, employing video-conferencing and/or informational websites; and four studies used interventions involving electronically transmitted recommendations made by clinicians in response to internet-based reporting by patients. Overall, pooled results from these studies revealed a small, but statistically significant, decrease in HbA1c following intervention, compared to conventional treatment (pooled difference in means=-0.37, 95% CI=-0.49 to -0.25, Z=-6.08, P<0.001). Only two of the 35 studies included assessment of cost-effectiveness. These studies were disparate, both in terms of overall expense and relative cost-effectiveness. Optimization of telemedicine approaches could potentially allow for more effective self-management of disease in type 2 diabetes patients, though evidence to-date is unconvincing. Furthermore, significant publication bias was detected, suggesting that the literature should be interpreted cautiously.

  4. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, S; Katada, J; Daida, H; Kitamura, F; Yokoyama, K

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control is important to ameliorate cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, achieving the target BP with a single drug is often difficult. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) as add-on therapy to renin–angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor(s) in patients with hypertension and DM. Studies were searched through October 2014 in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized, controlled trials or prospective, observational studies regarding concomitant administration of MRA and RAS inhibitor(s) in patients with DM were included. Articles were excluded if the mean systolic BP (SBP) was <130 mm Hg before randomization for interventional studies or at baseline for prospective cohort studies. We identified nine eligible studies (486 patients): five randomized placebo-controlled trials; three randomized active drug-controlled trials; and one single-arm observational study. The mean differences in office SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) between the MRA and placebo groups were −9.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) −12.9 to −5.9) and −3.8 (95% CI, −5.5 to −2.2) mm Hg, respectively. Subgroup analysis results for study type, age, baseline office SBP and follow-up duration were similar to those of the main analysis. MRA mildly increased serum potassium (0.4 mEq l−1; 95% CI, 0.3–0.5 mEq l−1). A consistent reduction of albuminuria across these studies was also demonstrated. MRA further reduced SBP and DBP in patients with hypertension and DM already taking RAS inhibitors. Serum potassium levels should be monitored to prevent hyperkalemia. PMID:26674759

  5. Clinical- and Cost-effectiveness of Telemedicine in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yun-kai; Zhu, Wei-jun; Cai, Yan-ling; Sun, Dong-xu; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging telemedicine programs offer potential low-cost solutions to the management of chronic disease. We sought to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of telemedicine approaches on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using terms related to type 2 diabetes and telemedicine, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus were searched to identify relevant studies published through February 28, 2014. Data from identified clinical trials were pooled according to telemedicine approach, and evaluated using conventional meta-analytical methods. We identified 47 articles, from 35 randomized controlled trials, reporting quantitative outcomes for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Twelve of the 35 studies provided intervention via telephone, either in the form of a call or a text message; 19 studies tested internet-based programs, employing video-conferencing and/or informational websites; and four studies used interventions involving electronically transmitted recommendations made by clinicians in response to internet-based reporting by patients. Overall, pooled results from these studies revealed a small, but statistically significant, decrease in HbA1c following intervention, compared to conventional treatment (pooled difference in means = −0.37, 95% CI = −0.49 to −0.25, Z = −6.08, P < 0.001). Only two of the 35 studies included assessment of cost-effectiveness. These studies were disparate, both in terms of overall expense and relative cost-effectiveness. Optimization of telemedicine approaches could potentially allow for more effective self-management of disease in type 2 diabetes patients, though evidence to-date is unconvincing. Furthermore, significant publication bias was detected, suggesting that the literature should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25526482

  6. Quantifying the effects of diuretics and β-adrenoceptor blockers on glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus – a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jennifer A; Farmer, Andrew J; Feakins, Benjamin G; Aronson, Jeffrey K; Stevens, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although there are reports that β-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) and diuretics can affect glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, there is no clear information on how blood glucose concentrations may change and by how much. We report results from a systematic review to quantify the effects of these antihypertensive drugs on glycaemic control in adults with established diabetes. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature to identify randomized controlled trials in which glycaemic control was studied in adults with diabetes taking either beta-blockers or diuretics. We combined data on HbA1c and fasting blood glucose using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results From 3864 papers retrieved, we found 10 studies of beta-blockers and 12 studies of diuretics to include in the meta-analysis. One study included both comparisons, totalling 21 included reports. Beta-blockers increased fasting blood glucose concentrations by 0.64 mmol l−1 (95% CI 0.24, 1.03) and diuretics by 0.77 mmol l−1 (95% CI 0.14, 1.39) compared with placebo. Effect sizes were largest in trials of non-selective beta-blockers (1.33, 95% CI 0.72, 1.95) and thiazide diuretics (1.69, 95% CI 0.60, 2.69). Beta-blockers increased HbA1c concentrations by 0.75% (95% CI 0.30, 1.20) and diuretics by 0.24% (95% CI −0.17, 0.65) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in the number of hypoglycaemic events between beta-blockers and placebo in three trials. Conclusions Randomized trials suggest that thiazide diuretics and non-selective beta-blockers increase fasting blood glucose and HbA1c concentrations in patients with diabetes by moderate amounts. These data will inform prescribing and monitoring of beta-blockers and diuretics in patients with diabetes. PMID:25377481

  7. Quantifying the effects of diuretics and β-adrenoceptor blockers on glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jennifer A; Farmer, Andrew J; Feakins, Benjamin G; Aronson, Jeffrey K; Stevens, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    Although there are reports that β-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) and diuretics can affect glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, there is no clear information on how blood glucose concentrations may change and by how much. We report results from a systematic review to quantify the effects of these antihypertensive drugs on glycaemic control in adults with established diabetes. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify randomized controlled trials in which glycaemic control was studied in adults with diabetes taking either beta-blockers or diuretics. We combined data on HbA1c and fasting blood glucose using fixed effects meta-analysis. From 3864 papers retrieved, we found 10 studies of beta-blockers and 12 studies of diuretics to include in the meta-analysis. One study included both comparisons, totalling 21 included reports. Beta-blockers increased fasting blood glucose concentrations by 0.64 mmol l(-1) (95% CI 0.24, 1.03) and diuretics by 0.77 mmol l(-1) (95% CI 0.14, 1.39) compared with placebo. Effect sizes were largest in trials of non-selective beta-blockers (1.33, 95% CI 0.72, 1.95) and thiazide diuretics (1.69, 95% CI 0.60, 2.69). Beta-blockers increased HbA1c concentrations by 0.75% (95% CI 0.30, 1.20) and diuretics by 0.24% (95% CI -0.17, 0.65) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in the number of hypoglycaemic events between beta-blockers and placebo in three trials. Randomized trials suggest that thiazide diuretics and non-selective beta-blockers increase fasting blood glucose and HbA1c concentrations in patients with diabetes by moderate amounts. These data will inform prescribing and monitoring of beta-blockers and diuretics in patients with diabetes. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Estimating the prevalence, hospitalisation and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ige, Janet O; Aderemi, Adewale V; Adeleye, Ngozi; Amoo, Emmanuel O; Auta, Asa; Oni, Gbolahan

    2017-01-01

    Background There is not yet a comprehensive evidence-based epidemiological report on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Nigeria. We aimed to estimate country-wide and zonal prevalence, hospitalisation and mortality rates of T2DM in Nigeria. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Africa Journals Online (AJOL) and Google Scholar for population and hospital-based studies on T2DM in Nigeria. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis on extracted crude estimates, and applied a meta-regression epidemiological model, using the United Nations demographics for Nigeria in 1990 and 2015 to determine estimates of diabetes in Nigeria for the two years. Results 42 studies, with a total population of 91 320, met our selection criteria. Most of the studies selected were of medium quality (90.5%). The age-adjusted prevalence rates of T2DM in Nigeria among persons aged 20–79 years increased from 2.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 2.1%) in 1990 to 5.7% (95% CI 5.5% to 5.8%) in 2015, accounting for over 874 000 and 4.7 million cases, respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.0% (95% CI 4.5% to 15.6%), while impaired fasting glucose was 5.8% (95% CI 3.8% to 7.8%). Hospital admission rate for T2DM was 222.6 (95% CI 133.1 to 312.1) per 100 000 population with hyperglycaemic emergencies, diabetic foot and cardiovascular diseases being most common complications. The overall mortality rate was 30.2 (95% CI 14.6 to 45.8) per 100 000 population, with a case fatality rate of 22.0% (95% CI 8.0% to 36.0%). Conclusion Our findings suggest an increasing burden of T2DM in Nigeria with many persons currently undiagnosed, and few known cases on treatment. PMID:28495817

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of metformin treatment on overall mortality rates in women with endometrial cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Perez-Lopez, Faustino R; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Gianuzzi, Ximena; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Hernandez-Fernandez, Wendy; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2017-07-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with endometrial cancer (EC). In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluated the effect of metformin on clinical outcomes in patients with EC and insulin resistance or T2DM. Four research databases were searched for original articles published in all languages up to 30 October 2016. Outcomes of interest were overall mortality (OM), cancer-specific mortality, disease progression, and metastases. We performed a random effect meta-analysis of adjusted effects expressed as hazard ratios (HR); heterogeneity among studies was described with the I(2) statistic. Of the 290 retrieved citations, 6 retrospective cohort studies in women with EC (n=4723) met the inclusion criteria, and 8.9% to 23.8% were treated with metformin; OM data was available from 5 studies. In 4 studies of EC patients (n=4132), metformin use was associated with a significant reduction in OM in comparison with not using metformin (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.89, p=0.009). In three studies evaluating patients with EC and T2DM (n=2637), metformin use was associated with a significant reduction in OM (aHR 0.50, 95%CI 0.34-0.74, p=0.0006). There was low to moderate heterogeneity of adjusted effects across studies. There was no information about the effect of metformin on cancer-specific mortality, disease progression, or metastases. Metformin treatment is associated with a significant reduction in OM irrespective of diabetes status in patients with EC. The survival benefit suggests that diabetes screening and maintenance of good glycemic control may improve outcomes in EC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Risk for Colorectal Cancer and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekcioglu, Cem; Haluza, Daniela; Kundi, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between low vitamin D status and risk for various outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most established means to evaluate an individual’s vitamin D status. However, cutoff values for 25(OH)D insufficiency as well as for optimal 25(OH)D levels are controversial. This systematic review critically summarizes the epidemiological evidence regarding 25(OH)D levels and the risk for colorectal cancer and T2DM. The meta-analytical calculation revealed a pooled relative risk (RR) of 0.62 (CI 0.56–0.70; I2 = 14.7%) for colorectal cancer and an RR of 0.66 (CI 0.61–0.73; I2 = 38.6%) for T2DM when comparing individuals with the highest category of 25(OH)D with those in the lowest. A dose–response analysis showed an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and RR for both outcomes up to concentrations of about 55 ng/mL for colorectal cancer and about 65 ng/mL for T2DM. At still higher 25(OH)D levels the RR increases slightly, consistent with a U-shaped association. In conclusion, a higher 25(OH)D status is associated with a lower risk for colorectal cancer and T2DM; however, this advantage is gradually lost as levels increase beyond 50–60 ng/mL. PMID:28134804

  11. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Han, Hedong; Li, Mei; Liang, Chun; Fan, Zhongjie; Aaseth, Jan; He, Jia; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2016-11-19

    The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%-13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups.

  12. Physical activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea D; Crippa, Alessio; Woodcock, James; Brage, Søren

    2016-12-01

    Inverse associations between physical activity (PA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well known. However, the shape of the dose-response relationship is still uncertain. This review synthesises results from longitudinal studies in general populations and uses non-linear models of the association between PA and incident type 2 diabetes. A systematic literature search identified 28 prospective studies on leisure-time PA (LTPA) or total PA and risk of type 2 diabetes. PA exposures were converted into metabolic equivalent of task (MET) h/week and marginal MET (MMET) h/week, a measure only considering energy expended above resting metabolic rate. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the exposure-disease relationship. Our results suggest an overall non-linear relationship; using the cubic spline model we found a risk reduction of 26% (95% CI 20%, 31%) for type 2 diabetes among those who achieved 11.25 MET h/week (equivalent to 150 min/week of moderate activity) relative to inactive individuals. Achieving twice this amount of PA was associated with a risk reduction of 36% (95% CI 27%, 46%), with further reductions at higher doses (60 MET h/week, risk reduction of 53%). Results for the MMET h/week dose-response curve were similar for moderate intensity PA, but benefits were greater for higher intensity PA and smaller for lower intensity activity. Higher levels of LTPA were associated with substantially lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in the general population. The relationship between LTPA and type 2 diabetes was curvilinear; the greatest relative benefits are achieved at low levels of activity, but additional benefits can be realised at exposures considerably higher than those prescribed by public health recommendations.

  13. Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xin; Han, Hedong; Li, Mei; Liang, Chun; Fan, Zhongjie; Aaseth, Jan; He, Jia; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%–13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups. PMID:27869762

  14. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of people with type II diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongyue; Kan, Laidi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Pu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To review and assess the effectiveness of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A computerized database search was performed through PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the reference lists of all relevant articles. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. [Results] Five articles (four studies) with a combined study population of 154 patients with type II diabetes qualified for the inclusion criteria. Our review shows that whole body vibration therapy may have a positive impact on the muscle strength and balance of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas the effect on their mobility is still under discussion. [Conclusion] There was no sufficient evidence to support the premise that whole body vibration therapy is beneficial for the physical function of people with type II diabetes. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed. PMID:27799718

  15. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of people with type II diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang BSc, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongyue; Kan, Laidi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Pu

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To review and assess the effectiveness of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A computerized database search was performed through PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the reference lists of all relevant articles. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. [Results] Five articles (four studies) with a combined study population of 154 patients with type II diabetes qualified for the inclusion criteria. Our review shows that whole body vibration therapy may have a positive impact on the muscle strength and balance of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas the effect on their mobility is still under discussion. [Conclusion] There was no sufficient evidence to support the premise that whole body vibration therapy is beneficial for the physical function of people with type II diabetes. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed.

  16. Efficacy and safety of insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonists combination in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cimmaruta, D; Maiorino, M I; Scavone, C; Sportiello, L; Rossi, F; Giugliano, D; Esposito, K; Capuano, A

    2016-12-01

    Attaining optimal glycemic targets in patients with type 2 diabetes is often hard and compromised by the shortcomings of the several treatments. Areas covered: When glycemic levels are not adequately controlled, an association of GLP-1 receptor agonists and insulin therapy can be adopted. In order to assess the benefit/risk profile of this combination therapy, a literature search of randomized clinical trials was performed.Eighteen trials matched the inclusion criteria. In 10 studies, GLP-1 receptor agonists were added on to an existing regimen, whereas insulin added to an existing GLP-1 receptor agonists regimen occurred in 2 studies. Six studies compared GLP-1 receptor agonists with short acting insulin as a treatment strategy to intensify basal insulin therapy. Expert opinion: Clinical trials herein reviewed demonstrated the safety and the efficacy of combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with basal insulin, with most studies showing equal or slightly superior efficacy, as compared with the addition of prandial insulin, associated with weight loss and less hypoglycemia.

  17. Effect of orlistat on glycaemic control in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Aldekhail, N M; Logue, J; McLoone, P; Morrison, D S

    2015-12-01

    Orlistat is an effective adjunctive treatment to lifestyle modifications in the treatment of obesity. While the majority of current evidence is on the effect of orlistat in obese patients without diabetes, some studies suggest that patients who are obese and have diabetes mellitus lose more weight and have greater improvements in diabetic outcomes when treated with orlistat plus a lifestyle intervention than when treated by lifestyle interventions alone. The aim of this study was to review the evidence of the effects of orlistat on glycaemic control in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of orlistat in people with type 2 diabetes reporting diabetes outcomes in studies published between January 1990 and September 2013 was conducted. We searched for articles published in English in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Inclusion criteria included all randomized controlled trials of orlistat carried out on adult participants with a body mass index of 25 kg m(-2) or over diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which reported weight change and at least one diabetic outcome. A total of 765 articles were identified out of which 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The overall mean weight reduction (3, 6 and 12 months) in the orlistat group was -4.25 kg (95% CI: -4.5 to -3.9 kg). The mean weight difference between treatment and control groups was -2.10 kg (95% CI: -2.3 to -1.8 kg, P < 0.001), the mean HbA1c difference was -6.12 mmol mol(-1) (95% CI: -10.3 to -1.9 mmol mol(-1) , P < 0.004) and the mean fasting blood glucose difference was -1.16 mmol L(-1) (95% CI: -1.4 to -0.8 mmol L(-1) , P < 0.001). Treatment with orlistat plus lifestyle intervention resulted in significantly greater weight loss and improved glycaemic control in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes compared with lifestyle intervention alone.

  18. Systematic review automation technologies.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico

    2014-07-09

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time.

  19. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  20. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Medical Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Sha, Yanhua; Yao, Guoxiang; Wang, Shiguang; Kong, Fanzhi; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Guangjun; Zhang, Haiqing; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery versus medical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese patients.Bariatric surgery can achieve remission of T2DM in obese patients. RYGB surgery has been performed as one of the most common surgical treatment options for obese patients with T2DM, but the efficacy of RYGB surgery comparing with medical treatment alone has not been conclusively determined.A systematic literature search identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating RYGB surgery versus medical treatment for T2DM in obese patients was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database, and Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary outcome was T2DM remission. Additional analyses comprised hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, serum lipid level, blood pressure, medication use, and adverse events. Random-effects meta-analyses were calculated and presented as weighted odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Six RCTs concerning 410 total obese T2DM patients were included. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 60 months. RYGB surgery was associated with a higher T2DM remission rate (OR: 76.37, 95% CI: 20.70-281.73, P < 0.001) and serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: 0.24 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.18-0.30 mmol/L, P < 0.001) than medical treatment alone. HbA1c (MD: -1.25%, 95% CI: -1.88% to -0.63%, P < 0.001), BMI (MD: -6.54 kg/m, 95% CI: -9.28 to -3.80 kg/m, P < 0.001), waist circumference (MD: -15.60 cm, 95% CI: -18.21 to -13.00 cm, P < 0.001), triglyceride (MD: -0.87 mmol/L, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.57 mmol/L, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.02 mmol/L, P = 0

  1. Impact of roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery on prognostic factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Zeng, Guangzheng; Tan, Jingwang; Tang, Jun; Ma, Jingsheng; Rao, Benqiang

    2015-10-01

    Our aim is to clarify the features of complete type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission in patients who undergo Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery, to better determine factors affecting the outcome of T2DM surgery. A search was conducted for original studies on Medline, PubMed and Elsevier from inception until October 28, 2014. All of the articles included in this study were assessed with the application of predetermined selection criteria and were divided into two groups: Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery for T2DM patients in remission or non-remission. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that fasting C-peptide values were significantly associated with increased remission (C-peptide: 95%CI = 0.2-1.0) whereas T2DM duration, patient age, preoperative insulin use, preoperative fasting blood glucose values and preoperative glycosylated haemoglobin values were significantly associated with reduced remission (T2DM duration: 95%CI = -1.2 - -0.7; age: 95%CI = -0.5 - -0.1; percentage of preoperative insulin users: odd ratio = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.07-0.15; preoperative fasting blood glucose: 95%CI = -0.9 - -0.5; preoperative glycosylated haemoglobin: 95%CI = -1.1 - -0.4). However, the results demonstrated that body mass index was not statistically different (body mass index: 95%CI = -0.2-0.6). The results of the systematic review demonstrated that smaller waist circumference; lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein levels, increased higher high-density lipoprotein levels, shorter cardiovascular disease history and less preoperative prevalence of hypertension contribute to the increased postoperative remission rate. Better results are obtained in younger patients with less severe diabetes, a smaller waist circumference, higher preoperative high-density lipoprotein, lower preoperative total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein levels and fewer other complications of shorter durations. Copyright © 2014

  2. Effectiveness of chronic care models for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Müssig, Karsten; Wens, Johan; Lang, Caroline; Schwarz, Peter; Roden, Michael; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the effectiveness of European chronic care programmes for type 2 diabetes mellitus (characterised by integrative care and a multicomponent framework for enhancing healthcare delivery), compared with usual diabetes care. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL and CINAHL from January 2000 to July 2015. Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials focussing on (1) adults with type 2 diabetes, (2) multifaceted diabetes care interventions specifically designed for type 2 diabetes and delivered in primary or secondary care, targeting patient, physician and healthcare organisation and (3) usual diabetes care as the control intervention. Data extraction Study characteristics, characteristics of the intervention, data on baseline demographics and changes in patient outcomes. Data analysis Weighted mean differences in change in HbA1c and total cholesterol levels between intervention and control patients (95% CI) were estimated using a random-effects model. Results Eight cluster randomised controlled trials were identified for inclusion (9529 patients). One year of multifaceted care improved HbA1c levels in patients with screen-detected and newly diagnosed diabetes, but not in patients with prevalent diabetes, compared to usual diabetes care. Across all seven included trials, the weighted mean difference in HbA1c change was −0.07% (95% CI −0.10 to −0.04) (−0.8 mmol/mol (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4)); I2=21%. The findings for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure were similar to HbA1c, albeit statistical heterogeneity between studies was considerably larger. Compared to usual care, multifaceted care did not significantly change quality of life of the diabetes patient. Finally, measured for screen-detected diabetes only, the risk of macrovascular and mircovascular complications at follow-up was not significantly different between intervention and control patients. Conclusions Effects

  3. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  4. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for venous thromboembolism? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Mavrakanas, Thomas; Combescure, Christophe; Perrier, Arnaud; Marti, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, but its role in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been elucidated. We conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies to assess whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for VTE. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for case-control and prospective cohort studies assessing association between the risk of venous thromboembolism and diabetes. Odds ratios (OR) from case-control studies were combined while for prospective studies hazard ratios (HR) were combined. Models with random effects were used. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for raw and adjusted measures of association. 24 studies were identified including 10 cohort studies (274,501 patients) and 14 case-control studies (1,157,086 patients). Meta-analysis of the prospective cohort studies demonstrated a significant association between diabetes and VTE (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.35 to 1.89). This association was no longer present after analysis of multi-adjusted HRs (HR 1.10; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.56). Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed a significant association between diabetes and VTE (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.17 to 2.12), but this association was no longer present when adjusted ORs were used (OR 1.18; 95%CI 0.89 to 1.56). The increased risk of VTE associated with diabetes mainly results from confounders rather than an intrinsic effect of diabetes on venous thrombotic risk. Therefore, no specific recommendations should apply for the management of diabetic patients at risk for VTE. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Current evidence on the associations of breastfeeding, infant formula, and cow's milk introduction with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Girvalaki, Charis; Brokalaki, Hero; Patelarou, Athena; Androulaki, Zacharenia; Vardavas, Constantine

    2012-09-01

    Current evidence provides contradictory results in regards to the associations of breastfeeding or early introduction of cow's milk and formula with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the type of feeding, duration of breastfeeding, time of introduction of formula or cow's milk, and the potential impact on developing T1D. The literature search was conducted based on the standards outlined in the MOOSE Guidelines for Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies and yielded a total of 161 studies, 28 of which were included in this review. Twenty seven of the included studies were case-control and one was a prospective cohort study. Eight of the studies indicated breastfeeding has a protective role against the development of T1D. Seven additional studies emphasized that a short period or absence of breastfeeding could be a risk factor for T1D development. The results of this systematic review indicate a short duration and/or a lack of breastfeeding may constitute a risk factor for the development of T1D later in life. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Ethics in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper.

  7. A Systematic Review of Methods for Handling Missing Variance Data in Meta-Analyses of Interventions in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Batson, Sarah; Burton, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis is of critical importance to decision makers to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of interventions and is integral to health technology assessment. A major problem for the meta-analysis of continuous outcomes is that associated variance data are not consistently reported in trial publications. The omission of studies from a meta-analysis due to incomplete reporting may introduce bias. The objectives of this study are to summarise and describe the methods used for handling missing variance data in meta-analyses in populations with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (accessed June 2015), were systematically searched to identify meta-analyses of interventions in patients with T2DM. Eligible studies included those which analysed the change in HbA1c from baseline. Sixty-seven publications reporting on meta-analyses of change in HbA1c from baseline in T2DM were identified. Approaches for dealing with missing variance data were reported in 41% of publications and included algebraic calculation, trial-level imputation, and no imputation. Meta-analysis publications typically fail to report standardised approaches for dealing with missing variance data. While no particular imputation method is favoured, authors are discouraged from using a no-imputation approach. Instead, authors are encouraged to explore different approaches using sensitivity analyses and to improve the quality of reporting by documenting the methods used to deal with missing variance data.

  8. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Xu, Qin; Sun, Qi; Fan, Fang-fang; Guo, Xue-rui; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Background After the publication of the CONSORT 2010 statement, few studies have been conducted to assess the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on treatment of diabetes mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) published in Chinese journals. Objective To investigate the current situation of the reporting quality of RCTs in leading medical journals in China with the CONSORT 2010 statement as criteria. Methods The China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) electronic database was searched for RCTs on the treatment of diabetes mellitus with TCM published in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine, and the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica from January to December 2011. We excluded trials reported as “animal studies”, “in vitro studies”, “case studies”, or “systematic reviews”. The CONSORT checklist was applied by two independent raters to evaluate the reporting quality of all eligible trials after discussing and comprehending the items thoroughly. Each item in the checklist was graded as either “yes” or “no” depending on whether it had been reported by the authors. Results We identified 27 RCTs. According to the 37 items in the CONSORT checklist, the average reporting percentage was 45.0%, in which the average reporting percentage for the “title and abstract”, the “introduction”, the “methods”, the “results”, the “discussion” and the “other information” was 33.3%, 88.9%, 36.4%, 54.4%, 71.6% and 14.8%, respectively. In the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional & Western Medicine, and the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica the average reporting percentage was 42.2%, 56.8%, and 46.0%, respectively. Conclusions The reporting quality of RCTs in these three journals was insufficient to allow readers to assess the validity of the trials. We recommend that editors require

  9. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanjue; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Dong, Xue; Huang, Rong; Tian, Sai; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Whether sex differences in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease incidence exist among diabetic patients remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative effect of diabetes on chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease risk in women compared with men. We systematically searched Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for both cohort and case-control studies until October 2015. Studies were selected if they reported a sex-specific relationship between diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. We generated pooled estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis after log transformation with inverse variance weighting. Ten studies with data from more than 5 million participants were included. The pooled adjusted risk ratio of chronic kidney disease associated with diabetes mellitus was 3.34 (95 % CI 2.27, 4.93) in women and 2.84 (95 % CI 1.73, 4.68) in men. The data showed no difference in diabetes-related chronic kidney disease risk between the sexes (pooled adjusted women-to-men relative risk ratio was 1.14 [95 % CI 0.97, 1.34]) except for end-stage renal disease-the pooled adjusted women-to men relative risk ratio was 1.38 (95 % CI 1.22, 1.55; p = 0.114, I² = 38.1 %). The study found no evidence of a sex difference in the association between diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. However, the excess risk for end-stage renal disease was higher in women with diabetes than in men with the same condition, from which we assume that the female gender could accelerate the disease progression. Further studies are needed to support this notion and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Review of gestational diabetes mellitus effects on vascular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Louise A; Chik, Constance L; Ryan, Edmond A

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been described in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, previous gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Factors contributing to vascular changes remain uncertain. The aim of this review was to summarize vascular structure and function changes found to occur in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify factors that contribute to vascular dysfunction. A systematic search of electronic databases yielded 15 publications from 1998 to March 2014 that met the inclusion criteria. Our review confirmed that previous gestational diabetes mellitus contributes to vascular dysfunction, and the most consistent risk factor associated with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and vascular dysfunction was elevated body mass index. Heterogeneity existed across studies in determining the relationship of glycaemic levels and insulin resistance to vascular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Krul-Poel, Yvonne H M; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Lips, Paul; Simsek, Suat

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that vitamin D status plays a role in glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, intervention studies yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library for RCTs examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to obtain a summarized outcome of vitamin D supplementation on HbA1c, fasting glucose and homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twenty-three RCTs were included in this systematic review representing a total of 1797 patients with type 2 diabetes. Mean (± s.d.) change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D varied from 1.8 ± 10.2 nmol/L to 80.1 ± 54.0 nmol/L. Nineteen studies included HbA1c as outcome variable. Combining these studies no significant effect in change of HbA1c was seen after vitamin D intervention compared with placebo. A significant effect of vitamin D supplementation was seen on fasting glucose in a subgroup of studies (n = 4) with a mean baseline HbA1c ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) (standardized difference in means: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-0.61, P = 0.003). Current evidence of RCTs does not support short-term vitamin D supplementation in a heterogeneous population with type 2 diabetes. However, in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, a favourable effect of vitamin D is seen on fasting glucose. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Prevalent diabetes mellitus in patients with heart failure and disease determinants in sub-Saharan Africans having diabetes with heart failure: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Dzudie, Anastase; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure (HF) is the final common pathway for most cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major contributor to CVD burden and an independent predictor of mortality in patients with HF. However, the epidemiology of DM in African patients with HF is less well described. The current proposal is for a systematic review to assess the prevalence of DM in HF and the determinants of disease in patients with diabetes and HF in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods and analysis A systematic search of published literature will be conducted for observational studies on the prevalence of DM in HF and risk factors of HF in these patients in SSA. Databases including MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and Africa Wide Information will be searched from January 1995 to February 2016. Screening of identified articles and data extraction will be conducted independently by two investigators. Risk of bias and methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using a Risk of Bias tool and STROBE checklist. Appropriate meta-analytic techniques will be used to pool prevalence estimates from studies with similar features, overall and by major subgroups. Heterogeneity of the estimates across studies will be assessed and quantified and publication bias investigated. This protocol is reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The proposed study will utilise published data; as such there is no requirement for ethical approval. The resulting manuscript will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This review will identify the knowledge gaps as well as inform policymakers in the region on the contemporary burden of DM in patients with HF. Trial registration number CRD42015026410. PMID:26911585

  13. Online social networking services in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Toma, Tania; Athanasiou, Thanos; Harling, Leanne; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan

    2014-11-01

    Social networking services (SNS) can facilitate real-time communication and feedback of blood glucose and other physiological data between patients and healthcare professionals. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarise the current evidence surrounding the role of online social networking services in diabetes care. We performed a systematic literature review of the Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases of all studies reporting HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) as a measure of glycaemic control for social networking services in diabetes care. HbA1c, clinical outcomes and the type of technology used were extracted. Study quality and publication bias were assessed. SNS interventions beneficially reduced HbA1c when compared to controls, which was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. SNS interventions also significantly improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Subgroup analysis according to diabetes type demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes patients had a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than those with Type 1 diabetes. Online SNS provide a novel, feasible approach to improving glycaemic control, particularly in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Further mechanistic and cost-effectiveness studies are required to improve our understanding of SNS and its efficacy in diabetes care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic reviews. Some examples.

    PubMed Central

    Knipschild, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reviewing the literature is a scientific inquiry that needs a clear design to preclude bias. It is a real enterprise if one aims at completeness of the literature on a certain subject. Going through refereed English language journals is not enough. On line databases are helpful, but mainly as a starting point. This article gives examples of systematic reviews on vitamin C and the common cold, pyridoxine against the premenstrual syndrome, homeopathy, and physiotherapy. Images p720-a PMID:7950526

  15. Systematic review of the psychometric properties and theoretical grounding of instruments evaluating self-care in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Caro-Bautista, Jorge; Martín-Santos, Francisco Javier; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel

    2014-06-01

    To determine the psychometric properties and theoretical grounding of instruments that evaluate self-care behaviour or barriers in people with type 2 diabetes. There are many instruments designed to evaluate self-care behaviour or barriers in this population, but knowledge about their psychometric validation processes is lacking. Systematic review. We conducted a search for psychometric or validation studies published between January 1990-December 2012. We carried out searches in Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuolid, BibliPRO and Google SCHOLAR to identify instruments that evaluated self-care behaviours or barriers to diabetes self-care. We conducted a systematic review with the following inclusion criteria: Psychometric or clinimetric validation studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes (exclusively or partially) and which analysed self-care behaviour or barriers to self-care and proxies like self-efficacy or empowerment, from a multidimensional approach. Language: Spanish or English. Two authors independently assessed the quality of the studies and extracted data using Terwee's proposed criteria: psychometrics properties, dimensionality, theoretical ground and population used for validation through each included instrument. Sixteen instruments achieved the inclusion criteria for the review. We detected important methodological flaws in many of the selected instruments. Only the Self-management Profile for Type 2 Diabetes and Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale met half of Terwee's quality criteria. There are no instruments for identifying self-care behaviours or barriers elaborated with a strong validation process. Further research should be carried out to provide patients, clinicians and researchers with valid and reliable instruments that are methodologically solid and theoretically grounded. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perceptions and experiences of taking oral medications for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McSharry, J; McGowan, L; Farmer, A J; French, D P

    2016-10-01

    To explore patients' perceptions and experiences of taking oral medications for the pharmacological management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cinahl, EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched in 2014 to identify qualitative studies exploring patients' perceptions or experiences of taking medications for the management of Type 2 diabetes. Key concepts and themes were extracted and synthesized using meta-ethnography. Eight studies were included. Primary study findings were synthesized to develop three higher-order constructs that moved beyond the results of individual studies. The first construct, Medications for diabetes: a necessary evil, outlines how patients' negative perceptions of medication risks co-exist with a resounding view that medications are beneficial. Passive patients but active experimenters highlights the contrast between patients' passive acceptance of medication prescriptions and the urge to actively experiment and adjust doses to optimize medication use in daily life. Finally, Taking oral medication for Type 2 diabetes: a unique context describes features specific to the Type 2 diabetes medication experience, including lack of symptoms and the perceived relationship between medication and diet, which may influence adherence. Medication-taking for Type 2 diabetes is a unique adherence context, which requires the development of condition-specific interventions. The present findings indicate patients understand the need for medications but adjust dosage and timing in their daily lives. This review suggests providers should acknowledge patient preferences in the development of management strategies, and highlights an opportunity to direct the motivation evident in patients' experimentation towards potentially more beneficial medication-taking behaviours. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. From screening to postpartum follow-up – the determinants and barriers for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) services, a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) – a transitory form of diabetes first recognised during pregnancy complicates between < 1% and 28% of all pregnancies. GDM has important short and long-term health consequences for both the mother and her offspring. To prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes and to prevent or delay future onset of type 2 diabetes in mother and offspring, timely detection, optimum treatment, and preventive postpartum care and follow-up is necessary. However the area remains grossly under-prioritised. Methods To investigate determinants and barriers to GDM care from initial screening and diagnosis to prenatal treatment and postpartum follow-up, a PubMed database search to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the subject was done in September 2012. Fifty-eight relevant studies were reviewed. Results Adherence to prevailing GDM screening guidelines and compliance to screening tests seems sub-optimal at best and arbitrary at worst, with no clear or consistent correlation to health care provider, health system or client characteristics. Studies indicate that most women express commitment and motivation for behaviour change to protect the health of their unborn baby, but compliance to recommended treatment and advice is fraught with challenges, and precious little is known about health system or societal factors that hinder compliance and what can be done to improve it. A number of barriers related to health care provider/system and client characteristics have been identified by qualitative studies. Immediately following a GDM pregnancy many women, when properly informed, desire and intend to maintain healthy lifestyles to prevent future diabetes, but find the effort challenging. Adherence to recommended postpartum screening and continued lifestyle modifications seems even lower. Here too, health care provider, health system and client related determinants and barriers were identified. Studies reveal that sense of self

  18. Shining the light on Sunshine: a systematic review of the influence of sun exposure on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Brennan, Sharon L; Sanders, Kerrie M; Neale, Rachel E; Lucas, Robyn M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-12-01

    Prospective observational studies uniformly link vitamin D deficiency with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), yet trials supplementing participants at risk of T2DM with vitamin D to reduce progression to T2DM have yielded inconsistent results. Inconsistencies between supplementation trials may be due to insufficient dosing or small sample sizes. Observational studies may also have reported spurious associations due to uncontrolled confounding by lifestyle or genetic factors. Alternatively, observational and intervention studies may not be entirely comparable. Observational studies show an association between higher vitamin D status, which is predominantly derived from sun exposure, and decreased incidence of T2DM. Trials intervene with vitamin D supplementation, and therefore may be missing alternate causes of the effect of sun exposure, as seen in observational studies. We propose that sun exposure may be the driving force behind the associations seen in observational studies; sun exposure may have additional benefits beyond increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. We performed an electronic literature search to identify articles that examined associations between sun exposure and T2DM and/or glucose metabolism. A best evidence synthesis was then conducted using outcomes from analyses deemed to have high methodological quality. Ten eligible full-text articles were identified, yielding 19 T2DM-related outcomes. The best evidence analysis considered 11 outcomes which were grouped into six outcome types: T2DM, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, fasting insulin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. There was moderate evidence to support a role of recreational sun exposure in reducing odds of T2DM incidence. High-level evidence was lacking; evidence presented for other outcomes was of low or insufficient level. This review highlights significant gaps in research pertaining to sun exposure and T2DM-related outcomes. Further research is

  19. Role of lasers as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Javed, Fawad; Shah, Altaf; Samer, Mazin Saleh; Vohra, Fahim; Akram, Zohaib

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of adjunctive use of laser therapy (LT) alone or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to improve clinical periodontal and HbA1c levels in patients with both chronic periodontitis (CP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct, and SCOPUS databases were combined with hand searching of articles published from 1975 up to and including March 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Six studies were selected for this review. In these six studies, laser treatment was applied, after scaling and root planing (SRP), in two ways: Three studies used laser alone and three studies used laser with photosensitizer. All the six included studies reporting clinical periodontal and glycemic parameters showed that LT and aPDT were effective in the treatment of CP in T2DM subjects at follow-up. Two studies showed significantly better periodontal outcomes for LT as an adjunct to SRP as compared to SRP alone, whereas four studies showed comparable periodontal outcomes among adjunctive LT or aPDT with SRP. Two studies showed significant reduction of HbA1c levels in LT and aPDT as compared to SRP, whereas three studies showed comparable percentage levels at follow-up. It remains debatable whether LT or aPDT as adjunct to SRP is more effective as compared to SRP alone in the improvement of clinical periodontal and glycemic control in patients with both CP and T2DM, given that the scientific evidence is weak.

  20. CARING (CAncer Risk and INsulin analoGues): The Association of Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer Risk with Focus on Possible Determinants - A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Karlstad, Øystein; Eriksen, Stine Aistrup; Vestergaard, Peter; Bronsveld, Heleen K.; de Vries, Frank; Andersen, Morten; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Hjellvik, Vidar; Bazelier, Marloes T.; de Boer, Anthonius; Furu, Kari; De Bruin, Marie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience an increased risk of cancer; however, it is not certain whether this effect is due to diabetes per se. Objective: To examine the association between DM and cancers by a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA guidelines. Data Sources: The systematic literature search includes Medline at PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Bibliotek.dk, Cochrane library, Web of Science and SveMed+ with the search terms: “Diabetes mellitus”, “Neoplasms”, and “Risk of cancer”. Study Eligibility Criteria: The included studies compared the risk of cancer in diabetic patients versus non-diabetic patients. All types of observational study designs were included. Results: Diabetes patients were at a substantially increased risk of liver (RR=2.1), and pancreas (RR=2.2) cancer. Modestly elevated significant risks were also found for ovary (RR=1.2), breast (RR=1.1), cervix (RR=1.3), endometrial (RR=1.4), several digestive tract (RR=1.1-1.5), kidney (RR=1.4), and bladder cancer (RR=1.1). The findings were similar for men and women, and unrelated to study design. Meta-regression analyses showed limited effect modification of body mass index, and possible effect modification of age, gender, with some influence of study characteristics (population source, cancer- and diabetes ascertainment). Limitations: Publication bias seemed to be present. Only published data were used in the analyses. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the previous results of increased cancer risk in diabetes and extend this to additional cancer sites. Physicians in contact with patients with diabetes should be aware that diabetes patients are at an increased risk of cancer. PMID:24215312

  1. Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of the effect on glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chrvala, Carole A; Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth D

    2016-06-01

    Assess effect of diabetes self-management education and support methods, providers, duration, and contact time on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, and PsycINFO to December 2013 for interventions which included elements to improve participants' knowledge, skills, and ability to perform self-management activities as well as informed decision-making around goal setting. This review included 118 unique interventions, with 61.9% reporting significant changes in A1C. Overall mean reduction in A1C was 0.74 and 0.17 for intervention and control groups; an average absolute reduction in A1C of 0.57. A combination of group and individual engagement results in the largest decreases in A1C (0.88). Contact hours ≥10 were associated with a greater proportion of interventions with significant reduction in A1C (70.3%). In patients with persistently elevated glycemic values (A1C>9), a greater proportion of studies reported statistically significant reduction in A1C (83.9%). This systematic review found robust data demonstrating that engagement in diabetes self-management education results in a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels. The data suggest mode of delivery, hours of engagement, and baseline A1C can affect the likelihood of achieving statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in A1C. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Is diabetes mellitus associated with increased incidence and disease-specific mortality in endometrial cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Caiyun; Zhang, Dongyu; Mungo, Chemtai; Tompkins, D. Andrew; Zeidan, Amer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the incidence and disease-specific mortality of endometrial cancer (EC). Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference abstracts of the 2011–2013 Annual Meetings of Society of Gynecological Oncology were searched for reports of original cohort studies that enrolled diabetic and non-diabetic women who were free of EC at baseline to compare the incidence and disease-specific mortality of EC by DM status. The included reports were examined for demographic characteristics of study populations, study design, effect measures and risk of bias. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated with Chi-square test of the Cochrane Q statistics at the 0.05 significance level and I2 statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual examination of a funnel plot and the Egger’s test for small-study effects. Results Twenty-nine cohort studies (17 prospective, 12 retrospective) were eligible for this review, 23 of which reported EC incidence, five reported disease-specific mortality and one reported both. For incidence of EC among women with versus without DM, the summary relative risk (RR) was 1.89 (95%CI, 1.46–2.45; p < 0.001) and the summary incidence rate ratio was 1.61 (95%CI, 1.51–1.71; p < 0.001). The pooled RR of disease-specific mortality was 1.32 (95%CI, 1.10–1.60; p = 0.003), while results in the studies reporting standardized mortality ratios were inconsistent. There remains considerable amount of clinical and methodological heterogeneity among the included studies; moreover, the hazard ratios for incident EC showed significant statistical heterogeneity and therefore were not quantitatively synthesized. Conclusions There is consistent evidence for an independent association between DM and an increased risk of incident EC, while the association between DM and EC-specific mortality remains uncertain. Further studies with better considerations for selection bias, information bias and confounding will

  3. A systematic review of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in imaging studies of cognitive aging: time to establish new norms

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Liesel-Ann C.; Kansal, Nisha; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; Yuen, William; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Greenwood, Carol E.; Anderson, Nicole D.

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension in older adults, and the deleterious effect of these conditions on cerebrovascular and brain health, is creating a growing discrepancy between the “typical” cognitive aging trajectory and a “healthy” cognitive aging trajectory. These changing health demographics make T2DM and hypertension important topics of study in their own right, and warrant attention from the perspective of cognitive aging neuroimaging research. Specifically, interpretation of individual or group differences in blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET H2O15) signals as reflective of differences in neural activation underlying a cognitive operation of interest requires assumptions of intact vascular health amongst the study participants. Without adequate screening, inclusion of individuals with T2DM or hypertension in “healthy” samples may introduce unwanted variability and bias to brain and/or cognitive measures, and increase potential for error. We conducted a systematic review of the cognitive aging neuroimaging literature to document the extent to which researchers account for these conditions. Of the 232 studies selected for review, few explicitly excluded individuals with T2DM (9%) or hypertension (13%). A large portion had exclusion criteria that made it difficult to determine whether T2DM or hypertension were excluded (44 and 37%), and many did not mention any selection criteria related to T2DM or hypertension (34 and 22%). Of all the surveyed studies, only 29% acknowledged or addressed the potential influence of intersubject vascular variability on the measured BOLD or PET signals. To reinforce the notion that individuals with T2DM and hypertension should not be overlooked as a potential source of bias, we also provide an overview of metabolic and vascular changes associated with T2DM and hypertension, as they relate to cerebrovascular and

  4. Impact of Information Technology-Based Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Nouf Sahal; Alsubki, Nada; Jones, Simon; Khunti, Kamlesh; Munro, Neil; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-11-25

    Information technology-based interventions are increasingly being used to manage health care. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding whether these interventions improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, assessing the impact of information technology on changes in the levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and mapping the interventions with chronic care model (CCM) elements. Electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant studies that were published up until July 2016, a method that was supplemented by identifying articles from the references of the articles already selected using the electronic search tools. The study search and selection were performed by independent reviewers. Of the 1082 articles retrieved, 32 trials (focusing on a total of 40,454 patients) were included. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results. Information technology-based interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c levels (mean difference -0.33%, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.26, P<.001). Studies focusing on electronic self-management systems demonstrated the largest reduction in HbA1c (0.50%), followed by those with electronic medical records (0.17%), an electronic decision support system (0.15%), and a diabetes registry (0.05%). In addition, the more CCM-incorporated the information technology-based interventions were, the more improvements there were in HbA1c levels. Information technology strategies combined with the other elements of chronic care models are associated with improved glycemic control in people with diabetes. No clinically relevant impact was observed on low-density lipoprotein levels and blood pressure, but there was evidence that the cost of care was lower.

  5. Impact of Information Technology–Based Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Nouf Sahal; Alsubki, Nada; Jones, Simon; Khunti, Kamlesh; Munro, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background Information technology–based interventions are increasingly being used to manage health care. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding whether these interventions improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials, assessing the impact of information technology on changes in the levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and mapping the interventions with chronic care model (CCM) elements. Methods Electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify relevant studies that were published up until July 2016, a method that was supplemented by identifying articles from the references of the articles already selected using the electronic search tools. The study search and selection were performed by independent reviewers. Of the 1082 articles retrieved, 32 trials (focusing on a total of 40,454 patients) were included. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results. Results Information technology–based interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c levels (mean difference −0.33%, 95% CI −0.40 to −0.26, P<.001). Studies focusing on electronic self-management systems demonstrated the largest reduction in HbA1c (0.50%), followed by those with electronic medical records (0.17%), an electronic decision support system (0.15%), and a diabetes registry (0.05%). In addition, the more CCM-incorporated the information technology–based interventions were, the more improvements there were in HbA1c levels. Conclusions Information technology strategies combined with the other elements of chronic care models are associated with improved glycemic control in people with diabetes. No clinically relevant impact was observed on low-density lipoprotein levels and blood pressure, but there was evidence that the cost of care was lower. PMID:27888169

  6. Effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes mellitus: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcomes set using a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Egan, Aoife M; Smith, Valerie; Devane, Declan; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-08-14

    Women with pregnancy complicated by pregestational diabetes experience increased rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Prepregnancy care is the targeted support and additional care offered to those women who are planning pregnancy and is associated with improved outcomes. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the outcomes measured and reported in studies evaluating the effects of prepregnancy care, which makes meaningful comparison difficult. The aim of this article is to present a protocol for a study to develop a Core Outcome Set (COS) for trials and other studies evaluating the effectiveness of prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes mellitus. This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify outcomes that have previously been reported in studies evaluating prepregnancy care for women with pregestational diabetes. We will then prioritise these outcomes from the perspective of key stakeholders, including women with pregestational diabetes as well as clinicians, using a Delphi survey. A final consensus meeting will be held with stakeholders to review and finalise the outcomes. The expectation is that the COS will always be collected and reported in all clinical trials, audits of practice and other forms of research that involve prepregnancy care programs for women with pregestational diabetes. This will facilitate comparing and contrasting of studies and allow for combining of appropriate studies with the ultimate goal of improved patient care.

  7. Efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus management: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yan; Bai, Hao; Wang, Shijun; Li, Zhaoping; Wang, Qian; Chen, Liyong

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) compared with a normal or high carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database for randomized controlled trials. Researches which reported the change in weight loss, blood glucose, and blood lipid levels were included. A total of 9 studies with 734 patients with diabetes were included. Pooled results suggested that LCD had a significantly effect on HbA1c level (WMD: -0.44; 95% CI: -0.61, -0.26; P=0.00). For cardiovascular risk factors, the LCD intervention significantly reduced triglycerides concentration (WMD: -0.33; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.21; P=0.00) and increased HDL cholesterol concentration (WMD: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.11; P=0.00). But the LCD was not associated with decreased level of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Subgroup analyses indicated that short term intervention of LCD was effective for weight loss (WMD: -1.18; 95% CI: -2.32, -0.04; P=0.04). The results suggested a beneficial effect of LCD intervention on glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The LCD intervention also had a positive effect on triglycerides and HDL cholesterol concentrations, but without significant effect on long term weight loss. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The impact of poor glycaemic control on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hassounah, Sondus; Alsaad, Saad; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of poor glycaemic control on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among men with type 2 Diabetics aged 27 to 85 years. Design The databases Embase classic+Embase, Global health, Ovid Medline and PsychINFO, were searched for relevant studies in June 2014 using the keywords: (Diabetes Mellitus OR diabetes mellitus type2 OR DM2 OR T2DM OR insulin resistance) AND (erectile dysfunction OR sexual dysfunction OR impotence) AND glycaemic control. Setting All study settings were considered (primary care, secondary care and tertiary care setting). Participants Type 2 Diabetic Patients with erectile dysfunction. Main outcome measures Included studies must include one of the following outcomes: (1) HBA1c for assess the level of glycaemic control; (2) Erectile dysfunction (any stage: IIEF-5 = 21 or less). Results Five cross-sectional studies involving 3299 patients were included. The findings pointed to a positive association between erectile dysfunction and glycaemic control. Three studies showed a significant positive association, while one study showed only a weak correlation and one study showed borderline significance. Patients’ age, diabetes mellitus duration, peripheral neuropathy and body mass index had positive association with erectile dysfunction. However, smoking and hypertension were not associated with erectile dysfunction in most included studies. Physical activity had a protective effect against erectile dysfunction. Conclusion We may conclude that the risk of erectile dysfunction is higher in type 2 diabetic men with poor glycaemic control than those with good control. PMID:26981254

  9. The impact of poor glycaemic control on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Binmoammar, Turki A; Hassounah, Sondus; Alsaad, Saad; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-03-01

    To determine the impact of poor glycaemic control on the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among men with type 2 Diabetics aged 27 to 85 years. The databases Embase classic+Embase, Global health, Ovid Medline and PsychINFO, were searched for relevant studies in June 2014 using the keywords: (Diabetes Mellitus OR diabetes mellitus type2 OR DM2 OR T2DM OR insulin resistance) AND (erectile dysfunction OR sexual dysfunction OR impotence) AND glycaemic control. All study settings were considered (primary care, secondary care and tertiary care setting). Type 2 Diabetic Patients with erectile dysfunction. Included studies must include one of the following outcomes: (1) HBA1c for assess the level of glycaemic control; (2) Erectile dysfunction (any stage: IIEF-5 = 21 or less). Five cross-sectional studies involving 3299 patients were included. The findings pointed to a positive association between erectile dysfunction and glycaemic control. Three studies showed a significant positive association, while one study showed only a weak correlation and one study showed borderline significance. Patients' age, diabetes mellitus duration, peripheral neuropathy and body mass index had positive association with erectile dysfunction. However, smoking and hypertension were not associated with erectile dysfunction in most included studies. Physical activity had a protective effect against erectile dysfunction. We may conclude that the risk of erectile dysfunction is higher in type 2 diabetic men with poor glycaemic control than those with good control.

  10. An overview of systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess differences between men and women in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In September 2011, the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for community-based, cross-sectional studies providing sex-specific prevalences of any of the three study conditions among adults living in parts of sub-Saharan Africa (i.e. in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa according to the United Nations subregional classification for African countries). A random-effects model was then used to calculate and compare the odds of men and women having each condition. Findings In a meta-analysis of the 36 relevant, cross-sectional data sets that were identified, impaired fasting glycaemia was found to be more common in men than in women (OR: 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.20–2.03), whereas impaired glucose tolerance was found to be less common in men than in women (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72–0.98). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus – which was generally similar in both sexes (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.91–1.11) – was higher among the women in Southern Africa than among the men from the same subregion and lower among the women from Eastern and Middle Africa and from low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa than among the corresponding men. Conclusion Compared with women in the same subregions, men in Eastern, Middle and Southern Africa were found to have a similar overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus but were more likely to have impaired fasting glycaemia and less likely to have impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24101783

  12. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  13. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M.; Davis, Barry R.; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant

  14. Role of intensive glucose control in development of renal end points in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coca, Steven G; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Haq, Nowreen; Krumholz, Harlan M; Parikh, Chirag R

    2012-05-28

    Aggressive glycemic control has been hypothesized to prevent renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review was conducted to summarize the benefits of intensive vs conventional glucose control on kidney-related outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes. Three databases were systematically searched (January 1, 1950, to December 31, 2010) with no language restrictions to identify randomized trials that compared surrogate renal end points (microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria) and clinical renal end points (doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], and death from renal disease) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive glucose control vs those receiving conventional glucose control. We evaluated 7 trials involving 28 065 adults who were monitored for 2 to 15 years. Compared with conventional control, intensive glucose control reduced the risk for microalbuminuria (risk ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.76-0.96]) and macroalbuminuria (0.74 [0.65-0.85]), but not doubling of the serum creatinine level (1.06 [0.92-1.22]), ESRD (0.69 [0.46-1.05]), or death from renal disease (0.99 [0.55-1.79]). Meta-regression revealed that larger differences in hemoglobin A1c between intensive and conventional therapy at the study level were associated with greater benefit for both microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. The pooled cumulative incidence of doubling of the serum creatinine level, ESRD, and death from renal disease was low (<4%, <1.5%, and <0.5%, respectively) compared with the surrogate renal end points of microalbuminuria (23%) and macroalbuminuria (5%). Intensive glucose control reduces the risk for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, but evidence is lacking that intensive glycemic control reduces the risk for significant clinical renal outcomes, such as doubling of the serum creatinine level, ESRD, or death from renal disease during the years of follow-up of the trials.

  15. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M; Davis, Barry R; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke-singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome-and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality-singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90-1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79-1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96-1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73-1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90-1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72-1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65-1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78-1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with

  16. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  17. A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Drejet, Sarah; Halum, Stacey; Brigger, Matthew; Skopelja, Elaine; Parker, Noah P

    2017-03-01

    Objectives (1) To systematically identify studies evaluating the use of intralesional cidofovir or bevacizumab as an adjunct in adult recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, determine disease severity and functional outcomes, and assess study quality. (2) To compare outcomes between the 2 adjuncts. Data Sources Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Clinical-Trials.gov . Review Methods Data sources were systematically searched. A priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were instituted. Quality was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. A priori criteria were instituted to select studies suitable for comparison. Results A total of 254 identified studies led to 16 for full-text review, including 14 for cidofovir and 2 for bevacizumab. Disease severity outcomes were reported in all studies, including remission rate, Derkay scores, time interval between operations, and/or lesion volume reduction. Remission rate was the most commonly reported (14 studies). Functional outcomes were reported in 5 studies (36%), including quality-of-life questionnaires, acoustic/aerodynamic analysis, and perceptual voice analysis. Voice-related quality of life was the most commonly reported (2 studies). Of 16 studies, 12 (75%) were rated poor quality. Reports almost invariably showed improved disease severity and functional outcomes following treatment; however, variable outcome measures and inadequate follow-up disallowed direct comparison of adjuncts. Conclusion Remission rate was the most commonly reported disease severity outcome, and voice-related quality of life was the most commonly reported functional outcome. Most studies were of poor quality. No studies met criteria for comparative analysis between adjuncts. Future research would be improved by reporting consistent and comparable disease severity and functional outcomes, treatment protocols, and follow-up.

  18. Relationship between melatonin receptor 1B and insulin receptor substrate 1 polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Sun, Cheng-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Qin; Zhao, Yue

    2014-08-22

    Studies have investigated the relationship between genetic variants and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of rs10830963 and rs1387153 variants in melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) and rs1801278 variant in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) with GDM susceptibility. Electronic database of PubMed, Medline, Embase, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant studies between 2005 and 2014. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed to estimate the association. Total ten case-control studies, including 3428 GDM cases and 4637 healthy controls, met the inclusion criteria. Our results showed a significant association between the three genetic variants and GDM risk, rs10830963 with a P-value less than 0.0001, rs1387153 with a P-value of 0.0002, and rs1801278 with a P-value of 0.001. Furthermore, all the genetic models in these three polymorphisms were associated with increased risks of GDM as well (P< = 0.009). In conclusion, our study found that the genetic polymorphisms rs10830963 and rs1387153 in MTNR1B and rs1801278 in IRS1 were associated with an increased risk of developing GDM. However, further studies with gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions should be considered.

  19. Frankincense: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess evidence from randomised clinical trials about the effectiveness of extracts of Boswellia serrata (frankincense). Design Systematic review. Data sources Electronic searches on Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Amed, and Cochrane Library. Hand searches of conference proceedings, bibliographies, and departmental files. Review methods All randomised clinical trials of B serrata extract as a treatment for any human medical condition were included and studies of B serrata preparations combined with other ingredients were excluded. Titles and abstracts of all retrieved articles were read and hard copies of all relevant articles were obtained. Selection of studies, data extraction and validation were done by the author. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included trials. Results Of 47 potentially relevant studies, seven met all inclusion criteria (five placebo controlled, two with active controls). The included trials related to asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, osteoarthritis, and collagenous colitis. Results of all trials indicated that B serrata extracts were clinically effective. Three studies were of good methodological quality. No serious safety issues were noted. Conclusions The evidence for the effectiveness of B serrata extracts is encouraging but not compelling. PMID:19091760

  20. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta-analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%-12.6%). In antipsychotic-naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%-4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta-analysis established that multi-episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45-2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20-1.69, p<0.001). Multi-episode (versus first-episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta-regression analysis (r(2) =0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices.

  1. Is antimicrobial photodynamic therapy an effective treatment for chronic periodontitis in diabetes mellitus and cigarette smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamoudi, Nawwaf

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cigarette smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). Databases (MEDLINE, PubMed; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register) were searched up to and including May 2017. The addressed PICO question was: "Does aPDT as an adjunct to SRP improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in T2DM and smokers with CP?" Six randomized clinical trials were included. All studies reporting clinical periodontal, microbiological, and immunological parameters showed that aPDT was effective in the treatment of CP in T2DM and smokers at follow up. When compared with SRP alone, none of the studies showed additional benefits of aPDT at follow up. Considering the effects of adjunctive aPDT as compared to SRP on clinical signs of CP in T2DM and smokers, no difference could be observed for all evaluated parameters (PD: Z=-0.81, P=0.41; CAL: Z=-0.19, P=0.84) except IL-1β (Z=4.57, P<0.001). Due to limited evidence, it remains debatable whether aPDT as an adjunct to SRP is effective in improving clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes compared to SRP alone in T2DM and smokers with CP. Further well-designed, large-scale clinical trials with microbiological parameters and long follow up periods are needed in order to assess the efficacy of adjunctive aPDT in T2DM and cigarette smokers with CP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diabetes mellitus in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and large scale meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Correll, Christoph U.; Galling, Britta; Probst, Michel; De Hert, Marc; Ward, Philip B.; Rosenbaum, Simon; Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and can have particularly deleterious health impacts in people with severe mental illness (SMI), i.e. schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. This meta‐analysis aimed: a) to describe pooled frequencies of T2DM in people with SMI; b) to analyze the influence of demographic, illness and treatment variables as well as T2DM assessment methods; and c) to describe T2DM prevalence in studies directly comparing persons with each specific SMI diagnosis to general population samples. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 438,245 people with SMI was 11.3% (95% CI: 10.0%‐12.6%). In antipsychotic‐naïve participants, the prevalence of T2DM was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.7%‐4.8%). There were no significant diagnostic subgroup differences. A comparative meta‐analysis established that multi‐episode persons with SMI (N=133,470) were significantly more likely to have T2DM than matched controls (N=5,622,664): relative risk, RR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.45‐2.37, p<0.001. The T2DM prevalence was consistently elevated in each of the three major diagnostic subgroups compared to matched controls. Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in women with SMI compared to men (RR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.20‐1.69, p<0.001). Multi‐episode (versus first‐episode) status was the only significant predictor for T2DM in a multivariable meta‐regression analysis (r2=0.52, p<0.001). The T2DM prevalence was higher in patients prescribed antipsychotics, except for aripriprazole and amisulpride. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM is needed. T2DM risks of individual antipsychotic medications should be considered when making treatment choices. PMID:27265707

  3. Urinothorax: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Toubes, María E.; Lama, Adriana; Golpe, Antonio; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M.; González-Barcala, Francisco J.; San José, Esther; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Rábade, Carlos; Lourido, Tamara; Valdés, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background The characteristics of patients with urinothorax (UT) are poorly defined. Methods A systematic review was performed searching for studies reporting clinical findings, pleural fluid (PF) characteristics, and the most effective treatment of UT. Case descriptions and retrospective studies were included. Results The review included 78 studies with a total of 88 patients. Median age was 45 years, male/female ratio was 1.6:1 and in 76% of cases the etiology was trauma. Pleural effusion (PE) was predominantly unilateral (87%) and occupied over 2/3 of the hemithorax in most cases (64.4%). PF was straw-colored (72.7%) or hematic (27.3%) with urine-like odor in all cases. PF was transudate in 56.2% of cases (18/32) and among 14 exudates (43.8%), 3 were concordant exudates, 1 protein-discordant and 10 LDH-discordant, with lymphocyte (44.4%) and neutrophil (38.5%) predominance. The PF/serum (PF/S) creatinine ratio was >1 in all cases except one (97.9%). The diagnosis was established on the basis of PF/S creatinine ratio >1 (56.6%), urinary tract contrast extravasation (12%), abnormal computed tomography (8.4%), laparotomy findings (6%), and association of obstructive uropathy with PE (6%). The outcome was favorable (74/77; 96.1%) when treatment was direct towards the uropathy (alone or associated with thoracentesis/thoracic drainage). Outcome was unfavorable in the 15 patients who were only treated with thoracentesis/thoracic drainage. Conclusions UT is usually traumatic, unilateral, and PF does not have a specific pattern or cellularity predominance, with a PF/S creatinine ratio almost always >1. Treatment should include the uropathy, with or without PF evacuation. PMID:28616270

  4. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, B; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794

  5. Automating data extraction in systematic reviews: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R; Goyal, Pawan; Huffman, Mark D

    2015-06-15

    Automation of the parts of systematic review process, specifically the data extraction step, may be an important strategy to reduce the time necessary to complete a systematic review. However, the state of the science of automatically extracting data elements from full texts has not been well described. This paper performs a systematic review of published and unpublished methods to automate data extraction for systematic reviews. We systematically searched PubMed, IEEEXplore, and ACM Digital Library to identify potentially relevant articles. We included reports that met the following criteria: 1) methods or results section described what entities were or need to be extracted, and 2) at least one entity was automatically extracted with evaluation results that were presented for that entity. We also reviewed the citations from included reports. Out of a total of 1190 unique citations that met our search criteria, we found 26 published reports describing automatic extraction of at least one of more than 52 potential data elements used in systematic reviews. For 25 (48 %) of the data elements used in systematic reviews, there were attempts from various researchers to extract information automatically from the publication text. Out of these, 14 (27 %) data elements were completely extracted, but the highest number of data elements extracted automatically by a single study was 7. Most of the data elements were extracted with F-scores (a mean of sensitivity and positive predictive value) of over 70 %. We found no unified information extraction framework tailored to the systematic review process, and published reports focused on a limited (1-7) number of data elements. Biomedical natural language processing techniques have not been fully utilized to fully or even partially automate the data extraction step of systematic reviews.

  6. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P < .001) and low levels of evidence (P = .005) by journal. The average PRISMA score was 87% and the average AMSTAR score was 73% among all journals. The average AMSTAR and PRISMA

  7. Ethnic difference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in inter-East Asian populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on fasting serum insulin.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masakazu; Okamoto, Kousuke; Takagi, Tatsuya; Ishii, Hitoshi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate ethnic difference by focusing on fasting serum insulin (FSI) in inter-East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. Data sources included MEDLINE and EMBASE between 2001 and 2006. We conducted a search for articles containing mean or geometric mean values of FSI in East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. The Monte Carlo method was used for simulation of the mean and standard deviation of individual measures in each ethnic group; calculation of the median ratio and 95% confidence interval of individual measures between ethnic groups. The initial search identified a total of 996 journal articles. After reviewing the titles and abstracts of these articles, 201 studies were selected for further screening and the complete papers on these studies were then reviewed in detail. Of these, seven articles fully met our pre-determined criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that FSI level is significantly lower in Japanese patients than in Korean and Chinese patients. Results from our review of ethnic differences in dietary habit in the inter-East Asian population suggested that difference in dietary component was one of the most influential factors for the ethnic difference.

  8. Telemedicine for the Management of Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun W H; Ooi, Leanne; Lai, Yin K

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Telemedicine has been shown to be an efficient and effective means of providing care to patients with chronic disease especially in remote and undeserved regions, by improving access to care and reduce healthcare cost. However, the evidence surrounding its applicability in type 1 diabetes remains scarce and conflicting. Objective: To synthesize evidence and quantify the effectiveness of telemedicine interventions for the management of glycemic and clinical outcomes in type 1 diabetes patients, relative to comparator conditions. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched for published articles since inception until December 2016. Study Selection: Original articles reporting the results of randomized controlled studies on the effectiveness of telemedicine in people with type 1 diabetes were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently extracted data, assessed quality, and strength of evidence. Interventions were categorized based upon the telemedicine focus (monitoring, education, consultation, case-management, and peer mentoring). Main Outcome and Measure: Absolute change in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to follow-up assessment. Results: A total of 38 studies described in 41 articles were identified. Positive effects on glycemic control were noted with studies examining telemedicine, with a mean reduction of 0.18% at the end of intervention. Studies with longer duration (>6 months) who had recruited patients with a higher baseline HbA1c (≥9%) were associated with larger effects. Telemedicine interventions that involve individualized assessments, audit with feedback and skill building were also more effective in improving glycemic control. However, no benefits were observed on blood pressure, lipids, weight, quality of life, and adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: There is insufficient evidence to support telemedicine use for glycemic control and

  9. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  10. Salutogenically focused outcomes in systematic reviews of intrapartum interventions: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie; Daly, Deirdre; Lundgren, Ingela; Eri, Tine; Benstoem, Carina; Devane, Declan

    2014-04-01

    research on intrapartum interventions in maternity care has focused traditionally on the identification of risk factors' and on the reduction of adverse outcomes with less attention given to the measurement of factors that contribute to well-being and positive health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of reviews to determine the type and number of salutogenically-focused reported outcomes in current maternity care intrapartum intervention-based research. For the conduct of this review, we interpreted salutogenic outcomes as those relating to optimum and/or positive maternal and neonatal health and well-being. to identify salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions. we searched Issue 9 (September) 2011 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for all reviews of intrapartum interventions published by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group using the group filter "hm-preg". Systematic reviews of randomised trials of intrapartum interventions were eligible for inclusion. We excluded protocols for systematic reviews and systematic reviews that had been withdrawn. Outcome data were extracted independently from each included review by at least two review authors. Unique lists of salutogenically and non-salutogenically focused outcomes were established. 16 salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in 102 included reviews. Maternal satisfaction and breast feeding were reported most frequently. 49 non-salutogenically-focused outcome categories were identified in the 102 included reviews. Measures of neonatal morbidity were reported most frequently. there is an absence of salutogenically-focused outcomes reported in intrapartum intervention-based research. We recommend the development of a core outcome data set of salutogenically-focused outcomes for intrapartum research. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-02

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. Here, we draw on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor-intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora - including non-random selection of review topics, 'small world' properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning - greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for so-called 'narrative' reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review. Where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods from linguistics and information management that provide models for mapping and resolving that complexity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Jiang, J; Li, L; Ying, X; Tian, H; Nie, M

    2014-10-01

    Although the regular consumption of green tea or green tea extract has been considered to improve insulin sensitivity, the reported results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Electronic databases, including PUBMED, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Chinese Scientific Journals Fulltext Database, were systematically searched to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) up to December 2011, supplemented by the Clinicaltrials.gov websites and the reference lists of identified studies. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological qualities and evidence levels. Seven RCTs involving 510 participants were identified. There was no statistically significant difference between green tea or green tea extract group and placebo group with regard to fasting plasma glucose [standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.15 to 0.24], fasting serum insulin (SMD -0.09; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.11), 2-h plasma glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) (SMD -0.14; 95% CI -0.63 to 0.34), haemoglobin A₁c (SMD 0.10; 95% CI -0.13 to 0.33) and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index (SMD -0.06; 95% CI -0.35 to 0.23) in participants at risk of T2DM. The consumption of green tea did not decrease the levels of fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, OGTT-2 h glucose, haemoglobin A₁c and HOMA(IR) in populations at risk of T2DM. Larger, longer-term and high-quality RCTs are needed to further definitely determine the effect of green tea or green tea extract on insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in populations at risk of T2DM. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2002-12-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice.

  14. [Iridology: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2008-09-01

    This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.

  15. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Assaf, Suely Muro Reis; Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco de; Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha de; Souza, Jacqueline Mazzuchelli de; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; Módolo, Diego Grando; Roperto, Franco Peppino; Stocco, Rita de Cassia; Beçak, Willy

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women.

  16. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Assaf, Suely Muro Reis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Souza, Jacqueline Mazzuchelli; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; Módolo, Diego Grando; Roperto, Franco Peppino; Stocco, Rita de Cassia; Beçak, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women. PMID:28212457

  17. In Search of the Ideal Resistance Training Program to Improve Glycemic Control and its Indication for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hajime; Kodama, Satoru; Horikawa, Chika; Fujihara, Kazuya; Hirose, Ayumi Sugawara; Hirasawa, Reiko; Yachi, Yoko; Ohara, Nobumasa; Shimano, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Osamu; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is effective for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. However, the characteristics of an RT program that will maximize its effect and those of patients that will especially benefit from RT are unknown. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify via a comprehensive meta-analysis the characteristics of an RT program for patients with T2DM that might increase the patients' improvement in glycemic control and the characteristics of patients that will benefit from RT. Electronic-based literature searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE entries from 1 January 1966 to 25 August 2014 were conducted to identify clinical trials examining the effect of RT on glycemic control among patients with T2DM. Study keywords were text words and thesaurus terms related to RT and T2DM. Studies were included if they (1) were clinical trials consisting of two groups with and without RT exercise intervention; (2) had an intervention period of at least 5 weeks; (3) clarified that all patients had T2DM; and (4) reported or made it possible to estimate the effect size [i.e., change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the RT group minus that in the control group] and its corresponding standard error. The effect size in each study was pooled with a random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by several key characteristics of the patients and RT exercise programs; meta-regression analysis was then used to detect a difference in the effect size among strata within each factor. Linear regression analyses were added by entering each of the following profiles: patients' baseline characteristics [mean baseline age, body mass index (BMI), and HbA1c levels] and exercise characteristics (total sets per week, total sets per bout of exercise, frequency, and intensity). There were 23 eligible studies comprising 954 patients with T2DM. The pooled effect size (95% confidence interval) was -0.34% (-0.53 to -0.16). A program with multiple sets (≥21

  18. [Review on periodontal disease and metabolic control of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Steffens, João Paulo; Glaci Reinke, Stella Maria; Angel Muñoz, Miguel; Santos, Fábio André dos; Luiz Pilatti, Gibson

    2010-09-01

    There may be an interaction between periodontal disease and some systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review was to verify, by means of a review of clinical trials, if there is a positive association between periodontal disease and the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) patients. Eleven articles that fi t the study criteria were revised. It was concluded that periodontal disease may influence the metabolic control of DM-2. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are necessary for a better clarification of this issue.

  19. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603

  20. The Educational Implications of Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Research and Recommendations for School Psychological Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucera, Miranda; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to…

  1. The Educational Implications of Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Research and Recommendations for School Psychological Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucera, Miranda; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in children and youth, with many affected students requiring individualized services and supports within educational settings. This article systematically reviews the research regarding the implications of this illness for students' cognitive and academic functioning to…

  2. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ejzenberg, Dani; Mendes, Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli; de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Baracat, Edmund Chada; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Andraus, Wellington

    2016-01-01

    Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women. PMID:27982170

  3. Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Luiza; Illing, Tanja; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2017-04-03

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread endocrine disease with severe impact on health systems worldwide. Increased serum glucose causes damage to a wide range of cell types, including endothelial cells, neurons, and renal cells, but also keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Skin disorders can be found in about one third of all people with diabetes and frequently occur before the diagnosis, thus playing an important role in the initial recognition of underlying disease. Noninfectious as well as infectious diseases have been described as dermatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy may also affect the skin. Pruritus, necrobiosis lipoidica, scleredema adultorum of Buschke, and granuloma annulare are examples of frequent noninfectious skin diseases. Bacterial and fungal skin infections are more frequent in people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy are responsible for diabetic foot syndrome and diabetic dermopathy. Furthermore, antidiabetic therapies may provoke dermatologic adverse events. Treatment with insulin may evoke local reactions like lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy and both instant and delayed type allergy. Erythema multiforme, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, drug eruptions, and photosensitivity have been described as adverse reactions to oral antidiabetics. The identification of lesions may be crucial for the first diagnosis and for proper therapy of diabetes.

  4. A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David Keith

    2009-01-01

    Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications. PMID:19295926

  5. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Martin L.; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B.; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A.; Scherer, Roberta W.; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  6. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-07-06

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors.

  7. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors. PMID:27648178

  8. Telemedicine security: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vaibhav; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Telemedicine is a technology-based alternative to traditional health care delivery. However, poor security measures in telemedicine services can have an adverse impact on the quality of care provided, regardless of the chronic condition being studied. We undertook a systematic review of 58 journal articles pertaining to telemedicine security. These articles were selected based on a keyword search on 14 relevant journals. The articles were coded to evaluate the methodology and to identify the key areas of research in security that are being reviewed. Seventy-six percent of the articles defined the security problem they were addressing, and only 47% formulated a research question pertaining to security. Sixty-one percent proposed a solution, and 20% of these tested the security solutions that they proposed. Prior research indicates inadequate reporting of methodology in telemedicine research. We found that to be true for security research as well. We also identified other issues such as using outdated security standards.

  9. Telemedicine Security: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Vaibhav; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is a technology-based alternative to traditional health care delivery. However, poor security measures in telemedicine services can have an adverse impact on the quality of care provided, regardless of the chronic condition being studied. We undertook a systematic review of 58 journal articles pertaining to telemedicine security. These articles were selected based on a keyword search on 14 relevant journals. The articles were coded to evaluate the methodology and to identify the key areas of research in security that are being reviewed. Seventy-six percent of the articles defined the security problem they were addressing, and only 47% formulated a research question pertaining to security. Sixty-one percent proposed a solution, and 20% of these tested the security solutions that they proposed. Prior research indicates inadequate reporting of methodology in telemedicine research. We found that to be true for security research as well. We also identified other issues such as using outdated security standards. PMID:21722592

  10. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  11. Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Akilen, Rajadurai; Tsiami, Amalia; Devendra, Devasenan; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Cinnamon seems to be highly bioactive, appearing to mimic the effect of insulin through increased glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles. This systematic review and Meta analysis examined the effect of cinnamon on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was conducted from the earliest possible date through to 01 August 2011. Search terms included free text terms, MeSH and Medline medical index terms such as: "cinnamon", "cinnamomum", "cinnamomum cassia", "cinnamomum zeylanicum", "type 2 diabetes mellitus". Each was crossed with the term "diabetes mellitus". In addition, references of key articles were hand searched. A total of 6 clinical trials met the strict inclusion criteria and considered a total of 435 patients; follow up between 40 days-4 months, doses ranging from 1 g to 6 g per day. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed a significant decrease in mean HbA1c [0.09%; 95% CI was 0.04-0.14] and mean FPG [0.84 mmol/l; 95% CI was 0.66-1.02]. Use of cinnamon showed a beneficial effect on glycaemic control (both HbA1c and FPG) and the short term (<4 months) effects of the use of cinnamon on glycaemic control looks promising. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention

  13. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  14. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  15. How to Conduct a Systematic Review: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Nusrat; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews are ranked very high in research and are considered the most valid form of medical evidence. They provide a complete summary of the current literature relevant to a research question and can be of immense use to medical professionals. Our goal with this paper is to conduct a narrative review of the literature about systematic reviews and outline the essential elements of a systematic review along with the limitations of such a review. PMID:27924252

  16. Comparing the effectiveness and safety between triple antiplatelet therapy and dual antiplatelet therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after coronary stents implantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Qin, Tao; Chen, Meng-Hua

    2015-10-09

    Since antiplatelet therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is very important after intracoronary stenting, and because the most commonly used therapies have been the dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel and the triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT) consisting of aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol, we aim to compare the effectiveness and safety between triple antiplatelet therapy and dual antiplatelet therapy in T2DM patients. Systematic literature search was done from the databases of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WanFang. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness and safety between triple therapy and dual therapy in T2DM patients after coronary stents placement were included. Endpoints included major adverse cardiac effects (MACEs), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), death, stent thrombosis, bleeding and adverse drug reactions during a 9-12 months period, as well as platelet activities. Four studies including 1005 patients reporting the adverse clinical outcomes and six studies including 519 patients reporting the platelet activities, with a total of 1524 patients have been analyzed in this meta-analysis. The pooling analysis shows that TAPT has significantly decreased the occurrence of MACEs (RR: 0.55; 95 % CI: 0.36-0.86, P = 0.009), TLR (RR 0.41; 95 % CI: 0.21-0.80, P = 0.008), TVR (RR 0.55; 95 % CI: 0.34-0.88, P = 0.01) and the overall incidence of Death/ Myocardial Infarction (MI)/TVR (RR 0.54; 95 % CI: 0.31-0.94, P = 0.03) during this 9 to 12 months follow up period after stents implantation. Stent thrombosis was almost similar in both groups. Bleeding seemed to favor DAPT but the result was not statistically significant. Platelet aggregation, platelet reactivity index (PRI) and platelet reactivity unit (PRU) were also reduced with Weight Mean Difference (WMD) of (-13.80; 95 % CI: -17

  17. Adverse drug events observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with 100 mg versus 300 mg canagliflozin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Janoo, Girish; Huang, Feng

    2017-04-16

    Nowadays, canagliflozin monotherapy, or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), is often administered in patients who are treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we aimed to systematically compare the adverse drugs events (AEs) which were associated with 100 mg versus 300 mg canagliflozin respectively, using a large number of randomized patients with T2DM which were obtained from published trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 100 mg versus 300 mg canagliflozin in patients who were treated for T2DM were searched from electronic databases. AEs reported during a follow up period ranging from 12 to 104 weeks were considered as the clinical endpoints in this analysis. We calculated odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the analyses were carried out by RevMan 5 · 3 software. Ten trials involving a total number of 5394 patients (2604 patients who were treated with 100 mg canagliflozin and 2790 patients who were treated with 300 mg canagliflozin) were included. The current results showed that serious AEs were not significantly higher in patients who were treated by 300 mg canagliflozin, with OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.79-1.29; P = 0.93. Also, a similar rate of death was observed in patients who were treated by either 100 or 300 mg canagliflozin with OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.43-2.94; P = 0.80. Urinary tract infections, postural dizziness and hypoglycemia were also similarly manifested, with OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.70-1.23; P = 0.61, OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.42-5.37; P = 0.53 and OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.13; P = 0.60 respectively. However, drug discontinuation due to AEs significantly favored 100 mg canagliflozin only during this unequal follow-up period with OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06-1.72; P = 0.01, but it was not significantly different when trials with similar follow-up periods were analyzed. 300 mg canagliflozin was not associated with significantly higher adverse events compared to

  18. A clinician's guide to systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Crowther, David M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss systematic reviews, how they are performed, and their associated strengths and limitations. A systematic review is an assessment of evidence involving exact methods to systematically identify, select, and critically evaluate all available literature on a particular topic. Unlike most narrative reviews, systematic reviews have defined methods established a priori for searching, evaluating, extracting, synthesizing, and reporting available evidence. Key characteristics differentiating systematic reviews from most narrative reviews include: clearly stated objectives, pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, an explicit reproducible methodology, systematic exhaustive searches to identify all sources of evidence, an assessment of the validity for each included study, and a systematic presentation of the study characteristics/results. Though there are significant advantages to systematic reviews, there are also clear limitations such as: the quality of included evidence; heterogeneity and homogeneity of included studies; and publication bias. Even with these limitations, systematic reviews are beneficial to front line clinicians when the quantity of evidence is so substantial that reviewing and synthesizing it is not feasible, available evidence is conflicting, or when the robustness of available evidence is unknown.

  19. Excited Delirium: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gonin, Philippe; Beysard, Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2017-10-09

    We aimed to clarify the definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) and to summarize evidence-based treatment recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, Ovid, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library for articles published to March 18, 2017. We also searched the grey literature (Google Scholar) and official police or medical expert reports to complete specific epidemiological data. Search results and full-text articles were independently assessed by two investigators and agreements between reviewers assessed with K statistics. We classified articles by study type, setting, and evidence level. After reviewing the title and abstract of 3604 references, we fully reviewed 284 potentially relevant references, from which 66 were selected for final review. Six contributed to the definition of ExDS, 24 to its epidemiology, 38 to its pathophysiology, and 27 to its management. The incidence of ExDS varies widely with medical or medico-legal context. Mortality is estimated to be as much as 8.3 to 16.5%. Patients are predominantly male. Male gender, young age, African-American race, and being overweight are independent risk factors. Pathophysiology hypotheses mostly implicate dopaminergic pathways. Most cases occur with psychostimulant use or among psychiatric patients, or both. Proposed treatments are symptomatic, often with rapid sedation with benzodiazepines or antipsychotic agents. Ketamine is suggested as an alternative. The overall quality of studies was poor. A universally recognized definition is lacking, remaining mostly syndromic and based on clinical subjective criteria. High mortality rate may be due to definition inconsistency and reporting bias. Our results suggest that ExDS is a real clinical entity, that still kills people and that has probably specific mechanisms and risk factors. No comparative study has been done to conclude whether one treatment approach is preferable to another in the case

  20. How to write a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Quatman, Carmen E; Manring, M M; Siston, Robert A; Flanigan, David C

    2014-11-01

    The role of evidence-based medicine in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery is rapidly growing. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also proliferating in the medical literature. To provide the outline necessary for a practitioner to properly understand and/or conduct a systematic review for publication in a sports medicine journal. Review. The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; and appropriate grading of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. An outline to understand and conduct a systematic review is provided, and the difference between meta-analyses and systematic reviews is described. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence to provide a statement of conclusion that answers specific clinical questions. Readers and reviewers, however, must recognize that the quality and strength of recommendations in a review are only as strong as the quality of studies that it analyzes. Thus, great care must be used in the interpretation of bias and extrapolation of the review's findings to translation to clinical practice. Without advanced education on the topic, the reader may follow the steps discussed herein to perform a systematic review. © 2013 The Author(s).

  1. Systematic kidney disease management in a population with diabetes mellitus: turning the tide of kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Hugh C; Hollingworth, Lee; Higgins, Robert; Dodds, Simon

    2011-10-01

    A significant proportion of patients with diabetes mellitus do not get the benefit of treatment that would reduce their risk of progressive kidney disease and reach a nephrologist once significant loss of kidney function has already occurred. Systematic disease management of patients with diabetes and kidney disease. Diverse population (approximately 800,000) in and around Birmingham, West Midlands, UK. Number of outpatient appointments, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at first contact with nephrologist, number of patients starting kidney replacement therapy (KRT) and mode of KRT at start. Identification of patients with low or deteriorating trend in eGFR from weekly database review, specialist diabetes-kidney clinic, self-management of blood pressure and transfer to multidisciplinary clinic >12 months before end-stage kidney disease. New patients increased from 62 in 2003 to 132 in 2010; follow-ups fell from 251 to 174. Median eGFR at first clinic visit increased from 28.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (range 6.1-67.0) in 2000/2001 to 35.0 (11.1-147.5) in 2010 (p<0.006). In 2010, the number of patients starting KRT fell 30% below the projected activity using 1993-2003 data as baseline (p<0.003). The proportion starting KRT with either a kidney transplant, peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis via an arteriovenous fistula increased from 26% in 2000 to 55% in 2010. Systematic disease management across a large population significantly improves patient outcomes, increases the productivity of a specialist service and could reduce healthcare costs compared with the current model of care.

  2. Systematic review of ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Wilson, N H F; Yeung, C A; Worthington, H V

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of ceramic inlays, assess the quality of published clinical studies, and determine the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays compared to other forms of posterior restorations. Prospective clinical trials of ceramic inlays published from 1990 to 2001 were retrieved by electronic and hand searching. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by two calibrated reviewers using a standardised checklist. The clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays was evaluated in terms of failure rate, postoperative pain, and aesthetics. The results were compared to those of other forms of posterior restorations by means of an odds ratio. Among 46 articles selected for quality assessment, only five (10.6%) reported randomised controlled trials and 15 (32.6%) presented controlled clinical trials. The remaining 26 papers (56.5%) were longitudinal clinical trials lacking control groups. Only three papers fulfilled the requirement for statistical analysis to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays. The results indicate no significant differences in longevity or postoperative sensitivity between ceramic and other posterior restorations over assessment periods of up to 1 year. It is concluded that no strong evidence is available to confirm the clinical effectiveness of ceramic inlays in comparison to other posterior restorations. Greater attention is required to the design and reporting of studies to improve the quality of clinical trials of ceramic inlays.

  3. Masked hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bobrie, Guillaume; Clerson, Pierre; Ménard, Joël; Postel-Vinay, Nicolas; Chatellier, Gilles; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to review the literature on masked hypertension. Studies, reviews and editorials on masked hypertension were identified by PubMed, Pascal BioMed and Cochrane literature systematic searches. Then, we carried out a meta-analysis of the six cohort studies reporting quantitative data for masked hypertension prognosis. There is still no clear consensus definition of masked hypertension and the reproducibility of the phenomenon is unknown. Nevertheless, the prevalence of masked hypertension seems to lie between 8 and 20%, and can be up to 50% in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects with masked hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular accidents [hazard ratios: 1.92 (1.51-2.44)] than normotensive subjects. This is due to a possible failure to recognize and appropriately manage this particular form of hypertension, the frequent association with other risk factors and coexisting target organ damage. The remaining unresolved questions are as follows: is masked hypertension a clinical entity that requires identification and characterization or a statistical phenomenon linked to the variability of blood pressure measurements?; because screening of the entire population is not feasible, how to identify individuals with masked hypertension?; and, in the absence of randomized trial, how to treat masked hypertension?

  4. Retinal implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability.

  5. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  6. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Katharina F; Briel, Matthias; Strech, Daniel; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Gloy, Viktoria; Lamontagne, Francois; Bassler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research. Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al. The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%), nor did they assess heterogeneity (81%) or dissemination bias (87%). Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%). Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before translating them

  7. Parasitic leiomyomas: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; González, Janire; Ugarte, Lorea; Barbadillo, Nagore; Lapuente, Oihane; Álvarez-Sala, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic leiomyomas were first described as early as 1909 but are a rare condition. In recent years, due to the rise of laparoscopic surgery and power morcellation, several cases of parasitic leiomyomas associated with this surgical procedure have been reported. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar with the following combination of keywords: leiomyoma OR uterine neoplasms OR uterine myomectomy OR laparoscopy OR hysterectomy OR peritoneal neoplasms AND parasitic. Papers describing parasitic leiomyomas were included. The results of these studies are summarized herein. We retrieved abstracts of 756 papers. Of these, 591 were excluded for not fulfilling the inclusion criteria and 54 were removed as duplicates; after full-text assessment, 8 were rejected for presenting cases of malignancy and finally 103 were included in our systematic review. From these, we present information about 274 patients with parasitic leiomyomas. The mean age of women was 40 years (range 18-79 years); and 154 (56%) had no history of uterine surgery, the others (120, 44%) having had a previous myomectomy or hysterectomy. Of the total, 106 (39%) women had a history of power morcellation. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (49%) and the most frequent presentation was disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. While parasitic leiomyoma was first described a century ago, the recent introduction of laparoscopic power morcellation has increased the number of reported cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pyoderma gangrenosum: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Gasparini, G; Parodi, A

    2014-10-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, chronic neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown etiology. The world wide incidence is estimated to be around 3-10 cases per million population per year. In 50-70% of cases inflammatory bowel diseases, hematological malignancies or rheumatologic disorders are associated to PG. Although the etiology is uncertain, the dysregulation of the immune system appears to be implied. Pathergy is the most important triggering factor of PG. Indeed, 20-30% of patients report the onset of PG following trivial trauma. Four main variants of PG have been described, namely classic, pustular, bullous, and vegetative forms. The classic form of PG is characterized by ulcers with a raised, undermined, inflammatory border. Intense pain is generally associated to PG. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and of exclusion. The differential diagnosis should take into account infections, vascular disorders and malignancies. The clinical course can be explosive and rapidly progressive or indolent and gradually progressive. Often patients develop only one episode and the overall prognosis is good but extremely influenced by the underlying disorders. Local therapy, mainly with topic steroids is used for mild to moderate lesions. For severe forms of PG a systemic therapy with glucocorticoids and/or other drugs such as tacrolimus, cyclosporine, etc. is needed. This paper is a systematic review of literature on PG.

  9. Geniculate neuralgia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tang, I P; Freeman, S R; Kontorinis, G; Tang, M Y; Rutherford, S A; King, A T; Lloyd, S K W

    2014-05-01

    To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia. Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. The search terms 'geniculate neuralgia', 'nervus intermedius neuralgia', 'facial pain', 'otalgia' and 'neuralgia' were used to identify relevant papers. Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment. The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.

  10. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sena, Jéssica Suellen; Girão, Régio José Santiago; Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo de; Tavares, Rosielly Melo; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Silva, Patrícia Barros Aquino; Barbosa, Maria Clara Fortes Portela

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: "neoplasias cutâneas" (DeCS), "exposição ocupacional" (DeCS), "epidemiologia" (DeCS) as well as the keyword "prevenção", and their equivalents in English. After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  11. Review and Update of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gorrell, Jennifer Justice; Williams, Jennifer Schoelles; Powell, Paula

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the health care practitioner with a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology and treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Traditionally, insulin has been administered via an insulin syringe. In the recent past, diabetes research has focused on developing more convenient insulin delivery devices and longer acting insulin's in hopes of increasing compliance with insulin therapy and improving the management of Type 1 diabetes in both children and adults. Rapidly developing approaches to insulin delivery for Type 1 diabetes continue to be developed at a rapid rate, including administration via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in addition to other new approaches. With these advances in therapy, pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes have been able to achieve strict glycemic control, although the treatment of hypoglycemia remains a burden. The objectives of this article are to the following: to review the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic criteria of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in children,; to discuss the management of these patients, including, insulin therapy, monitoring, diet and exercise, carbohydrate counting and treatment of hypoglycemia,; and to review insulin administration devices, including insulin pens, insulin jet injectors, insulin pumps, and novel insulin delivery systems. PMID:23118681

  12. Systematic reviews, systematic error and the acquisition of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen

    2010-06-10

    Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it.

  13. Systematic reviews, systematic error and the acquisition of clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. Discussion The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. Conclusions The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it. PMID:20537172

  14. [Methods of evidence mapping. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Schmucker, C; Motschall, E; Antes, G; Meerpohl, J J

    2013-10-01

    Evidence mapping is an increasingly popular approach to systematically evaluate published research. While there are methodological standards for systematic reviews, discrepancies exist between the terminology and methods used within evidence mapping. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the methodology and terminology used in evidence mapping and to demonstrate the continuum between evidence mapping and traditional systematic reviews. A systematic literature search was conducted in 10 databases in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the state of the research standards for evidence mapping. In addition, websites of institutions which are already conducting evidence mapping were searched. The included study pool (n = 12) shows that the terms 'evidence map' and 'scoping review' are widely used within evidence mapping. Evidence maps are an approach to depict both the number and characteristics of studies in tabular form that exist as well as evidence gaps based on primary studies and systematic reviews of broad clinical questions. Scoping reviews also summarize the literature in a tabular form but also give a descriptive narrative summary of the results. A quality assessment of the studies is generally not included. Evidence mapping allows the identification of research gaps. This aspect is particularly important for interventions which are used without sufficient evidence. In contrast, systematic reviews are mainly used to estimate effects for interventions and evaluate whether the included studies are reliable.

  15. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  16. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  17. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  18. Laser therapy in wound healing associated with diabetes mellitus - Review*

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Raquel Gomes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a literature review on the application of low intensity laser therapy on the healing of wounds associated diabetes mellitus in the last 10 years. Objective To determine the most effective parameter in healing wounds related to diabetes mellitus, as well as the most widely used type of laser. Methodology consisted of bibliographic searching the databases Bireme, SciELO, PubMed/Medline and Lilacs by using the keywords related to the topic. Were selected from these keywords, papers discussing the use of laser on wounds associated with diabetes, published in the period 2005-2014, in Portuguese or English. Results After analyzing the research, 12 studies consistent with the theme were selected. Conclusion Based on this review, the studies that showed more satisfactory results in healing diabetic wounds were those who applied energy densities in the range of 3-5 J/cm2, power densities equal to or below 0.2 W/cm2 and continuous emission. The He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm was used more often. PMID:27579745

  19. Search strategies for finding systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, D

    2017-03-13

    I have read with interest the 2017 article by F Gómez-García and colleagues called "Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest, and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality" published in the BJD. This study makes a very important point about the influence of funding sources and conflicts of interests on the methodological quality of systematic reviews. However, I have some concerns about the search strategy used to find systematic reviews for this analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment Modalities of Necrobiosis Lipoidica: A Concise Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Feily, Amir; Mehraban, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare inflammatory granulomatous skin disorder closely associated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss all the treatment modalities proposed and tested for this disease. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate all the available data and summarize all the clinical trials, case reports and original articles on NL. Two major databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) were used. We have examined about 70 articles. Numerous treatment modalities have been currently investigated to compare recalcitrant NL. Being rare, most of the studies regarding this disease are case reports or small-scale clinical trials. We have found that, in spite of plentiful investigations carried out during the years, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treating NL. PMID:26236446

  1. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  2. Advancing Systematic Review Workshop (December 2015)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.

  3. Systematic reviews in the field of nutrition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...

  4. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  5. JBI's systematic reviews: data extraction and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Munn, Zachary; Tufanaru, Catalin; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2014-07-01

    This article is the fifth in a series on the systematic review from the Joanna Briggs Institute, an international collaborative supporting evidence-based practice in nursing, medicine, and allied health fields. The purpose of the series is to describe how to conduct a systematic review-one step at a time. This article details the data extraction and data synthesis stages, with an emphasis on conducting a meta-analysis of quantitative data.

  6. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  7. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  8. Effects of Silymarin on Diabetes Mellitus Complications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stolf, Aline Maria; Cardoso, Cibele Campos; Acco, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficit in the production of (type 1) or response to (type 2) insulin. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycemia and such symptoms as weight loss, thirst, polyuria, and blurred vision. These disturbances represent one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality nowadays, despite available treatments, such as insulin, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, many efforts have been made to discover new drugs for diabetes treatment, including medicinal plant extracts. Silymarin is a powder extract of the seeds from Silybum marianum, a plant from the Asteraceae family. The major active ingredients include four isomers: silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin. Silymarin is indicated for the treatment of hepatic disorders, such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and gallstones. Moreover, several studies of other pathologies, including diabetes, sepsis, osteoporosis, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, viral infections, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, have tested the effects of silymarin and reported promising results. This article reviews data from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies on the use of silymarin, with a focus on the complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, healing delays, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Guideline for Applying Systematic Reviews to Child Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…

  10. A Guideline for Applying Systematic Reviews to Child Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…

  11. Ozone therapy in postgraduate theses in Egypt: systematic review.

    PubMed

    AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M; Elolemy, Ahmed T; Alrasheid, Mohamed H S; Al Mudaiheem, Abdullah; Elolemy, Tawfik M B

    2013-08-01

    Systematic reviews of the studies published in the major medical data bases have not shown solid support for the use of ozone therapy. Unpublished or grey literature, including postgraduate theses, may solve this controversy. To review the postgraduate theses published in Egypt in order to assess the clinical safety and effectiveness of ozone therapy in specific medical conditions. The databases of the Egyptian Universities' Library Consortium and the databases of each university were searched for postgraduate theses that evaluated ozone therapy as an intervention for any disease or condition in any age group, compared with any or no other intervention and published before September 2010. A total of 28 quasi trials were included. The theses did not report any safety issues in terms of ozone therapy. With respect to its effectiveness, the studies suggested some benefits of ozone in the treatment of dental infection and recovery, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases, and obstetrics and gynaecology. However, the number of studies included was small and they were of limited quality. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of ozone in the treatment of dental infections, in facilitating faster dental recovery after extraction or implantation, in diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, or obstetrics and gynaecology.

  12. A systematic method for search term selection in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user.

  13. Oxytocin and diabetes mellitus: a strong biochemical relation. Review.

    PubMed

    Kontoangelos, K; Papageorgiou, C C; Raptis, A E; Rabavilas, A D; Papadimitriou, G N

    2013-11-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neurohypophysial hormone which is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. OXT is currently attracting considerable attention because it has been discovered that it regulates various functions of behavior especially in the context of social interactions. OXT is a key component in bone formation, glycemia, male sexuality, cardiac differentiation and pregnancy and thus it is important to be further explored. The authors review various aspects of gestational diabetes, including definition, screening, diagnostic procedures, complications, clinical evaluation, indications of delivery and neonatal aspects. Not only the relation among diabetes mellitus, oxytocin and neurophysiology concerning erectile dysfunction, but also the role of OXT in the activity of arginine and vasopressin is investigated. It is imperative to develop technological and experimental methods that will be able to reveal the oxytocin and its potential.

  14. Diabetes mellitus induced impairment of male reproductive functions: a review.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Ram Niwas; Jain, Gyan Chand

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to human health all over the world. The incidence of DM is rising rapidly also including children and young persons of reproductive age. Diabetes has been associated with reproductive impairment in both men and women. Diabetes may affect male reproductive functions at multiple levels as a result of its effects on the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, sperm maturation, impairment of penile erection and ejaculation. A large number of studies both on diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published on the impact of DM on male reproductive functions during the past few years but many of them have conflicting results. The present review summarizes the research finding of a large number of research papers on the reproductive functions especially on hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, histopathology of testis, synthesis and secretion of testosterone, sperm quality, ejaculatory function and fertility both in diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals.

  15. An overview of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of periodontal treatment to improve glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Faggion, C M; Cullinan, M P; Atieh, M

    2016-12-01

    Several systematic reviews with meta-analyses on the effectiveness of periodontal treatment to improve glycaemic control have been published. So far no overview of these systematic reviews has been performed. The main objective of this report was to assess critically these systematic reviews to provide the reader with a high-level synthesis of research evidence. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched independently and in duplicate to identify systematic reviews with meta-analyses of clinical studies that assessed the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. The last database search was performed on 10 March 2015. The reference lists of included systematic reviews were also scrutinized for further publications. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed independently with two validated checklists (AMSTAR and OQAQ) by two authors. Disagreements in the assessment were resolved by consensus. A total of 226 potential publications were initially retrieved. Eleven systematic reviews with meta-analyses were finally included. Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was the most commonly used clinical endpoint. Meta-analytic estimates from systematic reviews generated an average reduction of 0.46% (median 0.40%) of HbA1c in patients with diabetes mellitus who received periodontal treatment. These meta-analyses had, nevertheless, methodological limitations such as inclusion of trials with different types of risk of bias that hinder more robust conclusions. A recent meta-analysis that included recently published large randomized controlled trials did not show significant change in the level of HbA1c at the 6 mo follow-up. The AMSTAR checklist generated results that were more conservative than OQAQ. Findings from this overview do not support the information that periodontal treatment may improve glycaemic control. Methodological issues described in this overview may guide further research on this topic. © 2016 John

  16. Are patients with diabetes mellitus satisfied with technologies used to assist with diabetes management and coping?: A structured review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Samantha; Stadler, Marietta; Ismail, Khalida; Amiel, Stephanie; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Modern technological devices supporting coping and management for patients with diabetes are increasingly popular and could be important healthcare tools. This review aimed to evaluate patient satisfaction and perceptions regarding these devices, examples of which include short message service reminder systems, online educational programs, and clinician-patient electronic communication. Therapy devices such as continuous glucose monitors and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps are not included in this review. Embase, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL, and gray literature databases were searched for "diabetes mellitus," "technical device," "patient satisfaction," and their synonyms. This review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. The search produced 1,902 studies, 26 of which were included in the review: type 1 diabetes mellitus (eight studies), type 2 diabetes mellitus (nine studies), and both (nine studies). High satisfaction was seen with almost all devices and correlated strongly with ease of use and improved diabetes management. Satisfaction was not affected by participant age, and the effect of diabetes type was not assessed. Web devices were reported as easiest to use. Increased support was valued and resulted from devices facilitating interaction with healthcare professionals (HCPs) or peers. Technical difficulties were barriers to both use and satisfaction. Overall, patients enjoyed supplementing their usual therapy with these devices. Perceived support from HCPs or peers formed an important aspect of patient satisfaction and should be considered for future interventions.

  17. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. “Diabetes” and “dietary pattern” were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: “Healthy”, “Western”, “Traditional”, “Prudent”, “Unhealthy”, “Mediterranean”, “Modern”, and “Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension” (DASH) diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. “Healthy”, “Mediterranean”, “Prudent”, and “DASH” dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the Mediterranean, Prudent, or DASH diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:23798934

  18. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley

  19. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  20. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  1. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  2. Comparing the Clinical Outcomes between Drug Eluting Stents and Bare Metal Stents in Patients with Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Bhurtu, Akash; Soogund, Mohammad Zafooruddin Sani; Long, Man-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown Drug Eluting Stents (DES) to be better compared to Bare Metal Stents (BMS) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Since, the adverse clinical outcomes in patients with Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ITDM) implanted with DES and BMS have not been previously studied, we aim to compare the clinical outcomes in similar patients with cardiovascular diseases, treated with DES and BMS. Methods Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing patients treated with DES and BMS were searched from PubMed and EMBASE databases. Outcome data for the patients with ITDM were carefully extracted. Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACEs), mortality, Target Vessel Revascularization (TVR), Target Lesion Revascularization (TLR), Myocardial Infarction (MI) and Stent Thrombosis (ST) were considered as the clinical endpoints for this analysis. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Results Ten RCTs consisting of 830 patients with ITDM (477 patients in the DES group and 353 patients in the BMS group) from a total number of 9,141 patients were included in this analysis. During a follow-up period from one month to one year, MACEs were not increased with the use of DES in these patients with ITDM. At 9 months, MACEs were significantly lower in the DES group with OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23–0.72; P = 0.002 with no increase in mortality. TVR and TLR also favored the DES group with OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22–0.88, P = 0.02 and OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.53; P = 0.0001 respectively at 9 months, and OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23–0.94, P = 0.03 and OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.55; P = 0.0003 respectively at one year. Results for MI, and ST were not statistically significant. Conclusion Compared to BMS, DES were associated with a significantly lower rate of repeated revascularization, without any increase in MACEs or mortality in these patients with ITDM during a

  3. The Need for Systematic Reviews of Reasons

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    There are many ethical decisions in the practice of health research and care, and in the creation of policy and guidelines. We argue that those charged with making such decisions need a new genre of review. The new genre is an application of the systematic review, which was developed over decades to inform medical decision-makers about what the totality of studies that investigate links between smoking and cancer, for example, implies about whether smoking causes cancer. We argue that there is a need for similarly inclusive and rigorous reviews of reason-based bioethics, which uses reasoning to address ethical questions. After presenting a brief history of the systematic review, we reject the only existing model for writing a systematic review of reason-based bioethics, which holds that such a review should address an ethical question. We argue that such a systematic review may mislead decision-makers when a literature is incomplete, or when there are mutually incompatible but individually reasonable answers to the ethical question. Furthermore, such a review can be written without identifying all the reasons given when the ethical questions are discussed, their alleged implications for the ethical question, and the attitudes taken to the reasons. The reviews we propose address instead the empirical question of which reasons have been given when addressing a specified ethical question, and present such detailed information on the reasons. We argue that this information is likely to improve decision-making, both directly and indirectly, and also the academic literature. We explain the limitations of our alternative model for systematic reviews. PMID:21521251

  4. Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Literature: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Samargandi, Osama A; Hasan, Haroon; Thoma, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Well-conducted systematic reviews have a critical role in informing evidence-based decision-making in plastic surgery. The authors' objective was to assess the methodologic quality of systematic reviews in the plastic surgery literature. The authors systematically assessed all systematic reviews in 10 high-impact plastic surgery journals using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2003 to 2013. These were evaluated for methodologic quality using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), a validated 11-point instrument. After removal of duplicates and screening titles and abstracts, 190 systematic reviews met eligibility criteria. The majority of systematic reviews were published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (n = 88). The most common domain covered was reconstruction (17.9 percent). Using AMSTAR, the median score was 4 (interquartile range, 2.25 to 6.00) on a scale of 1 to 11. No increase in AMSTAR score was observed with time (p = 0.18). Almost half of all systematic reviews (48.4 percent) included at least two independent data extractors, and less than one-third of them (15.3 percent) searched unpublished studies or provided a list of both included and excluded studies (14.8 percent). The methodologic quality of included primary studies was evaluated in 35.3 percent. Systematic reviews in plastic surgery demonstrated inadequate adherence to methodologic standards of quality, which raises concerns about validity. There has been an increase in the number of systematic reviews published in plastic surgery over the past decade, yet there has been no significant improvement observed in methodologic quality.

  5. Overview of systematic reviews in allergy epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Genuneit, J; Seibold, A M; Apfelbacher, C J; Konstantinou, G N; Koplin, J J; La Grutta, S; Logan, K; Perkin, M R; Flohr, C

    2017-06-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence on the epidemiology of allergic conditions, which has advanced the understanding of these conditions. We aimed to systematically identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the epidemiology of allergic diseases to assess what has been studied comprehensively and what areas might benefit from further research. We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to 12/2014 for systematic reviews on epidemiological research on allergic diseases. We indexed diseases and topics covered and extracted data on the search characteristics of each systematic review. The search resulted in 3991 entries after removing duplicates, plus 20 other items found via references and conference abstracts; 421 systematic reviews were relevant and included in this overview. The majority contained some evidence on asthma (72.9%). Allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema and food hypersensitivity were covered in 15.7%, 24.5% and 9.0%, respectively. Commonly studied risk factors for atopic eczema included dietary and microbial factors, while for asthma, pollution and genetic factors were often investigated in systematic reviews. There was some indication of differing search characteristics across topics. We present a comprehensive overview with an indexed database of published systematic reviews in allergy epidemiology. We believe that this clarifies where most research interest has focussed and which areas could benefit from further research. We propose that this effort is updated every few years to include the most recently published evidence and to extend the search to an even broader list of hypersensitivity/allergic disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of lifestyle interventions on depressive symptoms in individuals at-risk of, or with, type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Cezaretto, A; Ferreira, S R G; Sharma, S; Sadeghirad, B; Kolahdooz, F

    2016-08-01

    Depression affects one in four individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The impact of T2DM lifestyle interventions on depression is unclear. The aim of this analysis was to examine the influence of lifestyle interventions on depressive symptoms scores in individuals at-risk of or with T2DM. Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies published in English from 1990 to 2015. Meta-analysis was conducted by random-effects model. Nineteen studies were included in the meta-analyses. A significant reduction in depression scores was shown for lifestyle interventions in the pooled analysis (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD): -0.165; 95%CI: -0.265, -0.064; I(2):67.9%) and when limited to individuals with T2DM (SMD: -0.202; 95%CI: -0.288, -0.079; I(2):72.5%). In subgroup analyses the most effective intervention methods were face-to-face individual consultations (SMD: -0.241; 95%CI: -0.403, -0.078, I(2): 50.8%) with a duration of ≤6 months (SMD: -0.203; 95%CI: -0.381, -0.026, I(2):59.9%). Interventions were most effective when delivered four times a month (SMD: -0.247; 95%CI: -0.441, -0.053, I(2):76.3%). Lifestyle interventions were effective in improving depression among people with T2DM. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative efficacy of anti-diabetic agents on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenjuan; Xu, Qianyue; Hong, Ting; Tong, Guoyu; Feng, Wenhuan; Shen, Shanmei; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a high prevalence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to provide a comprehensive assessment regarding the effects of anti-diabetic agents on NAFLD in patients with T2DM. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with different anti-diabetic agents in T2DM. Observational trials were also recruited to expand our population. Hepatic fat content and liver histology were evaluated as primary outcomes. Pooled estimates were calculated using a fixed effect model. One thousand one hundred ninety-six participants in 19 RCTs and 14 non-randomized studies were included. Evidence from RCTs and observational studies suggested that greater hepatic fat content reduction and improved liver histology were seen in thiazolidinediones for 12-72 weeks; glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists had beneficial effects on hepatic fat content after 26-50 weeks intervention, and insulin/metformin combination with 3-7 months improved hepatic fat content. Initiating metformin or dapagliflozin showed no benefit on hepatic fat content or liver histology in 16-48 weeks. Besides, nateglinide for 18 months was reported in a small sample-size RCT to improve hepatic fat content and liver histology. Sitagliptin therapy of 1 year also provided benefit on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score in an observational study. For T2DM with NAFLD, administrating thiazolidinediones and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists seems to provide more identified advances in attenuating hepatic fat content. Further RCTs are warranted to assess the efficacy of various hypoglycemic agents on clinical outcomes associated with NAFLD in T2DM. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989) were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70). Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45) and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25). Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of these rapid reviews need

  9. Conducting systematic reviews of economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Jadotte, Yuri Tertilus; Xue, Yifan; Lockwood, Suzi; Riddle, Dru; Preda, Alin

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, a working group was established to review and enhance the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidance for conducting systematic review of evidence from economic evaluations addressing a question(s) about health intervention cost-effectiveness. The objective is to present the outcomes of the working group. The group conducted three activities to inform the new guidance: review of literature on the utility/futility of systematic reviews of economic evaluations and consideration of its implications for updating the existing methodology; assessment of the critical appraisal tool in the existing guidance against criteria that promotes validity in economic evaluation research and two other commonly used tools; and a workshop. The debate in the literature on the limitations/value of systematic review of economic evidence cautions that systematic reviews of economic evaluation evidence are unlikely to generate one size fits all answers to questions about the cost-effectiveness of interventions and their comparators. Informed by this finding, the working group adjusted the framing of the objectives definition in the existing JBI methodology. The shift is away from defining the objective as to determine one cost-effectiveness measure toward summarizing study estimates of cost-effectiveness and informed by consideration of the included study characteristics (patient, setting, intervention component, etc.), identifying conditions conducive to lowering costs and maximizing health benefits. The existing critical appraisal tool was included in the new guidance. The new guidance includes the recommendation that a tool designed specifically for the purpose of appraising model-based studies be used together with the generic appraisal tool for economic evaluations assessment to evaluate model-based evaluations. The guidance produced by the group offers reviewers guidance for each step of the systematic review process, which are the same steps followed in JBI reviews of other

  10. Energy Expenditure in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Caron, Nathan; Peyrot, Nicolas; Caderby, Teddy; Verkindt, Chantal; Dalleau, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of PA need to be taken into account in the development of adapted tools to assess activity energy expenditure and daily energy expenditure in people with DM. Few estimation tools are tested in subjects with DM and this results in a lack of accuracy especially for their particular patterns of activity. Thus, future studies should examine sensors coupling different technologies or method that is specifically designed to accurately assess energy expenditure in patients with diabetes in daily life.

  11. Energy Expenditure in People with Diabetes Mellitus: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Nathan; Peyrot, Nicolas; Caderby, Teddy; Verkindt, Chantal; Dalleau, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations. Moreover, studies showed a lower activity energy expenditure in patients with DM than in healthy ones. This difference may be partially explained by patient with DMs poor compliance with exercise recommendations and their greater participation in lower intensity activities. These specificities of PA need to be taken into account in the development of adapted tools to assess activity energy expenditure and daily energy expenditure in people with DM. Few estimation tools are tested in subjects with DM and this results in a lack of accuracy especially for their particular patterns of activity. Thus, future studies should examine sensors coupling different technologies or method that is specifically designed to accurately assess energy expenditure in patients with diabetes in daily life. PMID:28066773

  12. A review of current treatment strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kristi W; Carroll, Dana G; Meyer, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 90% of diabetes cases in pregnant women are considered gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It is well known that uncontrolled glucose results in poor pregnancy outcomes in both the mother and fetus. Worldwide there are many guidelines with recommendations for appropriate management strategies for GDM once lifestyle modifications have been instituted and failed to achieve control. The efficacy and particularly the safety of other treatment modalities for GDM has been the source of much debate in recent years. Studies that have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both glyburide and metformin in the management of patients with GDM will be reviewed. There is a lack of evidence with other oral and injectable non-insulin agents to control blood glucose in GDM. The role of insulin will be discussed, with emphasis on insulin analogs. Ideal patient characteristics for each treatment modality will be reviewed. In addition, recommendations for postpartum screening of patients will be described as well as recommendations for use of agents to manage subsequent type 2 diabetes in patients who are breastfeeding. PMID:26213555

  13. Bidirectional association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. A review.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Peter; Izakovicova Holla, Lydie

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. The abnormal glucose metabolism results from defects in insulin production or insulin action, or both. For decades, it was suspected that diabetes contributed to poorer oral health and the increased frequency of periodontitis. More recently it was found that periodontitis could adversely affect glycemic control in diabetics. This review focuses on the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. A review of the literature on periodontal disease in diabetes using the following key words: periodontitis/periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia/glycemic control. There is strong evidence for an association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk for and severity of periodontitis, and periodontal diseases can aggravate insulin resistance and affect glycemic control. Periodontal treatment improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetics; control of periodontal infection is not only important for oral health, it may also improve overall health.

  14. Factors contributing to chronic ankle instability: a protocol for a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cassandra; Schabrun, Siobhan; Romero, Rick; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Marshall, Paul

    2016-06-07

    Ankle sprains are a significant clinical problem. Researchers have identified a multitude of factors contributing to the presence of recurrent ankle sprains including deficits in balance, postural control, kinematics, muscle activity, strength, range of motion, ligament laxity and bone/joint characteristics. Unfortunately, the literature examining the presence of these factors in chronic ankle instability (CAI) is conflicting. As a result, researchers have attempted to integrate this evidence using systematic reviews to reach conclusions; however, readers are now faced with an increasing number of systematic review findings that are also conflicting. The overall aim of this review is to critically appraise the methodological quality of previous systematic reviews and pool this evidence to identify contributing factors to CAI. A systematic review will be conducted on systematic reviews that investigate the presence of various deficits identified in CAI. Databases will be searched using pre-determined search terms. Reviews will then be assessed for inclusion based on the set eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers will assess the articles for inclusion before evaluating the methodological quality and presence of bias of the included studies; any disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers to reach consensus or by a third reviewer. Data concerning the specific research question, search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, population, method and outcomes will be extracted. Findings will be analysed with respect to the methodological quality of the included reviews. It is expected that this review will clarify the cause of contradicting findings in the literature and facilitate future research directions. PROSPERO CRD42016032592 .

  15. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review's conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making. PMID:21291558

  16. Dental insurance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately. PMID:25558454

  17. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.

  18. Short implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, I.; Desai, Shrikar R.; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ≤10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ≤7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ≤7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was conducted to identify studies concerning short dental implants of length ≤7 mm published between 1991 and 2011. The articles included in this study report data on implant length ≤7 mm, such as demographic variables, implant type, location in jaws, observation time, prostheses and complications. Results: The 28 included studies represent one randomized controlled trial, 12 prospective studies and 10 retrospective studies. The survival rate of short implant was found to be increased from 80% to 90% gradually, with recent articles showing 100%. Conclusion: When severe atrophy of jaws was encountered, short and wide implants can be placed successfully. PMID:23162320

  19. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652

  20. VISCOSUPPLEMENTATION IN ANKLE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Thiago Batista; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Jambeiro, Jorge Eduardo de Schoucair; Tavares, Antero; Delmonte, Fernando Moreira; Daltro, Gildásio de Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficacy of viscosupplementation in patients with osteoarthritis of the ankle. A systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature on the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. For this review, we considered blind randomized prospective studies involving the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. A total of 1,961 articles were identified in various databases. After examining each of the articles, five articles were included in this review. Treatment with intraarticular hyaluronic acid is a safe treatment modality that significantly improves functional scores of patients, with no evidence of superiority in relation to other conservative treatments. Further clinical trials with larger numbers of patients are needed so that we can recommend its use and address unanswered questions. Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. PMID:26997916

  1. Kawasaki disease and immunisation: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Linny Kimly; Bonetto, Caterina; Buttery, Jim; Pernus, Yolanda Brauchli; Chandler, Rebecca; Felicetti, Patrizia; Goldenthal, Karen L; Kucuku, Merita; Monaco, Giuseppe; Pahud, Barbara; Shulman, Stanford T; Top, Karina A; Trotta, Francesco; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Varricchio, Frederick; de Ferranti, Sarah; Newburger, Jane W; Dahdah, Nagib; Singh, Surjit; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Burgner, David

    2017-03-27

    Kawasaki disease is a complex and potentially serious condition. It has been observed in temporal relation to immunisation. We conducted a systematic literature review using various reference sources to review the available evidence published in the literature. We identified twenty seven publications reporting a temporal association between immunisation and Kawasaki disease. We present a systematic review of data drawn from randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case series and reports, and reviews. Overall there was a lack of standardised case definitions, making data interpretation and comparability challenging. Although a temporal relationship between immunisation and Kawasaki disease is suggested, evidence for an increased risk or a causal association is lacking. Implementation of a standardised Kawasaki disease case definition would increase confidence in the findings and add value to future studies of pre- or post-licensure vaccine safety studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Challenges of Systematic Reviewing Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Ian D.; Khorsan, Raheleh; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on an extensive review of integrative medicine (IM) and integrative health care (IHC). Since there is no general agreement of what constitutes IM/IHC, several major problems were identified that make the review of work in this field problematic. In applying the systematic review methodology, we found that many of those captured articles that used the term integrative medicine were in actuality referring to adjunctive, complementary, or supplemental medicine. The objective of this study was to apply a sensitivity analysis to demonstrate how the results of a systematic review of IM and IHC will differ according to what inclusion criteria is used based on the definition of IM/IHC. By analyzing 4 different scenarios, the authors show that, due to unclear usage of these terms, results vary dramatically, exposing an inconsistent literature base for this field. PMID:23843689

  3. VISCOSUPPLEMENTATION IN ANKLE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Thiago Batista; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Jambeiro, Jorge Eduardo de Schoucair; Tavares, Antero; Delmonte, Fernando Moreira; Daltro, Gildásio de Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of viscosupplementation in patients with osteoarthritis of the ankle. A systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature on the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. For this review, we considered blind randomized prospective studies involving the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. A total of 1,961 articles were identified in various databases. After examining each of the articles, five articles were included in this review. Treatment with intraarticular hyaluronic acid is a safe treatment modality that significantly improves functional scores of patients, with no evidence of superiority in relation to other conservative treatments. Further clinical trials with larger numbers of patients are needed so that we can recommend its use and address unanswered questions . Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

  4. Denture adhesives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Papadiochos, Ioannis

    2015-05-01

    Denture adhesives have been the objective of scientific research for over half a century. Although they are used by denture wearers worldwide, investigations of their effectiveness and biocompatibility have led to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to review the literature data with regard to the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives as well as the attitudes of both patients and dental professionals toward these materials. An electronic search of English peer-reviewed dental literature in the Medline database was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives. There was no limitation in publication year, so the search included all the available scientific evidence included in that particular database until March 2014. Specific inclusion criteria were used for the selection of the appropriate articles. A manual search of the citations of the obtained articles followed to extend the electronic search. A full text review was carried out for only 32 articles. Of the 32 articles, 21 examined the efficacy of denture adhesives in terms of retention and stability and masticatory performance, 6 evaluated the issue of the biocompatibility of denture adhesives, and 5 presented the attitudes of either professionals or patients toward these materials. The majority of clinical studies supported the fact that denture adhesives enhance the retention, stability, and masticatory performance of a removable prosthesis. In terms of biocompatibility, long-term in vivo studies to investigate potential harmful effects were lacking. Patients are satisfied with denture adhesives that meet their needs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Composite inlays: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth.

  6. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond's checklist for appraising the quality of studies. The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening.

  7. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. Methods: We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond’s checklist for appraising the quality of studies. Results: The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. Conclusion: A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening. PMID:27390696

  8. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  9. Mobile text messaging for health: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness.

  10. Multimorbidity patterns: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Hancco-Saavedra, Jorge; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; van den Akker, Marjan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this review was to identify studies on patterns of associative multimorbidity, defined as the nonrandom association between diseases, focusing on the main methodological features of the studies and the similarities among the detected patterns. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic database searches from their inception to June 2012 and bibliographies. The final 14 articles exhibited methodological heterogeneity in terms of the sample size, age and recruitment of study participants, the data source, the number of baseline diseases considered, and the statistical procedure used. A total of 97 patterns composed of two or more diseases were identified. Among these, 63 patterns were composed of three or more diseases. Despite the methodological variability among studies, this review demonstrated relevant similarities for three groups of patterns. The first one comprised a combination of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, the second one was related with mental health problems, and the third one with musculoskeletal disorders. The existence of associations beyond chance among the different diseases that comprise these patterns should be considered with the aim of directing future lines of research that measure their intensity, clarify their nature, and highlight the possible causal underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Systematic Review of Assessment Literacy Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotch, Chad M.; French, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    This work systematically reviews teacher assessment literacy measures within the context of contemporary teacher evaluation policy. In this study, the researchers collected objective tests of assessment knowledge, teacher self-reports, and rubrics to evaluate teachers' work in assessment literacy studies from 1991 to 2012. Then they evaluated…

  12. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  13. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Treesearch

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  14. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  15. Evaluating clinical librarian services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison; Maden-Jenkins, Michelle; Anderson, Lucy; McNally, Rosalind; Pratchett, Tracey; Tancock, Jenny; Thornton, Debra; Webb, Anne

    2011-03-01

      Previous systematic reviews have indicated limited evidence and poor quality evaluations of clinical librarian (CL) services. Rigorous evaluations should demonstrate the value of CL services, but guidance is needed before this can be achieved.   To undertake a systematic review which examines models of CL services, quality, methods and perspectives of clinical librarian service evaluations.   Systematic review methodology and synthesis of evidence, undertaken collaboratively by a group of 8 librarians to develop research and critical appraisal skills.   There are four clear models of clinical library service provision. Clinical librarians are effective in saving health professionals time, providing relevant, useful information and high quality services. Clinical librarians have a positive effect on clinical decision making by contributing to better informed decisions, diagnosis and choice of drug or therapy. The quality of CL studies is improving, but more work is needed on reducing bias and providing evidence of specific impacts on patient care. The Critical Incident Technique as part of a mixed method approach appears to offer a useful approach to demonstrating impact.   This systematic review provides practical guidance regarding the evaluation of CL services. It also provides updated evidence regarding the effectiveness and impact of CL services. The approach used was successful in developing research and critical appraisal skills in a group of librarians. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  16. A systematic review of busways

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    Busways are controlled-access facilities dedicated for bus service separated from general traffic. The concept of busways was first given serious consideration in the 1960s; however, only a few of them have been constructed in North America. This paper examines the potential of busway transit in providing urban environments with cost-effective mobility. The review makes the case that there are some misconceptions concerning the cost and level-of-service characteristics of busways. In the final section, a comparison is made between busways and their most prominent competitor, light rail. The comparison is done in the framework of the four most cited advantages of light rail, and concludes that busways, in most cases, are likely to be a superior mode of transit to light rail.

  17. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sami, Waqas; Ansari, Tahir; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab

    2017-01-01

    Globally, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered as one of the most common diseases. The etiology of T2DM is complex and is associated with irreversible risk factors such as age, genetic, race, and ethnicity and reversible factors such as diet, physical activity and smoking. The objectives of this review are to examine various studies to explore relationship of T2DM with different dietary habits/patterns and practices and its complications. Dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major factors for rapidly rising incidence of DM among developing countries. In type 2 diabetics, recently, elevated HbA1c level has also been considered as one of the leading risk factors for developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Improvement in the elevated HbA1c level can be achieved through diet management; thus, the patients could be prevented from developing the diabetes complications. Awareness about diabetes complications and consequent improvement in dietary knowledge, attitude, and practices lead to better control of the disease. The stakeholders (health-care providers, health facilities, agencies involved in diabetes care, etc.) should encourage patients to understand the importance of diet which may help in disease management, appropriate self-care and better quality of life. PMID:28539866

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus and macrosomia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kc, Kamana; Shakya, Sumisti; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fetal macrosomia, defined as a birth weight ≥ 4,000 g, may affect 12% of newborns of normal women and 15-45% of newborns of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The increased risk of macrosomia in GDM is mainly due to the increased insulin resistance of the mother. In GDM, a higher amount of blood glucose passes through the placenta into the fetal circulation. As a result, extra glucose in the fetus is stored as body fat causing macrosomia, which is also called 'large for gestational age'. This paper reviews studies that explored the impact of GDM and fetal macrosomia as well as macrosomia-related complications on birth outcomes and offers an evaluation of maternal and fetal health. Fetal macrosomia is a common adverse infant outcome of GDM if unrecognized and untreated in time. For the infant, macrosomia increases the risk of shoulder dystocia, clavicle fractures and brachial plexus injury and increases the rate of admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit. For the mother, the risks associated with macrosomia are cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage and vaginal lacerations. Infants of women with GDM are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese at a young age (during adolescence) and are more likely to develop type II diabetes later in life. Besides, the findings of several studies that epigenetic alterations of different genes of the fetus of a GDM mother in utero could result in the transgenerational transmission of GDM and type II diabetes are of concern.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk: review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and cancer are diseases of epidemic proportions across the globe. These diseases are influenced by many factors, both genetic and environmental. A possible association between diabetes and cancer risk has long been speculated. Increased incidence of several cancers has been observed in diabetes patients, notably pancreatic, hepatic, colorectal, breast, urinary tract, and endometrial cancers. In contrast, a decreased incidence of prostate cancer is observed in diabetes patients, implying a protective effect. Precise knowledge of the complex associations and interactions between these two conditions is of great importance for their prevention and treatment. Multiple potential mechanisms have been proposed, but they have tended to be site-specific. Possible common mechanisms for a biological link between diabetes and cancer include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation. Today, 366 million people live with diabetes globally, and this figure is expected to increase. Thus, if diabetes is associated with even a small increase in cancer risk, this may have important consequences at the population level. The aim of this review is to summarize recent epidemiological evidence of an association between diabetes and total cancer and specific sites of cancer, and to consider causal associations between these diseases. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and inflammatory pulpal and periapical disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Lima, S M F; Grisi, D C; Kogawa, E M; Franco, O L; Peixoto, V C; Gonçalves-Júnior, J F; Arruda, M P; Rezende, T M B

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders. DM is characterized by hyperglycaemia, resulting in wound healing difficulties and systemic and oral manifestations, which have a direct effect on dental pulp integrity. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of periapical lesions in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. The influence of DM on periapical bone resorption and its impact on dental intervention of such patients are reviewed, and its aetiology and pathogenesis are analysed at molecular level. Pulps from patients with diabetes have the tendency to present limited dental collateral circulation, impaired immune response, increased risk of acquiring pulp infection (especially anaerobic ones) or necrosis, besides toothache and occasional tendency towards pulp necrosis caused by ischaemia. In regard to molecular pathology, hyperglycaemia is a stimulus for bone resorption, inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation and reducing bone recovery. The relationship between poorly controlled diabetes and bone metabolism is not clearly understood. Molecular knowledge about pulp alterations in patients with diabetes could offer new therapeutic directions. Knowledge about how diabetes affects systemic and oral health has an enduring importance, because it may imply not only systemic complications but also a higher risk of oral diseases with a significant effect on pulp and periapical tissue. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review.

    PubMed

    Sami, Waqas; Ansari, Tahir; Butt, Nadeem Shafique; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab

    2017-01-01

    Globally, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considered as one of the most common diseases. The etiology of T2DM is complex and is associated with irreversible risk factors such as age, genetic, race, and ethnicity and reversible factors such as diet, physical activity and smoking. The objectives of this review are to examine various studies to explore relationship of T2DM with different dietary habits/patterns and practices and its complications. Dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major factors for rapidly rising incidence of DM among developing countries. In type 2 diabetics, recently, elevated HbA1c level has also been considered as one of the leading risk factors for developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Improvement in the elevated HbA1c level can be achieved through diet management; thus, the patients could be prevented from developing the diabetes complications. Awareness about diabetes complications and consequent improvement in dietary knowledge, attitude, and practices lead to better control of the disease. The stakeholders (health-care providers, health facilities, agencies involved in diabetes care, etc.) should encourage patients to understand the importance of diet which may help in disease management, appropriate self-care and better quality of life.

  2. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.

    PubMed

    Khazrai, Y M; Defeudis, G; Pozzilli, P

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing diseases; the number of people affected by diabetes will soon reach 552 million worldwide, with associated increases in complications and healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle and medical nutrition therapy are considered the keystones of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment, but there is no definite consensus on how to treat this disease with these therapies. The American Diabetes Association has made several recommendations regarding the medical nutrition therapy of diabetes; these emphasize the importance of minimizing macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. Four types of diets were reviewed for their effects on diabetes: the Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet. Each of the four types of diet has been shown to improve metabolic conditions, but the degree of improvement varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a patient's pathophysiological characteristics in order to determine the diet that will achieve metabolic improvement in each individual. Many dietary regimens are available for patients with type 2 diabetes to choose from, according to personal taste and cultural tradition. It is important to provide a tailor-made diet wherever possible in order to maximize the efficacy of the diet on reducing diabetes symptoms and to encourage patient adherence. Additional randomized studies, both short term (to analyse physiological responses) and long term, could help reduce the multitude of diets currently recommended and focus on a shorter list of useful regimens.

  3. Heart failure symptom relationships: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Herr, Janet K; Salyer, Jeanne; Lyon, Debra E; Goodloe, Lauren; Schubert, Christine; Clement, Dolores G

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a prevalent chronic health condition in the United States. Individuals who have heart failure experience as many as 2 to 9 symptoms. The examination of relationships among heart failure symptoms may benefit patients and clinicians who are charged with managing heart failure symptoms. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize what is known about relationships among heart failure symptoms, a precursor to the identification of heart failure symptom clusters, as well as to examine studies specifically addressing symptom clusters described in this population. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed in the conduct of this systematic review. PubMed, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the search term heart failure in combination with a pair of symptoms. Of a total of 1316 studies identified from database searches, 34 were included in this systematic review. More than 1 investigator found a moderate level of correlation between depression and fatigue, depression and anxiety, depression and sleep, depression and pain, anxiety and fatigue, and dyspnea and fatigue. The findings of this systematic review provide support for the presence of heart failure symptom clusters. Depression was related to several of the symptoms, providing an indication to clinicians that individuals with heart failure who experience depression may have other concurrent symptoms. Some symptom relationships such as the relationships between fatigue and anxiety or sleep or pain were dependent on the symptom characteristics studied. Symptom prevalence in the sample and restricted sampling may influence the robustness of the symptom relationships. These findings suggest that studies defining the phenotype of individual heart failure symptoms may be a beneficial step in the study of heart failure symptom clusters.

  4. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive insight: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A systematic review of systematic reviews on interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Medical indications for acupuncture: Systematic review].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme

    2016-09-16

    Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies.

  8. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  9. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  11. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  12. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...

  13. Quality of reporting in systematic reviews of adverse events: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zorzela, Liliane; Golder, Su; Liu, Yali; Pilkington, Karen; Hartling, Lisa; Joffe, Ari; Loke, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the quality of reporting of harms in systematic reviews, and to determine the need for a reporting guideline specific for reviews of harms. Design Systematic review. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Review methods Databases were searched for systematic reviews having an adverse event as the main outcome, published from January 2008 to April 2011. Adverse events included an adverse reaction, harms, or complications associated with any healthcare intervention. Articles with a primary aim to investigate the complete safety profile of an intervention were also included. We developed a list of 37 items to measure the quality of reporting on harms in each review; data were collected as dichotomous outcomes (“yes” or “no” for each item). Results Of 4644 reviews identified, 309 were systematic reviews or meta-analyses primarily assessing harms (13 from CDSR; 296 from DARE). Despite a short time interval, the comparison between the years of 2008 and 2010-11 showed no difference on the quality of reporting over time (P=0.079). Titles in fewer than half the reviews (proportion of reviews 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.52)) did not mention any harm related terms. Almost one third of DARE reviews (0.26 (0.22 to 0.31)) did not clearly define the adverse events reviewed, nor did they specify the study designs selected for inclusion in their methods section. Almost half of reviews (n=170) did not consider patient risk factors or length of follow-up when reviewing harms of an intervention. Of 67 reviews of complications related to surgery or other procedures, only four (0.05 (0.01 to 0.14)) reported professional qualifications of the individuals involved. The overall, unweighted, proportion of reviews with good reporting was 0.56 (0.55 to 0.57); corresponding proportions were 0.55 (0.53 to 0.57) in 2008, 0.55 (0.54 to 0.57) in 2009, and 0.57 (0.55 to 0.58) in

  14. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal or hepatic impairment. A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Carlo B; Nada, Elisa; Tartaglino, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Renal or hepatic impairment, often encountered in patients with type 2 diabetes, influences the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of antihyperglycemic agents. An emerging concern is whether pharmacotherapy with incretin-based agents, the most recent drug classes to be introduced for type 2 diabetes, can be safely used in patients with renal insufficiency or hepatic damage. This literature review examines the results of studies on these novel drug classes, with a view to provide the practitioner with a balanced, evidence-based position when considering incretin-based therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired kidney or liver function. All currently available dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors appear to be appropriate pharmacotherapeutic choices in patients with declining renal function, with linagliptin affording the added advantage of not requiring dose adjustment or periodic monitoring of drug-related kidney function. In contrast, caution is warranted with the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment. The slightly wider evidence base for liraglutide than for exenatide or lixisenatide is not sufficient to support its use in severe renal impairment. What little evidence there is for incretin-based therapies in hepatic impairment has come from a few past hoc analysis of clinical trials, with most precautions and warnings reflecting the paucity of knowledge about incretin efficacy or safety in this condition.

  15. Family-based interventions for substance misuse: a systematic review of systematic reviews--protocol.

    PubMed

    Akram, Yasmin; Copello, Alex; Moore, David

    2014-08-15

    Worldwide, there are an estimated 15 million individuals with drug use disorders and over five times as many with alcohol use disorders (WHO 1:2, 2005). Most individuals with substance misuse have families who are affected. Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse.Initial scoping searches identified an expanse of broad and disparate studies and reviews on the family interventions for substance misuse. This systematic review of systematic reviews aims to bring together the expanse of research on the effectiveness of family-based interventions in substance misuse. Extensive electronic and manual searches will be undertaken. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment will be undertaken by two reviewers with disagreements resolved through discussion.The inclusion criteria will be that the study is a systematically undertaken review, the population is individuals with substance misuse problems and the interventions include a family-focused component. Reviews that focus on prevention rather than treatment will be excluded. The reviews will be assessed for quality and relevance. The evidence from included systematic reviews will be mapped by focus of intervention (promoting engagement of user into treatment/joint involvement in treatment of user/treating family member in own right) for both adults and adolescents for drug and/or alcohol misusers to allow assessment of the density of available evidence. The higher-quality, up-to-date evidence for each domain will be identified and described, and conclusions will be drawn with limitations of the evidence highlighted. This systematic review of systematic reviews will be an efficient and robust way of looking at the current state of the evidence in the field of

  16. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

  17. Biliary Dyskinesia in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Neha R; Hyman, Paul E; Harmon, Carroll M; Schiavo, Julie H; Hussain, Sunny Z

    2017-02-01

    Cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia in children are rising in the United States, but not in other countries. Biliary dyskinesia is a validated functional gallbladder disorder in adults, requiring biliary colic in the diagnosis. In contrast, most studies in children require upper abdominal pain, absent gallstones on ultrasound, and an abnormal gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) on cholecystokinin-stimulated cholescintigraphy for diagnosis. We aimed to systematically review existing literature in biliary dyskinesia in children, determine the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria, GBEF, and to assess outcomes following cholecystectomy. We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA checklist and searched 7 databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Ovid, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Bibliographies of articles were screened for additional studies. Our search terms yielded 916 articles of which 28 were included. Three articles were manually added from searched references. We reviewed 31 peer-reviewed publications, all retrospective chart reviews. There was heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and GBEF values. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied from 34% to 100% success, and there was no consensus concerning factors influencing outcomes. The observational, retrospective study designs that comprised our review limited interpretation of safety and efficacy of the investigations and treatment in biliary dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of biliary dyskinesia overlapped with functional dyspepsia. There is a need for consensus on symptoms defining biliary dyskinesia, validation of testing required for diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia, and randomized controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in children with upper abdominal pain.

  18. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  19. A Systematic Study of Dysregulated MicroRNA in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuqing; Ding, Yuanlin; Liang, Biyu; Lin, Juanjuan; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Yu, Haibing; Hang, Hanwei; Wang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate the cellular transcriptome at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA plays important roles in different disease manifestation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have characterized the changes of miRNAs in T2DM, a complex systematic disease; however, few studies have integrated these findings and explored the functional effects of the dysregulated miRNAs identified. To investigate the involvement of miRNAs in T2DM, we obtained and analyzed all relevant studies published prior to 18 October 2016 from various literature databases. From 59 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria, we identified 158 dysregulated miRNAs in seven different major sample types. To understand the functional impact of these deregulated miRNAs, we performed targets prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. Results from our analysis suggested that the altered miRNAs are involved in the core processes associated with T2DM, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, insulin signaling pathway and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. This systematic survey of dysregulated miRNAs provides molecular insights on the effect of deregulated miRNAs in different tissues during the development of diabetes. Some of these miRNAs and their mRNA targets may have diagnostic and/or therapeutic utilities in T2DM. PMID:28264477

  20. A Systematic Study of Dysregulated MicroRNA in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqing; Ding, Yuanlin; Liang, Biyu; Lin, Juanjuan; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Yu, Haibing; Hang, Hanwei; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate the cellular transcriptome at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA plays important roles in different disease manifestation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have characterized the changes of miRNAs in T2DM, a complex systematic disease; however, few studies have integrated these findings and explored the functional effects of the dysregulated miRNAs identified. To investigate the involvement of miRNAs in T2DM, we obtained and analyzed all relevant studies published prior to 18 October 2016 from various literature databases. From 59 independent studies that met the inclusion criteria, we identified 158 dysregulated miRNAs in seven different major sample types. To understand the functional impact of these deregulated miRNAs, we performed targets prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. Results from our analysis suggested that the altered miRNAs are involved in the core processes associated with T2DM, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms, insulin signaling pathway and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. This systematic survey of dysregulated miRNAs provides molecular insights on the effect of deregulated miRNAs in different tissues during the development of diabetes. Some of these miRNAs and their mRNA targets may have diagnostic and/or therapeutic utilities in T2DM.

  1. Disparities in diabetes mellitus among Caribbean populations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nadia R; Francis, Damian K; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hennis, Anselm J M; Wilks, Rainford J; Harris, Eon Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene M Y; Sullivan, Louis W

    2015-02-25

    Despite the large body of research on racial/ethnic disparities in health, there are limited data on health disparities in Caribbean origin populations. This review aims to analyze and synthesize published literature on the disparities in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications among Afro-Caribbean populations. A detailed protocol, including a comprehensive search strategy, was developed and used to identify potentially relevant studies. Identified studies were then screened for eligibility using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. An extraction form was developed to chart data and collate study characteristics including methods and main findings. Charted information was tagged by disparity indicators and thematic analysis performed. Disparity indicators evaluated include ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic status, disability and geographic location. Gaps in the literature were identified and extrapolated into a gap map. A total of 1009 diabetes related articles/manuscripts, published between 1972 and 2013, were identified and screened. Forty-three studies met inclusion criteria for detailed analysis. Most studies were conducted in the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, and used a cross-sectional study design. Overall, studies reported a higher prevalence of DM among Caribbean Blacks compared to West African Blacks and Caucasians but lower when compared to South Asian origin groups. Morbidity from diabetes-related complications was highest in persons with low socioeconomic status. Gap analysis showed limited research data reporting diabetes incidence by sex and socioeconomic status. No published literature was found on disability status or sexual orientation as it relates to diabetes burden or complications. Prevalence and morbidity were the most frequently reported outcomes. Literature on diabetes health disparities in Caribbean origin populations is limited. Future research should address these knowledge gaps and develop approaches

  2. Using multiple types of studies in systematic reviews of health care interventions--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care interventions.

  3. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  4. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  5. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara; Onofrj, Marco; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Thomas, Astrid; Bonanni, Laura; Fulcheri, Mario

    2017-08-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic literature research strategy on ISI Web-of-Science, PsychINFO, PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Out of 2.926 initial records, only a total of 9 studies were identified as clearly relevant and analyzed in this systematic review. The prevalence of somatization in PD has been found to range between 7.0% and 66.7%, with somatoform disorders acting as clinical factor significantly contributing to predict a progressive cognitive impairment. We highlighted that somatization is a highly prevalent comorbidity affecting PD. However, the clinical consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Echocardiography in chronic liver disease: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo

    2013-04-01

    Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.

  7. Acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cho, S-H; Hwang, E-W

    2010-04-01

    The effectiveness of acupuncture in primary dysmenorrhoea is not fully understood. To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for the symptomatic treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Nineteen electronic databases, including English, Korean, Japanese and Chinese databases, were systematically searched for RCTs investigating acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea up to July 2008 with no language restrictions. All RCTs that evaluated the effects of acupuncture compared with controls were included. Studies that assessed the effect of moxibustion or body acupressure were excluded. The study abstraction and quality assessment of all studies were undertaken following the detailed descriptions of these categories as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twenty-seven RCTs were systematically reviewed. Only nine of the 27 trials clearly described their methods of randomisation and none of the trials stated the methods of allocation concealment. Compared with pharmacological treatment or herbal medicine, acupuncture was associated with a significant reduction in pain. Three studies reported reduced pain within groups from baseline; however, two RCTs did not find a significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture. The review found promising evidence in the form of RCTs for the use of acupuncture in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea compared with pharmacological treatment or herbal medicine. However, the results were limited by methodological flaws. The evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea is not convincing compared with sham acupuncture. Further rigorous nonpenetrating placebo-controlled RCTs are warranted.

  8. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: ‘amitraz’, ‘poisoning’, ‘toxicity’, ‘intoxication’ and ‘overdose’. Articles published in a language other than English, abstracts and those not providing sufficient clinical information were excluded. Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children) of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%). Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management. PMID:28139533

  9. Adipokines and Migraine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, B. Lee; Sacco, Simona; Bernecker, Claudia; Scher, Ann I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is comorbid with obesity. Recent research suggests an association between migraine and adipocytokines, proteins that are predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and which participate in energy homeostasis and inflammatory processes. Objectives In this review, we first briefly discuss the association between migraine and obesity and the importance of adipose tissue as a neuroendocrine organ. We then present a systematic review of the extant literature evaluating circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin in those with migraine. Methods A search of the PubMed database was conducted using the keywords “migraine,” “adiponectin,” and “leptin.” In addition reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed for possible inclusion. English language studies published between 2005 and 2015 evaluating circulating blood concentration of adiponectin or leptin in those with migraine were included. Conclusions While the existing data are suggestive that adipokines may be associated with migraine, substantial study design differences and conflicting results limit definitive conclusions. Future research utilizing carefully considered designs and methodology is warranted. In particular careful and systematic characterization of pain states at the time of samples, as well as systematic consideration of demographic (eg, age, sex) and other vital covariates (eg, obesity status, lipids) are needed to determine if adipokines play a role in migraine pathophysiology and if any adipokine represents a viable, novel migraine biomarker, or drug target. PMID:27012149

  10. Surface electromyography in animals: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Zsoldos, Rebeka R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) is commonly used for investigations of the neuromuscular system in man. Although sEMG has faced methodological challenges, considerable technical advances have been made in the last few decades. Similarly, the field of animal biomechanics, including sEMG, has grown despite being confronted with often complex experimental conditions. In human sEMG research, standardised protocols have been developed, however these are lacking in animal sEMG. Before standards can be proposed in this population group, the existing research in animal sEMG should be collated and evaluated. Therefore the aim of this review is to systematically identify and summarise the literature in animal sEMG focussing on (1) species, breeds, activities and muscles investigated, and (2) electrode placement and normalisation methods used. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Vetmed Resource were searched systematically for sEMG studies in animals and 38 articles were included in the final review. Data on methodological quality was collected and summarised. The findings from this systematic review indicate the divergence in animal sEMG methodology and as a result, future steps required to develop standardisation in animal sEMG are proposed. PMID:26763600

  11. Metabolomics in bladder cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yidong; Yang, Xiao; Deng, Xiaheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Pengchao; Tao, Jun; Qin, Chao; Wei, Jifu; Lu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urological malignancy. Early diagnosis of BC is crucial to improve patient outcomes. Currently, metabolomics is a potential technique that can be used to detect BC. We reviewed current publications and synthesised the findings on BC and metabolomics, i.e. metabolite upregulation and downregulation. Fourteen metabolites (lactic acid, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamate, histidine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine, uracil, hypoxanthine, carnitine, pyruvic acid and citric acid) were identified as potential biomarkers for BC. In conclusion, this systematic review presents new opportunities for the diagnosis of BC. PMID:26379905

  12. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  13. Contrast therapy--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hing, Wayne A; White, Steven G; Bouaaphone, Anousith; Lee, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Contrast therapy is a strategy that is widely utilised in a number of sporting codes to aid recovery. This wide use might suggest that contrast therapy is an effective recovery modality however support for this assumption appears to be mainly anecdotal. The purpose of this paper is to review the efficacy of contrast therapy. To achieve this objective, a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have specifically evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of contrast therapy was performed. A search to identify appropriate literature was conducted across a number of electronic databases. The titles and abstracts of the papers identified were reviewed to select papers specifically relating to contrast therapy. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro Scale, a systematic tool used to critique RCTs, was employed to critique the methodological quality of these studies. This review highlights both the lack in quantity and quality of research regarding the efficacy of contrast therapy for sports recovery. There appears to be insufficient evidence that contrast therapy aids in recovery and the limited methodological quality of the reviewed studies makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about this form of therapy. Future research needs to re-examine the use of contrast therapy and in particular whole body immersion recovery strategies within the appropriate sports setting. This research will need to be of sufficient quality to enable appropriate conclusions to be made with regards to its use as a recovery strategy.

  14. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  15. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention.

  16. What is open peer review? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ross-Hellauer, Tony

    2017-01-01

     "Open peer review" (OPR), despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with a myriad of overlapping and often contradictory definitions. While the term is used by some to refer to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only "invited experts" are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods.  Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of "open peer review" or "open review", to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are then systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the many different innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking.  This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how  ambiguously the phrase "open peer review"  has been used thus far, for the literature offers a total of 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature.  Based on this work, I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the ethos of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

  17. Evidence-based interventions to reduce adverse events in hospitals: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Zegers, Marieke; Hesselink, Gijs; Geense, Wytske; Vincent, Charles; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. Study selection English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed each study's quality and extracted data on the study population, study design, intervention characteristics and adverse patient outcomes. Results Sixty systematic reviews with moderate to high quality were included. Statistically significant pooled effect sizes were found for 14 types of interventions, including: (1) multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium; (2) rapid response teams to reduce cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality rates; (3) pharmacist interventions to reduce adverse drug events; (4) exercises and multicomponent interventions to prevent falls; and (5) care bundle interventions, checklists and reminders to reduce infections. Most (82%) of the significant effect sizes were based on 5 or fewer primary studies with an experimental study design. Conclusions The evidence for patient-safety interventions implemented in hospitals worldwide is weak. The findings address the need to invest in high-quality research standards in order to identify interventions that have a real impact on patient safety. Interventions to prevent delirium, cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality, adverse drug events, infections and falls are most effective and should therefore be prioritised by clinicians. PMID:27687901

  18. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification. This...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification. This...

  20. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that were...

  1. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  2. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that were...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification. This...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification. This...

  5. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that were...

  6. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that were...

  7. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification. This...

  9. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  10. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that were...

  11. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  12. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...

  13. Developing a library systematic review service: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Emilie; Downton, Katherine; Shipper, Andrea Goldstein; Fu, Yunting

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review searching is a standard job responsibility for many health sciences librarians. The strategies a library uses to market its expertise may affect the number of researchers requesting librarian assistance as well as how researchers perceive librarians as systematic review collaborators. This article describes how one health sciences library developed, launched, and promoted its systematic review service to researchers on campus.

  14. Mediating Policy-Relevant Evidence at Speed: Are Systematic Reviews of Systematic Reviews a Useful Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Jenny; Sutcliffe, Katy; Kwan, Irene; Dickson, Kelly; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    When swift, accurate appraisal of evidence is required to inform policy concerning broad research questions, and budgetary constraints limit the employment of large research teams, researchers face a significant challenge which is sometimes met by reviewing existing systematic reviews. In this paper we highlight the challenges inherent in the…

  15. Child maltreatment prevention: a systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To synthesize recent evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews on the effectiveness of universal and selective child maltreatment prevention interventions, evaluate the methodological quality of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they are based on, and map the geographical distribution of the evidence. Methods A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated with a tool for the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR), and the quality of the outcome evaluations was assessed using indicators of internal validity and of the construct validity of outcome measures. Findings The review focused on seven main types of interventions: home visiting, parent education, child sex abuse prevention, abusive head trauma prevention, multi-component interventions, media-based interventions, and support and mutual aid groups. Four of the seven – home-visiting, parent education, abusive head trauma prevention and multi-component interventions – show promise in preventing actual child maltreatment. Three of them – home visiting, parent education and child sexual abuse prevention – appear effective in reducing risk factors for child maltreatment, although these conclusions are tentative due to the methodological shortcomings of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they draw on. An analysis of the geographical distribution of the evidence shows that outcome evaluations of child maltreatment prevention interventions are exceedingly rare in low- and middle-income countries and make up only 0.6% of the total evidence base. Conclusion Evidence for the effectiveness of four of the seven main types of interventions for preventing child maltreatment is promising, although it is weakened by methodological problems and paucity of outcome evaluations from low- and middle-income countries. PMID:19551253

  16. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a brief review.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samreen

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has been associated with depression. Depression is more common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to those without. Both micro- and macro vascular diabetic complications are associated with depression and have shown to increase the risk of mood disorder. Further, poor glycemic control in T2DM patients could lead to more complications of diabetes and such patients are more likely to develop depression. More research is needed in this area to determine the exact relationship between depression and T2DM and to unfold the mystery of mechanism behind this.

  17. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  18. Latino Veterans with PTSD: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, James O. E.

    2014-01-01

    Latinos have a long history of military service with recent service including combat conditions and multiple deployments, which are highly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical acumen underscores the importance of culture in assessment and treatment, but there has been little scientific literature that investigates the unique needs of veteran Latinos with PTSD. The primary goal of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on Latino veterans with PTSD and to critically evaluate attention to cultural issues. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were used to guide this review. Peer-reviewed, research reports written in English on Latino Veterans with PTSD since 1980 were included; 20 were assessment related, and nine were treatment related. All studies were quantitative. Only 13 studies mentioned culture as part of the context for Latino veterans, and only seven included cultural factors as part of the study design. Present findings highlight a lack of research focused on understanding cultural factors related to the assessment and treatment of Latino veterans with PTSD. Culturally-informed research on Latino veterans from current wars, Latina veterans and Latino veteran treatment outcomes are necessary to provide culturally-appropriate care to this growing veteran subgroup. PMID:25379284

  19. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  20. Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

    2012-01-01

    Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

  1. Central poststroke pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jonathan; Conigliaro, Alyssa; Spina, Elizabeth; Law, Susan W; Levine, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Background Physical, psychological, and/or social impairment can result after a stroke and can be exacerbated by pain. One type of pain after stroke, central poststroke pain, is believed to be due to primary central nervous system mechanisms. Estimated prevalence of central poststroke pain ranges widely from 8% to 55% of stroke patients, suggesting a difficulty in reliably, accurately, and consistently identifying central poststroke pain. This may be due to the absence of a generally accepted definition. Aim We aimed to clarify the role of thalamic strokes and damage to the spinothalamic pathway in central poststroke pain patients. Also, we aimed to gain a current understanding of anatomic substrates, brain imaging, and treatment of central poststroke pain. Summary of review Two independent reviewers identified 10,144 publications. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, we extracted data from 23 papers and categorized the articles' aims into four sections: somatosensory deficits, pathway stimulation, clinical trials, and brain imaging. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that damage to the spinothalamic pathway is associated with central poststroke pain and this link could provide insights into mechanisms and treatment. Moreover, historical connection of strokes in the thalamic region of the brain and central poststroke pain should be reevaluated as many studies noted that strokes in other regions of the brain have high occurrence of central poststroke pain as well.

  2. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  3. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  4. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infliximab-Related Infusion Reactions: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Yulia; Kivity, Shmuel; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Israeli, Eran; Fraser, Gerald M.; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Weiss, Batia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Administration of infliximab is associated with a well-recognised risk of infusion reactions. Lack of a mechanism-based rationale for their prevention, and absence of adequate and well-controlled studies, has led to the use of diverse empirical administration protocols. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of the evidence behind the strategies for preventing infusion reactions to infliximab, and for controlling the reactions once they occur. Methods: We conducted extensive search of electronic databases of MEDLINE [PubMed] for reports that communicate various aspects of infusion reactions to infliximab in IBD patients. Results: We examined full texts of 105 potentially eligible articles. No randomised controlled trials that pre-defined infusion reaction as a primary outcome were found. Three RCTs evaluated infusion reactions as a secondary outcome; another four RCTs included infusion reactions in the safety evaluation analysis; and 62 additional studies focused on various aspects of mechanism/s, risk, primary and secondary preventive measures, and management algorithms. Seven studies were added by a manual search of reference lists of the relevant articles. A total of 76 original studies were included in quantitative analysis of the existing strategies. Conclusions: There is still paucity of systematic and controlled data on the risk, prevention, and management of infusion reactions to infliximab. We present working algorithms based on systematic and extensive review of the available data. More randomised controlled trials are needed in order to investigate the efficacy of the proposed preventive and management algorithms. PMID:26092578

  6. Treatment of acute gout: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Puja P; Gladue, Heather S; Singh, Manjit K; FitzGerald, John D; Bae, Sangmee; Prakash, Shraddha; Kaldas, Marian; Gogia, Maneesh; Berrocal, Veronica; Townsend, Whitney; Terkeltaub, Robert; Khanna, Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    Acute gout is traditionally treated with NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and colchicine; however, subjects have multiple comorbidities that limit the use of some conventional therapies. We systematically reviewed the published data on the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic agents used for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. A systematic search was performed using PubMed and Cochrane database through May 2013. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included NSAIDs, corticosteroids, colchicine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, topical ice, or herbal supplements. Thirty articles were selected for systematic review. The results show that NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors are effective agents for the treatment of acute gout attacks. Systemic corticosteroids have similar efficacy to therapeutic doses of NSAIDs, with studies supporting oral and intramuscular use. ACTH is suggested to be efficacious in acute gout. Oral colchicine demonstrated to be effective, with low-dose colchicine demonstrating a comparable tolerability profile as placebo and a significantly lower side effect profile to high-dose colchicine. The IL-1β inhibitory antibody, canakinumab, was effective for the treatment of acute attacks in subjects refractory to and in those with contraindications to NSAIDs and/or colchicine. However, rilonacept was demonstrated to be not as effective, and there are no RCTs for the use of anakinra. NSAIDs, COX-2 selective inhibitors, corticosteroids, colchicine, ACTH, and canakinumab have evidence to suggest efficacy in treatment of acute gout. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John; Byrne, Charles; Clarke, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved. Selection criteria Studies were included if they addressed interventions enhancing the uptake of systematic reviews. Reports in any language were included. All decisionmakers were eligible. Studies could be randomised trials, cluster-randomised trials, controlled-clinical trials and before-and-after studies. Data sources We searched 19 databases including PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, covering the full range of publication years from inception to December 2010. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality according to the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care criteria. Results 10 studies from 11 countries, containing 12 interventions met our criteria. Settings included a hospital, a government department and a medical school. Doctors, nurses, mid-wives, patients and programme managers were targeted. Six of the studies were geared to improving knowledge and attitudes while four targeted clinical practice. Synthesis of results Three studies of low-to-moderate risk of bias, identified interventions that showed a statistically significant improvement: educational visits, short summaries of systematic reviews and targeted messaging. Promising interventions include e-learning, computer-based learning, inactive workshops, use of knowledge brokers and an e-registry of reviews. Juxtaposing barriers and facilitators alongside the identified interventions, it was clear that the three effective approaches addressed a wide range of barriers and facilitators. Discussion A limited number of studies were found for inclusion. However, the extensive literature search is one of the strengths of this review. Conclusions Targeted messaging, educational visits and summaries are recommended to enhance systematic review uptake. Identified

  8. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  9. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Moher, David; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C; Sampson, Margaret; Altman, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) have become increasingly popular to a wide range of stakeholders. We set out to capture a representative cross-sectional sample of published SRs and examine them in terms of a broad range of epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics, including emerging aspects not previously examined. Methods and Findings We searched Medline for SRs indexed during November 2004 and written in English. Citations were screened and those meeting our inclusion criteria were retained. Data were collected using a 51-item data collection form designed to assess the epidemiological and reporting details and the bias-related aspects of the reviews. The data were analyzed descriptively. In total 300 SRs were identified, suggesting a current annual publication rate of about 2,500, involving more than 33,700 separate studies including one-third of a million participants. The majority (272 [90.7%]) of SRs were reported in specialty journals. Most reviews (213 [71.0%]) were categorized as therapeutic, and included a median of 16 studies involving 1,112 participants. Funding sources were not reported in more than one-third (122 [40.7%]) of the reviews. Reviews typically searched a median of three electronic databases and two other sources, although only about two-thirds (208 [69.3%]) of them reported the years searched. Most (197/295 [66.8%]) reviews reported information about quality assessment, while few (68/294 [23.1%]) reported assessing for publication bias. A little over half (161/300 [53.7%]) of the SRs reported combining their results statistically, of which most (147/161 [91.3%]) assessed for consistency across studies. Few (53 [17.7%]) SRs reported being updates of previously completed reviews. No review had a registration number. Only half (150 [50.0%]) of the reviews used the term “systematic review” or “meta-analysis” in the title or abstract. There were large differences between Cochrane reviews and non-Cochrane reviews

  10. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed.

  11. Inuit Elderly: A Systematic Review of Peer Reviewed Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  12. What is open peer review? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Hellauer, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Background: “Open peer review” (OPR), despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with numerous overlapping and contradictory definitions. While for some the term refers to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only “invited experts” are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods. Methods: Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of “open peer review” or “open review”, to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the various innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking. Results: This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how ambiguously the phrase “open peer review” has been used thus far, for the literature offers 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature reviewed. Conclusions: I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the aims of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the peer review process. PMID:28580134

  13. Acne and Nutrition: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Friederike; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fiedler, Eckhard; Taube, Klaus-Michael

    2017-01-04

    Few well-defined, evidence-based nutritional recommendations for people with skin diseases have been published in the scientific literature and standard dermatological textbooks. Using a systematic review of acne vulgaris as an example, the aim of this study was to determine whether there are systematic studies on the topic and, if so, of what quality. Four evidence levels were defined: (A) double-blind randomized study; (B) randomized study with serious limitations/low number of cases; (C) case-control or cohort study; and (D) expert opinion/case report. PubMed and Cochrane searches were performed using combinations of the terms "diet", "nutrition", "meal" and "food" with "acne". Foodstuffs mentioned in relevant articles were subdivided by evidence level and recorded as having a beneficial (+), neutral (0) or adverse (-) effect. However, only a small proportion of studies met sufficiently high scientific standards that would enable therapeutic recommendations to be made in practice.

  14. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study’s findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to

  15. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study's findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to

  16. Cycling with an amputation: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Bryce

    2016-10-01

    Cycling with any form of limb amputation has progressed from an activity of leisure or rehabilitation to elite level competition as part of the Paralympic Games programme. While it is often proposed that research into sport with an amputation can be extremely limited, this study intended to identify the volume, type and historical strategy in this area. This study comprises a documented systematic literature review of cycling undertaken with any form of limb amputation. This study used four online search engines to identify relevant peer-reviewed literature. These included SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus and MEDLINE. Google Scholar was also used as a secondary source. The initial results were then subjected to a set of pre-defined inclusion criteria. The resulting publications were then analysed for content and thematic commonality. The review identified 20 articles which met pre-defined inclusion criteria. The identified peer-reviewed publications were dated from the period 2004 to 2014. Three clear themes emerged from the historical research. There was both a paucity of peer-reviewed literature with respect to cycling with an amputation and the design of adaptive or assistive technology to replace limb loss. However, publications have been rising substantially over the last 5 years. This review study established the historical strategy and content of cycling with an amputation and identified the existing research themes. This will assist in summarising the current level of knowledge and help signpost such work in the future. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  17. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    PubMed

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-06-10

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.

  19. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173

  20. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  1. Probiotics and oral health: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Seminario-Amez, M; López-López, J; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Ayuso-Montero, R; Jané-Salas, E

    2017-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms, mainly bacteria, which benefit the host's health. Many studies support the role of probiotics as a contributor to gastrointestinal health, and nowadays many authors are trying to prove its influence in oral health maintenance. To review the published literature with the purpose of knowing the importance of using probiotics as a preventive and therapeutic method for oral infectious diseases management. An electronic search in PubMed database with the keywords "oral health AND probiotics AND dentistry" was conducted. The inclusion criteria were: randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that assess the action of any probiotic strain in the treatment and / or prevention of an infectious oral disease, RCTs that assess the action of any probiotic strain on counting colony forming units (CFU) of oral pathogens, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The Jadad scale was used to assess the high quality of RCTs. Fifteen articles were considered for this review. Of which, 12 were RCTs of good / high quality (Jadad scale), two meta-analysis and one systematic review. The literature reviewed suggests probiotics usage could be beneficial for the maintenance of oral health, due to its ability to decrease the colony forming units (CFU) counts of the oral pathogens. However, randomized clinical trials with long-term follow-up periods are needed to confirm their efficacy in reducing the prevalence/incidence of oral infectious diseases. Furthermore, the recognition of specific strains with probiotic activity for each infectious oral disease is required, in order to determine exact dose, treatment time and ideal vehicles.

  2. Mentoring in academic medicine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sambunjak, Dario; Straus, Sharon E; Marusić, Ana

    2006-09-06

    Mentoring, as a partnership in personal and professional growth and development, is central to academic medicine, but it is challenged by increased clinical, administrative, research, and other educational demands on medical faculty. Therefore, evidence for the value of mentoring needs to be evaluated. To systematically review the evidence about the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development. MEDLINE, Current Contents, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases from the earliest available date to May 2006. We identified all studies evaluating the effect of mentoring on career choices and academic advancement among medical students and physicians. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. No restrictions were placed on study methods or language. The literature search identified 3640 citations. Review of abstracts led to retrieval of 142 full-text articles for assessment; 42 articles describing 39 studies were selected for review. Of these, 34 (87%) were cross-sectional self-report surveys with small sample size and response rates ranging from 5% to 99%. One case-control study nested in a survey used a comparison group that had not received mentoring, and 1 cohort study had a small sample size and a large loss to follow-up. Less than 50% of medical students and in some fields less than 20% of faculty members had a mentor. Women perceived that they had more difficulty finding mentors than their colleagues who are men. Mentorship was reported to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance, career choice, and research productivity, including publication and grant success. Mentoring is perceived as an important part of academic medicine, but the evidence to support this perception is not strong. Practical recommendations on mentoring in

  3. Emotional intelligence and addictions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    Since the millennium, an expanding number of research articles have examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and physical and mental health. The relationship between EI and addictive disorders has, however, remained relatively well-hidden. We therefore systematically reviewed and critically evaluated the literature on this relationship. We identified 51 articles on the topic of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Results indicate that a lower level of EI is associated with more intensive smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use and two components of EI play a key role in addictions: "decoding and differentiation of emotions" and "regulation of emotions."

  4. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a systematic review for otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, M; Dawe, N; Flood, L

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated oesophageal disease, only recently, but increasingly, recognised in the world literature. It is diagnosed and managed primarily by medical gastroenterologists and allergy specialists, and is a distinct disease entity, affecting both children and adults. Few studies have been published in otolaryngology journals, although otolaryngologists will encounter patients with undiagnosed eosinophilic oesophagitis. Patients may present with dysphagia, bolus obstruction or with other ENT disorders, such as atopic rhinitis, reflecting the underlying systemic allergic disorder. This paper systematically reviews the evidence base published on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis, particularly as it relates to otolaryngology practice.

  5. Systematic review of childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Linda G

    2008-02-01

    This systematic review identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of obesity in young children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. Because the gap between clear articulation of the problem as well as population and the best strategies to impact the prevention of the problem is evident, health care practitioners must be involved in well-constructed implementation and evaluation studies that build on the limited base of current evidence.

  6. Manual therapies for migraine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2011-04-01

    Migraine occurs in about 15% of the general population. Migraine is usually managed by medication, but some patients do not tolerate migraine medication due to side effects or prefer to avoid medication for other reasons. Non-pharmacological management is an alternative treatment option. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine. However, the evaluated RCTs had many methodological shortcomings. Therefore, any firm conclusion will require future, well-conducted RCTs on manual therapies for migraine.

  7. Feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saranitzky, Elisa; White, C Michael; Baker, Erica L; Baker, William L; Coleman, Craig I

    2009-01-01

    Feverfew has been studied for the treatment of migrane in several studies and the pharmacologic mechanisms are preliminarily understood. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and present the clinical findings and potential implications. The modality of data collection and reporting in the individual studies does not support a pooling of results, but does suggest benefit of feverfew in migraine prophylaxis for at least subsets of the population with the disorder. Pharmacologically, there is some potential for concern with long-term dosing given its cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting effects and longer-term studies will be needed to ameliorate these concerns in coronary disease patients.

  8. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    PubMed

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  9. Literature review: pharmacists' interventions to improve control and management in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Nazir, Saeed Ur Rashid; Saleem, Fahad; Masood, Imran

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in which excessive levels of blood glucose (sugar) occur. In simple terms, diabetes is generally due to failure in the effective functioning of insulin. Common types of diabetes include type 1 and type 2, which have different treatment options. In the general population, type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than type 1, and type 2 accounts for more than 90% of all known cases of diabetes. The current review examines the contributions of pharmacists to the more positive, long-term prognosis of patients with DM through improvements in its control and management. The authors conducted a systematic literature search. Twenty-seven studies were identified that demonstrated the effects of a pharmacist's intervention on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In all cases, it was reported that the intervention was successful in reducing HbA1c in patients with DM. Pharmacist interventions have also proven successful in improving patient lipid profiles, cardiovascular outcomes, and body mass indexes (BMIs), and in reducing other complications associated with the disease. It was also reported that economic advantages were associated with a pharmacist's management of DM.

  10. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Casqueiro, Juliana; Casqueiro, Janine; Alves, Cresio

    2012-01-01

    In general, infectious diseases are more frequent and/or serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, which potentially increases their morbimortality. The greater frequency of infections in diabetic patients is caused by the hyperglycemic environment that favors immune dysfunction (e.g., damage to the neutrophil function, depression of the antioxidant system, and humoral immunity), micro- and macro-angiopathies, neuropathy, decrease in the antibacterial activity of urine, gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility, and greater number of medical interventions in these patients. The infections affect all organs and systems. Some of these problems are seen mostly in diabetic people, such as foot infections, malignant external otitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and gangrenous cholecystitis. In addition to the increased morbidity, infectious processes may be the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus or the precipitating factors for complications inherent to the disease, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. Immunization with anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. PMID:22701840

  11. Epicardial fat: definition, measurements and systematic review of main outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-07-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used.

  12. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used. PMID:23917514

  13. Schistosomiasis in Malawi: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Makaula, Peter; Sadalaki, John R; Muula, Adamson S; Kayuni, Sekeleghe; Jemu, Samuel; Bloch, Paul

    2014-12-10

    Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem that undermines social and economic development in tropical regions of the world, mainly Sub-Saharan Africa. We are not aware of any systematic review of the literature of the epidemiology and transmission of schistosomiasis in Malawi since 1985. Therefore, we reviewed the current state of knowledge of schistosomiasis epidemiology and transmission in this country and identified knowledge gaps and relevant areas for future research and research governance. We conducted computer-aided literature searches of Medline, SCOPUS and Google Scholar using the keywords: "schistosomiasis", "Bilharzia", "Bulinus" and "Biomphalaria" in combination with "Malawi". These searches were supplemented by iterative reviews of reference lists for relevant publications in peer reviewed international scientific journals or other media. The recovered documents were reviewed for their year of publication, location of field or laboratory work, authorship characteristics, ethics review, funding sources as well as their findings regarding parasite and intermediate host species, environmental aspects, geographical distribution, seasonality of transmission, and infection prevalence and intensities. A total of 89 documents satisfied the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these, 76 were published in international scientific journals, 68 were peer reviewed and 54 were original research studies. Most of the documents addressed urinary schistosomiasis and about two thirds of them dealt with the definitive host. Few documents addressed the parasites and the intermediate hosts. While urinary schistosomiasis occurs in most parts of Malawi, intestinal schistosomiasis mainly occurs in the central and southern highlands, Likoma Island and Lower Shire. Studies in selected communities estimated prevalence rates of up to 94.9% for Schistosoma haematobium and up to 67.0% for Schistosoma mansoni with considerable geographical variation. The main

  14. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Holroyd, Christopher; Ntani, Georgia; Javaid, Kassim; Cooper, Philip; Moon, Rebecca; Cole, Zoe; Tinati, Tannaze; Godfrey, Keith; Dennison, Elaine; Bishop, Nicholas J; Baird, Janis; Cooper, Cyrus

    2014-07-01

    It is unclear whether or not the current evidence base allows definite conclusions to be made regarding the optimal maternal circulating concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] during pregnancy, and how this might best be achieved. To answer the following questions: (1) What are the clinical criteria for vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women? (2) What adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes are associated with low maternal circulating 25(OH)D? (3) Does maternal supplementation with vitamin D in pregnancy lead to an improvement in these outcomes (including assessment of compliance and effectiveness)? (4) What is the optimal type (D2 or D3), dose, regimen and route for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy? (5) Is supplementation with vitamin D in pregnancy likely to be cost-effective? We performed a systematic review and where possible combined study results using meta-analysis to estimate the combined effect size. Major electronic databases [including Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database] were searched from inception up to June 2012 covering both published and grey literature. Bibliographies of selected papers were hand-searched for additional references. Relevant authors were contacted for any unpublished findings and additional data if necessary. Abstracts were reviewed by two reviewers. pregnant women or pregnant women and their offspring. either assessment of vitamin D status [dietary intake, sunlight exposure, circulating 25(OH)D concentration] or supplementation of participants with vitamin D or food containing vitamin D (e.g. oily fish). offspring - birthweight, birth length, head circumference, bone mass, anthropometry and body composition, risk of asthma and atopy, small for gestational dates, preterm birth, type 1 diabetes mellitus, low birthweight, serum calcium concentration, blood

  15. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-08-01

    Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  16. Tinnitus and arterial hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; de Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Tinnitus is considered a multi-factorial symptom. Arterial hypertension has been cited as a tinnitus etiological factor. To assess the scientific evidence on the associations between arterial hypertension and tinnitus. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, ISI Web, Lilacs and SciELO scientific databases. This review included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English correlating tinnitus with hypertension. Letters to editors and case reports were excluded. A total of 424 articles were identified, of which only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Studies that analyzed the incidence of hypertension in tinnitus patients tended to show an association, while those that evaluated the incidence of tinnitus in hypertensive patients did not. There is evidence of an association between tinnitus and hypertension, although a cause and effect relationship is uncertain. Changes in the cochlear microcirculation, resulting in hearing loss, may be an adjuvant factor in tinnitus pathophysiology.

  17. Is Pethidine Safe during Labor? Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rogevando Rodrigues; Colares, Paulo Giordano Baima; Montenegro, Juliana Pinto

    2017-06-30

    Purpose To verify if pethidine is safe for the conceptus when used during labor. Methods Systematic review in the Capes Periodicals/PubMed and MEDLINE/Virtual Health Library (BVS, in the Portuguese acronym) databases. Results A total of 17 studies published from January 1st, 2000, to September 2nd, 2016, with a total of 1,688 participants involved were included in the present review. There was no record of conceptus vitality decrease associated with low doses of pethidine being administered to mothers during labor. Conclusions Intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) pethidine at low doses, of up to 50 mg, is safe to administer during labor. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. [Cutaneous and visceral loxoscelism: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Manríquez, Juan J; Silva, Sergio

    2009-10-01

    Loxoscelism represents a major public health problem for which there are no standard therapeutic interventions. To review available scientific evidence on management of Loxoscelism Systematic review of clinical studies. The search included multiple databases (Medline, Lilacs, Embase, Web of Sciences, Cinahl, Pre-Cinahl, Paperfirst, Proceedingsfirst, Dissertations and Theses, Toxline, Cochrane Library), handsearch of references, and contact with experts. Three clinical trials of poor methodological quality were identified from 5,207 references found. One trial (n = 31), concluded that the use of dapsone was associated with fewer local complications than surgical treatment. A second study (n = 46), concluded that the use of dapsone was superior to clorfenamine for skin lesions. A third study (n = 95) concluded that there was no differences between the use of oral dapsone, antivenom against anti-Loxosceles reclusa or a combination of both. There is insufficient evidence based on good quality studies to recommend treatment guidelines for individuals with skin or visceral loxoscelism.

  19. Rhinoplasty Complications and Reoperations: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges; Nunes, Flávio Barbosa; Rodrigues, Danilo Santana; Figueiredo, Ana Rosa Pimentel; Becker, Helena Maria Gonçalves; Becker, Celso Goncalves; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article is related to complications of rhinoplasty and its main causes of reoperations. Objectives The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review of literature on complications in rhinoplasty. Data Synthesis The authors conducted a survey of articles related to key terms in the literature by using three important databases within 11 years, between January 2002 and January 2013. We found 1,271 abstracts and selected 49 articles to this review. Conclusion The main results showed that the number of primary open rhinoplasty was 7902 (89%) and 765 closed (11%) and the percentage of reoperations in primary open complete rhinoplasties was 2.73% and closed complete was 1.56%. The statistical analysis revealed a value of p = 0.071. The standardization of terms can improve the quality of scientific publications about rhinoplasty. There is no difference between primary open or closed rhinoplasty techniques in relation to reoperations. PMID:28050215

  20. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  1. A Systematic Review of Exercise Systematic Reviews in the Cancer Literature (2005-2017).

    PubMed

    Stout, Nicole L; Baima, Jennifer; Swisher, Anne K; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Welsh, Judith

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supports the benefits of exercise for patients with cancer; however, specific guidance for clinical decision making regarding exercise timing, frequency, duration, and intensity is lacking. Efforts are needed to optimize clinical recommendations for exercise in the cancer population. To aggregate information regarding the benefit of exercise through a systematic review of existing systematic reviews in the cancer exercise literature. PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the impact of movement-based exercise on the adult cancer population. Two author teams reviewed 302 abstracts for inclusion with 93 selected for full-text review. A total of 53 studies were analyzed. A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) was used as a quality measure of the reviews. Information was extracted using the PICO format (ie, participants, intervention, comparison, outcomes). Descriptive findings are reported. Mean AMSTAR score = 7.66/11 (±2.04) suggests moderate quality of the systematic reviews. Exercise is beneficial before, during, and after cancer treatment, across all cancer types, and for a variety of cancer-related impairments. Moderate-to-vigorous exercise is the best level of exercise intensity to improve physical function and mitigate cancer-related impairments. Therapeutic exercises are beneficial to manage treatment side effects, may enhance tolerance to cancer treatments, and improve functional outcomes. Supervised exercise yielded superior benefits versus unsupervised. Serious adverse events were not common. Movement-based exercise intervention outcomes are reported. No analysis of pooled effects was calculated across reviews due to significant heterogeneity within the systematic reviews. Findings do not consider exercise in advanced cancers or pediatric populations. Exercise promotes significant improvements in clinical, functional, and in some populations, survival outcomes and can be

  2. Why prospective registration of systematic reviews makes sense.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lesley; Moher, David; Shekelle, Paul

    2012-02-09

    Prospective registration of systematic reviews promotes transparency, helps reduce potential for bias and serves to avoid unintended duplication of reviews. Registration offers advantages to many stakeholders in return for modest additional effort from the researchers registering their reviews.

  3. Telemonitoring can assist in managing cardiovascular disease in primary care: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been growing interest regarding the impact of telemonitoring and its ability to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases, including chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD), on healthcare systems. A number of randomised trials have been undertaken internationally and synthesised into various systematic reviews to establish an evidence base for this model of care. This study sought to synthesise and critically evaluate this large body of evidence to inform clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Methods A systematic review of systematic reviews investigating the impact of telemonitoring interventions in the primary care management of CVD was conducted. Reviews were included if they explored primary care based telemonitoring in either CVD, heart failure or hypertension, were reported in the English language and were published between 2000 and 2013. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer using a standardised form. Two assessors then rated the quality of each review using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). Results Of the 13 included reviews, four focused on telemonitoring interventions in hypertension or CVD management and the remaining 9 reviews investigated telemonitoring in HF management. Seven reviews scored a five or above on the OQAQ evidencing good quality reviews. Findings suggest that telemonitoring can contribute to significant reductions in blood pressure, decreased all-cause and HF related hospitalisations, reduced all-cause mortality and improved quality of life. Telemonitoring was also demonstrated to reduce health care costs and appears acceptable to patients. Conclusion Telemonitoring has the potential to enhance primary care management of CVD by improving patient outcomes and reducing health costs. However, further research needs to explore the specific elements of telemonitoring interventions to determine the relative value of the various elements. Additionally, the ways in

  4. Pancreas Islet Transplantation for Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Evidence Review.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta (β) cells, resulting in severe insulin deficiency. Islet transplantation is a β-cell replacement therapeutic option that aims to restore glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes, with or without kidney disease. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes, including relevant health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and observational studies. We used a two-step process: first, we searched for systematic reviews and health technology assessments; second, we searched primary studies to update the chosen health technology assessment. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews measurement tool was used to examine the methodological quality of the systematic reviews and health technology assessments. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence and the risk of bias according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Our searched yielded 1,354 citations. One health technology assessment, 11 additional observational studies to update the health technology assessment, one registry report, and four guidelines were included; the observational studies examined islet transplantation alone, islet-after-kidney transplantation, and simultaneous islet-kidney transplantation. In general, low to very low quality of evidence exists for islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes with difficult-to-control blood glucose levels, with or without kidney disease, for these outcomes: health-related quality of life, secondary complications of diabetes, glycemic control, and adverse events. However, high quality of evidence exists for the specific glycemic control outcome of insulin independence compared with

  5. Pancreas Islet Transplantation for Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Evidence Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta (β) cells, resulting in severe insulin deficiency. Islet transplantation is a β-cell replacement therapeutic option that aims to restore glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes, with or without kidney disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes, including relevant health technology assessments, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and observational studies. We used a two-step process: first, we searched for systematic reviews and health technology assessments; second, we searched primary studies to update the chosen health technology assessment. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews measurement tool was used to examine the methodological quality of the systematic reviews and health technology assessments. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence and the risk of bias according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Results Our searched yielded 1,354 citations. One health technology assessment, 11 additional observational studies to update the health technology assessment, one registry report, and four guidelines were included; the observational studies examined islet transplantation alone, islet-after-kidney transplantation, and simultaneous islet-kidney transplantation. In general, low to very low quality of evidence exists for islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes with difficult-to-control blood glucose levels, with or without kidney disease, for these outcomes: health-related quality of life, secondary complications of diabetes, glycemic control, and adverse events. However, high quality of evidence exists for the specific glycemic control outcome of insulin

  6. Automatic evidence retrieval for systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.

  7. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity.

  8. A systematic review of military head injuries.

    PubMed

    Carr, Debra J; Lewis, E; Horsfall, I

    2017-02-01

    This commissioned review discusses military head injuries caused by non-ballistic impacts, penetrating fragments and bullets (including parts of bullets) and behind helmet blunt trauma (BHBT). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method. The openly accessible literature was reviewed to investigate military head injuries and their severity. Fifty-four sources were identified that included pertinent openly accessible information relevant to this topic. Limited injury data exist for non-ballistic head injuries for UK forces, although some international data exist for parachutists. The majority of fatal head injuries are due to projectiles penetrating through the face rather than through the area of the head covered by the helmet. Penetrating head injuries are primarily caused by fragments, but helmets are more commonly perforated by high-energy rifle bullets than by fragments. No reports of a BHBT injury have been located in the literature. The description of body segment varies among articles and this makes comparisons among datasets difficult. There is a lack of detail regarding the precise position and severity of injuries, and long-term outcome for casualties. It is demonstrated that wearing military helmets reduces fatalities on and off the battlefield. The risk of BHBT injuries is widely referred to, but evidence of their occurrence is not provided by the authors that describe the risk of BHBT occurring. Further research into the causes and severity of head injuries would be useful for designers of military helmets and other associated personal protective equipment, particularly as advances in materials technology means lighter, thinner and more protective helmets are achievable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Adoption of clinical decision support in multimorbidity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-01-07

    Patients with multiple conditions have complex needs and are increasing in number as populations age. This multimorbidity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care. Having more than 1 condition generates (1) interactions between pathologies, (2) duplication of tests, (3) difficulties in adhering to often conflicting clinical practice guidelines, (4) obstacles in the continuity of care, (5) confusing self-management information, and (6) medication errors. In this context, clinical decision support (CDS) systems need to be able to handle realistic complexity and minimize iatrogenic risks. The aim of this review was to identify to what extent CDS is adopted in multimorbidity. This review followed PRISMA guidance and adopted a multidisciplinary approach. Scopus and PubMed searches were performed by combining terms from 3 different thesauri containing synonyms for (1) multimorbidity and comorbidity, (2) polypharmacy, and (3) CDS. The relevant articles were identified by examining the titles and abstracts. The full text of selected/relevant articles was analyzed in-depth. For articles appropriate for this review, data were collected on clinical tasks, diseases, decision maker, methods, data input context, user interface considerations, and evaluation of effectiveness. A total of 50 articles were selected for the full in-depth analysis and 20 studies were included in the final review. Medication (n=10) and clinical guidance (n=8) were the predominant clinical tasks. Four studies focused on merging concurrent clinical practice guidelines. A total of 17 articles reported their CDS systems were knowledge-based. Most articles reviewed considered patients' clinical records (n=19), clinical practice guidelines (n=12), and clinicians' knowledge (n=10) as contextual input data. The most frequent diseases mentioned were cardiovascular (n=9) and diabetes mellitus (n=5). In all, 12 articles mentioned generalist doctor(s) as the decision maker(s). For articles reviewed

  10. Adoption of Clinical Decision Support in Multimorbidity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with multiple conditions have complex needs and are increasing in number as populations age. This multimorbidity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care. Having more than 1 condition generates (1) interactions between pathologies, (2) duplication of tests, (3) difficulties in adhering to often conflicting clinical practice guidelines, (4) obstacles in the continuity of care, (5) confusing self-management information, and (6) medication errors. In this context, clinical decision support (CDS) systems need to be able to handle realistic complexity and minimize iatrogenic risks. Objective The aim of this review was to identify to what extent CDS is adopted in multimorbidity. Methods This review followed PRISMA guidance and adopted a multidisciplinary approach. Scopus and PubMed searches were performed by combining terms from 3 different thesauri containing synonyms for (1) multimorbidity and comorbidity, (2) polypharmacy, and (3) CDS. The relevant articles were identified by examining the titles and abstracts. The full text of selected/relevant articles was analyzed in-depth. For articles appropriate for this review, data were collected on clinical tasks, diseases, decision maker, methods, data input context, user interface considerations, and evaluation of effectiveness. Results A total of 50 articles were selected for the full in-depth analysis and 20 studies were included in the final review. Medication (n=10) and clinical guidance (n=8) were the predominant clinical tasks. Four studies focused on merging concurrent clinical practice guidelines. A total of 17 articles reported their CDS systems were knowledge-based. Most articles reviewed considered patients’ clinical records (n=19), clinical practice guidelines (n=12), and clinicians’ knowledge (n=10) as contextual input data. The most frequent diseases mentioned were cardiovascular (n=9) and diabetes mellitus (n=5). In all, 12 articles mentioned generalist doctor(s) as the

  11. Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Matyjaszczyk, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A number of potential determinants of medication non-adherence have been described so far. However, the heterogenic quality of existing publications poses the need for the use of a rigorous methodology in building a list of such determinants. The purpose of this study was a systematic review of current re