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Sample records for melter demonstration platform

  1. Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Demonstration Using a Representative Savannah River Site Sludge Simulant On the Large-Size Pilot Platform at the CEA-Marcoule

    SciTech Connect

    Girold, C.; Delaunay, M.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Lacombe, J.; Iverson, D.; Do Quang, R.; Tchemitcheff, E.; Veyer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The cold-crucible induction melter technology (CCIM) is considered worldwide for industrial implementation to overcome the current limits of high level waste vitrification technologies and to answer future challenges such as: new or difficult sludge compositions, need for improving waste loading, need for high temperatures, and corrosive effluents. More particularly, this technology is being considered for implementation at the US DOE Savannah River site to increase the rate of waste processing while reducing the number of HLW canisters to be produced through increased waste loading and improved waste throughput. A collaborative program involving AREVA, CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission), SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) and WSRC (Washington Savannah River Company) has thus been initiated in 2007 to demonstrate vitrification with waste loadings on the order of 50% (versus the current DWPF waste loading of about 35%) with a PUREX-type waste composition (high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composition), and to perform two pilot-scale runs on the large size platform equipped with a 650 mm diameter CCIM at the CEA Marcoule. The objectives of the demonstrations were 1) to show the feasibility of processing a representative SRS sludge surrogate using continuous slurry feeding, 2) to produce a glass that would meet the acceptance specifications with an increased waste loading when compared to what is presently achieved at the DWPF, and 3) achieve improved waste throughputs. This presentation describes the platform and the very encouraging results obtained from the demonstration performed at temperatures, specific throughputs and waste loadings that overcome current DWPF limits. Results from the initial exploratory run and second demonstration run include 1) production of a glass product that achieved the targeted glass composition that was more durable than the standard Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, 2) successful slurry feeding of the CCIM, and 3) promising waste

  2. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  3. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  4. NETEC COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION FOR SRNL WITH SIMULATED SLUDGE BATCH 4 DWPF WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M; Allan Barnes, A; Alexander Choi, A; James Marra, J

    2008-07-28

    Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) Technology is being considered as a possible next generation melter for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Initial and baseline demonstrations that vitrified a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant at a waste loading of 50 weight percent (versus about 38 weight percent in the current DWPF Melter) were performed by the Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea via a subcontract from the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC). This higher waste loading was achieved by using a CCIM which can run at higher glass processing temperatures (1250 C and higher) than the current DWPF Melter (1150 C). Higher waste loadings would result in less canisters being filled and faster waste throughput at the DWPF. The main demonstration objectives were to determine the maximum melt rate/waste throughput for the NETEC CCIM with a Sludge Batch 4 simulant as well as determine the viability of this technology for use in the DWPF.

  5. Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David; Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report

  6. Melter Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been utilizing vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are utilized for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life, on the order of two to three years, at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods, due to the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life span has, to date, have exceeded original life span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storage or disposal of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size reduction and/or melter refurbishment. In particular, removal of glass as a part of a refurbishment or for the purposes of reducing contamination levels (allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste) will be addressed.

  7. Vitrification Demonstration with Argentine Ion Exchange Material in the Stir-Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-06-28

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is investigating the viability of vitrification treatment of Argentine ion exchange material as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Science and Technology Development Task Plan. Bench-scale studies were performed by the SRTC to define the necessary vitrification process for this material. However, the process had to be demonstrated in a melter system before vitrification could be considered a viable treatment option.

  8. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

  9. GLASS FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT MELTER TESTING TO DEMONSTRATE ENHANCED HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Kevin Fox, K; Amanda Youchak, A; James Gillam, J

    2007-08-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently processing high-level waste (HLW) through a Joule-heated melter (JHM) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and plans to vitrify HLW and Low activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site. Over the past few years at the DWPF, work has concentrated on increasing waste throughput. These efforts are continuing with an emphasis on high alumina content feeds. High alumina feeds have presented specific challenges for the JHM technology regarding the ability to increase waste loading yet still maintain product quality and adequate throughput. Alternatively, vitrification technology innovations are also being investigated as a means to increase waste throughput. The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology affords the opportunity for higher vitrification process temperatures as compared to the current reference JHM technology. Higher process temperatures may allow for higher waste loading and higher melt rate. Glass formulation testing to support melter demonstration testing was recently completed. This testing was specifically aimed at high alumina concentration wastes. Glass composition property models were utilized as a guide for formulation development. Both CCIM and JHM testing will be conducted so glass formulation testing was targeted at both technologies with a goal to significantly increase waste loading without compromising product quality.

  10. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  11. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  12. Use of Optical and Imaging Techniques for Inspection of Off-Line Joule-Heated Melter at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M. J.; Jang, P-R; Long, Z.; Monts, D. L.; Philip, T.; Su, Y.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley melter has been taken out of service. Its design is the direct ancestor of the current melter design for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Over its eight years of service, the West Valley melter has endured many of the same challenges that the Hanford melter will encounter with feeds that are similar to many of the Hanford double shell tank wastes. Thus, inspection of the West Valley melter prior to its disposal could provide valuable--even crucial--information to the designers of the melters to be used at the Hanford Site, particularly if quantitative information can be obtained. The objective of Mississippi State University's Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory's (DIAL) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the West Valley melter that will (i) be remotely operable in the West Valley process cell; (ii) provide quantitative information on melter refractory wear and deposits on the refractory; and (iii) indicate areas of heterogeneity (e.g., deposits) requiring more detailed characterization. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to inspect their melter.

  13. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  14. GLASS FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER (CCIM) ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - 9208

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J; Amanda Billings, A; David Peeler, D; Michael Stone, M; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-08-27

    Over the past few years, Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) demonstrations have been completed using SRS sludge batches 2, 3 and 4 (SB2, SB3 and SB4) simulant compositions. These campaigns demonstrated the ability of the CCIM to effectively produce quality glasses at high waste loadings. The current Advanced Remediation Technology (ART) Phase II-A Project is aimed at demonstrating the CCIM technology under representative DWPF flowsheet conditions and to demonstrate extended operations of the melter. A glass composition development effort was completed to identify and recommend a frit composition and sludge batch 4 (SB4) simulant waste loading target for subsequent ART-Phase II-A CCIM demonstration testing. Based on the results of the glass formulation testing, it was recommended that the Frit 503-R6 composition (B{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 14 wt %; Li{sub 2}O = 9 wt %; Na{sub 2}O = 3 wt %; and SiO{sub 2} = 74 wt %) be utilized for the demonstration. Furthermore, a waste loading of 46 wt % was recommended. The recommended frit and waste loading would produce a glass with acceptable durability with a liquidus temperature adequately below the 1250 C nominal CCIM operating temperature. This frit composition and waste loading was found to result in a glass that met CCIM processing requirements for viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. The recommended frit and waste loading level should also provide a buffer for sludge product compositional variation to support the Phase II-A CCIM demonstration.

  15. SpaceCube Demonstration Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Daniel; Hosler, Jeffrey; Geist, Alessandro; Patrick, David; Buenfil, Manuel; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses how the HST SM4 SpaceCube flight spare was modified to create an experiment called the Space- Cube Demonstration Platform (SC DP) for use on the MISSE7 Space Station payload (in collaboration with NRL). It is designed to serve as an on-orbit platform for demonstrating advanced fault tolerance technologies. A simple C&DH (command and data handling) system was developed for the Virtex4 FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays). Both Virtex4s on each SpaceCube run the same program, and both receive incoming telemetry. The rad-hard service FPGA performs simple error checking to verify that the incoming telemetry is valid. The SpaceCube framework was modified to allow for new program files to be sent from the ground, to be stored on the SpaceCube, and to be executed through ground commands. Each SpaceCube Virtex4 FPGA has resources set aside for experiments that are functionally isolated from the C&DH system. The experiments communicate to the C&DH system through a set of dual port memories, and this area is where the fault-tolerance experiments are executed. With the use of Xilinx commercial Virtex4 FX60 FPGAs, the fault tolerant framework allows the system to recover from radiation upsets that occur in the rad-soft parts (Virtex4 FPGA logic, embedded PPCs in Virtex4 FPGAs, SDRAM and Flash), the C&DH system that runs simultaneously on both Virtex4 FPGAs that uses a robust telemetry packet structure, checksums, and the rad-hard service FPGA to validate incoming telemetry. The ability to be reconfigured from the ground while in orbit is a novel benefit, as well as is the onboard compression capabilities that allow compressed files from the ground to be uploaded to the SpaceCube.

  16. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  18. DATA PACKET FOR THE FRIT 202-A11 SB3 GLASS SYSTEM A CANDIDATE FOR THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D; Kevin Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2007-06-13

    A demonstration of the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology is currently planned for the fall of 2007 to assess the potential for attaining higher waste throughputs as compared to joule heated melter technology. The CCIM demonstrations will be based on a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste slurry feed surrogate with a nominal operating temperature of approximately 1250 C (higher temperatures may be used). The waste slurry feed (nominally 45-50 weight percent solids) surrogate will be representative of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) in order to allow a direct comparison to the DWPF joule heated melter performance during processing of this sludge waste. This pilot scale demonstration is being conducted to evaluate performance and to identify potential processing issues with the existing CCIM technology, and it will include characterization of the resultant glass product to ensure current product performance (durability) specifications are met. The information presented in this data packet provides a technical basis from which decisions regarding the melter demonstration can be made. More specifically, the results presented in this report provide technical data on the impact of waste loading (WL) on critical properties of interest--in particular, durability, liquidus temperature, and viscosity. All of the glasses of this study, regardless of heat treatment, were acceptable when their durabilities were compared to those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. In general, as WL increases, the durabilities for the quenched versions of the glasses tend to decrease due to the changing composition of the glass. For the glasses subjected to the canister centerline cooling (ccc) regime, the durability response appears to be more non-linear as WL increases. At WLs less than 50%, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the potential for the presence of aegirine and/or nepheline crystalline phases, and when these phases are present, there is a decrease in the

  19. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  20. Application of the Evacuated Canister System for Removing Residual Molten Glass From the West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Melter

    SciTech Connect

    May, Joseph J.; Dombrowski, David J.; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene M.

    2003-02-27

    The principal mission of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to meet a series of objectives defined in the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368). Chief among these is the objective to solidify liquid high-level waste (HLW) at the WVDP site into a form suitable for disposal in a federal geologic repository. In 1982, the Secretary of Energy formally selected vitrification as the technology to be used to solidify HLW at the WVDP. One of the first steps in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved designing, constructing and operating the Vitrification (Vit) Facility, the WVDP facility that houses the systems and subsystems used to process HLW into stainless steel canisters of borosilicate waste-glass that satisfy waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for disposal in a federal geologic repository. HLW processing and canister production began in 1996. The final step in meeting the HLW solidification objective involved ending Vit system operations and shut ting down the Vit Facility. This was accomplished by conducting a discrete series of activities to remove as much residual material as practical from the primary process vessels, components, and associated piping used in HLW canister production before declaring a formal end to Vit system operations. Flushing was the primary method used to remove residual radioactive material from the vitrification system. The inventory of radioactivity contained within the entire primary processing system diminished by conducting the flushing activities. At the completion of flushing activities, the composition of residual molten material remaining in the melter (the primary system component used in glass production) consisted of a small quantity of radioactive material and large quantities of glass former materials needed to produce borosilicate waste-glass. A special system developed during the pre-operational and testing phase of Vit Facility operation, the Evacuated Canister System (ECS), was

  1. Melter Technologies Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M. Jr.; Schumacher, R.F.; Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  2. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE STATUS AND DIRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY WG; GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; EDGE JA; GARRETT BG

    2011-01-13

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  3. Experimental Plan for Crystal Accumulation Studies in the WTP Melter Riser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Fowley, M.

    2015-04-28

    This experimental plan defines crystal settling experiments to be in support of the U.S. Department of Energy – Office of River Protection crystal tolerant glass program. The road map for development of crystal-tolerant high level waste glasses recommends that fluid dynamic modeling be used to better understand the accumulation of crystals in the melter riser and mechanisms of removal. A full-scale version of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter riser constructed with transparent material will be used to provide data in support of model development. The system will also provide a platform to demonstrate mitigation or recovery strategies in off-normal events where crystal accumulation impedes melter operation. Test conditions and material properties will be chosen to provide results over a variety of parameters, which can be used to guide validation experiments with the Research Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and that will ultimately lead to the development of a process control strategy for the full scale WTP melter. The experiments described in this plan are divided into two phases. Bench scale tests will be used in Phase 1 (using the appropriate solid and fluid simulants to represent molten glass and spinel crystals) to verify the detection methods and analytical measurements prior to their use in a larger scale system. In Phase 2, a full scale, room temperature mockup of the WTP melter riser will be fabricated. The mockup will provide dynamic measurements of flow conditions, including resistance to pouring, as well as allow visual observation of crystal accumulation behavior.

  4. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  5. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Daniel, William E.; Woskov, Paul P.; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K.

    2011-08-16

    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  6. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design.

  7. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  8. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  9. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  10. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  11. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    1993-01-01

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  12. Lid heater for glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  13. Checkout and start-up of the integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hutson, N.D.; Miller, D.H.; Morrison, J.; Shah, H.; Shuford, J.A.; Glascock, J.; Wurzinger, F.H.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1989-11-11

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a one-ninth-scale demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation, melter, and off-gas systems. The IDMS will be the first engineering-scale melter system at SRL to process mercury and flowsheet levels of halides and sulfates. This report includes a summary of the IDMS program objectives, system and equipment descriptions, and detailed discussions of the system checkout and start-up. 10 refs., 44 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (∼1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  15. U.S. Bureau of Mines, phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: Melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-10-27

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The document contains the complete offgas report for the first 24-hour melter test (WHC-1) as prepared by Entropy Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the``U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-WM-VI-030).

  16. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  17. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-15

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes.

  18. Virtual Flight Demonstration of the Stratospheric Dual-Aircraft Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, W. A.; Decker, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A baseline configuration for the dual-aircraft platform (DAP) concept is described and evaluated in a physics-based flight dynamics simulations for two month-long missions as a communications relay in the lower stratosphere above central Florida. The DAP features two unmanned aerial vehicles connected via a long adjustable cable which effectively sail back-and-forth using wind velocity gradients and solar energy. Detailed atmospheric profiles in the vicinity of 60,000-ft derived from archived data measured by the 50-Mhz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler at Cape Canaveral are used in the flight simulations. An overview of the novel guidance and flight control strategies are provided. The energy-usage of the baseline configuration during month-long stationkeeping missions (i.e., within 150-mile radius of downtown Orlando) is characterized and compared to that of a pure solar aircraft.

  19. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford low-level waste melter tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the melter offgas report on testing performed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. The Bureau of Mines (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate carbon electrode melter technology (also called carbon arc or electric arc) under WHC Subcontract number MMI-SVV-384216. The report contains description of the tests, observation, test data and some analysis of the data as it pertains to application of this technology for LLW vitrification. Testing consisted of melter feed preparation and three melter tests, the first of which was to fulfill the requirements of the statement of work (WHC-SD-EM-RD-044), and the second and third were to address issues identified during the first test. The document also contains summaries of the melter offgas report issued as a separate document U.S. Bureau of Mines, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Melter Offgas Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-032).

  20. Evaluation of plasma melter technology for verification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes: Demonstration test No. 4 preliminary test report

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Gass, W.R.; Dighe, S.V.; D`Amico, N.; Swensrud, R.L.; Darr, M.F.

    1995-01-10

    This document provides a preliminary report of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. Phase I test conduct included 26 hours (24 hours steady state) of melting of simulated high-sodium low-level radioactive liquid waste. Average processing rate was 4.9 kg/min (peak rate 6.2 kg/min), producing 7330 kg glass product. Free-flowing glass pour point was 1250 C, and power input averaged 1530 kW(e), for a total energy consumption of 19,800 kJ/kg glass. Restart capability was demonstrated following a 40-min outage involving the scrubber liquor heat exchanger, and glass production was continued for another 2 hours. Some volatility losses were apparent, probably in the form of sodium borates. Roughly 275 samples were collected and forwarded for analysis. Sufficient process data were collected for heat/material balances. Recommendations for future work include lower boron contents and improved tuyere design/operation.

  1. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  2. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  3. Glass Formulation for Next Generation Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Gary L.

    2011-12-21

    Transformational melter technologies are being considered to support mission acceleration within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. New glass formulations are required to take full advantage of the next generation melters, for example, the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The key advantage of CCIM technology over current reference technologies is its capability to provide higher processing temperatures, which can lead to an increased waste throughput rate by achieving higher waste loadings and by increasing the feed processing rate. Various waste compositions within the DOE complex were evaluated to determine their potential for successfully demonstrating the unique advantages of the CCIM technology. Glass formulations that satisfy a set of constraints for product quality and assumed CCIM processing conditions were developed for two Hanford waste streams, AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) and AN-105 low-activity waste (LAW). Three glasses selected for AZ-101 HLW have waste loadings of 40, 42.5, and 45 wt%. The 45-wt% waste loading corresponds to a 22% increase from 37 wt%, which is the maximum expected waste loading based on the current reference formulation. One glass selected for AN-105 LAW has a waste loading of 31.3 wt% at 24 wt% Na2O in glass, which is a 14% increase from the current reference formulation maximum of 21 wt% Na2O. These four glasses are planned for scaled melter tests for initial demonstration of the CCIM technologies for Hanford wastes.

  4. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Species Partitioning in the DWPF Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.; Kesterson, M.; Johnson, F.; McCabe, D.

    2015-07-15

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas entrainment rates from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream compositions and timeaveraged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The only case considered in this study involved the SB6 pour stream sample taken while Canister #3472 was being filled over a 20-hour period on 12/20/2010, approximately three months after the bubblers were installed. The analytical results for that pour stream sample provided the necessary glass composition data for the mass balance calculations. To estimate the “matching” feed composition, which is not necessarily the same as that of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batch being fed at the time of pour stream sampling, a mixing model was developed involving three preceding MFT batches as well as the one being fed at that time based on the assumption of perfect mixing in the glass pool but with an induction period to account for the process delays involved in the calcination/fusion step in the cold cap and the melter turnover.

  6. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various

  7. Vitrification of Simulated LILW Using Induction Cold Crucible Melter Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.W.; Park, J.K.; Shin, S.W.; Hwang, T.W.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    melter. The HFG power and operating frequency were applied in the ranges of 100{approx}200 kW and 250{approx}270 kHz, respectively. The simulated mixed waste vitrification test using the pilot scale plant consisting of the CCM and the OGTS at NETEC has demonstrated its good workability, reliability, and high productivity. The mixed waste was easily vitrified at a maximum rate of 20 kg per hour. The product quality of the glass such as chemical durability, phase stability, etc. was satisfactory. All regulated gases in the stack were well below the environmental regulation limits. (authors)

  8. Research-scale melter test report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.F.; Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Freeman, C.J.; Higginson, J.J.; Mahoney, L.A.; Powell, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment (MPA) activity in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Technology Development (PHTD) effort is intended to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference HWVP melter. As a part of this activity, a parametric melter test was completed using a Research-Scale Melter (RSM). The RSM is a small, approximately 1/100-scale melter, 6-in.-diameter, that allows rapid changing of process conditions and subsequent re-establishment of a steady-state condition. The test matrix contained nine different segments that varied the melter operating parameters (glass and plenum temperatures) and feed properties (oxide concentration, redox potential, and noble metal concentrations) so that the effects of these parameters on noble metal agglomeration on the melter floor could be evaluated. The RSM operated for 48 days and consumed 1,300 L of feed, equating to 153 tank turnovers. The run produced 531 kg of glass. During the latter portion of the run, the resistance between the electrodes decreased. Upon destructive examination of the melter, a layer of noble metals was found on the bottom. This was surprising because the glass residence time in the RSM is only 10% of the HWVP plant melter. The noble metals layer impacted the melter significantly. Approximately 1/3 of one paddle electrode was melted or corroded off. The cause is assumed to be localized heating from short circuiting of the electrode to the noble metal layer. The metal layer also removed approximately 1/2 in. of the refractory on the bottom of the melter. The mechanism for this damage is not presently known.

  9. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  10. Realization of high-performance holographic data storage: the InPhase Technologies demonstration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William L.; Curtis, Kevin R.; Anderson, Ken E.; Tackitt, Michael C.; Hill, Adrian J.; Pane, M.; Stanhope, C.; Earhart, T.; Loechel, W.; Bergman, C.; Wolfgang, K.; Shuman, C.; Hertrich, G.; Pharris, K.; Malang, K.; Riley, B.; Ayres, M.

    2003-12-01

    An overview of the InPhase Technologies holographic demonstration platform is presented. This compact, mobile system is a fully functional holographic recordable drive complete with custom optics and custom control and channel electronics. The development of this device paves the way for the commercialization of this technology.

  11. A wellness software platform with smart wearable devices and the demonstration report for personal wellness management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Won-Seok; Son, Chang-Sik; Lee, Sangho; Choi, Rock-Hyun; Ha, Yeong-Mi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a wellness software platform, called WellnessHumanCare, is a semi-automatic wellness management software platform which has the functions of complex wellness data acquisition(mental, physical and environmental one) with smart wearable devices, complex wellness condition analysis, private-aware online/offline recommendation, real-time monitoring apps (Smartphone-based, Web-based) and so on and we has demonstrated a wellness management service with 79 participants (experimental group: 39, control group: 40) who has worked at experimental group (H Corp.) and control group (K Corp.), Korea and 3 months in order to show the efficiency of the WellnessHumanCare.

  12. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  13. Failure Analysis of a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K J

    2001-09-14

    Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading.

  14. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  15. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  16. Experimental demonstration of a retro-reflective laser communication link on a mobile platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Malowicki, John E.; Khandekar, Rahul M.; Skormin, Victor A.; Legare, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Successful pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) are crucial for the implementation of laser communication links between ground and aerial vehicles. This technology has advantages over the traditional radio frequency communication, thus justifying the research efforts presented in this paper. The authors have been successful in the development of a high precision, agile, digitally controlled two-degree-of-freedom electromechanical system for positioning of optical instruments, cameras, telescopes, and communication lasers. The centerpiece of this system is a robotic manipulator capable of singularity-free operation throughout the full hemisphere range of yaw/pitch motion. The availability of efficient two-degree-of-freedom positioning facilitated the development of an optical platform stabilization system capable of rejecting resident vibrations with the angular and frequency range consistent with those caused by a ground vehicle moving on a rough terrain. This technology is being utilized for the development of a duplex mobile PAT system demonstrator that would provide valuable feedback for the development of practical laser communication systems intended for fleets of moving ground, and possibly aerial, vehicles. In this paper, a tracking system providing optical connectivity between stationary and mobile ground platforms is described. It utilizes mechanical manipulator to perform optical platform stabilization and initial beam positioning, and optical tracking for maintaining the line-of-sight communication. Particular system components and the challenges of their integration are described. The results of field testing of the resultant system under practical conditions are presented.

  17. Preliminary analysis of species partitioning in the DWPF melter. Sludge batch 7A

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Smith III, F. G.; McCabe, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    The work described in this report is preliminary in nature since its goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating the off-gas carryover from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter based on a simple mass balance using measured feed and glass pour stream (PS) compositions and time-averaged melter operating data over the duration of one canister-filling cycle. The DWPF has been in radioactive operation for over 20 years processing a wide range of high-level waste (HLW) feed compositions under varying conditions such as bubbled vs. non-bubbled and feeding vs. idling. So it is desirable to find out how the varying feed compositions and operating parameters would have impacted the off-gas entrainment. However, the DWPF melter is not equipped with off-gas sampling or monitoring capabilities, so it is not feasible to measure off-gas entrainment rates directly. The proposed method provides an indirect way of doing so.

  18. Melter Throughput Enhancements for High-Iron HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Gan, Hoa; Joseph, Innocent; Pegg, Ian L.; Matlack, Keith S.; Chaudhuri, Malabika; Kot, Wing

    2012-12-26

    This report describes work performed to develop and test new glass and feed formulations in order to increase glass melting rates in high waste loading glass formulations for HLW with high concentrations of iron. Testing was designed to identify glass and melter feed formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts to assess melt rate using a vertical gradient furnace system and to develop new formulations with enhanced melt rate. Testing evaluated the effects of waste loading on glass properties and the maximum waste loading that can be achieved. The results from crucible-scale testing supported subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass and feed formulations on waste processing rate and product quality. The DM100 was selected as the platform for these tests due to its extensive previous use in processing rate determination for various HLW streams and glass compositions.

  19. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  20. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F. ); Hrma, P. ); Bowan, B.W. II )

    1990-01-01

    Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, their effect on glass production rate, and the development of leach resistance. Melting rates of waste batches have been increased by the addition of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates. The rate increases are attributable in part to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. Nitrates must be balanced by adequate reducing agents to avoid the formation of persistent foam, which would destabilize the melting process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and melt rate limitations defined for waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Minimum melter residence times required to homogenize glass and assure glass quality are much smaller than those used in current practice. Thus, melter size can be reduced without adversely affecting glass quality. Physical chemistry and localized heat transfer of the waste-glass melting process are examined, to refine the available models for predicting and assuring glass production rate. It is concluded that the size of replacement melters and future waste processing facilities can be significantly decreased if minimum heat transfer requirements for effective melting are met by mechanical agitation. A new class of waste glass melters has been designed, and proof of concept tests completed on simulated High Level Radioactive Waste slurry. Melt rates have exceeded 155 kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with slurry feeds (32 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}), and 229 kg kg m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1} with dry feed (47 lb ft{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}). This is about 8 times the melt rate possible in conventional waste- glass melters of the same size. 39 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  2. Demonstration of high-rate laser communications from fast airborne platform: flight campaign and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Florian; Mitzkus, Wolfgang; Horwath, Joachim; Shrestha, Amita; Brechtelsbauer, Martin; Martin, Luis; Lozano, Alberto; Diaz Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2014-10-01

    Some current and future airborne payloads like high resolution cameras and radar systems need high channel capacity to transmit their data from air to ground in near real-time. Especially in reconnaissance and surveillance missions, it is important to downlink huge amount of data in very short contact times to a ground station during a flyby. Aeronautical laser communications can supply the necessary high data-rates for this purpose. Within the project DODfast (Demonstration of Optical Data link fast) a laser link from a fast flying platform was demonstrated. The flight platform was a Panavia Tornado with the laser communication terminal installed in an attached avionic demonstrator pod. The air interface was a small glass dome protecting the beam steering assembly. All other elements were integrated in a small box inside the Pod's fuselage. The receiver station was DLR's Transportable Optical Ground Station equipped with a free-space receiver front-end. Downlink wavelength for communication and uplink wavelength for beacon laser were chosen from the optical C-band DWDM grid. The test flights were carried out at the end of November 2013 near the Airbus Defence and Space location in Manching, Germany. The campaign successfully demonstrated the maturity and readiness of laser communication with a data-rate of 1.25 Gbit/s for aircraft downlinks. Pointing, acquisition and tracking performance of the airborne terminal and the ground station could be measured at aircraft speed up to 0.7 Mach and video data from an onboard camera has been transmitted. Link distances with stable tracking were up to 79 km and distance with data transmission over 50 km. In this paper, we describe the system architecture, the flight campaign and the results.

  3. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  4. Cell culture using centrifugal microfluidic platform with demonstration on Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Chow, Larry Ming-Cheung; Leung, Wallace Woon-Fong

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the vortical flow, mixing and cell culture of Pichia pastoris using a centrifugal microfluidic (CM) chamber. The resultant "spiral toroidal vortex" in the chamber is made up of a primary vortex induced from inertial acceleration/deceleration of the chamber superposed by a secondary toroidal vortex due to Coriolis acceleration acting on the primary vortex. A validated numerical fluid-flow model with minimized numerical diffusion effect has been developed to investigate the flow and consequently mixing of two-color liquids through cyclic constant acceleration-and-deceleration in the same rotation direction until homogeneous mixing of the two liquids in the CM chamber has been established. The specific mixing time is found to improve with increase in acceleration/deceleration and angular span of the chamber. An experimental CM platform with three cell-culture chambers of different angular spans has been built and Pichia pastoris cell culture has been successfully demonstrated. Cell growth can be monitored over time on the extracted samples by measuring the optical density at 600-nm wave-length. Comparing with conventional cell culture, Pichia pastoris cultured on CM platform exhibits a very short lag (cell preparation/budding) phase prior to the log phase (cell growth). While it takes 8 to 12 h for the conventional shake flask in the lag phase, it takes only 2 h for the CM platform irrespective of initial cell concentration (8.1 × 10(4) to 8.1 × 10(5)/ml), acceleration/deceleration (10 to 32/s(2)) and angular span of the culture chamber (π/12 to π/4), representing significant time reduction. This is largely attributed to better growth conditions due to enhanced mixing and appropriate shear-stress stimulation from the efficient spiral toroidal vortex.

  5. Demonstration of an Ultra-Stable Cryogenic Platform with 25 pK/root-Hz Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Colin J.; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; Duncan, R. V.

    2004-01-01

    Existing paramagnetic susceptibility thermometers used in fundamental physics experiments near 2.2 K are capable of measuring temperature changes with a precision of about 100 pK in a one-hertz measurement bandwidth, with a demonstrated drift stability of about a nK per day. Commercial electrical heater controllers are only able to control power dissipation to a precision of about ten parts per million (ppm), with an open loop drift of about 50 ppm per day. We have developed an ultra-stable temperature platform with a demonstrated noise of 25 pK in a one-hertz bandwidth, and we have identified the physical source of this residual noise. We used an array of RF-biased Josephson junctions to precisely control the electrical power dissipation in a heater resistor mounted on this thermally isolated cryogenic platform to well beyond our ability to measure, which we estimate is stable to better than a part in 10(exp 12). This Josephson heater controller may be used in a new synchronous demodulation circuit to maintain absolute temperature stability of the stage to about the same level as the demonstrated noise, provided that the He-4 superfluid transition temperature is fundamentally stable at this level. This work may provide a blackbody temperature reference for use in space radiometry applications that is considerably more stable than the temperature of the cosmic background radiation itself. This new technology may enable critical heat capacity measurements in He-4 within a weightless laboratory to a reduced temperature of about 10(exp -11), where the critical fluctuation lengths would be about a cm, and the fluctuation rates would be measurable within the bandwidth of the thermometry.

  6. Demonstrations of simple and complex auditory psychophysics for multiple platforms and environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea M.; Blue, China

    2005-09-01

    Sound is arguably the most widely perceived and pervasive form of energy in our world, and among the least understood, in part due to the complexity of its underlying principles. A series of interactive displays has been developed which demonstrates that the nature of sound involves the propagation of energy through space, and illustrates the definition of psychoacoustics, which is how listeners map the physical aspects of sound and vibration onto their brains. These displays use auditory illusions and commonly experienced music and sound in novel presentations (using interactive computer algorithms) to show that what you hear is not always what you get. The areas covered in these demonstrations range from simple and complex auditory localization, which illustrate why humans are bad at echolocation but excellent at determining the contents of auditory space, to auditory illusions that manipulate fine phase information and make the listener think their head is changing size. Another demonstration shows how auditory and visual localization coincide and sound can be used to change visual tracking. These demonstrations are designed to run on a wide variety of student accessible platforms including web pages, stand-alone presentations, or even hardware-based systems for museum displays.

  7. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

    2011-10-21

    Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

  8. Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.

    1998-04-01

    In the last several years an extensive R{ampersand}D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM).

  9. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  10. AM/CMPrototype Induction Melter Assembly Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.M.

    2001-06-27

    The report provides step-by-step instructions for combining the vendor supplied components to assemble an induction-heated 80 percent platinum-20 percent rhodium melter capable of vitrifying a waste bearing glass at temperature up to 1500 degrees C.

  11. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs.

  12. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  13. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  14. Effect of cold cap chemistry on waste melter vitrification kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, G.L.; Tracey, E.M.; Peeler, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    Cold-cap chemistry affects the vitrification rates of simulated waste glass melter feeds that produce the same final glass composition. Laboratory- and engineering-scale melter experiments were conducted to evaluate the melting performance of melter feeds produced from pretreated simulated waste using glycolic acid in one instance and two nitric acid based feeds. The two nitric based melter feeds were pretreated with nitric acid in one case and nitric plus boric acid in the other. These melter feeds melt at significantly different rates (glycolic faster than nitric plus boric which is faster than nitric). Closer examination of cold cap samples indicated that silica was being digested faster in the glycolic-treated feed than in the nitric-treated feeds. Laboratory off gas testing results of the two nitric based melter feeds indicated that a lower temperature eutectic melt was produced in the nitric plus boric acid melter feed. Other reactions, such as salt melt accumulations at the base of the cold cap, occurred with all three melter feeds. It is also possible that exothermic reactions in the cold cap may play a roll in increasing the melting rate. Oxidation of glycolate (an exothermic reaction) occurred in the melter feed treated with glycolic acid.

  15. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Guerrero, Hector; Bickford, Dennis

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  16. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  17. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  18. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  19. Demonstration of Prognostics-Enabled Decision Making Algorithms on a Hardware Mobile Robot Test Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    hardware mobile robot platform. The hardware platform, based on the K11 planetary rover prototype, was modified to allow injection of selected fault modes... rover vehicle under consideration is based on an electric power train in which the wheels are powered by electric mo- tors and the power is stored in...the rover mission. An example of an electrical power train fault that relates to increased en- ergy consumption can be identified within the

  20. The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Bickford, D.F.

    1997-11-30

    Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program.

  1. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, L. L.; Skarda, R. J.; Crowder, R. S., III; Trent, D. S.; Reid, C. R.; Lessor, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable.

  2. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part II: preliminary limits for radioactive waste melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Diemer, Jr, R B; Iverson, D C

    1985-01-01

    Melter redox control is necessary for safe and continued melter operation. A combination of feed composition control, melter operational controls and monitors, and periodic determination of product glass redox state is sufficient to meet operating and safety requirements. Mossbauer spectroscopy, or other methods which determine the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of the glass product, can be used to determine the oxidation state of the glass and thereby assess operating conditions. Slightly reducing conditions can eliminate radio-Ru volatility by suppressing the formation of RuO4. Reducing conditions also limit foaming resulting from the release of oxygen as transition metal oxides are dissolved in the melt. The calcination and partial combustion of organic compounds in the melter feed generates combustible mixtures of CO, H2 and benzene. The organics must be essentially completely incinerated to avoid the accumulation of combustible offgas mixtures, and prevent fouling of the equipment by soot and tars. Operation of the melter plenum above the autoignition temperature, metering in of purge air in excess of that required for complete combustion, and dilution by water vapor from reacted feed all preclude this occurrence in the melter. Prevention of dangerous offgas compositions after water vapor removal is assured by combustion in the melter, the addition of dilution air, and by continuous monitoring by % Lower Explosive Limit meters. Melter reducing power must be restricted to prevent formation of molten sulfides or selenides in the melter, and to prevent carburization and sulfidation attack of Inconel-690 melter components. Control of average oxygen partial pressure in the melter plenum is insufficient to assure prevention of localized attack of Inconel-690. An additional requirement is therefore necessary, that no soot or tarry substances be deposited on the Inconel-690.

  4. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full-scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  6. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Testing at The Idaho National Laboratory for the Advanced Remediation Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Roach; Nick Soelberg; Mike Ancho; Eric Tchemitcheff; John Richardson

    2009-03-01

    AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. This paper provides preliminary results of tests using the engineering-scale CCIM test system located at the INL. The CCIM test system was operated continuously over a time period of about 58 hours. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated semi-continuously because the glass drain rate was higher than the glass feedrate. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was

  7. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  8. Glass melter off-gas system

    DOEpatents

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

  9. Cullet Manufacture Using the Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.

    2000-01-20

    The base process for vitrification of the Am/Cm solution stored in F-canyon uses 25SrABS cullet as the glass former. A small portion of the cullet used in the SRTC development work was purchased from Corning while the majority was made in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Task 1.01 of TTR-NMSS/SE-006, Additional Am-Cm Process Development Studies, requested that a process for the glass former (cullet) fabrication be specified. This report provides the process details for 25SrAB cullet production thereby satisfying Task 1.01.

  10. Glass melter off-gas system

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

  11. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  12. Validation of DWPF Melter Off-Gas Combustion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    2000-08-23

    The empirical melter off-gas combustion model currently used in the DWPF safety basis calculations is valid at melter vapor space temperatures above 570 degrees C, as measured in the thermowell. This lower temperature bound coincides with that of the off-gas data used as the basis of the model. In this study, the applicability of the empirical model in a wider temperature range was assessed using the off-gas data collected during two small-scale research melter runs. The first data set came from the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 run in 1985 with the sludge feed coupled with the precipitate hydrolysis product. The second data set came from the 774-A melter run in 1996 with the sludge-only feed prepared with the modified acid addition strategy during the feed pretreatment step. The results of the assessment showed that the data from these two melter runs agreed well with the existing model, and further provided the basis for extending the lower temperature bound of the model to the measured melter vapor space temperature of 445 degrees C.

  13. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  14. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  15. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms.

    PubMed

    Weber, Griffin M; Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-12-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users.

  16. Direct2Experts: a pilot national network to demonstrate interoperability among research-networking platforms

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, William; Conlon, Mike; Eichmann, David; Kibbe, Warren; Falk-Krzesinski, Holly; Halaas, Michael; Johnson, Layne; Meeks, Eric; Mitchell, Donald; Schleyer, Titus; Stallings, Sarah; Warden, Michael; Kahlon, Maninder

    2011-01-01

    Research-networking tools use data-mining and social networking to enable expertise discovery, matchmaking and collaboration, which are important facets of team science and translational research. Several commercial and academic platforms have been built, and many institutions have deployed these products to help their investigators find local collaborators. Recent studies, though, have shown the growing importance of multiuniversity teams in science. Unfortunately, the lack of a standard data-exchange model and resistance of universities to share information about their faculty have presented barriers to forming an institutionally supported national network. This case report describes an initiative, which, in only 6 months, achieved interoperability among seven major research-networking products at 28 universities by taking an approach that focused on addressing institutional concerns and encouraging their participation. With this necessary groundwork in place, the second phase of this effort can begin, which will expand the network's functionality and focus on the end users. PMID:22037890

  17. Literature Review: Assessment of DWPF Melter and Melter Off-gas System Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    Testing to date for the MOC for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melters is being reviewed with the lessons learned from DWPF in mind and with consideration to the changes in the flowsheet/feed compositions that have occurred since the original testing was performed. This information will be presented in a separate technical report that identifies any potential gaps for WTP processing.

  18. Application of artificial intelligence to melter control: Realtime process advisor for the scale melter facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jr, R E

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is currently under construction and when completed will process high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass wasteform. This facility will consist of numerous batch chemical processing steps as well as the continuous operation of a joule-heated melter and its off-gas treatment system. A realtime process advisor system based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques has been developed and is currently in use at the semiworks facility, which is operating a 2/3 scale of the DWPF joule-heated melter. The melter advisor system interfaces to the existing data collection and control system and monitors current operations of this facility. The advisor then provides advice to operators and engineers when it identifies process problems. The current system is capable of identifying process problems such as feed system pluggages and thermocouple failures and providing recommended actions. The system also provides facilities normally with distributed control systems. These include the ability to display process flowsheets, monitor alarm conditions, and check the status of process interlocks. 7 figs.

  19. Examination of DWPF Melter Materials After 8 Years of Service

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.

    2003-04-29

    The first Defense Waste Processing Facility high level radioactive waste glass melter was successfully operated for eight years. Recent failure of melter heaters and decrease in glass production necessitated its removal. Prior to removing the melter from the facility, a remote in situ visual inspection of the refractory and Inconel(TM) 690 components was performed. The vapor space and glass contact refractory blocks were in excellent condition, showing little evidence of spalling or corrosion. Inconel 690 top head components and lid heaters in the vapor space were also in good condition, considering the service. Upper electrodes experienced significant deflection, which probably resulted from extended operation in excess of 1150 degrees C. Condition of the melter components examined during the remote visual inspection is summarized in this paper.

  20. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting - Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This factsheet describes an R&D project focused on an oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter for glass industry that offers decreased operating and capital costs, decreased energy use, simple design, and high reliability.

  1. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  2. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  3. The elemental analysis of environmental waste glass and melter feed with XRF spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Resce, J.L.; Overcamp, T.J.; Jurgensen, A.R.; Bickford, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    An x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometric method for the simple, rapid, precise, and accurate elemental analysis of Certain model environmental waste glasses has been previously reported. This method has a potentially important application in vitrification process control. In this study, two surrogate environmental waste glasses, made during pilot-scale demonstration tests at Clemson University, were analyzed by both conventional wet chemical methods and by this new XRF method. The two wastestreams examined were derived from wastewater treatment process from the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and from a nickel plating operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Four glasses were made from this waste with added flux levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 weight percent NaO{sub 2} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Components of the waste surrogates are listed. The glasses were prepared in two types of pilot-scale melters. One was a high-temperature, joule heated melter and the second was a stirred tank joule heated melter. The resulting disks were analyzed by either XRF or by conventional wet chemical methods. The accuracy of the results from the XRF method was assessed by comparison with the results from a reference method using conventional wet chemical glass dissolution techniques followed by plasma or flame spectrophotometry. Experimental results are given. Excellent agreement was found between the two methods, suggesting that XRF might be a suitable alternative to the slower and more complicated wet chemical method.

  4. 2. VIEW OF THE MICROWAVE MELTER DEVELOPED BY THE RESEARCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE MICROWAVE MELTER DEVELOPED BY THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GROUP LOCATED IN BUILDING 701. THE MICROWAVE MELTER TRANSFORMED WASTE INTO A VITREOUS GLASS-LIKE SUBSTANCE, IMMOBILIZING THE WASTE, SO THAT IT COULD BE SHIPPED OFF SITE FOR DISPOSAL. (1/31/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Design Laboratory, Northwest quadrant of Plant, between buildings 776-777 & 771, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Based on ground station adaptive optics for laser communications demonstration platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tong, Shoufeng; Wang, Haozeng; Yang, Hongkun

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid development of modern science and technology in astronomical imaging, optical communications, optical radar, optical information processing, high-precision ranging, tracking, guidance, and remote sensing, light waves propagating in the medium, especially in the turbulent atmosphere spread more and more important. Atmospheric turbulence is one of the main factors which have influence on the performance of a laser communication system. Adaptive optics technology is an important means to solve the problem of atmospheric turbulence. This paper states how adaptive optics technique can be used in space laser communication system to compensate atmospheric turbulence when laser beam transmission through it. The core content of adaptive optics is correct laser beam wave-front disturbance in real-time,with it to enhance optical system imaging quality and the next aim is reach the level of diffraction limitation. Adaptive optics system consists of wave-front detection, wave-front control and wave-front correction . The demo platform including: atmospheric turbulence simulation unit、adaptive correction unit、signal transmitting and receiving unit. Liquid crystal spatial light modulator applications in adaptive optics system and the turbulence simulation system introduced. And used zernike polynomials method to produce atmospheric turbulence phase screen simulation analysis. Simulation results show that: in the low spatial frequency components, the atmospheric turbulence phase screen generated by Zernike polynomial method consistent with the theoretical values, but in the high spatial frequency components, the simulation results with large difference between the theoretical values. In addition, the simulation results also show that: we can change the distribution of turbulence in the atmospheric turbulence phase screen by increasing the Zernike polynomials of orders or change the receiving apertures, but to calculate the large calculate the complex and

  6. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  7. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  8. Modeling a Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes

    2003-06-01

    FIDAP has been used to simulate melting of radioactive waste glass in a cold crucible induction heated melter. A model has been created that couples the magnetic vector potential (real and imaginary) to a transient startup of the melting process. This magnetic field is coupled to the mass, momentum, and energy equations that vary with time and position as the melt grows. The coupling occurs with the electrical conductivity of the glass as it rises above the melt temperature of the glass and heat is generated. Natural convection within the molten glass helps determine the shape of the melt as it progresses in time. An electromagnetic force is also implemented that is dependent on the electrical properties and frequency of the coil. This study shows the progression of the melt shape with time along with temperatures, power input, velocities, and magnetic vector potential. A power controller is implemented that controls the primary coil current and power.

  9. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  10. Field Demonstration of a Multiplexed Point-of-Care Diagnostic Platform for Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Wang, Yuling; Wee, Eugene J H; Botella, Jose R; Trau, Matt

    2016-08-16

    Effective disease management strategies to prevent catastrophic crop losses require rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection methods for timely decision making. To address this need, a rapid, highly specific and sensitive point-of-care method for multiplex detection of plant pathogens was developed by taking advantage of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labeled nanotags and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is a rapid isothermal amplification method with high specificity. In this study, three agriculturally important plant pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae, and Fusarium oxysporum) were used to demonstrate potential translation into the field. The RPA-SERS method was faster, more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction, and could detect as little as 2 copies of B. cinerea DNA. Furthermore, multiplex detection of the three pathogens was demonstrated for complex systems such as the Arabidopsis thaliana plant and commercial tomato crops. To demonstrate the potential for on-site field applications, a rapid single-tube RPA/SERS assay was further developed and successfully performed for a specific target outside of a laboratory setting.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J.

    2011-11-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently received a deposit sample from the Melter Primary Off Gas System (POG) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This sample was composed of material that had been collected while the quencher was in operation January 27, 2011 through March 31, 2011. DWPF requested, through a technical assistance request, characterization of the melter off-gas deposits by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The purpose of the Melter Off-Gas System is to reduce the amount of radioactive particles and mercury in the gases vented to the atmosphere. Gases emitted from the melter pass through the primary film cooler, quencher, Off-Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT), Steam Atomized Scrubbers (SAS), a condenser, a high efficiency mist eliminator, and a high efficiency particulate air filter, before being vented to the Process Vessel Vent System. The film coolers cool the gases leaving the melter vapor space from {approx}750 C to {approx}375 C, by introducing air and steam to the flow. In the next step, the quencher cools the gas to about 60 C by bringing the condensate from the OGCT in contact with the effluent (Figure 1). Most of the steam in the effluent is then condensed and the melter vapor space pressure is reduced. The purpose of the OGCT is to collect and store the condensate formed during the melter operation. Condensate from the OGCT is circulated to the SAS and atomized with steam. This atomized condensate is mixed with the off-gas to wet and join the particulate which is then removed in the cyclone. The next stage incorporates a chilled water condenser which separates the vapors and elemental mercury from the off-gas steam. Primary off-gas deposit samples from the DWPF melter have previously been analyzed. In 2003, samples from just past the film cooler, from the inlet of the quencher and inside the quencher were analyzed at SRNL. It was determined that the samples were a

  12. Leapfrog diagnostics: Demonstration of a broad spectrum pathogen identification platform in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resource-limited tropical countries are home to numerous infectious pathogens of both human and zoonotic origin. A capability for early detection to allow rapid outbreak containment and prevent spread to non-endemic regions is severely impaired by inadequate diagnostic laboratory capacity, the absence of a “cold chain” and the lack of highly trained personnel. Building up detection capacity in these countries by direct replication of the systems existing in developed countries is not a feasible approach and instead requires “leapfrogging” to the deployment of the newest diagnostic systems that do not have the infrastructure requirements of systems used in developed countries. Methods A laboratory for molecular diagnostics of infectious agents was established in Bo, Sierra Leone with a hybrid solar/diesel/battery system to ensure stable power supply and a satellite modem to enable efficient communication. An array of room temperature stabilization and refrigeration technologies for reliable transport and storage of reagents and biological samples were also tested to ensure sustainable laboratory supplies for diagnostic assays. Results The laboratory demonstrated its operational proficiency by conducting an investigation of a suspected avian influenza outbreak at a commercial poultry farm at Bo using broad range resequencing microarrays and real time RT-PCR. The results of the investigation excluded influenza viruses as a possible cause of the outbreak and indicated a link between the outbreak and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrated that by application of a carefully selected set of technologies and sufficient personnel training, it is feasible to deploy and effectively use a broad-range infectious pathogen detection technology in a severely resource-limited setting. PMID:22759725

  13. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter.

  14. Experimental demonstration of two-dimensional hybrid waveguide-integrated plasmonic crystals on silicon-on-insulator platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guanghui; Yudistira, Didit; Nguyen, Thach G.; Khodasevych, Iryna; Schoenhardt, Steffen; Berean, Kyle J.; Hamm, Joachim M.; Hess, Ortwin; Mitchell, Arnan

    2017-07-01

    Nanoscale plasmonic structures can offer unique functionality due to extreme sub-wavelength optical confinement, but the realization of complex plasmonic circuits is hampered by high propagation losses. Hybrid approaches can potentially overcome this limitation, but only few practical approaches based on either single or few element arrays of nanoantennas on dielectric nanowire have been experimentally demonstrated. In this paper, we demonstrate a two dimensional hybrid photonic plasmonic crystal interfaced with a standard silicon photonic platform. Off resonance, we observe low loss propagation through our structure, while on resonance we observe strong propagation suppression and intense concentration of light into a dense lattice of nanoscale hot-spots on the surface providing clear evidence of a hybrid photonic plasmonic crystal bandgap. This fully integrated approach is compatible with established silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fabrication techniques and constitutes a significant step toward harnessing plasmonic functionality within SOI photonic circuits.

  15. CST Melter Feed Characterization in Support of the 1999 and 2000 Thermal Fluids Lab Hydragard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-06-07

    The Immobilization Technology Section measured properties of the melter feed simulants used in the 1999 and 2000 Hydragard sample loop tests. These tests used simulated Sludge Batch 1B (Macrobatch 2) melter feeds. The melter feeds were characterized for wt. percent total and insoluble solids, pH, composition, particle size distribution, and rheology.

  16. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) processing characteristics of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.; Andersen, C.M.

    1990-06-01

    An experimental-scale liquid-fed ceramic melter was used in a series of tests to evaluate the processing characteristics of mercury in simulated defense waste under various melter operating conditions. This solidification technology had no detectable capacity for incorporating mercury into its borosilicate, vitreous, product, and essentially all the mercury fed to the melter was lost to the off-gas system as gaseous effluent. An ejector venturi scrubber condensed and collected 97% of the mercury evolved from the melter. Chemically the condensed mercury effluent was composed entirely of chlorides, and except in a low-temperature test, mercury chlorides (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) was the primary chloride formed. As a result, combined mercury accounted for most of the insoluble mass collected by the process quench scrubber. Although macroscopic quantities of elemental mercury were never observed in process secondary waste streams, finely divided and dispersed mercury that blackened all condensed Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} residues was capable of saturating the quenched process exhaust with mercury vapor. However, the vapor pressure of mercury in the quenched melter exhaust was easily and predictably controlled with an off-gas stream chiller. 5 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    DOE PAGES

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; ...

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for themore » dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.« less

  18. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for the dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.

  19. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  20. Literature review: Assessment of DWPF melter and melter off-gas system lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M. M.

    2015-07-30

    A glass melter for use in processing radioactive waste is a challenging environment for the materials of construction (MOC) resulting from a combination of high temperatures, chemical attack, and erosion/corrosion; therefore, highly engineered materials must be selected for this application. The focus of this report is to review the testing and evaluations used in the selection of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), glass contact MOC specifically the Monofrax® K-3 refractory and Inconel® 690 alloy. The degradation or corrosion mechanisms of these materials during pilot scale testing and in-service operation were analyzed over a range of oxidizing and reducing flowsheets; however, DWPF has primarily processed a reducing flowsheet (i.e., Fe2+/ΣFe of 0.09 to 0.33) since the start of radioactive operations. This report also discusses the materials selection for the DWPF off-gas system and the corrosion evaluation of these materials during pilot scale testing and non-radioactive operations of DWPF Melter #1. Inspection of the off-gas components has not been performed during radioactive operations with the exception of maintenance because of plugging.

  1. Melter performance during surrogate vitrification campaigns at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-10-05

    This report summarizes the results from seven melter campaigns performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research at Clemson University. A brief description of the EnVitco EV-16 Joule heated glass melter and the Stir-Melter WV-0.25 stirred melter are included for reference. The report discusses each waste stream examined, glass formulations developed and utilized, specifics relating to melter operation, and a synopsis of the results from the campaigns. A `lessons learned` section is included for each melter to emphasize repeated processing problems and identify parameters which are considered extremely important to successful melter operation

  2. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a DC arc melter.

    PubMed

    Overcamp, Thomas J; Speer, Matthew P; Griner, Stewart J; Cash, Douglas M

    2003-01-01

    Tests treating soils contaminated with metal compounds and radionuclide surrogates were conducted in a DC arc melter. The soil melted, and glassy or ceramic waste forms with a separate metal phase were produced. Tests were run in the melter plenum with either air or N2 purge gases. In addition to nitrogen, the primary emissions of gases were CO2, CO, oxygen, methane, and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). Although the gas flow through the melter was low, the particulate concentrations ranged from 32 to 145 g/m3. Cerium, a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium and uranium, was not enriched in the particulate matter (PM). The PM was enriched in cesium and highly enriched in lead.

  3. Impact Of Melter Internal Design On Off-Gas Flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Lee, S. Y.

    2012-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify the more dominant design parameters that can serve as the quantitative measure of how prototypic a given melter is, (2) run the existing DWPF models to simulate the data collected using both DWPF and non-DWPF melter configurations, (3) confirm the validity of the selected design parameters by determining if the agreement between the model predictions and data is reasonably good in light of the design and operating conditions employed in each data set, and (4) run Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to gain new insights into how fluid mixing is affected by the configuration of melter internals and to further apply the new insights to explaining, for example, why the agreement is not good.

  4. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  5. Extending Fuzzy System Concepts for Control of a Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Sorgel, W.; Garrison, A.; Schalkoff, R.J.

    1995-08-16

    Fuzzy systems provide a mathematical framework to capture uncertainty. The complete description of real, complex systems or situations often requires far more detail and information than could ever be obtained (or understood). Fuzzy approaches are an alternative technology for both system control and information processing and management. In this paper, we present the design of a fuzzy control system for a melter used in the vitrification of hazardous waste. Design issues, especially those related to melter shutdown and obtaining smooth control surfaces, are addressed. Several extensions to commonly-applied fuzzy techniques, notably adaptive defuzzification and modified rule structures are developed.

  6. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  7. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters: Part 3, Glass electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Propst, R C; Plodinec, M J

    1988-01-01

    Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated a tendency for noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Changes in melter geometry are being considered in Japan, Germany, and the United States to permit draining of the noble metals to reduce their effects. Physical modeling of melter electrical patterns, electrode/waste-glass electrochemistry, and non-linear electrical behavior have been evaluated for typical waste-glass. Major melter design changes should not be necessary for the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Top electrodes will not be significantly affected. Minor alterations in melter design, monitoring of electrical characteristics, and adjustment of bottom electrode currents can provide protection from shorting if noble metals accumulate. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of liquid-fed ceramic melter scale-up correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the parameters governing factors of scale for liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) in order to design full-scale melters using smaller-scale melter data. Results of melter experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are presented for two feed compositions and five different liquid-fed ceramic melters. The melter performance data including nominal feed rate and glass melt rate are correlated as a function of melter surface area. Comparisons are made between the actual melt rate data and melt rates predicted by a cold cap heat transfer model. The heat transfer model could be used in scale-up calculations, but insufficient data are available on the cold cap characteristics. Experiments specifically designed to determine heat transfer parameters are needed to further develop the model. 17 refs.

  9. Stabilizing distressed glass furnace melter crowns

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Before the advent of pump casting, hot patching a melter or regenerator crown was extremely time and labor intensive. During these installations, known to many as the bucket brigade, the slurry was mixed on floor level and hauled in 50--65 lb batches up to 100 ft to the top of the crown. Today, in a single shift, a crew of seven can accomplish what took two days and a crew of {approximately}25 in the past. The first application of pump-casting zircon patch occurred on the AZS crown of an insulation-wool-glass furnace. For this application, 23 in. of insulating firebrick had to be removed to gain access to the fused AZS surface. The zircon patch was applied by pumping the mix from floor level up {approximately}60 ft to the crown by means of a concrete pump. Postmortems were performed on samples from two of the gas-fired TV-panel-glass furnaces. These postmortems were performed to determine if alterations occurred on the hot face of exposed zircon patch and, if so, how much alteration did occur. There was no destructive alteration because of alkali penetration into the patch. In fact, only trace amounts of lead, barium and strontium were detected, no further than 1 in. from the hot face. There was slight loss of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hot face because of migration of phosphate toward the cold face, but it did not decrease the integrity of the patch. The dissociation of zircon was <3% baddelyite detected, all within an in. of the hot face.

  10. ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-01-23

    The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on

  11. Silicate Based Glass Formulations for Immobilization of U.S. Defense Wastes Using Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gary L.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Marra, James C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Crawford, Charles L.; Vienna, John D.

    2014-05-22

    The cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) is an alternative technology to the currently deployed liquid-fed, ceramic-lined, Joule-heated melter for immobilizing of U.S. tank waste generated from defense related reprocessing. In order to accurately evaluate the potential benefits of deploying a CCIM, glasses must be developed specifically for that melting technology. Related glass formulation efforts have been conducted since the 1990s including a recent study that is first documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to summarize the silicate base glass formulation efforts for CCIM testing of U.S. tank wastes. Summaries of phosphate based glass formulation and phosphate and silicate based CCIM demonstration tests are reported separately (Day and Ray 2013 and Marra 2013, respectively). Combined these three reports summarize the current state of knowledge related to waste form development and process testing of CCIM technology for U.S. tank wastes.

  12. Glass melter assembly for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.E.; Russell, A.; Shah, K.R.; Kalia, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is designed to solidify high level radioactive waste by converting it into stable borosilicate after mixing with glass frit and water. The heart of this conversion process takes place in the glass melter. The life span of the existing melter is limited by the possible premature failure of the heater assembly, which is not remotely replaceable, in the riser and pour spout. A goal of HWVP Project is to design remotely replaceable riser and pour spout heaters so that the useful life of the melter can be prolonged. The riser pour spout area is accessible only by the canyon crane and impact wrench. It is also congested with supporting frame members, service piping, electrode terminals, canister positioning arm and other various melter components. The visibility is low and the accessibility is limited. The problem is further compounded by the extreme high temperature in the riser core and the electrical conductive nature of the molten glass that flows through it.

  13. DWPF Melter Glass Pump Implementation and Design Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, SMITH

    2005-04-01

    In order to improve the melt rate of high level waste slurry feed being vitrified in the Savannah River Sites (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter, a melter glass pump (pump 1) was installed in the DWPF Melter on February 10, 2004. The glass pump increased melt rate by generating a forced convection within the molten glass pool, thereby increasing the heat transfer from the molten glass to the unmolten feed cold cap that is on top of the glass pool. After operating for over four months, the pump was removed on June 22, 2004 due to indications that it had failed. The removed pump exhibited obvious signs of corrosion, had collapsed inward at the glass exit slots at the melt line, and was dog-legged in the same area. This lead to the pump being redesigned to improve its mechanical integrity (increased wall thickness and strength) while maintaining its hydraulic diameter as large as possible. The improved DWPF glass pump (pump 2) was installed on September 15, 2004. The impact of the new design on pump life, along with analysis of the glass pumps impact on melt rate in the DWPF Melter is discussed in this paper.

  14. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given.

  15. Modeling of Spinel Settling in Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Nemec, Lubomir; Schill, Petr

    1999-06-01

    Each 1% increase of waste loading (W), defined as the high-level waste (HLW) mass fraction in glass, can save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over a half billion U.S. dollars for vitrification and disposal. For a majority of Hanford and Savannah River waste streams, W is limited by spinel precipitation and settling in waste glass melters. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of spinel behavior is crucial for economy and the low-risk operation of HLW vitrification. The goal of this research is to develop a basic understanding of the dynamics of spinel formation and motion in velocity, temperature, and redox fields that are characteristic for the glass-melting process. This goal is being achieved by directly studying spinel formation and settling in molten glass and by developing a mathematical tool for predicting the spinel behavior and accumulation rate in the melter. The main potential benefit of this study is achieving a lower waste-glass volume, which translates into a shorter cleanup time, a smaller processing facility, a smaller repository space, and, hence, a reduced investment of time and money to reach acceptable technical risks. Additional benefits include (1) more accurately assessing sensible limits for problem constituents (such as chromium) in the melter feed, (2) reducing the blending requirements, and (3) comparing cost and risk with other options (pretreatment, blending or diluting the waste) to determine the best path forward. The results of this study will allow alternate melter designs and operating conditions to be evaluated. The study will also address the option of removing the settled sludge from the melter.

  16. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling

  17. MICROARRAY QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT: A COMPREHENSIVE GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY SURVEY DEMONSTRATES MEASURABLE CONSISTENCY AND CONCORDANT RESULTS BETWEEN PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, h...

  18. MICROARRAY QUALITY CONTROL PROJECT: A COMPREHENSIVE GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY SURVEY DEMONSTRATES MEASURABLE CONSISTENCY AND CONCORDANT RESULTS BETWEEN PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, h...

  19. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP contract requirements. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization oftank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste-loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

  20. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  1. Characterization of Ceramic Material Produced From a Cold Crucible Induction Melter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2015-04-30

    This report summarizes the results from characterization of samples from a melt processed surrogate ceramic waste form. Completed in October of 2014, the first scaled proof of principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test was conducted to process a Fe-hollandite-rich titanate ceramic for treatment of high level nuclear waste. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the CCIM material produced. Core samples at various radial locations from the center of the CCIM were taken. These samples were also sectioned and analyzed vertically. Together, the various samples were intended to provide an indication of the homogeneity throughout the CCIM with respect to phase assemblage, chemical composition, and chemical durability. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Hollandite and zirconolite were identified in addition to possible highly-substituted pyrochlore and perovskite. Minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs were also identified. Remarkably only minor differences were observed vertically or radially in the CCIM material with respect to chemical composition, phase assemblage, and durability. This recent CCIM test and the resulting characterization in conjunction with demonstrated compositional improvements support continuation of CCIM testing with an improved feed composition and improved melter system.

  2. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  3. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Technology: Results of Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John Grant

    2001-09-01

    This report provides a review of cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology and presents summaries of alternatives and design issues associated with major system components. The objective in this report is to provide background systems level information relating to development and application of cold crucible induction-heated melter technology for radiological waste processing. Included is a detailed description of the bench-top melter system at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute currently being used for characterization testing

  4. Materials and design experience in a slurry-fed electric glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, S.M.; Larson, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a slurry-fed electric gas melter and an examination of the performance and condition of the construction materials were completed. The joule-heated, ceramic-lined melter was constructed to test the applicability of materials and processes for high-level waste vitrification. The developmental Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) was operated for three years with simulated high-level waste and was subjected to conditions more severe than those expected for a nuclear waste vitrification plant.

  5. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  6. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tankwaste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-05-03

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission.

  7. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; Miles, L.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  8. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; O'Neill, Peggy; Miles, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  9. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process.

  10. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  11. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  12. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  13. Remote Fiber Laser Cutting System for Dismantling Glass Melter - 13071

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Takashi; Miura, Noriaki; Oowaki, Katsura; Kawaguchi, Isao; Miura, Yasuhiko; Ino, Tooru

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, the equipment for dismantling the used glass melter has been developed in High-level Liquid Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility in the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). Due to the high radioactivity of the glass melter, the equipment requires a fully-remote operation in the vitrification cell. The remote fiber laser cutting system was adopted as one of the major pieces of equipment. An output power of fiber laser is typically higher than other types of laser and so can provide high-cutting performance. The fiber laser can cut thick stainless steel and Inconel, which are parts of the glass melter such as casings, electrodes and nozzles. As a result, it can make the whole of the dismantling work efficiently done for a shorter period. Various conditions of the cutting test have been evaluated in the process of developing the remote fiber cutting system. In addition, the expected remote operations of the power manipulator with the laser torch have been fully verified and optimized using 3D simulations. (authors)

  14. Statistical process control applied to the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1987-09-01

    In this report, an application of control charts to the apparent feed composition of a Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) is demonstrated by using results from a simulation of the LFCM system. Usual applications of control charts require the assumption of uncorrelated observations over time. This assumption is violated in the LFCM system because of the heels left in tanks from previous batches. Methods for dealing with this problem have been developed to create control charts for individual batches sent to the feed preparation tank (FPT). These control charts are capable of detecting changes in the process average as well as changes in the process variation. All numbers reported in this document were derived from a simulated demonstration of a plausible LFCM system. In practice, site-specific data must be used as input to a simulation tailored to that site. These data directly affect all variance estimates used to develop control charts. 64 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Richardson, J.; Aloy, A.; Day, D.

    2002-02-26

    The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering

  16. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  17. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, October-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R.A.; Allen, C.R.; Powell, J.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the progress in developing, testing, applying, and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1987 is discussed. Topics include melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, off-gas systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling.

  18. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters. Part 5, Modelling of complex redox effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-12-31

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Effect of Bubbles and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-10-21

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed becomes a continuous glass-forming melt where dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the reacting melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs during melting. We studied the melter feed viscosity during heating and correlated it with volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and gas phase. The measurements were performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min, starting at several different temperatures. The effects of undissolved quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the melter feed viscosity were determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases.

  1. Microflow1, a sheathless fiber-optic flow cytometry biomedical platform: demonstration onboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Dubeau-Laramée, Geneviève; Rivière, Christophe; Jean, Isabelle; Mermut, Ozzy; Cohen, Luchino Y

    2014-04-01

    A fiber-optic based flow cytometry platform was designed to build a portable and robust instrument for space applications. At the core of the Microflow1 is a unique fiber-optic flow cell fitted to a fluidic system and fiber coupled to the source and detection channels. A Microflow1 engineering unit was first tested and benchmarked against a commercial flow cytometer as a reference in a standard laboratory environment. Testing in parabolic flight campaigns was performed to establish Microflow1's performance in weightlessness, before operating the new platform on the International Space Station. Microflow1 had comparable performances to commercial systems, and operated remarkably and robustly in weightlessness (microgravity). Microflow1 supported immunophenotyping as well as microbead-based multiplexed cytokine assays in the space environment and independently of gravity levels. Results presented here provide evidence that this fiber-optic cytometer technology is inherently compatible with the space environment with negligible compromise to analytical performance. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites` typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass.

  3. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  4. Methodology for physical modeling of melter electrode power plug

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.

    1984-09-01

    A method is presented for building and testing a one-third scale model of an electrode power plug used to supply up to 3000 amperes to a liquid fed ceramic melter. The method describes how a one-third scale model can be used to verify the ampacity of the power plug, the effectiveness of the power plug cooling system and the effect of the high amperage current on eddy current heating of rebar in the cell wall. Scale-up of the test data, including cooling air flow rate and pressure drop, temperature profiles, melter water jacket heat duty and electrical resistance is covered. The materials required to build the scale model are specified as well as scale surface finish and dimensions. The method for designing and testing a model power plug involves developing a way to recreate the thermal conditions including heat sources, sinks and boundary temperatures on a scale basis. The major heat sources are the molten glass in contact with the electrode, joule heat generation within the power plug, and eddy current heating of the wall rebar. The melting cavity heat source is modelled using a plate heater to provide radiant heat transfer to a geometrically similar, one-third scale electrode housed in a scale model of a melting cavity having a thermally and geometrically similar wall and floor. The joule heat generation within the power plug is simulated by passing electricity through the model power plug with geometrically similar rebar positioned to simulate the eddy heating phenomenon. The proposed model also features two forced air cooling circuits similar to those on the full design. The interaction of convective, natural and radiant heat transfer in the wall cooling circuit are considered. The cell environment and a melter water jacket, along with the air cooling circuits, constitute the heat sinks and are also simulated.

  5. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  6. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  7. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOEpatents

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  8. WSRC Am/Cm Stabilization Program - Cylindrical Induction Melter Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.A.

    1999-02-17

    1.1.1 Kilogram quantities of Americium and Curium isotopes (Am/Cm) have been produced at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. These highly radioactive isotopes have both government and commercial value and are currently stored as a nitric acid solution at the Savannah River Site. The material represents the largest source term in the F canyon at SRS. It is proposed that the Am/Cm material be vitrified to stabilize the material for long term, recoverable storage. This paper reviews the progress made during the process development phase of this program using the Cylindrical Induction Melter.

  9. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  10. Metallurgical Evaluation of the Five-Inch Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2000-08-15

    A metallurgical evaluation of the 5-inch cylindrical induction melter (CIM) vessel was performed by the Materials Technology Section to evaluate the metallurgical condition after operating for approximately 375 hours at 1400 to 1500 Degrees Celsius during a 2 year period. Results indicate that wall thinning and significant grain growth occurred in the lower portion of the conical section and the drain tube. No through-wall penetrations were found in the cylindrical and conical sections of the CIM vessel and only one leak site was identified in the drain tube. Failure of the drain tube was associated with a localized over heating and intercrystalline fracture.

  11. Expanding Ring for the DWPF Melter Pour Spout

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2002-09-23

    The Materials Technology Section was requested to develop a novel concept, namely that of an expanding ring, to restore the upper knife edge in the DWPF melter pour spout. The expanding ring is a unit that, when deployed in the DPWF pour spout, will self-expand against the inner diameter of the 3-inch section of the pour spout providing a seal against glass leakage and a new knife edge that will mate with a Type 3A insert. This report provides a summary of the final design features of the expanding ring and an overview of its development.

  12. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  13. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    americium it contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated {sup 241}Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx).

  14. FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the

  15. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    (OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

  16. Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E.; Brow, R. K.; Ray, C. S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Reis, Signo T.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Johnson, Fabienne; Hansen, E. K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

    2012-01-05

    An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (~17 wt%) and high alkali (~80 wt%) low activity Hanford waste, known as AZ102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (SO3) content of 21 and 4.2 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7M Na) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090°C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 7 days in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their CCC-treated counterparts met the DOE LAW requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO3 (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium, surrogate for Tc-99, all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition (slurry feed) was melted continuously in the JHM and CCIM, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste.

  17. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earths surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil.

  18. HWVP NCAW melter feed rheology FY 1993 testing and analyses: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program has been established to immobilize selected Hanford nuclear wastes before shipment to a geologic repository. The HWVP program is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides waste processing and vitrification technology to assist the design effort. The focus of this letter report is melter feed rheology, Process/Product Development, which is part of the Task in the PNL HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project. Specifically, the melter feed must be transported to the liquid fed ceramic melter (LFCM) to ensure HWVP operability and the manufacture of an immobilized waste form. The objective of the PHTD Project slurry flow technology development is to understand and correlate dilute and concentrated waste, formatted waste, waste with recycle addition, and melter feed transport properties. The objectives of the work described in this document were to examine frit effects and several processing conditions on melter feed rheology. The investigated conditions included boiling time, pH, noble metal containing melter feed, solids loading, and aging time. The results of these experiments contribute to the understanding of melter feed rheology. This document is organized in eight sections. This section provides the introductory remarks, followed by Section 2.0 that contains conclusions and recommendations. Section 3.0 reviews the scientific principles, and Section 4.0 details the experimental methods. The results and discussion and the review of related rheology data are in Sections 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Section 7.0, an analysis of NCAW melter feed rheology data, provides an overall review of melter feed with FY 91 frit. References are included in Section 8.0. This letter report satisfies contractor milestone PHTD C93-03.02E, as described in the FY 1993 Pacific Northwest Hanford Laboratory Waste Plant Technology Development (PHTD) Project Work Plan.

  19. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 2: Framework process description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paula S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    In the second volume of the Demonstration Framework Document, the graphical representation of the demonstration framework is given. This second document was created to facilitate the reading and comprehension of the demonstration framework. It is designed to be viewed in parallel with Section 4.2 of the first volume to help give a picture of the relationships between the UOB's (Unit of Behavior) of the model. The model is quite large and the design team felt that this form of presentation would make it easier for the reader to get a feel for the processes described in this document. The IDEF3 (Process Description Capture Method) diagrams of the processes of an Information System Development are presented. Volume 1 describes the processes and the agents involved with each process, while this volume graphically shows the precedence relationships among the processes.

  20. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Mensink, D.L.

    1991-01-16

    This invention consists of a self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion patten of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion patten to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of patten, particle size, rate, feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  1. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    DOEpatents

    Mensink, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion pattern of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion pattern to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of pattern, particle size, rate, and feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  2. Evaluation Pilot-Scale Melter Systems for the Direct Vitrification Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Cray, Casey William; Thomson, Troy David

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation conducted to identify a joule-heated melter system that could be installed in the Idaho Falls area in support of the Direct Vitrification Development Program. The relocation was to be completed by January 1, 2002, within a total budget of one million dollars. Coordination with the Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area identified five melters or melter systems that could potentially support the Direct Vitrification Development Program. Each unit was inspected and evaluated based on qualitative criteria such as availability, completeness of the system, contamination, scalability, materials of construction, facility requirements, and any unique features.

  3. Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles.

  4. On-orbit demonstrations of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing serviceable NASA Explorer platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohweisner, Bill; Pairot, Jean-Michael

    1991-01-01

    Since 1984 the European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability to enable Hermes to dock automatically with Columbus. As a result, ESA (with Matra, MBB, and other space companies) have developed technologies that are directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments and suggest how these capabilities could be used together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite to minimize new development and accomplish a cost-effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program.

  5. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  6. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  7. Experimental demonstration of a hybrid plasmonic transverse electric pass polarizer for a silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Alam, M Z; Wagner, S J; Aitchison, J S; Mojahedi, M

    2012-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a transverse electric (TE)-pass polarizer using the recently proposed hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The device consists of a silicon film separated from a chromium layer by a silica spacer. The device was characterized using a tunable laser in the 1.52-1.58 μm wavelength range. For a 30 μm long polarizer, the extinction ratio in this wavelength range varies from 23 to 28 dB and the insertion loss for the TE mode is 2-3 dB. The device is compact; its fabrication is completely compatible with silicon-on-insulator technology, and its performance compares favorably against previously reported silicon-based integrated optic TE-pass polarizers.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of PSCM and BIPP melter design and operating conditions using physical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skarda, R.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Fort, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The Glass Melter Physical Modeling investigation was initiated to support Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Hanford Waste Vitrification Program. Specifically, results discussed herein are those of the modeled B-Plant Immobilization Pilot Plant (BIPP) and Pilot Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) designs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various melter design features using laboratory scale models. Hydrodynamic, thermal, and electrical similarity between the modeling fluid and the molten glass were primary objectives. Stroboscopic velocity measurements (flow visualization), temperature measurements, and electrical potential measurements were used to investigate the molten glass behavior. Results from this effort are to provide input to melter design and proposed operation in addition to providing a data base for verifying numerical models. 13 refs., 48 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Smith, H.D.; Tracy, E.M.; Myers, R.L.; sills, J.A.; Fisher, D.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-02-01

    This data package, milestone C95-02.02Y, provides a brief observation and operation report on available data for the Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) feed preparation activities. The test was conducted in two melter feed batch segments prepared from two different feed preparation flowsheets. Testing primarily addressed feed preparation alternate flowsheet options tested in the laboratory to mitigate potential safety issues related to generation of hydrogen and ammonia, to produce acceptable melter feed rheological properties, to maximize total waste oxide loading in the glass, to simplify the vitrification flowsheet, and to increase vitrification flowsheet processing rate. The two flowsheets selected for testing were (1) no reductant addition and titration with HNO{sub 3} to provide an acceptable melter feed rheology near the target oxide loading (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1), and (2) titration with glycolic acid, an alternate reductant to HCOOH (Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2).

  10. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  11. LFCM (liquid-fed ceramic melter) vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. A.; Allen, C. R.; Powell, J. A.

    1988-05-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Effect of Melter-Feed-Makeup on Vitrification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Schweiger, M. J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2009-09-02

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  13. EFFECT OF MELTER-FEED-MAKEUP ON VITRIFICATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; HUMRICKHOUSE CJ; MOODY JA; TATE RM; TEGROTENHUIS NE; ARRIGONI BM; RODRIGUEZ CP

    2009-09-10

    Increasing the rate of glass processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will allow shortening the life cycle of waste cleanup at the Hanford Site. While the WTP melters have approached the limit of increasing the rate of melting by enhancing the heat transfer rate from molten glass to the cold cap, a substantial improvement can still be achieved by accelerating the feed-to-glass conversion kinetics. This study investigates how the feed-to-glass conversion process responds to the feed makeup. By identifying the means of control of primary foam formation and silica grain dissolution, it provides data needed for a meaningful and economical design of large-scale experiments aimed at achieving faster melting.

  14. Settling of Spinel in a High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schill, Pert; Nemec, Lubomir

    2002-01-18

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150?C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel (a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occur in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  15. Settling of Spinel in A High-Level Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors call melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 degree C (or even higher in advanced melters) to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling. This process is slow and expensive. Moreover, the melters that are currently in use or are going to be used in the U.S. are sensitive to clogging and thus cannot process melt in which solid particles are suspended. These particles settle and gradually accumulate on the melter bottom. Such particles, most often small crystals of spinel ( a mineral containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other minor oxides), inevitably occurred in the melt when the content of the waste in the glass (called waste loading) increases above a certain limit. To avoid the presence of solid particles in the melter, the waste loading is kept rather low, in average 15% lower than in glass formulated for more robust melters.

  16. Slurry feed variability in West Valley's melter feed tank and sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Bauer, B.P.

    1989-04-01

    The present plan for disposal of high-level wastes at West Valley is to vitrify the wastes for disposal in deep geologic repository. The vitrification process involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals and feeding the resulting slurry to a liquid-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the melter feed system to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. To investigate the mixing properties of the melter feed preparation system at West Valley, a statistically designed experiment was conducted using synthetic melter feed slurry over a range of concentrations. On the basis of the statistical data analysis, it was found that (1) a homogeneous slurry is produced in the melter feed tank, (2) the liquid-sampling system provides slurry samples that are statistically different from the slurry in the tank, and (3) analytical measurements are the major source of variability. A statistical quality control program for the analytical laboratory and a characterization test of the actual sampling system is recommended. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Technology of off-gas treatment for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.A.; Goles, R.W.; Peters, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    The technology for treating off gas from liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCMs) has been under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1977. This report presents the off-gas technology as developed at PNL and by others to establish a benchmark of development and to identify technical issues. Tests conducted on simulated (nonradioactive) wastes have provided data that allow estimation of melter off-gas composition for a given waste. Mechanisms controlling volatilization of radionuclides and noxious gases are postulated, and correlations between melter operation and emissions are presented. This report is directed to those familiar with LFCM operation. Off-gas treatment systems always require primary quench scrubbers, aerosol scrubbers, and final particulate filters. Depending on the composition of the off gas, equipment for removal of ruthenium, iodine, tritium, and noxious gases may also be needed. Nitrogen oxides are the most common noxious gases requiring treatment, and can be controlled by aqueous absorption or catalytic conversion with ammonia. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters should be used for final filtration. The design criteria needed for an off-gas system can be derived from emission regulations and composition of the melter feed. Conservative values for melter off-gas composition can be specified by statistical treatment of reported off-gas data. Statistical evaluation can also be used to predict the frequency and magnitude of normal surge events that occur in the melter. 44 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  19. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowitz, Howard; Brandys, Marek; Cecil, Richard; D'Angelo, Nicholas; Matlack, Keith S.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  20. Connecting section and associated systems concept for the spray calciner/in-can melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, L.L.; Gorton, P.S.; Blair, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    For a number of years, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been developing processes and equipment for converting high-level liquid wastes to solid forms. One of these processes is the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system. To immobilize high-level liquid wastes, this system must be operated remotely, and the calcine must be reliably conveyed from the calciner to the melting furnace. A concept for such a remote conveyance system was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and equipment was tested under full-scale, nonradioactive conditions. This concept and the design of demonstration equipment are described, and the results of equipment operation during experimental runs of 7 d are presented. The design includes a connecting section and its associated systems - a canister sypport and alignment concept and a weight-monitoring system for the melting furnace. Overall, the runs demonstrated that the concept design is an acceptable method of connecting the two pieces of process equipment together. Although the connecting section has not been optimized in all areas of concern, it provides a first-generation design of a production-oriented system.

  1. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  2. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  3. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by Optima Chemicals

  4. Operation of Bubblers in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter - 12166

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Brandon C.; Iverson, Daniel C.; Diener, Glenn

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC acquired the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. In order to achieve the main goal of the contract, closing of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks, it was necessary to process more waste throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would need to increase its production rate of radioactive waste glass filled canisters as a part of the plan to achieve this commitment. To attain the increased production rate, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in September 2010 to agitate the DWPF Melter glass pool. The four bubblers were designed to be installed in existing nozzles on the top-head of the DWPF Melter. The design and fabrication of the four (4) bubblers was accomplished through SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions LLC. In addition to the existing bubbler design, a new design concept has been approved and is in the process of fabrication. The new design will allow for the lower end (inside melter) of the bubbler to be replaced while the upper end (outside melter) of the bubbler is reused to minimize cost and waste at the DWPF. The bubblers have been operating in the DWPF Melter for approximately 1 year. The originally installed bubbler set was replaced in January 2011. The bubblers were visually examined once removed from the melter and showed minimal signs of wear. Material testing of the Inconel 690 is being performed to determine if the bubblers operational life can be extended. The use of the bubblers has changed the dynamics within the melter glass pool. This is shown through indications that the bubblers have increased the glass pool circulation. Overall, performance of the bubblers has been encouraging and the DWPF Melter has seen a significant improvement in its ability to process waste since the bubbler installation. The installation of the bubblers accomplished the goal of increasing the glass production capability of DWPF

  5. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  6. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  7. HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A A.; Joseph, Innocent; Matlack, Keith S.; Callow, Richard A.; Abramowitz, Howard; Pegg, Ian L.; Brandys, Marek; Kot, Wing K.

    2012-11-13

    Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150°C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

  8. Assessment of water/glass interactions in waste glass melter operation

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Chapman, C.C.; Buelt, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was made to assess the possibility of a vapor explosion in a liquid-fed glass melter and during off-standard conditions for other vitrification processes. The glass melter considered is one designed for the vitrification of high-level nuclear wastes and is comprised of a ceramic-lined cavity with electrodes for joule heating and processing equipment required to add feed and withdraw glass. Vapor explosions needed to be considered because experience in other industrial processes has shown that violent interactions can occur if a hot liquid is mixed with a cooler, vaporizable liquid. Available experimental evidence and theoretical analyses indicate that destructive glass/water interactions are low probability events, if they are possible at all. Under standard conditions, aspects of liquid-fed melter operation which work against explosive interactions include: (1) the aqueous feed is near its boiling point; (2) the feed contains high concentrations of suspended particles; (3) molten glass has high viscosity (greater than 20 poise); and (4) the glass solidifies before film boiling can collapse. While it was concluded that vapor explosions are not expected in a liquid-fed melter, available information does not allow them to be ruled out altogether. Several precautionary measures which are easily incorporated into melter operation procedures were identified and additional experiments were recommended.

  9. DWPF Melter Off-Gas Flammability Assessment for Sludge Batch 9

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.

    2016-07-11

    The slurry feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter contains several organic carbon species that decompose in the cold cap and produce flammable gases that could accumulate in the off-gas system and create potential flammability hazard. To mitigate such a hazard, DWPF has implemented a strategy to impose the Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) limits on all key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability and operate the melter within those limits using both hardwired/software interlocks and administrative controls. The operating variables that are currently being controlled include; (1) total organic carbon (TOC), (2) air purges for combustion and dilution, (3) melter vapor space temperature, and (4) feed rate. The safety basis limits for these operating variables are determined using two computer models, 4-stage cold cap and Melter Off-Gas (MOG) dynamics models, under the baseline upset scenario - a surge in off-gas flow due to the inherent cold cap instabilities in the slurry-fed melter.

  10. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  11. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  12. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  13. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: The first two noble metals operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D.H.; Ritter, J.A.

    1991-06-06

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas systems. The facility is the first pilot-scale melter system capable of processing mercury, and flowsheet levels of halides and noble metals. In order to characterize the processing of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru, and Ag) on a large scale, the IDMS will be operated batchstyle for at least nine feed preparation cycles. The first two of these operations are complete. The major observation to date occurred during the second run when significant amounts of hydrogen were evolved during the feed preparation cycle. The runs were conducted between June 7, 1990 and March 8, 1991. This time period included nearly six months of ``fix-up`` time when forced air purges were installed on the SRAT MFT and other feed preparation vessels to allow continued noble metals experimentation.

  14. The Effect of Foaming and Silica Dissolution on Melter Feed Rheology during Conversion to Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-11-23

    As the nuclear waste glass melter feed is converted to molten glass, the feed eventually becomes a continuous glass-forming melt in which dissolving refractory constituents are suspended together with numerous gas bubbles. Knowledge of mechanical properties of the melter feed is crucial for understanding the feed-to-glass conversion as it occurs in the cold cap. We measured the viscosity during heating of the feed and correlated it with the independently determined volume fractions of dissolving quartz particles and the gas phase. The measurement was performed with a rotating spindle rheometer on the melter feed heated at 5 K/min starting at several different temperatures. The effect of quartz particles, gas bubbles, and compositional inhomogeneity on the glass-forming melt viscosity was determined by fitting a linear relationship between log viscosity and volume fractions of suspended phases to data.

  15. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  16. THE RESULTS OF TESTING TO EVALUATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND SETTLING IN THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2009-06-30

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology offers the potential to increase waste loading for High Level Waste (HLW) glasses leading to significant improvements in waste throughput rates compared to the reference Joule Heated Melter (JHM). Prior to implementation of a CCIM in a production facility it is necessary to better understand processing constraints associated with the CCIM. The glass liquidus temperature requirement for processing in the CCIM is an open issue. Testing was conducted to evaluate crystal formation and crystal settling during processing in the CCIM to gain insight into the effects on processing. A high aluminum/high iron content glass composition with known crystal formation tendencies was selected for testing. A continuous melter test was conducted for approximately 51 hours. To evaluate crystal formation, glass samples were obtained from pours and from glass receipt canisters where the glass melt had varying residence time in the melter. Additionally, upon conclusion of the testing, glass samples from the bottom of the melter were obtained to assess the degree of crystal settling. Glass samples were characterized in an attempt to determine quantitative fractions of crystals in the glass matrix. Crystal identity and relative composition were determined using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Select samples were also analyzed by digesting the glass and determining the composition using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). There was evidence of crystal formation (primarily spinels) in the melt and during cooling of the collected glass. There was evidence of crystal settling in the melt over the duration of the melter campaign.

  17. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  18. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  19. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  20. Noble Metals and Spinel Settling in High Level Waste Glass Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, S. K.; Perez, Joseph M.

    2000-09-30

    In the continuing effort to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the noble metals issue is addressed. There is an additional concern about the amount of noble metals expected to be present in the future batches that will be considered for vitrification in the DWPF. Several laboratory, as well as melter-scale, studies have been completed by various organizations (mainly PNNL, SRTC, and WVDP in the USA). This letter report statuses the noble metals issue and focuses at the settling of noble metals in melters.

  1. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  2. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  3. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM - PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-03-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  4. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  5. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  6. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  7. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Matyas, Josef; Owen, Antoinette T.

    2012-08-28

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  8. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  9. Electromagnetic and Thermal-flow Modeling of a Cold-Wall Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, James A.; Garnich, Mark R.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.

    2005-02-01

    An approach for modeling cold-wall crucible induction melters is described. Materials in the melt and melter are non-ferromagnetic. In contrast to other modeling works reported in the literature, the numerical models utilize commercial codes. The ANSYS finite element code is employed for electromagnetic field simulations and the STAR-CD finite volume code for thermal-flow calculations. Results from the electromagnetic calculations in the form of local Joule heat and Lorentz force distributions are included as loads in the thermal-flow analysis. This loosely-coupled approach is made possible by the small variation in temperature and, consequently, small variation in electrical properties across the melt as well as the quasi-steady state nature of the thermal flow calculations. A three dimensional finite element grid for electromagnetic calculations is adapted to a similar axisymmetric finite volume grid for data transfer to the thermal-flow model. Results from the electromagnetic model compare well with operational data from a 175 mm diameter melter. Results from the thermal-flow simulation provide insight toward molten metal circulation patterns, temperature variations, and velocity magnitudes. Initial results are included for a model that simulates the formation of a solid (skull) layer on the crucible base and wall. Overall, the modeling approach is shown to produce useful results relating operational parameters to the physics of steady state melter operation.

  10. Melter feed tank operating map from the FA-10.02 test data

    SciTech Connect

    Spatz, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    The operability of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) feed loops has been tested during the DWPF-FA-10.02 test. The ability to feed the melter at three distinct melter feed rates (0.20, 0.45, and 0.90 gpm), two distinct agitator speeds (65 and 130 rpm), varying liquid levels, and varying slurry rheologies was tested. This report correlates the operability of the feed loops with the above mentioned variables. The data are presented in the form of operating maps, Figs. 1 through 4, which are plots of the liquid level versus the wt% total solids (and yield stress) for two agitator speeds. The maps are divided into regions of acceptable feed loop operation and unacceptable feed loop operation. This report does not consider how closely the compositions of the MFT, the melter feed lines, and the Hydragard samples agree. The significant observations in this report are as follows: Both feed loops satisfy the operability criteria down to a liquid level below the upper impeller blade at low speed agitation (65 rpm). Under high speed agitation (130 rpm), feed loop No. 2 operates much more poorly than feed loop No. 1. The uncertainty associated with the wt% total solids of a slurry sample is larger than the current design basis range for total solids. The dilution of slurry due to pump priming is shown graphically in the chronological presentation of wt% total solids.

  11. ROLE OF MANGANESE REDUCTION/OXIDATION (REDOX) ON FOAMING AND MELT RATE IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) MELTERS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Stone, M

    2007-03-30

    High-level nuclear waste is being immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification into borosilicate glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Control of the Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equilibrium in the DWPF melter is critical for processing high level liquid wastes. Foaming, cold cap roll-overs, and off-gas surges all have an impact on pouring and melt rate during processing of high-level waste (HLW) glass. All of these phenomena can impact waste throughput and attainment in Joule heated melters such as the DWPF. These phenomena are caused by gas-glass disequilibrium when components in the melter feeds convert to glass and liberate gases such as H{sub 2}O vapor (steam), CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and/or N{sub 2}. During the feed-to-glass conversion in the DWPF melter, multiple types of reactions occur in the cold cap and in the melt pool that release gaseous products. The various gaseous products can cause foaming at the melt pool surface. Foaming should be avoided as much as possible because an insulative layer of foam on the melt surface retards heat transfer to the cold cap and results in low melt rates. Uncontrolled foaming can also result in a blockage of critical melter or melter off-gas components. Foaming can also increase the potential for melter pressure surges, which would then make it difficult to maintain a constant pressure differential between the DWPF melter and the pour spout. Pressure surges can cause erratic pour streams and possible pluggage of the bellows as well. For these reasons, the DWPF uses a REDOX strategy and controls the melt REDOX between 0.09 {le} Fe{sup 2+}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33. Controlling the DWPF melter at an equilibrium of Fe{sup +2}/{summation}Fe {le} 0.33 prevents metallic and sulfide rich species from forming nodules that can accumulate on the floor of the melter. Control of foaming, due to deoxygenation of manganic species, is achieved by converting oxidized MnO{sub 2} or Mn

  12. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Kevin M.; Peeler, David K.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high-level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  13. Recommendations for rheological testing and modelling of DWPF melter feed slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The melter feed in the DWPF process is a non-Newtonian slurry. In the melter feed system and the sampling system, this slurry is pumped at a wide range of flow rates through pipes of various diameters. Both laminar and turbulent flows are encountered. Good rheology models of the melter feed slurries are necessary for useful hydraulic models of the melter feed and sampling systems. A concentric cylinder viscometer is presently used to characterize the stress/strain rate behavior of the melter feed slurries, and provide the data for developing rheology models of the fluids. The slurries exhibit yield stresses, and they are therefore modelled as Bingham plastics. The ranges of strain rates covered by the viscometer tests fall far short of the entire laminar flow range, and therefore hydraulic modelling applications of the present rheology models frequently require considerable extrapolation beyond the range of the data base. Since the rheology models are empirical, this cannot be done with confidence in the validity of the results. Axial pressure drop versus flow rate measurements in a straight pipe can easily fill in the rest of the laminar flow range with stress/strain rate data. The two types of viscometer tests would be complementary, with the concentric cylinder viscometer providing accurate data at low strain rates, near the yield point if one exists, and pipe flow tests providing data at high strain rates up to and including the transition to turbulence. With data that covers the laminar flow range, useful rheological models can be developed. In the Bingham plastic model, linear behavior of the shear stress as a function of the strain rate is assumed once the yield stress is exceeded. Both shear thinning and shear thickening behavior have been observed in viscometer tests. Bingham plastic models cannot handle this non-linear behavior, but a slightly more complicated yield/power law model can.

  14. Determination of halogen content in glass for assessment of melter decontamination factors

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Melter decontamination factor (DF) values for the halogens (fluorine, chlorine, and iodine) are important to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) process because of the potential influence of DF on secondary-waste recycle strategies (fluorine and chlorine) as well as its impact on off-gas emissions (iodine). This study directly establishes the concentrations of halides-in HWVP simulated reference glasses rather than relying on indirect off-gas data. For fluorine and chlorine, pyrohydrolysis coupled with halide (ion chromatographic) detection has proven to be a useful analytical approach suitable for glass matrices, sensitive enough for the range of halogens encountered, and compatible with remote process support applications. Results obtained from pyrohydrolytic analysis of pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) -22 and -23 glasses indicate that the processing behavior of fluorine and chlorine is quite variable even under similar processing conditions. Specifically, PSCM-23 glass exhibited a {approximately}90% halogen (F and Cl) retention efficiency, while only 20% was incorporated in PSCM-22 glass. These two sets of very dissimilar test results clearly do not form a sufficient basis for establishing design DF values for fluorine and chlorine. Because the present data do not provide any new halogen volatility information, but instead reconfirm the validity of previously obtained offgas derived values, melter DF values of 4, 2, and 1 for fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, respectively, are recommended for adoption; these values were conservatively established by a team of responsible engineers at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on the basis of average behavior for many comparable melter tests. In the absence of further HWVP process data, these average melter DFs are the best values currently available.

  15. FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of

  16. MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR DWPF ALTERNATE REDUCTANT FLOWSHEET OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.

    2011-07-08

    Glycolic acid and sugar are being considered as potential candidates to substitute for much of the formic acid currently being added to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed as a reductant. A series of small-scale melter tests were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in January 2011 to collect necessary data for the assessment of the impact of these alternate reductants on the melter off-gas flammability. The DM10 melter with a 0.021 m{sup 2} melt surface area was run with three different feeds which were prepared at SRNL based on; (1) the baseline formic/nitric acid flowsheet, (2) glycolic/formic/nitric acid flowsheet, and (3) sugar/formic/nitric acid flowsheet - these feeds will be called the baseline, glycolic, and sugar flowsheet feeds, respectively, hereafter. The actual addition of sugar to the sugar flowsheet feed was made at VSL before it was fed to the melter. For each feed, the DM10 was run under both bubbled (with argon) and non-bubbled conditions at varying melter vapor space temperatures. The goal was to lower its vapor space temperature from nominal 500 C to less than 300 C at 50 C increments and maintain steady state at each temperature at least for one hour, preferentially for two hours, while collecting off-gas data including CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} concentrations. Just a few hours into the first test with the baseline feed, it was discovered that the DM10 vapor space temperature would not readily fall below 350 C simply by ramping up the feed rate as the test plan called for. To overcome this, ambient air was introduced directly into the vapor space through a dilution air damper in addition to the natural air inleakage occurring at the operating melter pressure of -1 inch H{sub 2}O. A detailed description of the DM10 run along with all the data taken is given in the report issued by VSL. The SRNL personnel have analyzed the DM10 data and identified 25 steady state periods lasting from 32 to 92 minutes for all

  17. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-10-20

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  18. Production and remediation of low-sludge, simulated Purex waste glasses, 1: Effects of sludge oxide additions on melter operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-15

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but less durable than most simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Also, Purex 4 glass was considerably less durable than predicted by the algorithm which will be used to control production of DWPF glass. A melter run was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by Hydration Thermodynamics. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the composition, crystallinity, and durability was determined. This document details the melter operation and composition and crystallinity analyses.

  19. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance.

  20. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed

  1. The West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    A full-sized, integrated vitrification system is being tested at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) to establish its operational characteristics that will allow a quality, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass product to be consistently produced. Recently, this nonradioactive verification testing has emphasized (a) ensuring flow sheet and feed makeup chemistry that enables well-balanced melter performance, (b) achieving design basis melter throughput rates at steady-state operating conditions, and (c) demonstrating that the release limit of NO{sub x} is met by the vitrification off-gas system. The West Valley vitrification process testing is rapidly converging to demonstrate that the acceptance specification in the glass product and the environmental requirements on the off-gas will indeed be met, thereby providing the basis for approval to begin radioactive operations in 1992.

  2. INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

  3. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 1: Concepts and activity descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paul S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    The Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FPP) is a project aimed at effectively combining tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process to provide an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this system development framework will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to automate effectively the management of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated. The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) program is conducting research into development of advanced technologies for Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).

  4. Test Plan: Phase 1, Hanford LLW melter tests, GTS Duratek, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-06-14

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384215] is GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. The GTS Duratek project manager for this work is J. Ruller. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a DuraMelter{trademark} vitrification system.

  5. Evaluation of the mixing system for the West Valley melter feed hold tank

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Kurath, D.E.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes are currently stored in underground tanks at several Department of Energy facilities. The current plan for management of these wastes is to convert them to a durable borosilicate glass, then isolate the glass in a deep geologic repository. The process for converting the wastes to glass involves mixing the high-level wastes with glass-forming chemicals, then transforming the resulting slurry into glass using a high-temperature furnace known as a slurry-fed ceramic melter. Maintaining the quality of the glass product and proficient melter operation depends on the ability of the waste slurry preparation and feed systems to produce and maintain a homogeneous mixture of waste and glass-former materials. This document reviews current technology. 11 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Report - Melter Testing of New High Bismuth HLW Formulations VSL-13R2770-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The primary objective of the work described was to test two glasses formulated for a high bismuth waste stream on the DM100 melter system. Testing was designed to determine processing characteristics and production rates, assess the tendency for foaming, and confirm glass properties. The glass compositions tested were previously developed to maintain high waste loadings and processing rates while suppressing the foaming observed in previous tests

  7. Preliminary Dynamic Modeling of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Melter Offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-09-21

    This report documents preliminary versions of the models that include the components of the offgas systems from the melters through the exhaust stacks and the vessel ventilation systems. The models consider only the two major chemical species in the offgas stream: air and steam or water vapor. Model mass and energy balance calculations are designed to show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure and flow throughout the offgas systems in response to transient driving forces.

  8. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) where the glass will be poured into stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. Experimental glass melters used to develop the vitrification process for immobilization of the waste have experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. Off-gas deposits from the DWPF 1/2 Scale Glass Melter (SGM) and the 1/10th scale Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, spinel, and frit particles. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cement the entrained particulates causing off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggage indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. Scale glass melter operating experience indicates that a velocity of >50 fps is necessary in order to transport the volatile species to the quencher to prevent having condensation occur in the off-gas line. Hotter off-gas line temperatures would retain the alkali compounds as vapors so that they would remain volatile until they reach the quencher. However, hotter off-gas temperatures can only be achieved by using less air/steam flow at the off-gas entrance, e.g. at the off-gas film cooler (OGFC). This would result in lower off-gas velocities. Maintaining a high velocity is, therefore, considered to be a more important criterion for controlling off-gas pluggage than temperature control. 40 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  10. INSTALLATION OF BUBBLERS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITED DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Iverson, D.

    2010-12-08

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) LLC assumed the liquid waste contract at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the summer of 2009. The main contractual agreement was to close 22 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks in eight years. To achieve this aggressive commitment, faster waste processing throughout the SRS liquid waste facilities will be required. Part of the approach to achieve faster waste processing is to increase the canister production rate of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) from approximately 200 canisters filled with radioactive waste glass per year to 400 canisters per year. To reach this rate for melter throughput, four bubblers were installed in the DWPF Melter in the late summer of 2010. This effort required collaboration between SRR, SRR critical subcontractor EnergySolutions, and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The tasks included design and fabrication of the bubblers and related equipment, testing of the bubblers for various technical issues, the actual installation of the bubblers and related equipment, and the initial successful operation of the bubblers in the DWPF Melter.

  11. Durability of glasses from the Hg-doped Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1992-08-30

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) for the vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is designed and constructed to be a 1/9th scale prototype of the full scale Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. The IDMS facility is the first engineering scale melter system capable of processing mercury, and flowsheet levels of halides and noble metals. In order to determine the effects of mercury on the feed preparation process, the off-gas chemistry, glass melting behavior, and glass durability, a three-run mercury (Hg) campaign was conducted. The glasses produced during the Hg campaign were composed of Batch 1 sludge, simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous product (PHA) from the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF), and Frit 202. The glasses were produced using the DWPF process/product models for glass durability, viscosity, and liquidus. The durability model indicated that the glasses would all be more durable than the glass qualified in the DWPF Environmental Assessment (EA). The glass quality was verified by performing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) which was designed for glass durability testing in the DWPF.

  12. Predictive modeling of crystal accumulation in high-level waste glass melters processing radioactive waste

    DOE PAGES

    Matyáš, Josef; Gervasio, Vivianaluxa; Sannoh, Sulaiman E.; ...

    2017-08-30

    We present that the effectiveness of high-level waste vitrification at Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant may be limited by precipitation/accumulation of spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr)2O4] in the glass discharge riser of Joule-heated ceramic melters during idling. These crystals do not affect glass durability; however, if accumulated in thick layers, they can clog the melter and prevent discharge of molten glass into canisters. To address this problem, an empirical model was developed that can predict thicknesses of accumulated layers as a function of glass composition. This model predicts well the accumulation of single crystals and/or small-scale agglomerates,more » but excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an underprediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsened over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. In conclusion, the accumulation rate of ~53.8 ± 3.7 μm/h determined for this glass will result in a ~26 mm-thick layer after 20 days of melter idling.« less

  13. Thermal stress analysis of an Am/Cm stabilization bushing melter

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. The vitrification process in the Platinum-Rhodium alloy vessel generates a wide spectrum of temperature distributions. The melter is partially supported by a suspension system and confined by the flexible insulation. The combination of the fluctuation of temperature distribution and variable boundary conditions, induces stresses and strains in the melter. The thermal stress analysis is carried out with the finite element code ABAQUS. This analysis is closely associated with the design, manufacture and testing of the melter. The results were compared with the test data.

  14. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  15. Remediation on off-gas system deposits in a radioactive waste glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Choi, A.S.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Since the early 1980`s, research glass melters have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to develop the reference vitrification process for immobilization of high level radioactive waste. One of the operating concerns for these melters has been the pluggage of the off-gas system with solid deposits. Samples of these deposits were analyzed to be mixture of alkali-rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit particles. The spatial distribution of these deposits throughout the off-gas system indicates that they form by vapor-phase transport and subsequently condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements entrained particulates causing the off-gas line to plug. It is concluded that off-gas system pluggage can be effectively controlled by maintaining the off-gas velocity above 16 m/s, while maintaining the off-gas temperature as high as practical below the glass softening point. This paper summarizes the results of chemical and physical analyses of off-gas deposit samples from various melters at SRL. Recent design changes made to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to alleviate the pluggage problem are also discussed.

  16. Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling of Cold Cap Behavior in High-Level-Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-03-03

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting melter feed floating on the surface of molten glass in a glass-melting furnace. The cold cap consists of two distinct portions, of which the upper allows the reaction gases to escape through open pores, whereas the lower portion traps the gases within the continuous glass-forming melt, creating foam. The temperature span over the cold cap is ~1000 K. Data needed to simulate the cold cap mathematically include the kinetics of multiple reactions, reaction enthalpies, heat capacity, density, porosity, and heat conductivity as functions of both the temperature and the rate of heating. These data were produced via crucible experiments. The mathematical model has been completed. It relates the cold cap thickness, the rate of melting, the temperature field, and cold cap structure (foaming, dissolution of quartz particles, and formation and subsequent dissolution of crystalline phases, such as spinel) to the cold cap bottom temperature, the fraction of heat flow to the upper cold cap surface, the melt foaminess, and the chemical and physical nature of melter feed materials. To verify the model, cold caps were produced in a laboratory-scale melter and their structure is currently investigated.

  17. Method of glass melter electrode length measurement using time domain reflectometry (TDR)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, James M.; Zamecnik, John R.

    2000-02-28

    The present invention overcomes the drawbacks inherent in the prior art and solves the problems inherent in conventional Joule-heated vitrification melters, where the melter preferably comprises a vessel having a refractory liner and an opening for receiving material which is converted into molten vitreous material in the vessel. The vessel has an outlet port for removing molten vitreous material from the vessel. A plurality of electrodes is disposed in the vessel and electrical energy is passed between electrode pairs through feed material and molten vitreous material in the vessel. Typically, the electrodes erode and wear in time, and this invention seeks to monitor and evaluate the length and condition of the electrodes. The present invention uses time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods to accurately measure the length of an electrode that is subject to wear and electrolytic decomposition due to the extreme conditions in which the electrode is required to operate. Specifically, TDR would be used to measure the length and effects of erosion of molybdenum electrodes used in Joule-heated vitrification melter. Of course, the inventive concept should not be limited to this preferred environment.

  18. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  19. EFFECTS OF QUARTZ PARTICLE SIZE AND SUCROSE ADDITION ON MELTING BEHAVIOR OF A MELTER FEED FOR HIGH-LEVEL GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIAL J; KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; SWEARINGEN KJ; TEGROTENHUIS WE; HENAGER SH

    2010-07-28

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 {micro}m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-{micro}m quartz particles; particles {ge}150 {micro}m formed clusters. Particles of 5 {micro}m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles {ge}150 {micro}m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles. Over 100 sites in the United States are currently tasked with the storage of nuclear waste. The largest is the Hanford Site located in southeastern Washington State with 177 subterranean tanks containing over fifty-million gallons of nuclear waste from plutonium production from 1944 through 1987. This waste will be vitrified at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. In the vitrification process, feed is charged into a melter and converted into glass to be ultimately stored in a permanent repository. The duration of waste-site cleanups by the vitrification process depends on the rate of melting, i.e., on the rate of the feed-to-glass conversion. Foaming associated with the melting process and the rate of dissolution of quartz particles (silica being the major glass-forming additive) are assumed to be important factors that influence the rate of melting. Previous studies on foaming of high-alumina feed demonstrated that varying the makeup of a melter feed has a significant impact on foaming. The volume of feeds that contained 5-{micro

  20. Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

  1. Demonstration of Thermo-Sensitive Tetra-Gel with Implication for Facile and Versatile Platform for a New Class of Smart Gels.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akira; Sato, Shohei; Sakamaki, Tomoko; Sanjo, Mai; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Miyahara, Yuji

    2017-04-10

    A tertiary branched poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with controlled molecular weight, distribution and the end amino-functionalization (tetra-PNIPAAm-NH2) was studied for the ability to form a gel via in situ chain-end reaction with a counterpart tertiary branched poly(ethyleneglycol) bearing N-hydroxysuccinimide end groups (tetra-PEG-NHS), a well-documented class of building block to yield the tetra-gel. Some of these polymers, both comparable and distinct (relative to the counterpart) extended chain length pairs, provided a self-standing and macroscopically homogeneous gel, which was capable of undergoing thermo-sensitive and reversible change in hydration in line with the nature of PNIPAAm. Phantom network model based calculation indicated that a half molar fraction of the polymer chains in the network remained unreacted, revealing further room for optimizing the reaction condition. Since such tetra-PNIPAAm based motif can be readily tailored to a variety of other physicochemical stimuli-responsive analogues, our finding may give important insight into a platform for "smart" tetra-gels with exceptional mechanical properties and potentially highly controllable molecular cut-off capability.

  2. Demonstration of a Very Inexpensive, Turbidimetric, Real-Time, RT-LAMP Detection Platform Using Shrimp Laem-Singh Virus (LSNV) as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Arunrut, Narong; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED) light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR) photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65°C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p≤0.05). This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings. PMID:25255231

  3. Design and performance of a 100-kg/h, direct calcine-fed electric-melter system for nuclear-waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes the physical characteristics of a ceramic-lined, joule-heated glass melter that is directly connected to the discharge of a spray calciner and is currently being used to study the vitrification of simulated nuclear-waste slurries. Melter performance characteristics and subsequent design improvements are described. The melter contains 0.24 m/sup 3/ of glass with a glass surface area of 0.76 m/sup 2/, and is heated by the flow of an alternating current (ranging from 600 to 1200 amps) between two Inconel-690 slab-type electrodes immersed in the glass at either end of the melter tank. The melter was maintained at operating temperature (900 to 1260/sup 0/C) for 15 months, and produced 62,000 kg of glass. The maximum sustained operating period was 122 h, during which glass was produced at the rate of 70 kg/h.

  4. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  5. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-02-25

    High level waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the cold cap. The bubbles coalesce into cavities that escape around the edges of the cold cap. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. More information is needed about the formation and behavior of the foam layer to control, limit and possibly avoid foaming, thus allowing for a higher rate of melting. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory scale assembly with a sealed silica-glass crucible. A high alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min-1. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap and foam during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the cold cap increased as the cold cap expanded. Under the cold cap, the bubbles coalesced into oblong cavities. These cavities allowed the evolved gases to escape around the edges of the cold cap through the molten glass into the melter plenum.

  6. Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters - 12240

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Delbert E.; Brow, Richard K.; Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Vienna, John D.; Sevigny, Gary; Peeler, David; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Hansen, Eric K.; Soelberg, Nick; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

    2012-07-01

    An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (∼17 wt%) and high alkali (∼80 wt%) Hanford low activity waste (LAW), known as AZ-102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ-102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (represented as SO{sub 3}) content of 21 and 4.4 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7 M Na{sup +}) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090 deg. C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 70 hours in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their canister centerline cooled (CCC) counterparts met the requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT) responses in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract. These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO{sub 3} (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium (used as a surrogate for Tc) all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition was melted continuously in a slurry fed JHM and in the US, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste. The following conclusions are drawn from the results of the present work. (1) An iron phosphate composition, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, containing 26 wt% of the simulated high sulfate (17 wt%), high alkali (80 wt%) Hanford AZ-102 LAW meets all the criteria for processing in a JHM and CCIM. This

  7. Heat Transfer Model of a Small-Scale Waste Glass Melter with Cold Cap Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Abboud, Alexander; Guillen, Donna Post; Pokorny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    At the Hanford site in the state of Washington, more than 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground tanks. The cleanup plan for this waste is vitrification at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), currently under construction. At the WTP, the waste will be blended with glass-forming materials and heated to 1423K, then poured into stainless steel canisters to cool and solidify. A fundamental understanding of the glass batch melting process is needed to optimize the process to reduce cost and decrease the life cycle of the cleanup effort. The cold cap layer that floats on the surface of the glass melt is the primary reaction zone for the feed-to-glass conversion. The conversion reactions include water release, melting of salts, evolution of batch gases, dissolution of quartz and the formation of molten glass. Obtaining efficient heat transfer to this region is crucial to achieving high rates of glass conversion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being used to understand the heat transfer dynamics of the system and provide insight to optimize the process. A CFD model was developed to simulate the DM1200, a pilot-scale melter that has been extensively tested by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Electrodes are built into the melter to provide Joule heating to the molten glass. To promote heat transfer from the molten glass into the reactive cold cap layer, bubbling of the molten glass is used to stimulate forced convection within the melt pool. A three-phase volume of fluid approach is utilized to model the system, wherein the molten glass and cold cap regions are modeled as separate liquid phases, and the bubbling gas and plenum regions are modeled as one lumped gas phase. The modeling of the entire system with a volume of fluid model allows for the prescription of physical properties on a per-phase basis. The molten glass phase and the gas phase physical properties are obtained from previous experimental work. Finding representative

  8. Performance of a large-scale melter off-gas system utilizing simulated SRP DWPF waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J L; Randall, C T

    1984-03-01

    The Department of Energy and the DuPont Company have begun construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility to immobilize radioactive waste now stored as liquids at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The immobilization process solidifies waste sludge by vitrification into a leach-resistant borosilicate glass. Development of the process has been the responsibility of the Savannah River Laboratory. As part of the development, two large-scale glass melter systems have been designed and operated with simulated waste. Experimental data from these operations show that process requirements will be met. 6 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

  9. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  10. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  11. FRIT SELECTION TO SUPPORT STEKLO METALLICHESKIE KONSTRUKTSII MELTER TESTING WITH SRNL FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; James Gillam, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2007-07-26

    Four frits were developed for possible use in melter testing with V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute's Steklo Metallicheskie Konstruktsii (SMK) melter. The frits were selected using Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments of an array of frit formulations and two Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) flowsheets, one with the anticipated effect of the implementation of Al-dissolution and one without. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify that the property and performance models used to select the frits were applicable to the frit/sludge systems of interest. Each of the four frits was tested with each of the two sludges at two different waste loadings, for a total of 16 test glasses. Each glass was both quenched and subjected to the canister centerline cooled (CCC) thermal profile. Samples of each glass were examined for crystallization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and durability using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The quenched version of each glass appeared amorphous by visual observations, although XRD results indicated a small amount of crystallization in four of the quenched glasses. Visual observations identified surface crystallization on the CCC versions of all 16 glasses. Three of the 35% waste loading (WL), CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite (a spinel) by XRD, and all of the 40% WL CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite. Nepheline was not observed in any of the test glasses, which is consistent with model predictions.

  12. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  13. Effect of Feed Composition on Cold-Cap Formation in Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Lee, Seung Min; Heilman-Moore, Jayven S.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2016-06-06

    The development of advanced glass formulations are a part of the plan for reducing the cost and time for treatment and vitrification of the 210,000 m3 of nuclear waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One property of interest in this development is melt viscosity, which has a decisive influence on the rate of glass production. In an electric melter, the conversion process from feed-to-glass above the melt pool occurs in the cold cap. At the final stage of conversion when the glass-forming melt becomes connected, gas evolving reactions cause foaming. The melt viscosity affects foam stability. Three glasses were formulated with viscosities of 1.5, 3.5, and 9.5 Pa s at 1150°C by varying the SiO2 content at the expense of B2O3, Li2O, and Na2O kept at constant proportions. Cold caps were produced by charging simulated high-alumina, high-level waste feeds in a laboratory-scale melter (LSM). The spread of the feed on the cold cap during charging and the cross-sectional structure of the final cold caps were compared. The amount of the foam and the size of the bubbles increased as the viscosity increased.

  14. The Development of an Innovative Vertical Floatation Melter and Scrap Dryer for Use in the Aluminum Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Saro

    2004-08-24

    The project aimed at the development of a Vertical Floatation melter, for application to the aluminum industry. This is intended to improve both the energy efficiency and environmental performance of aluminum melting furnaces. Phase I of this project dealt primarily with the initial research effort. Phase II, dealt with pilot-scale testing.

  15. MASBAL: A computer program for predicting the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, P.W.

    1987-07-01

    This report is a user's manual for the MASBAL computer program. MASBAL's objectives are to predict the composition of nuclear waste glass produced by a slurry-fed ceramic melter based on a knowledge of process conditions; to generate simulated data that can be used to estimate the uncertainty in the predicted glass composition as a function of process uncertainties; and to generate simulated data that can be used to provide a measure of the inherent variability in the glass composition as a function of the inherent variability in the feed composition. These three capabilities are important to nuclear waste glass producers because there are constraints on the range of compositions that can be processed in a ceramic melter and on the range of compositions that will be acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. MASBAL was developed specifically to simulate the operation of the West Valley Component Test system, a commercial-scale ceramic melter system that will process high-level nuclear wastes currently stored in underground tanks at the site of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center (near West Valley, New York). The program is flexible enough, however, to simulate any slurry-fed ceramic melter system. 4 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  17. Design and performance of a 100-kg/h, direct calcine-fed electric-melter system for nuclear-waste vitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierks, R. D.

    1980-11-01

    Physical characteristics of a ceramic-lined, joule-heated glass melter that is directly connected to the discharge of a spray calciner are described. The vitrification of simulated nuclear-waste slurries is discussed as well. Melter performance characteristics and subsequent design improvements are described. The melter was maintained at operating temperature (900 to 1260 C) for 15 months, and produced 62.000 kg of glass. The maximum sustained operating period was 122 h, during which glass was produced at the rate of 70 kg/h.

  18. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched air staging at Owens-Brockway glass containers. Quarterly technical progress report for the period August 1, 1996--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.; Abbasi, H.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the program is to demonstrate the use of a previously developed combustion modification technology to reduce NO, emissions from sideport regenerative container glass melters. This technology, known as oxygen-enriched air staging (OEAS), has been demonstrated, and is now being commercialized for endport container glass furnaces. This report focuses on full furnace parametric and long-term testing.

  19. Vitrification demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation K-25 B and C pond sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Overcamp, T.J.; Erich, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 B&C Pond sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVit Co melter operated by Clemson University at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research Center. This demonstration was performed for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in support of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan. The intent of the demonstration was to determine the feasibility of vitrifying actual K-25 B&C Pond sludge in an EnVitCo type melter. B&C Pond sludge is a mixed waste consisting primarily of various amounts of Ca, Fe, and Si, with Ni and U as the principal hazardous and radioactive components. The demonstration was successfully completed and homogeneous, durable glass was produced. Characterization of the glass product, as well as details of the demonstration, will be discussed.

  20. Surf-zone Underwater Robotic Demonstration Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) components and those requiring fabrication to outline the expected scale and development cost for a prototype SURDP...Technology Description Bluefin Robotics Subsea Battery Hi capacity storage battery for AUV applications. Self-contained and fully waterproof . Kairos...Thrusters and Rotory Actuators Waterproof thrusters and motors for marine applications. Teledyne Benthos Acoustic Modem Modems for navigation and data

  1. MATRIX 1 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). It has been proposed that a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America develop a systematic approach to increase HLW throughput (by increasing WL with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). Programmatically, this task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. The following four specific tasks have been proposed to meet this programmatic objective: (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. The details of these tasks can be found in the associated task plan WSRC-STI-2007-00483. The current study is focused on Task 2 (crystal accumulation modeling and higher waste loading glasses) and involves glass formulation and physical property testing by both PNNL and SRNL (as defined in the PNNL and SRNL test plans). The intent of this report is to document the chemical composition and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results and statistical analysis of PNNL's Test Matrix 1 glasses. Note that this document is only a compilation of the data collected by SRNL for PNNL's glasses in support of this task and no conclusions will be drawn.

  2. Arc melter vitrification of organic and chloride containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The different feed mixtures included up to (a) 80 weight % combustibles, (b) 60% chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons, (c) 27% metals, (d) 2% nitrates, and (e) 3 % metal hydroxides. Cerium was added as a nonradioactive surrogate for plutonium, a TRU element. Over 9,200 kg (20,200 lb) of the feed mixtures were vitrified at feedrates of up to 500 kg/hr (1,100 lb/hr). The furnace products including the glass, metal, offgas, and offgas solids have been analyzed to determine the fate and partitioning of metals, organics, and the TRU surrogate. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled using an air pollution control system that included a thermal oxidizer, water-spray and air dilution cooling, cyclone and baghouse particulate removal, packed bed acid gas scrubbing, charcoal absorption, and High Efficiency Particulate-Air (HEPA) filtration.

  3. Feed specification for the double-shell tank/single shell tank waste blend for high-level waste vitrification process and melter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tracey, E.M.; Merz, M.D.; Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-02-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic waste as glass for permanent disposal. In support of the program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies and HLW melter testing which require a simulated HLW feed. The simulant HLW feed represents a blend of the waste from 177 single shell and double shell tanks. The waste blend composition is based on normalized track radionuclide components (TRAC), historical tank data, and assumptions on the pretreatment of the waste. The HLW simulant feed specification for the waste blend composition provides direction for the preparation of laboratory-scale and large-scale HLW blend simulant to be used in melter feed preparation studies and melter testing.

  4. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-12-17

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  5. Technical Exchange on Improved Design and Performance of High Level Waste Melters - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    SK Sundaram; ML Elliott; D Bickford

    1999-11-19

    SIA Radon is responsible for management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) produced in Central Russia. In cooperation with Minatom organizations Radon carries out R and D programs on treatment of simulated high level waste (HLW) as well. Radon scientists deal with a study of materials for LILW, HLW, and Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) wastes immobilization, and development and testing of processes and technologies for waste treatment and disposal. Radon is mostly experienced in LILW vitrification. This experience can be carried over to HLW vitrification especially in field of melting systems. The melter chosen as a basic unit for the vitrification plant is a cold crucible. Later on Radon experience in LILW vitrification as well as our results on simulated HLW vitrification are briefly described.

  6. Cold crucible induction melter test for crystalline ceramic waste form fabrication: A feasibility assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Amoroso, Jake W.; Marra, James; Dandeneau, Christopher S.; ...

    2017-01-18

    The first scaled proof-of-principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test to process a multiphase ceramic waste form from a simulated combined (Cs/Sr, lanthanide and transition metal fission products) commercial used nuclear fuel waste stream was recently conducted in the United States. X-ray diffraction, 2-D X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the fabricated CCIM material. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with a desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. We identified primary hollandite,more » pyrochlore/zirconolite, and perovskite phases in addition to minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs. The material produced in the CCIM was chemically homogeneous and displayed a uniform phase assemblage with acceptable aqueous chemical durability.« less

  7. Cold crucible induction melter test for crystalline ceramic waste form fabrication: A feasibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Jake W.; Marra, James; Dandeneau, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Kyle; Xu, Yun; Tang, Ming; Maio, Vince; Webb, Samuel M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2017-04-01

    The first scaled proof-of-principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test to process a multiphase ceramic waste form from a simulated combined (Cs/Sr, lanthanide and transition metal fission products) commercial used nuclear fuel waste stream was recently conducted in the United States. X-ray diffraction, 2-D X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the fabricated CCIM material. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with a desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Primary hollandite, pyrochlore/zirconolite, and perovskite phases were identified in addition to minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs. The material produced in the CCIM was chemically homogeneous and displayed a uniform phase assemblage with acceptable aqueous chemical durability.

  8. Balance of oxygen throughout the conversion of a high-level waste melter feed to glass

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, SeungMin; Hrma, Pavel; Kloužek, Jaroslav; ...

    2017-07-03

    Gases evolve from nuclear waste melter feed during conversion to glass in response to heating. This article is focused on oxygen mass balance based on the stoichiometry of feed melting reactions and evolved-gas analysis data. Whereas O2-producing and -consuming batch-melting reactions are complete in the reacting and primary-foam layers of the cold cap, O2 from redox reactions continues to evolve as long as melt temperature increases, and thus generates secondary foam. Also, we discuss the relationship between the oxygen mass balance and the temperature-dependent iron redox ratio and the O2 partial pressure, as they evolve during the feed-to-glass conversion.

  9. Assessment of the impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF melter off-gas flammability

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W. E.

    2013-02-13

    An assessment has been made to evaluate the impact on the DWPF melter off-gas flammability of replacing the current solvent used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process Unit (MCU) process with the Next Generation Solvent (NGS-MCU) and blended solvent. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the current solvent in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product would both be about 29% higher than their counterparts of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent in the absence of guanidine partitioning. When 6 ppm of guanidine (TiDG) was added to the effluent transfer to DWPF to simulate partitioning for the NGS-MCU and blended solvent cases and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer was controlled below 87 ppm, the concentrations of nonvolatile carbon and hydrogen of the NGS-MCU and blended solvent were still about 12% and 4% lower, respectively, than those of the current solvent. It is, therefore, concluded that as long as the volume of MCU effluent transfer to DWPF is limited to 15,000 gallons per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)/SME cycle and the concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the effluent transfer is controlled below 87 ppm, using the current solvent assumption of 105 ppm Isopar{reg_sign} L or 150 ppm solvent in lieu of NGS-MCU or blended solvent in the DWPF melter off-gas flammability assessment is conservative for up to an additional 6 ppm of TiDG in the effluent due to guanidine partitioning. This report documents the calculations performed to reach this conclusion.

  10. IMPACT OF ELIMINATING MERCURY REMOVAL PRETREATMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MELTER OFFGAS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alexander Choi, A

    2009-03-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: (1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; (2) adjust feed rheology; and (3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid pretreatment has been proposed to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems; alternative reductants would be used to control redox. However, elimination of formic acid would result in significantly more mercury in the melter feed; the current specification is no more than 0.45 wt%, while the maximum expected prior to pretreatment is about 2.5 wt%. An engineering study has been undertaken to estimate the effects of eliminating mercury removal on the melter offgas system performance. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model and an aqueous phase model were developed to study the speciation of mercury in the DWPF melter offgas system. The model was calibrated against available experimental data and then applied to DWPF conditions. The gas-phase model predicted the Hg{sub 2}{sup 2-}/Hg{sup 2+} ratio accurately, but some un-oxidized Hg{sup 0} remained. The aqueous model, with the addition of less than 1 mM Cl{sub 2} showed that this remaining Hg{sup 0} would be oxidized such that the final Hg{sub 2}{sup 2+}/Hg{sup 2+} ratios matched the experimental data. The results of applying the model to DWPF show that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  11. Earth melter

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed either by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, or by constructing a melt zone in an apparatus above grade and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  12. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions

  13. Methods of Off-Gas Flammability Control for DWPF Melter Off-Gas System at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Iverson, D.C.

    1996-05-02

    Several key operating variables affecting off-gas flammability in a slurry-fed radioactive waste glass melter are discussed, and the methods used to prevent potential off-gas flammability are presented. Two models have played a central role in developing such methods. The first model attempts to describe the chemical events occurring during the calcining and melting steps using a multistage thermodynamic equilibrium approach, and it calculates the compositions of glass and calcine gases. Volatile feed components and calcine gases are fed to the second model which then predicts the process dynamics of the entire melter off-gas system including off-gas flammability under both steady state and various transient operating conditions. Results of recent simulation runs are also compared with available data

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bubbling in a Viscous Fluid for Validation of Waste Glass Melter Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Abboud, Alexander William; Guillen, Donna Post

    2016-01-01

    At the Hanford site, radioactive waste stored in underground tanks is slated for vitrification for final disposal. A comprehensive knowledge of the glass batch melting process will be useful in optimizing the process, which could potentially reduce the cost and duration of this multi-billion dollar cleanup effort. We are developing a high-fidelity heat transfer model of a Joule-heated ceramic lined melter to improve the understanding of the complex, inter-related processes occurring with the melter. The glass conversion rates in the cold cap layer are dependent on promoting efficient heat transfer. In practice, heat transfer is augmented by inserting air bubblers into the molten glass. However, the computational simulations must be validated to provide confidence in the solutions. As part of a larger validation procedure, it is beneficial to split the physics of the melter into smaller systems to validate individually. The substitution of molten glass for a simulant liquid with similar density and viscosity at room temperature provides a way to study mixing through bubbling as an isolated effect without considering the heat transfer dynamics. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by the Vitreous State Laboratory at the Catholic University of America using bubblers placed within a large acrylic tank that is similar in scale to a pilot glass waste melter. Comparisons are made for surface area of the rising air bubbles between experiments and CFD simulations for a variety of air flow rates and bubble injection depths. Also, computed bubble rise velocity is compared to a well-accepted expression for bubble terminal velocity.

  15. Continuous ice core melter system with discrete sampling for major ion, trace element and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Erich C; Handley, Michael J; Sneed, Sharon B; Mayewski, Paul A; Kreutz, Karl J

    2006-05-15

    We present a novel ice/firn core melter system that uses fraction collectors to collect discrete, high-resolution (<1 cm/sample possible), continuous, coregistered meltwater samples for analysis of eight major ions by ion chromatography (IC), >32 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma sectorfield mass spectrometry (ICP-SMS), and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The new continuous melting with discrete sampling (CMDS) system preserves an archive of each sample, reduces the problem of incomplete particle dissolution in ICP-SMS samples, and provides more precise trace element data than previous ice melter models by using longer ICP-SMS scan times and washing the instrument between samples. CMDS detection limits are similar to or lower than those published for ice melter systems coupled directly to analytical instruments and are suitable for analyses of polar and mid-low-latitude ice cores. Analysis of total calcium and sulfur by ICP-SMS and calcium ion, sulfate, and methanesulfonate by IC from the Mt. Logan Prospector-Russell Col ice core confirms data accuracy and coregistration of the split fractions from each sample. The reproducibility of all data acquired by the CMDS system is confirmed by replicate analyses of parallel sections of the GISP2 D ice core.

  16. Development of the high-level waste high-temperature melter feed preparation flowsheet for vitrification process testing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-02-17

    High-level waste (HLW) feed preparation flowsheet development was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1994 to evaluate alternative flowsheets for preparing melter feed for high-temperature melter (HTM) vitrification testing. Three flowsheets were proposed that might lead to increased processing capacity relative to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and that were flexible enough to use with other HLW melter technologies. This document describes the decision path that led to the selection of flowsheets to be tested in the FY 1994 small-scale HTM tests. Feed preparation flowsheet development for the HLW HTM was based on the feed preparation flowsheet that was developed for the HWVP. This approach allowed the HLW program to build upon the extensive feed preparation flowsheet database developed under the HWVP Project. Primary adjustments to the HWVP flowsheet were to the acid adjustment and glass component additions. Developmental background regarding the individual features of the HLW feed preparation flowsheets is provided. Applicability of the HWVP flowsheet features to the new HLW vitrification mission is discussed. The proposed flowsheets were tested at the laboratory-scale at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Based on the results of this testing and previously established criteria, a reductant-based flowsheet using glycolic acid and a nitric acid-based flowsheet were selected for the FY 1994 small-scale HTM testing.

  17. Waste Form Qualification Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.A.; Misercola, A.J.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1996, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has operated a slurry-fed ceramic melter to vitrify high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than 65 batches of HLW were mixed with glass-forming chemicals between June 1996 and August 2002 to make a ''qualified'' HLW form. The nuances of this procedure and the lessons learned from the application of the process will be provided in this paper to guide future producers of immobilized HLW.

  18. Lysimeter Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Plieschnegger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The existing European Lysimeter Platform (www.lysimeter.at/HP_EuLP) provides an overview of lysimeter types used in Europe and show details on equipment, research results and future perspectives of lysimeter facilities. However, this platform is not user-editable and has not been updated since 2008. Thus, the Lysimeter Research Group (www.lysimeter.at) intends to serve a new database based website called Lysimeter Platform, where existing information of the former European Lysimeter Platform will be transferred to the new Lysimeter Platform and, furthermore, registered users are able to create and edit sites where lysimeters, soil water samplers and soil hydrologic measuring profiles are operated. The Lysimeter Research Group is a scientific association and, therefore, the membership is free of charge. The new Lysimeter Platform contains general information of lysimeter sites worldwide (e.g., what is measured at which site) in a standardized form to get a quick but informative overview of the sites and can be linked to more detailed, already existing information provided by the site operators. Due to the standardized information in the database the Lysimeter Platform serves also as search-engine for soil water measurements and helps to find sites of interest and corresponding contact information worldwide. The Session "Estimation of soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes by use of precision lysimeter measurements" at the EGU General Assembly 2014 would be an excellent chance to present the idea and the concept of this new Lysimeter Platform to international site operators and scientists.

  19. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  20. Demonstration of vitrification of surrogate F006 waste-water treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Cicero, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    A demonstration program with the focus on vitrification of surrogate formulations of Savannah River Site M-Area wastewater treatment sludges has been completed. The program utilized commercially available melting equipment, supplied by EnVitCo, Inc., and Stir Melter, Inc., located at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Laboratories. Over 2000 kg of glass was manufactured in a series of five separate tests with four formulations. Glasses were characterized by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT), with all glasses showing leach characteristics better than Land Disposal Requirements (LDR) for corresponding F006 waste (TCLP) and benchmark environmental assessment glasses (PCT). Offgas sampling by EPA Method 5 was conducted, including chemical analysis of filter residue and impinger solution. Data is presented on glass leaching, offgas sampling, phase separation, and melter performance.

  1. GLASS-CERAMICS IN A COLD-CRUCIBLE MELTER : THE OPTIMUM COMBINATION FOR GREATER WASTE PROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    DAY, R.A.; FERENCZY, J.; DRABAREK, E.; ADVOCAT, T.; FILLET, C.; LACOMBE, J.; LADIRAT, C.; VEYER, C.; QUANG, R. DO; THOMASSON, J.

    2003-02-27

    Improving the efficiency of nuclear waste immobilization is constantly desired by all nuclear waste management programs world-wide. For high-level and other waste to be vitrified in traditional ceramic Joule-heated melters operated at temperatures up to 1150 C, process flexibilities including waste loadings are often restricted by this temperature limit as well as the need to consider wasteform corrosion of refractory linings and electrodes. New melter technologies, such as the cold-crucible melter (CCM), enable processing up to significantly higher temperatures free of many of the limitations of conventional melters. Higher processing temperatures open up the way for wider composition and processing envelopes to be considered for the vitrification process, including the possibility for higher waste loadings. In many instances the presence of crystals in the final cooled wasteform is not considered desirable within presently existing glass specifications. For some feed compositions in creased waste loadings can lead to the formation of large amounts of crystals, and thus to a significant departure from the ''glass'' state. Nevertheless it is recognized that, in general, increasing the acceptable volume fractions of crystals in the glass offers the best opportunity to increase waste loading, all other factors being equal. In addition, the deliberate promotion of specific crystalline phases by design may enhance the quality of the wasteform, for example by partitioning a long-lived radionuclide into a very stable crystalline phase, or by depleting the glass in detrimental elements. In order to explore the potential improvements by harnessing the higher achievable processing temperatures and immunity to refractory corrosion available with the cold-crucible melter, and after promising indications for synroc-based matrices, it was decided to investigate the feasibility of designing and producing via melting new high temperature ''glass-ceramic'' wasteforms for high

  2. Reassessment of offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V.V.D.; Kuhn, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    Data from Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the systems and procedures in place for evacuating offshore workers and minimizing oil spills and environmental damage functioned as planned. While the vast majority of the platforms survived the storm with no damage, a few of the older platforms (installed prior to 1972) either collapsed or suffered severe damage. The collapsed platforms were designed with insufficient deck height to clear the storm waves. In recent years, the API RP 2A has introduced guidance for minimum air gap, minimum structures, platform inspection and platform reuse. These provisions, coupled with natural attribution of the older platforms, will significantly improve the performance of platforms in the future. The reliability of NDT techniques to detect major structural defects should be improved through continued research. While flooded member detection is used by several operators as a screening tool to detect major defects underwater, its reliability is not always good and further research is needed in this area. Another area of high priority research is related to the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) to perform underwater inspection of structures. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  3. [Lens platform].

    PubMed

    Łukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Kałuzny, Józef

    2010-01-01

    The lens platform defines lens structure and lens material. Evolution of lens comprises change in their shape, angulation of haptens and transition of three-piece lens into one-piece lens. The lens fall into two categories: rigid (PMMA) and soft (siliconic, acrylic, colameric). The main lens maaterials are polymers (hydrophilic and hydrophobic). The lens platform has an effect on biocompatibility, bioadhesion, stability of lens in capsule, degree of PCO evolution and sensitiveness to laser damages.

  4. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  5. Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Nitric acid flowsheet with late wash PHA testing. Task Technical Plan, Integrated DWPF Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1993-10-28

    This Task Technical Plan outlines the activities to be conducted in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) in ongoing support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) utilizing the Nitric Acid Flowsheet in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produced by the Late Wash Flowsheet. The IDMS facility is to be operated over a series of runs (2 to 4) using the Nitric Acid Flowsheet. The PHA will be produced with the Late Wash Flowsheet in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). All operating conditions shall simulate the expected DWPF operating conditions as closely as possible. The task objectives are to perform at least two IDMS runs with as many operating conditions as possible at nominal DWPF conditions. The major purposes of these runs are twofold: verify that the combined Late Wash and Nitric Acid flowsheets produce glass of acceptable quality without additional changes to process equipment, and determine the reproducibility of data from run to run. These runs at nominal conditions will be compared to previous runs made with PHA produced from the Late Wash flowsheet and with the Nitric Acid flowsheet in the SRAT (Purex 4 and Purex 5).

  7. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-12-31

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

  8. Glass melter off-gas system pluggages: Cause, significance, and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. Experimental glass melters, used to develop the vitrification process, have occasionally experienced problems with pluggage of the off-gas line with solid deposits. The deposits were determined to be mixtures of alkali rich chlorides, sulfates, borates, and fluorides with entrained insoluble particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spinel, and frit. The distribution and location of the alkali deposits throughout the off-gas system indicate that the deposits form by vapor-phase transport and condensation. Condensation of the alkali-rich phases cements the entrained particulates causing the off-gas system pluggages. The identification of vapor phase transport as the operational mechanism causing off-gas system pluggages indicates that deposition can be effectively eliminated by increasing the off-gas velocity. The cementitious alkali borates, halides, and sulfates comprising the off-gas line deposits were determined to be water soluble. Thus pluggage can be effectively removed with water and/or steam.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  13. Transportable vitrification system pilot demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge WETF sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation West End Treatment Facility (WETF) sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVitCo melter at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department (ESED) Vitrification Facility. Although much smaller than the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) melter, this melter is similar in design to the one in the TVS. The TVS was built by EnVitCo for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the treatment of low level and mixed wastes. A total of three tests were done by ESED personnel with guidance from SRTC TVS personnel. The purpose of these tests was to determine what problems might occur during the vitrification of WETF sludge feed in the TVS. The demonstration was successfully completed and the glasses produced passed the TCLP tests for all the hazardous waste components (Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni). An overview of these tests and experimental results on glass container testing, glass pouring, glass product characterization, electrode and refractory wear, and offgas composition and particulate measurements will be given.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  18. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Fowley, M.; Miller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  19. Constructing Training Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-16

    evaluates approaches and platforms to be employed for demonstrations, such as film, video, computer-based training, videogames , and simulations [10...case currently underway. It is composed of (1) existing curricula at the Army’s Armor School at Fort Knox, Kentucky; (2) a comparison of...demonstration approaches; and (3) a use case involving breaching operations. Armor School Training The Armor School’s mission is to educate and train Soldiers

  20. FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of

  1. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Conversion of nuclear waste to molten glass: Formation of porous amorphous alumina in a high-Al melter feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Washton, Nancy; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of Al phases in a simulated high-Al high-level nuclear waste melter feed heated at 5 K min-1 to 700 °C was investigated with transmission electron microscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, and X-ray diffraction. At temperatures between 300 and 500 °C, porous amorphous alumina formed from the dehydration of gibbsite, resulting in increased specific surface area of the feed (∼8 m2 g-1). The high-surface-area amorphous alumina formed in this manner could potentially stop salt migration in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification.

  3. Conversion of nuclear waste to molten glass: Formation of porous amorphous alumina in a high-Al melter feed

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kai; Hrma, Pavel; Washton, Nancy; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of Al phases in a simulated high-Al high-level nuclear waste melter feed heated at 5 K min-1 to 700°C was investigated with transmission electron microscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, and X-ray diffraction. At temperatures between 300 and 500°C, porous amorphous alumina formed from the dehydration of gibbsite, resulting in increased specific surface area of the feed (~8 m2 g-1). The high-surface-area amorphous alumina formed in this manner could potentially stop salt migration in the cold cap during nuclear waste vitrification.

  4. NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D

    2008-06-25

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  7. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  11. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  12. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Report Detailing Data Collection In Support Of Potential FY13 Pilot Scale Melter Test

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K. S.; Amoroso, J.; Marra, J. C.; Fox, K. M.

    2012-09-21

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to summarize the data collection in support of future melter demonstration testing for crystalline ceramic waste forms. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. The principal difficulties encountered during processing of the ?reference ceramic? waste form by a melt and crystallization process were the incomplete incorporation of Cs into the hollandite phase and the presence of secondary Cs-Mo non-durable phases. In the single phase hollandite system, these issues were addressed in this study by refining the compositions to include Cr as a transition metal element and the use of Ti/TiO{sub 2} buffer to maintain reducing conditions. Initial viscosity studies of ceramic waste

  13. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  18. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  19. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  1. IMPACT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND AGGLOMERATION ON SETTLING OF SOLIDS IN CONTINUOUS MELTERS PROCESSING RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    HRMA PR

    2008-12-18

    The major factor limiting waste loading for many waste compositions in continuous waste glass melters is the settling of crystalline materials. The currently used constraints, i.e., the minimum liquidus temperature or the maximum fraction of equilibrium crystallinity at a given temperature, are based on thennodynamic equilibria. Because of the rapid circular convection in the melter, these constraints are probably irrelevant and cannot prevent large crystals from settling. The main factor that detennines the rate of settling ofindividual crystals, such as those ofspinel, is their size. The tiny crystals of RU02 are too small to settle, but they readily fonn large agglomerates that accelerate their rate ofsettling by severalorders ofmagnitude. The RU02 agglomerates originate early in the melting process and then grow by the shear-flocculation mechanism. It is estimated that these agglomerates must either be ofhundreds micrometers in size or have an elongated shape to match the observed rates ofthe sludge-layer fonnation. PACS: 47.57.ef, 81.05.Kj, 81.10.Fg

  2. High speed, high resolution, and continuous chemical analysis of ice cores using a melter and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Budner, Drew M; Ferris, Dave G

    2006-11-01

    Measurement of trace chemical impurities in ice cores contributes to the reconstruction of records of the atmospheric environment and of the climate system. Ion chromatography (IC) is an effective analytical technique for ionic species in ice cores but has been used on discretely prepared ice samples, resulting in extensive and slow sample preparation and potential for contamination. A new technique has been developed that utilizes IC as the online detection technique in a melter-based continuous flow system for quantitative determination of major ionic chemical impurities. The system, called CFA-IC for continuous flow analysis with ion chromatography detection, consists of an ice core melter, several ion chromatographs, and an interface that distributes meltwater to the IC instruments. The CFA-IC technique combines the accuracy, precision, and ease of use of IC measurement with the enhanced speed and depth resolution of continuous melting systems and is capable of virtually continuous, high-speed and high-resolution chemical analysis of long ice cores. The new technique and operating procedures have been tested and validated with the analysis of over 100 m of ice cores from Antarctica. The current CFA-IC system provides an all-major-ion analysis speed of up to 8 m a day at a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  4. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  20. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  5. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  8. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack

  9. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A.; Darwen, N.J.

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance

  10. Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

  11. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    V. Jain; S. M. Barnes; B. G. Bindi; R. A. Palmer

    2000-04-30

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed.

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the photochromic behavior of mercury(II) bis(dithizonate) in providing a colorful demonstration of the effect that visible light can have on the conformation and bonding of molecules in solution. Provides a description of the demonstration itself, along with the preparation needed to complete it. (TW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  6. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  7. A Method for Determining Bulk Density, Material Density, and Porosity of Melter Feed During Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, Zachary; Hrma, Pavel; Vance, E.

    2015-09-24

    Abstract Glass making efficiency largely depends on heat transfer to reacting glass batch (melter feed), which in turn is influenced by the bulk density (ρb) and porosity (Φ) as functions of temperature (T). Neither b(T) nor Φ(T) functions are readily accessible to direct measurement, but they can be determined based on monitoring the profile area of heated glass batch pellets and material density of batches quenched at various stages of conversion via pycnometry. For the determination of Φb, the bulk volume must be calculated as a function of temperature. This is done via a program constructed in MATLAB which takes an image of a pellet profile at a given temperature and calculates the volume of said pellet. The quenched density measured by pycnometry must be converted to the density at heat treatment temperature. This is done by taking into account the volume change due to thermal expansion/contraction.

  8. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  6. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  8. Development/Demonstration of an Advanced Oxy-Fuel Front-End System

    SciTech Connect

    Mighton, Steven, J.

    2007-08-06

    Owens Corning and other glass manufacturers have used oxy-fuel combustion technology successfully in furnaces to reduce emissions, increase throughput, reduce fuel consumption and, depending on the costs of oxygen and fuel, reduce energy costs. The front end of a fiberglass furnace is the refractory channel system that delivers glass from the melter to the forming process. After the melter, it is the second largest user of energy in a fiberglass plant. A consortium of glass companies and suppliers, led by Owens Corning, was formed to develop and demonstrate oxy/fuel combustion technology for the front end of a fiberglass melter, to demonstrate the viability of this energy saving technology to the U.S. glass industry, as a D.O.E. sponsored project. The project goals were to reduce natural gas consumption and CO2 green house gas emissions by 65 to 70% and create net cost savings after the purchase of oxygen to achieve a project payback of less than 2 years. Project results in Jackson, TN included achieving a 56% reduction in gas consumption and CO2 emissions. A subsequent installation in Guelph ON, not impacted by unrelated operational changes in Jackson, achieved a 64% reduction. Using the more accurate 64% reduction in the payback calculation yielded a 2.2 year payback in Jackson. The installation of the demonstration combustion system saves 77,000 DT/yr of natural gas or 77 trillion Btu/yr and eliminates 4500 tons/yr of CO2 emissions. This combustion system is one of several energy and green house gas reduction technologies being adopted by Owens Corning to achieve aggressive goals relating to the company’s global facility environmental footprint.

  9. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  10. Demonstrating Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Richard DeLombard of NASA's Glenn Research Center, hands the relase line for the Microgravity Demonstrator to a visitor for her to start a short experiment showing the effects of microgravity on candle flames. Combustion physics will be a major line of investigation for NASA aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Demonstrator is frequently used at shows and schools to illustrate how phenomena change in microgravity. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  15. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  10. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2007-11-15

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. This paper describes the CCIM technology and identifies technical challenges that must be addressed in order to implement CCIMs in the DWPF. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined Joule heated melters. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project annual report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    By the end of the fiscal year, the West Valley Demonstration Project had processed 757,000 litres of liquid high-level waste, removing most of the radioactive constituents by ion exchange. The radioactive ion exchange material is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation, along with sludge still in the tank, into borosilicate glass. The decontaminated salt solution was solidified into a cement low-level waste form which has been reviewed and endorsed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Five tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. A Notice of Intent was published to prepare a joint federal/state Environmental Impact Statement. Design of the Vitrification Facility, a major milestone, was completed and construction of the facility enclosure has begun. A Department of Energy Tiger Team and Technical Safety Appraisal of the Project found no undue risks to worker or public health and safety or the environment.

  12. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  13. Simple SAR demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Baranowski, Piotr; Wojdołowicz, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple SAR radar demonstrator build using commercially available (COTS) components. For the microwave analog front end, a standard police radar microwave head has been used. The Motorola DSP processor board, equipped with ADC and DAC, has been used for generating of modulating signal and for signal acquisition. The raw radar signal (I and Q components) have been recorded on 2.5" HDD. The signal processing has been performed on standard PC computer after copying the recorded data. The aim of constructing simple and relatively cheap demonstrator was to provide the students the real-life unclassified radar signals and motivate them to test and develop various kinds of SAR and ISAR algorithms, including image formation, motion compensation and autofocusing. The simple microwave frontend hardware has a lot of non-idealities, so for obtaining nice SAR image it was necessary to develop the number of correction algorithms at the calibration stage. The SAR demonstrator have been tested using car as a moving platform. The flight tests with a small airborne platform are planned for the summer.

  14. MELTER: A model of the thermal response of cargos transported in the Safe-Secure Trailer subject to fire environments for risk assessment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    MELTER is an analysis of cargo responses inside a fire-threatened Safe-Secure Trailer (SST) developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA). Many simplifying assumptions are required to make the subject problem tractable. MELTER incorporates modeling which balances the competing requirements of execution speed, generality, completeness of essential physics, and robustness. Input parameters affecting the analysis include those defining the fire scenario, those defining the cargo loaded in the SST, and those defining properties of the SST. For a specified fire, SST, and cargo geometry MELTER predicts the critical fire duration that will lead to a failure. The principal features of the analysis include: (a) Geometric considerations to interpret fire-scenario descriptors in terms of a thermal radiation boundary condition, (b) a simple model of the SST`s wall combining the diffusion model for radiation through optically-thick media with an endothermic reaction front to describe the charring of dimensional, rigid foam in the SST wall, (c) a transient radiation enclosure model, (d) a one-dimensional, spherical idealization of the shipped cargos providing modularity so that cargos of interest can be inserted into the model, and (e) associated numerical methods to integrate coupled, differential equations and find roots.

  15. PNL vitrification technology development project high-waste loaded high-level waste glasses for high-temperature melter: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-02-01

    For vitrification of high-level wastes (HLW) at the Hanford Site, a Joule-heated overflow type melter with bottom draining capability and capable of operating at temperatures up to 1500{degrees}C is being developed. The original proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter used a 1150{degrees}C processing temperature and was tested using glasses with up to 28 wt% waste oxide loading for NCAW (Neutralized Current Acid Waste). The goal of the high-temperature melter (HTM) is the volume reduction of the final product and increase of the waste processing rate by processing high-waste loaded glasses at higher temperatures. This would dramatically decrease waste disposal and processing costs. The aim of glass development for the HTM is to determine compositions and melting temperatures for processible and acceptable glasses with a high waste loading. Glass property/composition models for viscosity and liquidus temperature developed in the Glass Envelope Definition (GED) study were used. The results of glass formulation and experimental testing are presented for NCAW and DST/SST (Double-Shell Tank/Single-Shell Tank) Blend waste. Although the purpose of this report was to summarize the glass development study with Blend waste only, the results with NCAW were needed because glass development with Blend waste was based on the results from the glass development study with NCAW.

  16. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  17. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  18. Hanford Low-Activity Waste Processing: Demonstration of the Off-Gas Recycle Flowsheet - 13443

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William G.; Esparza, Brian P.

    2013-07-01

    Vitrification of Hanford Low-Activity Waste (LAW) is nominally the thermal conversion and incorporation of sodium salts and radionuclides into borosilicate glass. One key radionuclide present in LAW is technetium-99. Technetium-99 is a low energy, long-lived beta emitting radionuclide present in the waste feed in concentrations on the order of 1-10 ppm. The long half-life combined with a high solubility in groundwater results in technetium-99 having considerable impact on performance modeling (as potential release to the environment) of both the waste glass and associated secondary waste products. The current Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flowsheet calls for the recycle of vitrification process off-gas condensates to maximize the portion of technetium ultimately immobilized in the waste glass. This is required as technetium acts as a semi-volatile specie, i.e. considerable loss of the radionuclide to the process off-gas stream can occur during the vitrification process. To test the process flowsheet assumptions, a prototypic off-gas system with recycle capability was added to a laboratory melter (on the order of 1/200 scale) and testing performed. Key test goals included determination of the process mass balance for technetium, a non-radioactive surrogate (rhenium), and other soluble species (sulfate, halides, etc.) which are concentrated by recycling off-gas condensates. The studies performed are the initial demonstrations of process recycle for this type of liquid-fed melter system. This paper describes the process recycle system, the waste feeds processed, and experimental results. Comparisons between data gathered using process recycle and previous single pass melter testing as well as mathematical modeling simulations are also provided. (authors)

  19. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  20. DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and

  1. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Fowley, M. D.; Miller, D. H.

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  2. Leadership Platforms: Perspectives and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Cynthia J.; And Others

    What leaders encourage others to do must be congruent with the values they espouse and demonstrate through action. The educational leadership platform has recently been used as a tool to assist aspiring leaders in clarifying their personal values. This paper presents findings of a study that explored the effect of the educational leadership…

  3. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-02-06

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and

  4. Feasibility Evaluation and Retrofit Plan for Cold Crucible Induction Melter Deployment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, A.B.; Iverson, D.C.; Adkins, B.J.; Tchemitcheff, E.

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 kHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 deg. C to 200 deg. C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 deg. C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature

  5. Solar power satellites and demonstration platforms from nonterrestrial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryniak, Gregg E.

    Although the U.S. government studies of space solar power were generally predicated upon the launching of all construction and support materials from the earth, two studies on the use of nonterrestrial materials for solar power satellites (SPSs) were supported during NASA/DOE investigations. These studies examined the NASA/DOE selected baseline design for an SPS in geosynchronous orbit and looked at constructing this design from lunar materials. The studies concluded that between 90 percent and 96 percent of the mass of a solar power satellite could be lunar in origin. Another study was commissioned to reexamine the range of SPS configurations and optimize the design to achieve the highest possible percentage of nonterrestrial (lunar) SPS mass. The study examined six basic designs. The two found most promising were a silicon planar design which resembled the NASA/DOE baseline and a gallium arsenide cell design using solar concentrators. This infrastructure breaks down into several key categories. These include location of candidate materials, excavation and mining operations, transport from the lunar surface into space, processing of lunar materials into construction feedstocks, and fabrication of solar power satellite system components from these feedstocks. Transportation, processing of lunar materials, space manufacturing, and near-term implementation are discussed.

  6. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  7. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; McCabe, D.

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTIFOAM TRACKING SYSTEM AS AN OPTION TO SUPPORT THE MELTER OFF-GAS FLAMMABILITY CONTROL STRATEGY AT THE DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Lambert, D.

    2014-08-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of an additional strategy for confidently satisfying the flammability controls for DWPF’s melter operation. An initial strategy for implementing the operational constraints associated with flammability control in DWPF was based upon an analytically determined carbon concentration from antifoam. Due to the conservative error structure associated with the analytical approach, its implementation has significantly reduced the operating window for processing and has led to recurrent Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) remediation. To address the adverse operating impact of the current implementation strategy, SRR issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to SRNL requesting the development and documentation of an alternate strategy for evaluating the carbon contribution from antifoam. The proposed strategy presented in this report was developed under the guidance of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and involves calculating the carbon concentration from antifoam based upon the actual mass of antifoam added to the process assuming 100% retention. The mass of antifoam in the Additive Mix Feed Tank (AMFT), in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), and in the SME is tracked by mass balance as part of this strategy. As these quantities are monitored, the random and bias uncertainties affecting their values are also maintained and accounted for. This report documents: 1) the development of an alternate implementation strategy and associated equations describing the carbon concentration from antifoam in each SME batch derived from the actual amount of antifoam introduced into the AMFT, SRAT, and SME during the processing of the batch. 2) the equations and error structure for incorporating the proposed strategy into melter off-gas flammability assessments

  9. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  10. Temporal Partitioning on Multicore Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud Pathan, Ristat; Hashi, Feysal; Stenstrom, Per; Green, Lars-Goran; Hult, Torbjorn; Sandin, Patrik

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of ensuring temporal partitioning according to the ARINC-653 standard for integrating multiple applications on the same multicore platform. To employ temporal partitioning, we propose the design and analysis of a hierarchical scheduling framework (HSF) for multicore platform. In HSF, each application has a server task, which is mapped to one of the physical cores of the multicore platform. The HSF framework is based on scheduling at two-levels: (i) a system-level scheduler for each core schedules the server tasks that are mapped to that core, and (ii) a task- level scheduler for each application schedules the tasks of the application. This paper presents the design and analysis of this two-level HSF that can be used to ensure temporal partitioning and meeting all the deadlines of each application tasks. The effectiveness of our technique is demonstrated using real-world space applications provided by RUAG Space Sweden AB.

  11. Transportable vitrification system demonstration on mixed waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Wilson, C.N.; Van Ryn, F.R.

    1998-04-22

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large scale, fully integrated, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and many other waste streams. It was demonstrated on surrogate waste at Clemson University and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) prior to treating actual mixed waste. Treatment of a combination of dried B and C Pond sludge and CNF sludge was successfully demonstrated at ORR in 1997. The demonstration produced 7,616 kg of glass from 7,328 kg of mixed wastes with a 60% reduction in volume. Glass formulations for the wastes treated were developed using a combination of laboratory crucible studies with the actual wastes and small melter studies at Clemson with both surrogate and actual wastes. Initial characterization of the B and C Pond sludge had not shown the presence of carbon or fluoride, which required a modified glass formulation be developed to maintain proper glass redox and viscosity. The CNF sludge challenges the glass formulations due to high levels of phosphate and iron. The demonstration was delayed several times by permitting problems, a glass leak, and electrical problems. The demonstration showed that the two wastes could be successfully vitrified, although the design glass production rate was not achieved. The glass produced met the Universal Treatment Standards and the emissions from the TVS were well within the allowable permit limits.

  12. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  13. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOEpatents

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  14. The Hibernia platform

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, G.C.; Johnson, R.C.; Luther, D.C.; Woodhead, H.R.; Abel, W.

    1994-12-31

    The Hibernia offshore oil platform is the first major platform for the development of hydrocarbon reserves on the Grand Banks off the East Coast of Canada. The platform, a concrete gravity base structure supporting 60,000 tons of topsides, will be in 80 m of water and is designed to resist iceberg collisions. The paper describes the platform, environment and iceberg loads, geotechnical considerations and the structural analysis being performed. The platform is current under construction (Winter 1993) and will be completed in 1996.

  15. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck has arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy,

  16. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road toward the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  17. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  18. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    With its image reflected in the water, a heavy load transport truck proceeds along the road to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy,

  19. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. In view are five levels of platforms previously installed. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  20. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck passes through the north entrance gate at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  1. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Workers prepare to unload the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, from a heavy load transport truck near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The platform will be offloaded in a staging area near the VAB. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the VAB. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  2. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  3. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck arrives at the north entrance gate at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  4. Platform F Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    A heavy load transport truck arrives at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the F-level work platforms for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing. Delivery of this platform brings the total to 10 platforms, or half of the work platforms delivered to Kennedy.

  5. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Blue sky and fluffy clouds serve as the backdrop for the arrival of the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Workers prepare to offload the platform from a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, to a staging area near the VAB. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  6. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    Workers fold an American flag that was on the back of a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida. The truck arrived at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  7. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives in a staging area near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  8. Platform C North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the second half of the C-level work platforms, C north, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The C platform will be moved into High Bay 3 for installation on the north side of High Bay 3. The C platforms are the eighth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. In view below Platform C are several of the previously installed platforms. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  9. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    The American flag is in view on the back of a heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, as it arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The truck is carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  10. Platform A North Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    A heavy load transport truck from Tillett Heavy Hauling in Titusville, Florida, arrives at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, carrying the second half of the A-level work platforms, A north, for the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. This is the final platform delivered to Kennedy. The A-level platforms are the topmost platforms for High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The platform will be delivered to the VAB staging area in the west parking lot. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the SLS and Orion spacecraft. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft and provide access for testing and processing.

  11. Floor Plans Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Engine Removal Platform, Hold Down Arm Platform, Hydraulic Equipment Platforms, Isometric Cutaway of Engine Removal Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hold Down Arm Platform, Isometric Cutaway of Hydraulic Platforms and Engine Support System Access - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Evaluation of the graphite electrode arc melter for processing heterogeneous waste

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) conducted a series of 4 demonstration melting tests in a 3-phase AC graphite electrode arc furnace at its Albany Research Center (ALRC) thermal treatment facility in Albany, Oregon (now part of the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE). The scope of these tests provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a single melting technology regarding its applicability to the treatment of several different heterogeneous mixed wastes. The current system can continuously process combustible-bearing wastes at feedrates to 682 kg/h (1,500 lb/h), continuously tap slag or glass, and intermittently tap metal products, and includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer and air pollution control system (APCS). The 4 demonstration melting tests were conducted in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC).

  13. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  14. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  15. Platform switching and bone platform switching.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Francesco; Brunelli, Giorgio; Danza, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Bone platform switching involves an inward bone ring in the coronal part of the implant that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest. Bone platform switching is obtained by using a dental fixture with a reverse conical neck. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional vs reverse conical neck implants. In the period between May 2004 and November 2007, 86 patients (55 females and 31 males; median age, 53 years) were operated and 234 implants were inserted: 40 and 194 were conventional vs reverse conical neck implants, respectively. Kaplan-Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used to detect those variables associated with the clinical outcome. No differences in survival and success rates were detected between conventional vs reverse conical neck implants alone or in combination with any of the studied variables. Although bone platform switching leads to several advantages, no statistical difference in alveolar crest resorption is detected in comparison with reverse conical neck implants. We suppose that the proximity of the implant abutment junction to the alveolar crestal bone gives no protection against the microflora contained in the micrograph. Additional studies on larger series and a combination of platform switching and bone platform switching could lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  16. Platform B South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-02

    A heavy-lift crane lifts the first half of the B-level work platforms, B south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, high up from the transfer aisle floor of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. The B platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  17. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into position for installation in High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting and installation. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  18. Platform E South Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-26

    A heavy-lift crane lowers the first half of the E-level work platforms, E south, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, into High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view are five levels of platforms previously installed. The E platform will be installed on the south side of High Bay 3, about 246 feet above the floor. The E platforms are the sixth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s journey to Mars.

  19. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    The second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lowered by crane for installation on the north side of High Bay 3 in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Large Tandemloc bars have been attached to the platform to keep it level during lifting, lowering and installation. In view below are several levels of previously installed platforms. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.

  20. Platform B North Installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-16

    The second half of the B-level work platforms, B north, for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, is lifted up by crane in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The platform will be lowered into High Bay 3 and installed on the north side of the high bay. Construction workers will secure the large bolts that hold the platform in place on the north wall. The B platforms are the ninth of 10 levels of work platforms that will surround and provide access to the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft for Exploration Mission 1. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to VAB High Bay 3, including installation of the new work platforms, to prepare for NASA’s Journey to Mars.